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1. Davis BJ, Mccurdy EA, Miller BD, Lucier GW, Tritscher AM: Ovarian tumors in rats induced by chronic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment. Cancer Res; 2000 Oct 1;60(19):5414-9
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  • Fifteen of 76 (20%) rats initiated with DEN and promoted with TCDD for various lengths of time developed ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell type, whereas no ovarian tumors developed in 86 rats used as vehicle controls or that received DEN alone or TCDD alone.
  • The highest tumor incidence occurred in 6 of 14 rats (43%) after 60 weeks of continuous TCDD after DEN initiation.
  • One of six rats developed a tumor by 30 weeks of exposure.
  • AhR was localized to oocytes, granulosa and thecal cells of growing follicles, surface epithelial cells, and epithelial cells lining single tubules in ovaries from adult control Sprague Dawley rats.
  • The tumor type induced by TCDD in this experimental system is the same histological subtype as that reported from an early study of youngsters exposed during an industrial accident in Seveso, Italy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogens. Diethylnitrosamine. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Synergism. Environmental Pollutants / toxicity. Estradiol / blood. Female. Ovary / drug effects. Progesterone / blood. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / physiology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / chemically induced. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11034082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon; 3IQ78TTX1A / Diethylnitrosamine; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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2. Looijenga LH: Human testicular (non)seminomatous germ cell tumours: the clinical implications of recent pathobiological insights. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):146-62
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  • [Title] Human testicular (non)seminomatous germ cell tumours: the clinical implications of recent pathobiological insights.
  • Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) comprise several types of neoplasias with different pathogeneses and clinical behaviours.
  • Here, the so-called type II testicular GCTs (TGCTs), ie the seminomas and non-seminomas, will be reviewed with emphasis on pathogenesis and clinical implications.
  • TGCTs are omnipotent, able to generate all differentiation lineages, both embryonic and extra-embryonic, as well as the germ cell lineage itself.
  • These pre-malignant cells retain embryonic characteristics, which probably explains the unique responsiveness of the derived tumours to DNA-damaging agents.
  • Development of CIS and gonadoblastoma is crucially dependent on the micro-environment created by Sertoli cells in the testis, and granulosa cells in the dysgenetic gonad.
  • Overdiagnosis of CIS due to germ cell maturation delay can be avoided using immunohistochemical detection of stem cell factor (SCF).
  • The availability of representative cell lines, both for seminoma and for embryonal carcinoma, allows mechanistic studies into the initiation and progression of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / chemistry. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / chemistry. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / analysis. SOXF Transcription Factors / analysis. Stem Cell Factor / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19253916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / SOXF Transcription Factors; 0 / Stem Cell Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 200
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3. Turbiner J, Moreno-Bueno G, Dahiya S, Sánchez-Estevez C, Hardisson D, Prat J, Oliva E, Palacios J: Clinicopathological and molecular analysis of endometrial carcinoma associated with tamoxifen. Mod Pathol; 2008 Aug;21(8):925-36
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  • A control group included 15 patients with endometrial carcinoma and associated ovarian hyperthecosis and one patient with endometrial carcinoma and adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary, chosen because both conditions are associated with increased production of estrogen and increased risk of endometrial carcinoma development.
  • There were 16 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, one mixed carcinoma and one clear cell carcinoma among patients in the tamoxifen group.
  • All patients with ovarian hyperthecosis and adult granulosa cell tumor had endometrioid endometrial carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, there was a direct relationship between tamoxifen exposure and overexpression of beta-catenin oncoprotein, which is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of estrogen-driven, type I endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemically induced. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism. Survival Rate. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18500270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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4. Hoshiya Y, Gupta V, Segev DL, Hoshiya M, Carey JL, Sasur LM, Tran TT, Ha TU, Maheswaran S: Mullerian Inhibiting Substance induces NFkB signaling in breast and prostate cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2003 Dec 15;211(1-2):43-9
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  • [Title] Mullerian Inhibiting Substance induces NFkB signaling in breast and prostate cancer cells.
  • The MIS type II receptor is expressed at high levels in the Mullerian duct and in Sertoli cells and granulosa cells of the embryonic and adult gonads.
  • The presence of MIS type II and type I receptors in tissues and cell lines derived from breast and prostate suggests that the prostate and mammary glands may be additional targets for MIS action.
  • In both breast and prostate cancer cells, MIS activated NFkB DNA binding activity and induced IEX-1, an immediate early gene which regulates cell growth and apoptosis.
  • Exposure of cells to MIS inhibited growth by increasing the fraction of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoproteins / pharmacology. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Testicular Hormones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type I / genetics. Animals. Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Male. Membrane Proteins. NF-kappa B p50 Subunit. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Peptide / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Transcription Factor RelA

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  • (PMID = 14656475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89138-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / IER3 protein, human; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / NF-kappa B p50 Subunit; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I
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5. Leibl S, Bodo K, Gogg-Kammerer M, Hrzenjak A, Petru E, Winter R, Denk H, Moinfar F: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors frequently express EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4: An immunohistochemical study. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Apr;101(1):18-23
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  • [Title] Ovarian granulosa cell tumors frequently express EGFR (Her-1), Her-3, and Her-4: An immunohistochemical study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Up to 50% of patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) will develop recurrences; some of these recurrences can be seen as late as 30 years following the initial surgical treatment.
  • METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of EGFR (Her-1), Her-2, Her-3, and Her-4 was analyzed in a group of ovarian GCTs encompassing 38 adult type and 2 juvenile type.
  • These findings provide some evidence to further explore the potential use of agents targeting these receptors (particularly EGFR) in the treatment of ovarian GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-3 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16330088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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6. Barrena Medel NI, Herzog TJ, Wright JD, Lewin SN: Neoadjuvant bevacizumab in a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report. Anticancer Res; 2010 Nov;30(11):4767-8
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant bevacizumab in a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report.
  • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) does not seem to be an exception.
  • This study presented the case of an adult-type GCT treated with neoadjuvant bevacizumab.
  • To the best of the Authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of an anti-angiogenic agent as neoadjuvant therapy in GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology

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  • (PMID = 21115938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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7. Chudecka-Głaz A, Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zielińska D: [Granulosa cell tumor in different periods of women's life]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):689-94
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  • [Title] [Granulosa cell tumor in different periods of women's life].
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumor is uncommon malignancies.
  • By virtue of histopathological examination we distinguish two subtype of GCT: adult type granulosa cell tumor typically in older women and juvenile granulosa cell tumor recognized primarily in children and young adults.
  • Depending on histological type patients suffer recurrences in different time after treatment, even many years from diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study is clinical analysis of patients with AGCT and JGCT, especially the problem of choice of treatment, time to occurring recurrences and new possibility in long term follow up.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed 22 patients treated in Department of Gynecological Surgery and Oncology of Adults and Adolescent Pomeranian Academy of Medicine and then observed in our outpatient clinic.
  • RESULTS: Among analyzed 22 patients 18 had adult type of granulosa cell tumor, mean age of these women was 47 years (32-72).
  • Juvenile type of granulosa cell tumor were recognized in 4 patients and they were from 4 to 7 years old.
  • Remained 3 girls live without evidence of disease and the longest time of follow up is 36 years.
  • Remained 13 women with adult granulosa cell tumours live without evidence of disease and the longest time of observation is 9 years.
  • CONCLUSION: Granulosa cell tumor is ovarian neoplasm of different behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Inhibins / blood. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Recurrence. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14674109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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8. Grabiec M, Kwiatkowski M, Walentowicz M, Greźlikowska U: [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor].
  • The granulosa-cell tumor (folliculoma) is a rare type of ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 5% of all cases.
  • It is the most common type of sex cord-stromal tumors, diagnosed in 70% of cases.
  • The granulosa-cell tumor is a hormone active one, originating from granulosa cells which produce estradiol.
  • Overproduction of estradiol is helpful in the diagnosis of the tumor because of its numerous symptoms.
  • There are two types of folliculoma: juvenile (5%) and adult (95%).
  • The juvenile type is mostly recognized (90%) in FIGO I stage and has a better prognosis.
  • The adult folliculoma is more aggressive in its nature.
  • Many old (platinum) and new (taxans) agents are active when used in treatment of this type of tumor.
  • Randomized study must be made to establish standard therapy of granulosa-cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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