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1. Hiraoka A, Horiike N, Koizumi Y, Tazuya N, Ichiryu M, Nakahara H, Ochi H, Tanabe A, Doi H, Kodama A, Hasebe A, Ichikawa S, Miyamoto Y, Ninomiya T, Asagi A, Matsubara H, Nadano S, Nishizaki O, Umeda M: Brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma treated with a cyber-knife. Intern Med; 2008;47(22):1993-6
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma treated with a cyber-knife.
  • A 70-year-old right-handed Japanese man who had undergone surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 2 years earlier was diagnosed with lung metastasis 3 months before consulting our hospital with a headache and visual field disturbance.
  • Head computed tomography revealed a brain tumor with an intracerebral hemorrhage.
  • Using (99m)Tc-PMT (pyridoxal-5-methly-triptophan) scintigraphy, we determined that the brain tumor was metastasis from the HCC and utilized the cyber-knife for treatment.
  • The prognosis of patients with brain metastasis from HCC has been reported to be poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 19015615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Gril B, Palmieri D, Bronder JL, Herring JM, Vega-Valle E, Feigenbaum L, Liewehr DJ, Steinberg SM, Merino MJ, Rubin SD, Steeg PS: Effect of lapatinib on the outgrowth of metastatic breast cancer cells to the brain. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2008 Aug 6;100(15):1092-103
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  • [Title] Effect of lapatinib on the outgrowth of metastatic breast cancer cells to the brain.
  • BACKGROUND: The brain is increasingly being recognized as a sanctuary site for metastatic tumor cells in women with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer who receive trastuzumab therapy.
  • There are no approved or widely accepted treatments for brain metastases other than steroids, cranial radiotherapy, and surgical resection.
  • We examined the efficacy of lapatinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2 kinases, for preventing the outgrowth of breast cancer cells in the brain in a mouse xenograft model of brain metastasis.
  • METHODS: EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-231-BR (231-BR) brain-seeking breast cancer cells were transfected with an expression vector that contained or lacked the HER2 cDNA and used to examine the effect of lapatinib on the activation (ie, phosphorylation) of cell signaling proteins by immunoblotting, on cell growth by the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and on cell migration using a Boyden chamber assay.
  • The outgrowth of large (ie, >50 microm(2)) and micrometastases was counted in brain sections from nude mice that had been injected into the left cardiac ventricle with 231-BR cells and, beginning 5 days later, treated by oral gavage with lapatinib or vehicle (n = 22-26 mice per treatment group).
  • Among mice injected with 231-BR-vector cells, those treated with 100 mg lapatinib/kg body weight had 54% fewer large metastases 24 days after starting treatment than those treated with vehicle (mean number of large metastases per brain section: 1.56 vs 3.36, difference = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 2.68, P < .001), whereas treatment with 30 mg lapatinib/kg body weight had no effect.
  • Among mice injected with 231-BR-HER2 cells, those treated with either dose of lapatinib had 50%-53% fewer large metastases than those treated with vehicle (mean number of large metastases per brain section, 30 mg/kg vs vehicle: 3.21 vs 6.83, difference = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.30 to 4.94, P < .001; 100 mg/kg vs vehicle: 3.44 vs 6.83, difference = 3.39, 95% CI = 2.08 to 4.70, P < .001).
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced phosphorylation of HER2 in 231-BR-HER2 cell-derived brain metastases from mice treated with the higher dose of lapatinib compared with 231-BR-HER2 cell-derived brain metastases from vehicle-treated mice (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lapatinib is the first HER2-directed drug to be validated in a preclinical model for activity against brain metastases of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / prevention & control. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunochemistry. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA, Small Interfering. Research Design. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Transfection. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


3. Morita K, Matsuzawa H, Fujii Y, Tanaka R, Kwee IL, Nakada T: Diffusion tensor analysis of peritumoral edema using lambda chart analysis indicative of the heterogeneity of the microstructure within edema. J Neurosurg; 2005 Feb;102(2):336-41
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  • OBJECT: Histopathological studies indicate that cerebral edema associated with tumors (peritumoral edema) does not represent a single pathophysiological or clinical entity.
  • In this study the authors investigated peritumoral edema by performing lambda chart analysis (LCA), a noninvasive technique that can be used to make visible and analyze apparent water diffusivity in tissues in vivo, and assessed the utility of LCA in differentiating high-grade gliomas from nonglial tumors.
  • METHODS: The water diffusivity characteristics of peritumoral edema associated with four tumor groups-12 high-grade gliomas, five low-grade gliomas, 11 metastatic tumors, and 15 meningiomas-were assessed in 43 patients by performing magnetic resonance imaging with the aid of a 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging system.
  • In all tumor groups, peritumoral edema exhibited greater trace values and reduced anisotropy compared with normal white matter.
  • Edema associated with high-grade gliomas had significantly higher trace values than edema associated with the other three tumor groups, although the anisotropic angles of those groups were comparable.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lambda chart analysis identified two distinct types of peritumoral edema: edema associated with high-grade gliomas and edema associated with low-grade gliomas or nonglial tumors.
  • The apparent water diffusivity was significantly greater in high-grade gliomas, whereas the anisotropy in these lesions was comparable to that of edema in other tumors.
  • These findings indicated that water movement in areas of edema, predominantly in the extracellular spaces, was less restricted in high-grade gliomas, a phenomenon that likely reflected the destruction of the extracellular matrix ultrastructure by malignant cell infiltration and consequently greater water diffusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Glioma / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anisotropy. Brain / pathology. Child. Computer Graphics. Female. Humans. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15739563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Metro G, Pino S, Pellegrini D, Sacerdoti G, Fabi A: Brain radiotherapy during treatment with anticonvulsant therapy as a trigger for toxic epidermal necrolysis. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1167-9
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  • [Title] Brain radiotherapy during treatment with anticonvulsant therapy as a trigger for toxic epidermal necrolysis.
  • Thus, in cancer patients who suffer from brain metastases and are administered antiepileptic drugs for seizure prophylaxis, the risk of developing TEN after receiving palliative brain radiotherapy cannot be ignored.
  • The case of a young patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with prophylactic phenobarbital who developed TEN within a few days of completing cranial radiotherapy for brain metastases is reported.
  • To minimize the risk of TEN in patients undergoing brain radiotherapy, prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy is recommended only after an accurate measurement of the true benefits.
  • Alternatively, discontinuation of antiepileptic treatment before the initiation of brain radiotherapy, or the use of anticonvulsants associated with a lower risk of developing cutaneous reactions might be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17465258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants
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5. Sas-Korczyńska B, Korzeniowski S, Wójcik E: Comparison of the effectiveness of "late" and "early" prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jun;186(6):315-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the effectiveness of "late" and "early" prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of timing of application of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with small cell lung cancer in limited stage of disease (LS SCLC).
  • In the latter case, PCI was given immediately after the end of thoracic radiotherapy and prior to the last cycles of chemotherapy to a total dose of 30 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the whole brain.
  • The results were evaluated with regard to 4-year rates of overall survival, disease-free survival, and brain metastases-free survival.
  • Additionally, the prognostic role of PCI application and its time delay in relation to survival rates and incidence of brain metastases was estimated.
  • RESULTS: The 4-year survival rates were 25.5% for overall survival, 26.8% for disease-free survival, and 67.8% for brain metastases-free survival.
  • During the observation period, 32 patients (24.8%) developed brain metastases, which occurred in 20 of 43 patients (46.5%) without and only in twelve out of 86 patients (14%) with PCI.
  • The 4-year brain metastases-free survival rates were 81.8%, if PCI was applied, versus 32.2%, if no such procedure was used (for p = 0.0000).
  • The timing of PCI appeared to be an important factor in terms of decreasing the incidence of brain metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: PCI significantly decreases the incidence of brain metastases and delays their development in patients with LS SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cranial Irradiation. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20495970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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6. Thomas FC, Taskar K, Rudraraju V, Goda S, Thorsheim HR, Gaasch JA, Mittapalli RK, Palmieri D, Steeg PS, Lockman PR, Smith QR: Uptake of ANG1005, a novel paclitaxel derivative, through the blood-brain barrier into brain and experimental brain metastases of breast cancer. Pharm Res; 2009 Nov;26(11):2486-94
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  • [Title] Uptake of ANG1005, a novel paclitaxel derivative, through the blood-brain barrier into brain and experimental brain metastases of breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the uptake of angiopep-2 paclitaxel conjugate, ANG1005, into brain and brain metastases of breast cancer in rodents.
  • Most anticancer drugs show poor delivery to brain tumors due to limited transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
  • To overcome this, a 19-amino acid peptide (angiopep-2) was developed that binds to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) receptors at the BBB and has the potential to deliver drugs to brain by receptor-mediated transport.
  • METHODS: The transfer coefficient (K(in)) for brain influx was measured by in situ rat brain perfusion.
  • Drug distribution was determined at 30 min after i.v. injection in mice bearing intracerebral MDA-MB-231BR metastases of breast cancer.
  • Over 70% of (125)I-ANG1005 tracer stayed in brain after capillary depletion or vascular washout.
  • Brain (125)I-ANG1005 uptake was reduced by unlabeled angiopep-2 vector and by LRP ligands, consistent with receptor transport.
  • In vivo uptake of (125)I-ANG1005 into vascularly corrected brain and brain metastases exceeded that of (14)C-paclitaxel by 4-54-fold.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that ANG1005 shows significantly improved delivery to brain and brain metastases of breast cancer compared to free paclitaxel.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Female. Mice. Mice, Nude. Peptides. Rats

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  • (PMID = 19774344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-904X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052484; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052484; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052484-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Peptides; 0 / paclitaxel-Angiopep-2 conjugate; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199201; NLM/ PMC2896053
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7. Sarrafzadeh AS, Kaisers U, Boemke W: [Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Significance and complications]. Anaesthesist; 2007 Sep;56(9):957-66; quiz 967
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  • Despite substantial improvement in the management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), including early aneurysm occlusion by endovascular techniques and surgical procedures, a significant percentage of patients with SAH still experience serious sequelae of neurological or cognitive deficits as a result of primary hemorrhage and/or secondary brain damage.
  • Available neuromonitoring methods for early recognition of ischemia include, among others, measurement of brain tissue O(2) partial pressure, brain metabolism with microdialysis and monitoring of regional blood flow.
  • Possible neuromonitoring techniques to improve diagnosis and therapy for treatment of symptomatic vasospasm as well as extracranial complications are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 17879106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2417
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Anaesthesist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesthesist
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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8. Miller AA, Case D, Atkins JN, Giguere JK, Bearden JD: Phase II study of carboplatin, irinotecan, and thalidomide in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Oct;1(8):832-6
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  • [Title] Phase II study of carboplatin, irinotecan, and thalidomide in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • METHODS: The key eligibility criteria were stage IIIB (malignant pleural effusion) and IV non-small cell lung cancer, measurable disease, no prior chemotherapy, prior radiation only for brain metastasis, performance status 0 or 1, and adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17409967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA81851
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7673326042 / irinotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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9. Koc M, McGregor J, Grecula J, Bauer CJ, Gupta N, Gahbauer RA: Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial metastatic melanoma: an analysis of survival and prognostic factors. J Neurooncol; 2005 Feb;71(3):307-13
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial metastatic melanoma: an analysis of survival and prognostic factors.
  • Objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for intracranial metastatic melanoma and to identify prognostic factors related to survival.
  • Twenty-six patients with intracranial metastases (72 lesions) from melanoma underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
  • In 14 patients (54%) whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was performed as part of the initial treatment, and in 12 patients (38%) immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy was given after Gamma Knife radiosurgery.
  • The median tumor volume for Gamma Knife radiosurgery treated lesions was 1.72 cm3.
  • The median prescribed radiation dose was 18 Gy (range 8-22 Gy) typically prescribed to the isodose at the tumor margin.
  • The median survival from the onset of brain metastases was 9 months and from the original diagnosis of melanoma was 50 months (range 4-160 months).
  • In univariate testing, the Karnofsky score equal to or higher than 90% (P < 0.01, log-rank test), supratentorial localization (P < 0.001, log-rank test), intracranial tumor volume less than 1 cm3 (P < 0.02, log-rank test), and absence of neurological signs or symptoms before Gamma Knife radiosurgery (P < 0.003, log-rank test) were significant favorable factors for survival.
  • Radiosurgery is a noninvasive, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with single or multiple intracranial metastases from melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15735922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Jones PA, Chambers IR, Minns RA, Lo TY, Myles LM, Steers AJ: Are head injury guidelines changing the outcome of head injured children? A regional investigation. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2008;102:81-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Secondary pathophysiological CPP insult is related to outcome after head injury, and improved management would be expected to reduce secondary brain insult.
  • We investigated whether outcome of children's head injury (and total burden of secondary CPP insult) has changed (1) annually;.
  • METHODS: Seventy-six children (aged 1-14 years with severe HI) were admitted to the Edinburgh Regional Head Injury Service between 1989 and 2006, and dichotomised at various time points and compared in terms of: demographic factors, intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) insults [e.g. age-banded pressure-time index (PTI)], and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score (assessed at 6 months post injury).
  • FINDINGS: When dichotomised around the SIGN guidelines, there were no statistically significant differences between the two group's demography or in primary brain injury, but the outcomes were different (p = 0.03), with 6 vs 4 GOS1 (died), 2 vs 4 GOS3 (severely disabled), 5 vs 16 GOS4 (moderately disabled) and 23 vs 14 GOS5 (good recovery), when comparing before and after year 2000.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most recent paediatric HI guidelines appear to have reduced the burden of secondary insult, but more time is required to determine if this will be reflected in improved outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19388293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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11. Gadducci A, Tana R, Teti G, Fanucchi A, Pasqualetti F, Cionini L, Genazzani AR: Brain recurrences in patients with ovarian cancer: report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6C):4403-9
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  • [Title] Brain recurrences in patients with ovarian cancer: report of 12 cases and review of the literature.
  • The aim of the investigation was to assess 12 cases of brain recurrences among ovarian cancer patients who had undergone surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Brain lesions were the first recurrence in 4 (33%) patients, the second recurrence in 7 (58%), and the fourth recurrence in one patient.
  • The median time from ovarian cancer diagnosis to brain metastasis detection was 33.5 months (range, 13.5-86.5 months), brain metastases were multiple in 6 (50%) cases, and extra-cranial disease was present in 7 (58%) cases.
  • Brain recurrence was symptomatic in 10 patients and the clinical presentation included impaired deambulation, extremity weakness, seizure, headache, nausea/vomiting and visual disturbance.
  • Out of the 6 patients with single brain metastases, one underwent surgery, one had surgical excision followed by whole brain irradiation, 3 patients received stereotactic radiotherapy (followed by chemotherapy for coexistent extra-abdominal recurrence in one), and one had only symptomatic treatment.
  • Out of the 6 patients with multiple brain metastases, four received whole brain irradiation (followed by chemotherapy for concomitant extra-cranial recurrence in one case), one patient had gamma-knife irradiation of three cerebral lesions (followed by chemotherapy for concurrent abdominal recurrence), and one patient had only symptomatic treatment.
  • The median overall survival from diagnosis of brain metastasis was 8.3 months (range, 1-28 months), and it was not related to the number of brain metastases (multiple versus single), presence or absence of extra-cranial disease, or interval between ovarian cancer diagnosis and brain metastasis detection (<33.5 months versus > or =33.5 months).
  • In conclusion, brain metastasis from ovarian cancer can represent a late manifestation of the disease, associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology


12. Kawabata R, Doki Y, Ishikawa O, Nakagawa H, Takachi K, Miyashiro I, Tsukamoto Y, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Murata K, Ishiguro S, Imaoka S: Frequent brain metastasis after chemotherapy and surgery for advanced esophageal cancers. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Jun;54(76):1043-8
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  • [Title] Frequent brain metastasis after chemotherapy and surgery for advanced esophageal cancers.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain metastasis, rarely observed as a tumor recurrence after curative surgery for thoracic esophageal cancers (TEC), has been increasingly observed with improvement of the clinical outcome of TEC.
  • METHODOLOGY: Records of 254 TEC patients who developed recurrent cancers after curative surgery during 1984-2002 revealed 11 patients (4.3%) with symptomatic brain metastasis, which were classified as five without extra-cranial disease (Brain type) and six with other metastatic diseases (Systemic type).
  • RESULTS: Brain metastases were significantly associated with an advanced clinical stage and perioperative chemotherapy, which had been undergone by 73% of the brain metastasis patients, but only 23% for non-brain metastasis patients (p = 0.0008).
  • Comparing to Systemic type, Brain type showed longer duration from esophagectomy to brain metastasis and tended to be more effective for perioperative chemotherapy.
  • All Brain type but only two Systemic type brain metastases were removed by surgery.
  • The average survival after brain metastasis was 17.7 months for the Brain type patients (two alive without tumor recurrence), but only 38.5 days for the Systemic type patients.
  • The histological hallmark of Brain type metastasis was medullary tumor growth with mature tumor vessels, while Systemic type showed invasive tumor growth with naive capillaries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative brain metastasis in TEC patients is not rare, especially in an advanced clinical stage following perioperative chemotherapy.
  • Surgical removal of brain metastasis might be the most promising treatment unless tumor metastasis in other organs is evident.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17629035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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13. Li DR, Ishikawa T, Zhao D, Michiue T, Quan L, Zhu BL, Maeda H: Histopathological changes of the hippocampus neurons in brain injury. Histol Histopathol; 2009 09;24(9):1113-20
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  • [Title] Histopathological changes of the hippocampus neurons in brain injury.
  • GFAP-immunopositivity in the neurons was frequently observed in CA4, CA3 and CA2 regions in cases of subacute/delayed head injury death that showed marked brain swelling accompanied by secondary brain stem hemorrhages, showing an inverse relationship to that in astrocytes.
  • These findings suggest possible induction of GFAP or a related protein in hippocampus neurons depending on the severity of brain swelling following head injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / pathology. Forensic Pathology. Hippocampus / pathology. Neurons / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Autopsy. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19609858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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14. Kadhim HJ, Duchateau J, Sébire G: Cytokines and brain injury: invited review. J Intensive Care Med; 2008 Jul-Aug;23(4):236-49
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  • [Title] Cytokines and brain injury: invited review.
  • The brain reacts to injury or disease by cascades of cellular and molecular responses.
  • Evidence suggests that immune-inflammatory processes are key elements in the physiopathological processes associated with brain injury or damage.
  • Cytokine responses in the initial phase of brain injury might have a role in aggravating brain damage.
  • Hemodynamic stabilization and optimalization of oxygen delivery to the brain remain cornerstones in the management of acute brain injury.
  • New approaches might use anticytokine therapy to limit progression and halt or attenuate secondary brain damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Cytokines / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Diseases / physiopathology. Chemokines / physiology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Inflammation / physiopathology. Stroke / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18504260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-0666
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of intensive care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Intensive Care Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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16. Cante D, Girelli G, La Porta MR, Sciacero P, La Sala S, Ozzello F: Late brain metastases from colorectal cancer a case report and review of the literature. Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;91(3):280-2
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  • [Title] Late brain metastases from colorectal cancer a case report and review of the literature.
  • Metastatic brain tumors from colorectal cancer are relatively rare.
  • In previous reports the incidence ranged from 1.9 to 3.5 percent of all metastatic brain tumors.
  • In another recent article the cumulative incidence of brain metastasis was estimated at 1.2%.
  • The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor.
  • This paper presents the case report of a 72-year-old woman with a solitary brain metastasis 16 years after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
  • The first sign of a secondary tumor was diplopia.
  • Brain scan demonstrated a space-occupying lesion in the occipital area.
  • A solitary tumor was removed by craniotomy.
  • Histological examination showed that it was a metastasis from the intestinal primary tumor.
  • The patient subsequently underwent whole brain radiotherapy for a total dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology


17. Gu CS, Liu CY, Wang MC: Brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer presenting as sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo. J Chin Med Assoc; 2009 Jul;72(7):382-4
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer presenting as sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo.
  • We report a case of lung cancer with multiple metastases to the brain and internal auditory canal.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple intracranial tumors, including of the left-side internal auditory canal, which were interpreted as seeding of metastatic malignancy.
  • This was a rare case of asymptomatic primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with brain metastases presenting with sudden hearing loss and vertigo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Vertigo / etiology


18. Hurkens KP, Hupperets PS, Creemers GJ, Erdkamp FL, van de Vijver KK, Tjan-Heijnen VC: [Brain metastases in breast cancer: a special disease course for HER2 positive tumors]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Dec 13;152(50):2701-6
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  • [Title] [Brain metastases in breast cancer: a special disease course for HER2 positive tumors].
  • HER2 positive breast cancers are characterized by their aggressive course of disease.
  • Treatment with trastuzumab has significantly improved survival of patients with these cancers.
  • It has become clear that patients receiving trastuzumab more frequently develop brain metastases than patients with a HER2 negative tumor.
  • It is important to realize that patients with brain metastases from a HER2 positive breast tumor have a more favorable prognosis than patients with brain metastases from a HER2 negative tumor.
  • Recently, lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was registered by EMEA for patients with a HER2 positive tumor after previous treatment with anthracyclines, taxanes and trastuzumab.
  • In combination with capacitabine, this agent leads to partial responses of cerebral metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, erbB-2


19. Legha SS: Treatment of brain metastases from melanoma. J Clin Oncol; 2005 May 1;23(13):3155; author reply 3155-6
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  • [Title] Treatment of brain metastases from melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2101-7 [15169796.001]
  • (PMID = 15860880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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20. Santeufemia DA, Piredda G, Fadda GM, Cossu Rocca P, Costantino S, Sanna G, Sarobba MG, Pinna MA, Putzu C, Farris A: Successful outcome after combined chemotherapeutic and surgical management in a case of esophageal cancer with breast and brain relapse. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Sep 14;12(34):5565-8
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  • [Title] Successful outcome after combined chemotherapeutic and surgical management in a case of esophageal cancer with breast and brain relapse.
  • Esophageal cancer (EC) is a highly lethal disease.
  • Approximately 50% of patients present with metastatic EC and most patients with localized EC will have local recurrence or develop metastases, despite potentially curative local therapy.
  • The most common sites of distant recurrence are represented by lung, liver and bone while brain and breast metastases are rare.
  • We report a woman patient who developed breast and brain metastases after curative surgery.
  • We think that in super selected patients with more than one metastasis, when functional status is good and metastases are technically resectable, a surgical excision may be considered as a salvage option and chemotherapy should be delivered to allow a systemic control.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome


21. Ranze O, Hofmann E, Distelrath A, Hoeffkes HG: Renal cell cancer presented with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis effectively treated with sorafenib. Onkologie; 2007 Sep;30(8-9):450-1
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  • [Title] Renal cell cancer presented with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis effectively treated with sorafenib.
  • BACKGROUND: Sorafenib has been approved in the U.S. and the European Union for patients with advanced renal cell cancer (RCC).
  • There is evidence that treatment with sorafenib can achieve partial remissions in patients with brain metastases of RCC.
  • CASE REPORT: We report of a patient with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of RCC, who 10 days after initiation of sorafenib therapy showed a noticeable decrease in contrast enhancement of the tumor in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain.
  • DISCUSSION: Results of a sub-evalution of a randomized phase III trial show that sorafenib offers encouraging activity in the treatment of patients with RCC and brain metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: This case shows that sorafenib can achieve rapid tumor response in a patient with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of RCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Pyridines / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17848817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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22. Knisely JP, Berkey B, Chakravarti A, Yung AW, Curran WJ Jr, Robins HI, Movsas B, Brachman DG, Henderson RH, Mehta MP: A phase III study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide versus conventional radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases (RTOG 0118). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 May 1;71(1):79-86
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  • [Title] A phase III study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide versus conventional radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases (RTOG 0118).
  • PURPOSE: To compare whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with WBRT combined with thalidomide for patients with brain metastases not amenable to resection or radiosurgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with Zubrod performance status 0-1, MRI-documented multiple (>3), large (>4 cm), or midbrain brain metastases arising from a histopathologically confirmed extracranial primary tumor, and an anticipated survival of >8 weeks were randomized to receive WBRT to a dose of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions with or without thalidomide during and after WBRT.
  • CONCLUSION: Thalidomide provided no survival benefit for patients with multiple, large, or midbrain metastases when combined with WBRT; nearly half the patients discontinued thalidomide due to side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 18164847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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23. Bhaskara A, Eng C: Bevacizumab in the treatment of a patient with metastatic colorectal carcinoma with brain metastases. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2008 Jan;7(1):65-8
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  • [Title] Bevacizumab in the treatment of a patient with metastatic colorectal carcinoma with brain metastases.
  • The development of brain metastases originating from colorectal cancer (CRC) is an infrequent phenomenon occurring in < 5% of patients.
  • Yet, it is feasible that physicians will be diagnosing more patients with brain metastases because of the prolonged survival in our current patient population.
  • The anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab is currently approved in bevacizumab-naive patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC).
  • We present a challenging case of a treatment-naive patient with mCRC with brain metastases and the challenges involved in weighing the risks and benefits of systemic chemotherapy when combined with a biologic agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18279580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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24. Chiappori A, Simon G, Williams C, Haura E, Rocha-Lima C, Wagner H, Bepler G, Antonia S: Phase II study of first-line sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine-carboplatin followed by docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Oncology; 2005;68(4-6):382-90
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  • [Title] Phase II study of first-line sequential chemotherapy with gemcitabine-carboplatin followed by docetaxel in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • RATIONALE: Despite the use of novel chemotherapeutic agents, patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continue to show a poor survival.
  • METHODS: Eligibility included: stages IV and IIIB (malignant pleural effusion), performance status 0-1, and adequate renal, hepatic and bone marrow function.
  • Patients with previously treated and controlled brain metastases were not excluded.
  • Responses were determined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16020967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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25. Nieder C, Marienhagen K, Dalhaug A, Norum J: Have changes in systemic treatment improved survival in patients with breast cancer metastatic to the brain? J Oncol; 2008;2008:417137
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  • [Title] Have changes in systemic treatment improved survival in patients with breast cancer metastatic to the brain?
  • Newly developed systemic treatment regimens might lead to improved survival also in the subgroup of breast cancer patients that harbour brain metastases.
  • The two groups were well balanced for the known prognostic factors age, KPS, extracranial disease status, and recursive partitioning analysis class, as well as for the extent of brain treatment.
  • The results show that the use of systemic chemotherapy has increased over time, both before and after the diagnosis of brain metastases.
  • However, such treatment was performed nearly exclusively in those patients with brain metastases that belonged to the prognostically more favourable groups.
  • Survival after whole-brain radiotherapy has remained unchanged in patients without further active treatment.
  • Nevertheless, the present results are compatible with the hypothesis that improved systemic therapy might contribute to prolonged survival in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19259331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2648634
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26. Wagner AS, Fleitz JM, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK: Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare childhood neoplasm that seldom manifests brain metastases; hence few papers in the literature focus on neurological manifestations associated with ACC.
  • Although ACC is known to be a signature tumor type in several inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, particularly Li Fraumeni, ACC has not been previously associated with neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF-1), an inherited disorder with frequent CNS lesions that might prompt concern for metastatic disease by neuroimaging studies.
  • The first child developed metastasis to the brain 4 years after resection of his adrenal primary and 2 and 1 years, respectively, after metastases to the liver and lungs.
  • Soon after our experience with this patient, a girl with known NF-1 presented with virilization; adrenalectomy disclosed an ACC and systemic metastases were found within months.
  • Disseminated disease prompted concern that her complex intracranial lesions identified by neuroimaging studies might represent brain metastases, but this proved to be NF1-related hamartomatous lesions.
  • We review the literature on ACCs in pediatric patients regarding brain metastases and previous associations with NF-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neurofibromatosis 1
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Chylothorax / complications. Chylothorax / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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27. Lee CI, Hsu MY, Chou CH, Wang C, Lo YS, Loh JK, Howng SL, Hong YR: CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) mutation is rare in brain tumours but involved as a sporadic event in a brain metastasis. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Sep;151(9):1107-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) mutation is rare in brain tumours but involved as a sporadic event in a brain metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: The Wnt signaling pathway has been implicated in colon and other cancers.
  • Nevertheless, few or no mutations of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) have so far been described in brain cancer.
  • We therefore examined the prevalence of constitutive activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in brain cancer specimens as well as cancer cell lines.
  • METHOD: We used polymerase chain reaction PCR and direct sequencing methods to investigate whether mutations in the CTNNB1 phosphorylation sites S33, S37, S41 and T45 were present in 68 brain tumours, including meningioma, astrocytoma, pituitary adenoma, neuroblastoma, metastasis to the brain, and cell lines.
  • FINDINGS: CTNNB1 gene mutations were not found in either the original brain tumour specimens or the cell lines.
  • However, a missense mutation of CTNNB1 was identified at residue 33, TCT (Ser) --> TGT (Cys) in a patient with lung metastasis to brain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the mutation of exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene in brain tumours may be a rare event and yet may be required for a small subset of human metastatic brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / secondary. Catalytic Domain / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Frequency. Genetic Markers. Genetic Testing. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Phosphorylation. Signal Transduction / genetics. Transcriptional Activation / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19582367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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28. Wolstenholme V, Hawkins M, Ashley S, Tait D, Ross G: HER2 significance and treatment outcomes after radiotherapy for brain metastases in breast cancer patients. Breast; 2008 Dec;17(6):661-5
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  • [Title] HER2 significance and treatment outcomes after radiotherapy for brain metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the influence of HER2 status on outcome in breast cancer patients following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for cerebral metastases.
  • A total of 72 (82%) HER2+ group developed brain metastases whilst on chemotherapy compared with 45 (48%) in HER2- group.
  • On brain metastasis progression, 18 (20%) of HER2+ patients received further local therapy compared with 6 (6%) in HER2- group.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, erbB-2
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


29. Weil RJ, Lonser RR, Quezado MM: CNS manifestations of malignancies: case 2. Skull and brain metastasis from tibial osteosarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun 20;23(18):4226-9
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  • [Title] CNS manifestations of malignancies: case 2. Skull and brain metastasis from tibial osteosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Osteosarcoma / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Tibia
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male


30. Fabi A, Vidiri A, Ferretti G, Felici A, Papaldo P, Carlini P, Mirri A, Nuzzo C, Cognetti F: Dramatic regression of multiple brain metastases from breast cancer with Capecitabine: another arrow at the bow? Cancer Invest; 2006 Jun-Jul;24(4):466-8
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  • [Title] Dramatic regression of multiple brain metastases from breast cancer with Capecitabine: another arrow at the bow?
  • Several chemotherapic agents, which are active against breast cancer, penetrate poorly into the central nervous system.
  • Despite its limited brain penetration, 5-fluorouracil has been a component of effective regimens for brain metastases.
  • The penetration of Capecitabine across the brain-blood barrier remains unknown; we report the case of and discuss a breast cancer patient who had an interesting response of brain metastases with Capecitabine in monochemotherapy before brain irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Capecitabine. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16777702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Wakatsuki K, Yoshioka S, Kataoka M, Tonooka T, Kawamoto J, Washiro M, Nishida T, Oeda Y: [A case of advanced gastric cancer patient who died from meningitis carcinomatosa after S-1 + CDDP therapy with good response]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2461-3
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer patient who died from meningitis carcinomatosa after S-1 + CDDP therapy with good response].
  • A 68-year-old male who had undergone a distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer in 1996 visited our hospital.
  • Gastroscopy revealed a type 2 tumor at upper corpus, and its biopsy showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • After 2 courses, the main tumor and lymph node swelling reduced evidently.
  • A total gastrectomy was performed and the pathology revealed no cancer cells in the stomach and dissected lymph nodes.
  • CT showed 3 metastatic brain tumors, and radiation therapy was administered.

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  • (PMID = 21224606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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32. Yamamoto M: Radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors. Prog Neurol Surg; 2007;20:106-28
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  • [Title] Radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors.
  • New, not yet widely known concepts pertaining to Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery for brain metastases are reviewed.
  • Though lesion size is a limitation, high tumor control rates are possible when 1-4 lesions are irradiated with <or=20 Gy.
  • Symptomatic complications, i.e. radionecrosis of normal brain tissues, are slightly more common in long-surviving patients.
  • However, since most patients die of causes other than metastatic brain disease, i.e. before long-term complications manifest, good brain function is usually maintained till death.
  • Although some studies found retreatment for new lesions to be less frequent when whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is combined with surgery or GK radiosurgery, in our experience neither survival nor local recurrence rates improve significantly with WBRT.
  • Advantages of GK over WBRT include brief hospitalization, higher control rates, better symptom palliation, all MRI-detected lesions can be treated, other treatments (e.g. radiotherapy) need not be postponed, irradiation can be repeated, the incidence of dementia (due to radionecrosis) is far lower and more tumors (30+) can be treated in one session.
  • We advocate meticulous MRI follow-up to detect recurrence and assess tumor necrosis.
  • All detectable tumors should be irradiated, so long as the patient wishes to continue treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mental Disorders / epidemiology. Mental Disorders / etiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17317980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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33. Hess KR, Varadhachary GR, Taylor SH, Wei W, Raber MN, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL: Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1624-33
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  • [Title] Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Unique metastatic patterns cited in the literature often arise from anecdotal clinical observations and autopsy reports.
  • The authors analyzed clinical data from a large number of patients with histologically confirmed, distant-stage adenocarcinoma to evaluate metastatic patterns.
  • METHODS: Tumor registry data were collected between 1994-1996 on 11 primary tumor sites and 15 metastatic sites from 4399 patients.
  • The primary and metastatic sites were cross-tabulated in various ways to identify patterns, and the authors developed algorithms by using multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the locations of primary tumors based on metastatic patterns.
  • RESULTS: Three primary tumors had single, dominant metastatic sites: ovary to abdominal cavity (91%), prostate to bone (90%), and pancreas to liver (85%).
  • The liver was the dominant metastatic site for gastrointestinal (GI) primary tumors (71% of patients), whereas bone and lung metastases were noted most frequently in non-GI primary tumors (43% and 29%, respectively).
  • In a study of combinations of liver, abdominal cavity, and bone metastases, 86% of prostate primary tumors had only bone metastases, 80% of ovarian primary tumors had only abdominal cavity metastases, and 74% of pancreas primary tumors had only liver metastases.
  • A single organ was the dominant source of metastases in 7 sites: axillary lymph node from the breast (97%), intestinal lymph node from the colon (84%), thoracic lymph node from the lung (66%), brain from the lung (64%), mediastinal lymph node from the lung (62%), supraclavicular lymph node from the breast (51%), and adrenal gland from the lung (51%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Algorithms. Neoplasm Metastasis. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16518827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Greve MW, Zink BJ: Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Mt Sinai J Med; 2009 Apr;76(2):97-104
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  • [Title] Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury.
  • Traumatic brain injury is a major source of death and disability worldwide.
  • Significant success has been achieved in improving short-term outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury victims; however, there are still great limitations in our ability to return severe traumatic brain injury victims to high levels of functioning.
  • Primary brain injury, due to initial injury forces, causes tissue distortion and destruction in the early postinjury period.
  • These secondary injuries from traumatic brain injury lead to alterations in cell function and propagation of injury through processes such as depolarization, excitotoxicity, disruption of calcium homeostasis, free-radical generation, blood-brain barrier disruption, ischemic injury, edema formation, and intracranial hypertension.
  • The best hope for improving outcome in traumatic brain injury patients is a better understanding of these processes and the development of therapies that can limit secondary brain injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / complications. Brain Injuries / physiopathology. Brain Ischemia / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomechanical Phenomena. Blood-Brain Barrier / physiopathology. Calcium / metabolism. Free Radicals / metabolism. Homeostasis. Humans. Ion Channels / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19306379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-7581
  • [Journal-full-title] The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mt. Sinai J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Ion Channels; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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35. Lorch A, Oechsle K, Bokemeyer C, Beyer J: [Salvage treatment in germ cell tumors : high-dose chemotherapy and the impact of prognostic factors]. Urologe A; 2009 Apr;48(4):364-71
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  • [Title] [Salvage treatment in germ cell tumors : high-dose chemotherapy and the impact of prognostic factors].
  • The majority of patients with germ cell tumors who fail first-line treatment will still be cured.
  • Patients without first-line chemotherapy who fail surveillance, radiotherapy, or surgery will be managed according to the treatment algorithms of their primary metastatic disease.
  • Patients with brain metastases should receive upfront whole brain radiation concurrent with salvage chemotherapy.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 10;24(35):5503-11 [17158535.001]
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  • (PMID = 19255738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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36. Tevaarwerk AJ, Kolesar JM: Lapatinib: a small-molecule inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinases used in the treatment of breast cancer. Clin Ther; 2009;31 Pt 2:2332-48
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  • [Title] Lapatinib: a small-molecule inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinases used in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • In March 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved lapatinib for use in combination with capecitabine in the treatment of advanced breast cancer overexpressing HER2 (HER2+).
  • METHODS: English-language reports of clinical trials of lapatinib in patients with cancer were identified through searches of PubMed/MEDLINE (1990-October 2009) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts database (2003-2008).
  • Search terms included lapatinib, Tykerb, HER2, EGFR, breast cancer, dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and GW572016.
  • RESULTS: Lapatinib was well tolerated in a Phase II monotherapy trial in patients with advanced breast cancer; however, the response was minimal in HER2+ patients, and no HER2- patients achieved an objective tumor response.
  • A Phase II trial of lapatinib monotherapy in 39 HER2+ patients with breast cancer and brain metastases yielded 1 partial response, although 15.4% of patients had stable disease for > or =16 weeks.
  • In a Phase III trial comparing lapatinib plus capecitabine with capecitabine alone in HER2+ patients with advanced breast cancer that had progressed after trastuzumab therapy, the median time to progression was 8.4 months with combination therapy, compared with 4.4 months with capecitabine alone (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lapatinib monotherapy was well tolerated, although the response rate was low in patients with advanced breast cancer.
  • The available evidence suggests that clinical efficacy in breast cancer is limited to HER2+ disease.


37. Davis JD, Tremont G: Neuropsychiatric aspects of hypothyroidism and treatment reversibility. . Minerva Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;32(1):49-65
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  • Thyroid hormone has important actions in the adult brain, and it is well accepted that hypothyroidism is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints and symptoms.
  • Neuropsychiatric symptoms refer to a spectrum of emotional and cognitive problems that are directly related to changes in the brain secondary to multiple factors, including the direct effects of thyroid disease, as well as hormone deprivation in brain tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Animals. Autoantibodies / immunology. Brain / physiopathology. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Depression / drug therapy. Depression / etiology. Depression / physiopathology. Depression / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Conduction. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular. Positron-Emission Tomography. Quality of Life. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Reference Values. Thyroid Gland / immunology. Thyroid Gland / secretion. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / drug therapy. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / immunology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / psychology. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyrotropin / secretion. Thyroxine / administration & dosage. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Treatment Outcome. Triiodothyronine / administration & dosage. Triiodothyronine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17353866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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38. Yohena T, Kuniyoshi M, Teruya T, Kawasaki H, Teruya J, Kawabata T, Ohta M, Ishikawa K, Oshiro Y, Chinen T, Uehara T, Hirayasu T, Ogawa K, Samura H: [A case of long-term survival of postoperative brain metastasis of small cell lung cancer effectively treated with chemotherapy, whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Feb;35(2):331-4
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  • [Title] [A case of long-term survival of postoperative brain metastasis of small cell lung cancer effectively treated with chemotherapy, whole brain radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery].
  • A 63-year-old woman underwent right upper lobectomy for small cell carcinoma.
  • She received a total of 2 courses of carboplatin and etoposide infusion as adjuvant therapy.
  • One year after the operation, because of elevated serum Pro GRP levels and a metastatic brain tumor revealed by CT, 4 courses of IP therapy (irinotecan 60 mg/m(2), day 1, 8, 15 and cisplatin 60 mg/m(2), day 1, every 4 weeks) and whole brain radiotherapy (2 Gy f, 5 f/week, total 40 Gy) were given.
  • A complete response was obtained, but a tumor relapse occurred ten months after the last chemotherapy.
  • We then performed a stereotactic radiosurgery (marginal dose: 22 Gy, maximum dose 44 Gy), and one month later MRI showed the tumor had shrunk markedly.
  • FDG-PET showed no intensive uptake, suggesting that there was no remaining viable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Radiosurgery


39. Mikhina ZP, Tkachëv SI, Trofimova OP, Ivanov SM, Medvedev SV, Zakharov SN, Krat VB, Korgunov SV: [Effectiveness of treatment of single cerebral metastasis depending on prognostic groups (RPA RTOG)]. Vopr Onkol; 2009;55(2):205-9
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  • [Title] [Effectiveness of treatment of single cerebral metastasis depending on prognostic groups (RPA RTOG)].
  • Our investigation was aimed at establishing a relationship between single metastases in the brain and a set of prognostic factors.
  • The whole brain was irradiated in 273 while 159 of them (58.2%) received additional local irradiation of the brain.
  • Single dosage of 2-2.5 Gy was administered to 158 (57.9%), 115--3Gy and more (42.1%).
  • Mean total dosage was 36 Gy per metastasis for the whole brain and 46 Gy--for total plus local exposure.
  • Among patients with favorable prognosis (RPA) were those aged up to 65, Karnofsky's index > or = 70%, with cured or controllable tumor and without extracranial metastases; poor prognosis--Karnofsky's index < or = 70%, irrespective of any other prognosticators, and intermediate prognosis--the remaining cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sarcoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19514377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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40. Vallalta Morales M, Solaz Moreno E, Lacruz Rodrigo J, Salavert Lletí M, Silla Burdalo G, Pérez-Bellés C: [Meningitis and brain abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a patient infected with HIV-1]. An Med Interna; 2005 Jun;22(6):279-82
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  • [Title] [Meningitis and brain abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a patient infected with HIV-1].
  • [Transliterated title] Meningitis y absceso cerebral por Streptococcus intermedius en un paciente con infección por VIH-1.
  • Streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae are a rare cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and can be associated with the presence of an undiagnosed brain abscess.
  • Brain abscess is a focal collection within the brain parenchyma which can arise as a complication of a variety of infections.
  • Although intracranial mass lesions that occur as a result of infection have commonly been reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, brain abscess due to the common bacterial pathogens are rarely described in HIV infected patients and Toxoplasma gondii is the organism most frequently isolated from stereotactic brain biopsy in these patients.
  • We report a patient with both HIV-1 infection and streptococcal meningitis secondary to brain abscess caused by S. intermedius.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Abscess / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Meningitis, Bacterial / complications. Streptococcal Infections / complications. Streptococcus intermedius
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. HIV-1. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male

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  • (PMID = 16011407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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41. Slachevsky A, Silva JR, Prenafeta ML, Novoa F: [The contribution of neuroscience to the understanding of moral behavior]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 Mar;137(3):419-25
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  • The neuro-scientific study of moral actions and judgments is particularly relevant to medicine, especially when assessing behavior disorders secondary to brain diseases.
  • We discuss the role of emotions in moral decisions, the role of brain development in moral development and the cerebral basis of moral behavior.
  • Empirical evidence shows a relationship between brain and moral development: changes in cerebral architecture are related to changes in moral decision complexity.
  • It is suggested that moral cognition depends on cerebral regions and neural networks related to emotional and cognitive processing (i.e. prefrontal and temporal cortex) and that moral judgments are complex affective and cognitive phenomena.

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  • (PMID = 19621186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Chile
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42. Nazzaro JM, Lyons KE, Wetzel LH, Pahwa R: Use of brain MRI after deep brain stimulation hardware implantation. Int J Neurosci; 2010 Mar;120(3):176-83
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  • [Title] Use of brain MRI after deep brain stimulation hardware implantation.
  • The objective of this study was to examine the experience with and safety of brain 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients.
  • This was a retrospective review of brain MRI scanning performed on DBS patients at the University of Kansas Medical Center between January 1995 and December 2007.
  • A total of 249 DBS patients underwent 445 brain 1.5 T MRI scan sessions encompassing 1,092 individual scans using a transmit-receive head coil, representing the cumulative scanning of 1,649 DBS leads.
  • Patients with complete implanted DBS systems as well as those with externalized leads underwent brain imaging.
  • There were no clinical or hardware related adverse events secondary to brain MRI scanning.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Deep Brain Stimulation / instrumentation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20374084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1563-5279
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Meyer A, Steinmann D, Malaimare L, Karstens JH, Bremer M: Prediction of prognosis regarding fractionation schedule and survival in patients with whole-brain radiotherapy for metastatic disease. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):3965-9
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  • [Title] Prediction of prognosis regarding fractionation schedule and survival in patients with whole-brain radiotherapy for metastatic disease.
  • AIM: To look at differences between fractionation schedules regarding established prognostic factors in patients treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for metastasis and actual survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients with brain metastases treated with WBRT with three different fractionation schedules with respect to the single dose (SD) 20 x 2.0 Gy (SD2), 15 x 2.5 Gy (SD2.5) and 10 x 3 Gy (SD3) were included.
  • CONCLUSION: The dose fractionation schedule for WBRT of metastases adequately reflected the clinical estimate of more favourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19192657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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44. Kuroiwa T, Yamada I, Katsumata N, Endo S, Ohno K: Ex vivo measurement of brain tissue viscoelasticity in postischemic brain edema. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2006;96:254-7
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  • [Title] Ex vivo measurement of brain tissue viscoelasticity in postischemic brain edema.
  • Knowledge of the biomechanical properties of postischemic brain tissue is important for understanding the mechanisms of postischemic secondary brain tissue injury.
  • We describe the method and results of biomechanical property measurement in ex vivo postischemic brain tissue by applying an indentation method.
  • At day 1 after ischemia, multi-parametric MRI was performed, the brain was removed under anesthesia, sliced, and kept in a container with silicone oil for the measurement.
  • Microvacuolation with demyelination and axonal disruption was evident in the postischemic brain tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomechanical Phenomena / methods. Brain / physiopathology. Brain Edema / physiopathology. Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Hardness Tests / methods. Models, Neurological. Physical Stimulation / methods

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  • (PMID = 16671465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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45. Douglas JG, Goodkin R: A simple treatment planning strategy for patients with multiple metastases treated with Gamma Knife surgery. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105 Suppl:2-4
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  • [Title] A simple treatment planning strategy for patients with multiple metastases treated with Gamma Knife surgery.
  • OBJECT: In a substantial number of patients treated at the authors' facility for brain metastases, additional lesions are identified at the time of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS).
  • The authors describe a simple planning method for GKS in patients with multiple, widely dispersed central nervous system (CNS) metastases.
  • METHODS: Two patients presented with three to five identified recurrent metastases from non-small cell lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma after having received whole-brain radiotherapy.
  • At the time of treatment with GKS in each patient, spoiled-gradient Gd-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed substantially more metastases than originally thought, which were widely scattered throughout all regions of the brain.
  • Two patients were successfully treated with GKS for more than 10 CNS metastases by using this simple planning method.
  • Dose-volume histograms showed brain doses as follows: 10% of the total brain volume received 5 to 6.4 Gy; 25% received 3.8 to 4.8 Gy; 50% received 2.7 to 3.1 Gy; and 75% received 2.2 to 2.5 Gy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The delineation of more metastases than appreciated on the diagnostic MR imaging is a common occurrence at the time of GKS at the authors' institution.
  • The treatment of multiple (>10), widely dispersed CNS metastases can be simplified by the placement of multiple, contiguous, non-overlapping matrices, which can be employed to treat lesions in all areas of the brain when separate matrices cannot be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 18503322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Prayson RA, Chamberlain WA, Angelov L: Clear cell meningioma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 tumors and examination of the use of CD10, CA9, and RCC antibodies to distinguish between clear cell meningioma and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Oct;18(5):422-8
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  • [Title] Clear cell meningioma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 tumors and examination of the use of CD10, CA9, and RCC antibodies to distinguish between clear cell meningioma and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Clear cell meningiomas (CCM) can be difficult to distinguish from metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinomas by standard light microscopy.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of immunomarkers CA9, CD10, and RCC in differentiating between CCM and clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Immunostaining results were compared with those found in 26 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • All tumors had at least a 10% clear cell component (mean 41%).
  • All tumors showed a sheet-like growth pattern.
  • Seven tumors (38.9%) showed CA9 immunoreactivity, 5 tumors (27.8%) CD10 staining, and 0 cases showed RCC staining.
  • Immunostaining results observed in the clear cell renal cell carcinoma group included 93.8% CA9 staining (15/16 cases evaluated), 100% CD10 staining (15/15 cases), and 36.4% RCC staining (4/11 cases).
  • Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies to CA9, CD10, and RCC are potentially useful in differentiating CCM from metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • In the majority of cases in which immunostaining was observed in meningiomas, staining was focal (involving <5% of neoplastic cells) in comparison with CA9 and CA10 immunostaining in renal cell carcinomas in which more than 50% of tumor cells stained the majority of cases.

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  • (PMID = 20453815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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47. Mindermann T: Tumor recurrence and survival following gamma knife surgery for brain metastases. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:287-8
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  • [Title] Tumor recurrence and survival following gamma knife surgery for brain metastases.
  • OBJECT: The authors evaluated prognostic factors for tumor recurrence and patient survival following gamma knife surgery (GKS) for brain metastasis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 101 patient charts was undertaken for those patients treated with GKS for brain metastases from 1994 to 2001.
  • Recurrence rates of brain metastasis following GKS depended on the duration of patient survival.
  • Long-term survival was associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence and shorter-term survival was associated with a lower risk.
  • The duration of survival following GKS for brain metastases seems to be characteristic of the primary disease rather than the cerebral disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence rates of brain metastasis following GKS are related to duration of survival, which is in turn mostly dependent on the nature and course of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15662827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Ambrosini RD, Wang P, O'Dell WG: Computer-aided detection of metastatic brain tumors using automated three-dimensional template matching. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Jan;31(1):85-93
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  • [Title] Computer-aided detection of metastatic brain tumors using automated three-dimensional template matching.
  • PURPOSE: To demonstrate the efficacy of an automated three-dimensional (3D) template matching-based algorithm in detecting brain metastases on conventional MR scans and the potential of our algorithm to be developed into a computer-aided detection tool that will allow radiologists to maintain a high level of detection sensitivity while reducing image reading time.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spherical tumor appearance models were created to match the expected geometry of brain metastases while accounting for partial volume effects and offsets due to the cut of MRI sampling planes.
  • A 3D normalized cross-correlation coefficient was calculated between the brain volume and spherical templates of varying radii using a fast frequency domain algorithm to identify likely positions of brain metastases.
  • RESULTS: Algorithm parameters were optimized on training datasets, and then data were collected on 22 patient datasets containing 79 total brain metastases producing a sensitivity of 89.9% with a false positive rate of 0.22 per image slice when restricted to the brain mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Study results demonstrate that the 3D template matching-based method can be an effective, fast, and accurate approach that could serve as a useful tool for assisting radiologists in providing earlier and more definitive diagnoses of metastases within the brain.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20027576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM007356-29; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007356; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM-07356; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007356-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS159170; NLM/ PMC2799295
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49. Melichar B, Tomsová M, Rehák S, Malírová E, Simonová G: Meningeal carcinomatosis as a late complication of brain metastases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(4):402-4
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  • [Title] Meningeal carcinomatosis as a late complication of brain metastases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • The brain represents a rare site of metastasis in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).
  • In recent decades there has been an apparent increase in the number of EOC patients diagnosed with brain metastases, probably as a result of improved prognosis of patients with advanced tumors, but cases of meningeal carcinomatosis complicating EOC remain rare.
  • A patient with Stage III EOC had brain metastases diagnosed 31 months after primary surgery.
  • The isolated brain metastases were controlled with radiosurgery, surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Forty-five months after the diagnosis of brain metastases, meningeal carcinomatosis was diagnosed which led, despite intrathecal therapy, to a fatal outcome.
  • Meningeal carcinomatosis may represent a late fatal complication of brain metastases of EOC.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18714581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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50. Pocar M, Passolunghi D, Moneta A, Mattioli R, Donatelli F: Coma might not preclude emergency operation in acute aortic dissection. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Apr;81(4):1348-51
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  • Coma or stroke caused by involvement of the arch vessels and secondary brain malperfusion is considered a major contraindication for emergency aortic repair.
  • No hemorrhagic brain infarction developed postoperatively.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Apr;81(4):1351-2 [16564271.001]
  • (PMID = 16564270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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51. Strobel K, Dummer R, Steinert HC, Conzett KB, Schad K, Lago MP, Soyka JD, Veit-Haibach P, Seifert B, Kalff V: Chemotherapy response assessment in stage IV melanoma patients-comparison of 18F-FDG-PET/CT, CT, brain MRI, and tumormarker S-100B. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Oct;35(10):1786-95
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy response assessment in stage IV melanoma patients-comparison of 18F-FDG-PET/CT, CT, brain MRI, and tumormarker S-100B.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT, CT, brain MRI, and tumormarker S-100B in chemotherapy response assessment of stage IV melanoma patients.
  • In patients with clinical suspicion for brain metastases, MRI or CCT was performed.
  • Eleven patients developed brain metastases during treatment, first detected by PET/CT in two and by MRI or CCT in nine of 11 patients.
  • Appearance of brain metastases was associated with a poor survival.
  • PET/CT responders have better early survival, but this is shortlived due to late therapy failure--often with brain recurrence.
  • Additional brain MRI for therapy response assessment in such high-risk patients is mandatory to detect brain metastases missed by PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / diagnostic imaging. Brain / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Melanoma. Nerve Growth Factors / blood. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. S100 Proteins / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Humans. Middle Aged. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit. Sensitivity and Specificity. Subtraction Technique. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18458901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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52. Meyer FB: Gamma Knife surgery and brain metastases. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):421; discussion 422
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery and brain metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Neurosurg. 2009 Sep;111(3):423-30 [19722810.001]
  • (PMID = 19199474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Gautschi OP, Stienen MN, Cadosch D, Fournier JY, Hildebrandt G, Seule MA: [Aneurysmal subarachonid haemorrhage]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2010 Jun 9;99(12):715-27
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  • A cerebral CT scan is the initial diagnostic tool of choice if aSAH is suspected.
  • The postoperative phase, especially in patients with severe aSAH is embossed with the occurrence of disease-specific complications (cerebral vasospasm, intracranial hypertension, seizure disorder, hydrocephalus) and consecutively increased risk for secondary brain injury.
  • Early identification and therapy of cerebral and systemic complications are very important in order improve functional outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Angiography. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Intracranial Aneurysm / radiography. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Humans. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20533231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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54. Singh T, Premalatha CS, Satheesh CT, Lakshmaiah KC, Suresh TM, Babu KG, Ramachandra C: Rectal carcinoma metastasizing to the breast: a case report and review of literature. J Cancer Res Ther; 2009 Oct-Dec;5(4):321-3
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  • [Title] Rectal carcinoma metastasizing to the breast: a case report and review of literature.
  • Extramammary breast metastases (from non-breast primaries) are rare, constituting only about 2% of all breast metastases, although autopsy studies show that it may occur in up to 6% of cases.
  • Lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, and bronchial carcinoma are the malignancies that account for the majority of breast metastases.
  • Breast metastases from a colorectal carcinoma have been described in only a small number of cases in the literature.
  • She had a history of Dukes C rectal carcinoma for which she had undergone an anterior resection 11 months earlier.
  • The patient subsequently developed liver and brain metastases and deteriorated rapidly; she died 2 months after presenting with the breast mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20160374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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55. Tang ME, Lobel DA: Severe traumatic brain injury: maximizing outcomes. Mt Sinai J Med; 2009 Apr;76(2):119-28
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  • [Title] Severe traumatic brain injury: maximizing outcomes.
  • Severe traumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States.
  • The initial management of traumatic brain injury involves early resuscitation, computed tomography scanning, and surgical evacuation of mass lesions, when indicated.
  • Recent research suggests that the prevention and treatment of secondary brain injury decrease mortality and improve outcomes.
  • Specifically, treatment should address not only cerebral protection but also prevention of injury to other organ systems.
  • To achieve the best outcomes, attention must be focused on optimizing blood pressure and brain tissue oxygenation, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressures, and preventing seizures.
  • In addition, maximizing good outcomes depends on proactively addressing the risk of common sequelae of brain injury, including infection, deep venous thrombosis, and inadequate nutrition.
  • Guidelines developed for the management of severe traumatic brain injury have dramatically improved functional neurological outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacterial Infections / etiology. Bacterial Infections / prevention & control. Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Diuretics / administration & dosage. Furosemide / administration & dosage. Humans. Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage. Hypotension / etiology. Hypotension / prevention & control. Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain / etiology. Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain / prevention & control. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / prevention & control. Intracranial Hypotension / etiology. Intracranial Hypotension / prevention & control. Mannitol / administration & dosage. Nutrition Therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Resuscitation / methods. Seizures / etiology. Seizures / prevention & control. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Venous Thrombosis / etiology. Venous Thrombosis / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19306369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-7581
  • [Journal-full-title] The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mt. Sinai J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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56. Yurdakul AS, Halilçolar H, Oztürk C, Tatar D, Karakaya J: [Factors affecting the prognosis in patients with primary lung cancer and brain metastases]. Tuberk Toraks; 2006;54(3):235-42
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  • [Title] [Factors affecting the prognosis in patients with primary lung cancer and brain metastases].
  • Brain metastases are frequent features during the course of patients with lung carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors for patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer.
  • Eighty-eight patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer were enrolled in the study.
  • Fifty-two (59.1%) patients had solitary brain metastasis and the most frequent metastasing site was parietal lobe (34.1%).
  • The median survival times were 3 months after diagnosis of lung carcinoma and 1.5 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis.
  • Although the absence of brain metastasis at the moment of diagnosis, metachronous metastasis, central localization of the tumour, chemotherapy administration and surgical treatment of brain metastasis are good prognostic factors affecting survival after the diagnosis of lung carcinoma, the positive factors affecting survival after brain metastasis are central localization of tumour, chemotherapy administration and surgical treatment of brain metastasis.
  • In conclusion, performing the combination of cranial radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical therapy and supporting therapy should be evaluated in all appropriate patients with brain metastasis from lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Turkey / epidemiology


57. Chernov MF, Ono Y, Kubo O, Hori T: Comparison of 1H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics in single metastatic brain tumors of different origin. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Apr;23(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Comparison of 1H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics in single metastatic brain tumors of different origin.
  • Various types of intracranial metastases exhibit different growth patterns, which can be reflected in their metabolic characteristics and investigated noninvasively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS).
  • The objective of the present study was comparison of the 1H-MRS-detected metabolic parameters in brain metastases of different origin.
  • Twenty-five patients (15 men and 10 women; mean age, 62.0 years) with single, previously nontreated metastatic brain tumors were investigated by long-echo single-voxel volume-selected 1H-MRS.
  • The primary cancer was located in the lungs (10 cases), colon and rectum (8 cases), breast (3 cases), kidney (2 cases), prostate (1 case), and cardiac muscle (1 case).
  • Comparison of clinical and radiological variables, including type of tumor contrast enhancement and extension of peritumoral edema, did not disclose statistically significant differences in metastatic brain tumors of different origin.
  • At the same time, comparison of 1H-MRS-detected metabolic characteristics revealed that metastases of colorectal carcinoma have greater content of mobile lipids (Lip) compared to other neoplasms.
  • In conclusion, high Lip content in the viable brain metastases of colorectal carcinoma can be used as an additional diagnostic clue for noninvasive identification of these tumors and should be taken into consideration in cases of 1H-MRS-based differentiation of their recurrence and radiation-induced necrosis after radiosurgical or radiotherapeutic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Chemistry / physiology. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Edema / pathology. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Infratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / secondary. Inositol / metabolism. Lipid Metabolism / physiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Supratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18095117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol
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58. Nishi N, Kawai S, Yonezawa T, Fujimoto K, Masui K: Effect of gefitinib on brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Oct;46(10):504-7
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  • [Title] Effect of gefitinib on brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Two patients with non-small cell lung cancer presented with multiple brain metastases.
  • About one month later, the brain metastases unexpectedly disappeared or became smaller.
  • The patients survived without recurrence of brain metastases and growth of lung lesions for 3-4 years.
  • Gefitinib is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is approved for use in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Gefitinib may be very effective for multiple brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Quinazolines / therapeutic use


59. Mukesh M, Cook N, Hollingdale AE, Ainsworth NL, Russell SG: Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a 15-year retrospective review of treatment and survival in the Anglian Cancer Network. BJU Int; 2009 Mar;103(6):747-52
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a 15-year retrospective review of treatment and survival in the Anglian Cancer Network.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical experience and management of patients with small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder, treated in the Anglia Cancer network from 1992 to 2007, and to review published studies, as SCC is a rare condition, accounting for <1% of all bladder tumours, and there is no established treatment strategy for managing these patients.
  • Nine patients (45%) had extensive-stage disease at diagnosis.
  • At the time of analysis, 14 (70%) patients had died, with one (5%) developing brain metastasis.
  • It is an aggressive tumour with a propensity for early metastasis.
  • Brain secondaries are less common than for SCC of the lung and currently the role of PCI is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy


60. Stuart RM, Schmidt M, Kurtz P, Waziri A, Helbok R, Mayer SA, Lee K, Badjatia N, Hirsch LJ, Connolly ES, Claassen J: Intracranial multimodal monitoring for acute brain injury: a single institution review of current practices. Neurocrit Care; 2010 Apr;12(2):188-98
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  • [Title] Intracranial multimodal monitoring for acute brain injury: a single institution review of current practices.
  • BACKGROUND: Critical care management of patients with severe acute brain injury has undergone tremendous advances.
  • Neurosurgeons and neurointensivists have a large armamentarium of invasive monitoring devices available to help detect secondary brain injury and guide therapy.
  • No consensus exists regarding patient specific selection of monitoring devices, the placement of devices in relation to injured brain tissue, or the preferred insertion technique.
  • Here we review our experience in a consecutive series of acutely brain injured patients who underwent multimodality monitoring.
  • RESULTS: Monitored modalities included brain tissue oxygen (PbtO(2)) in 97% (N = 59), microdialysis (MD) in 79% (N = 48), intracranial electroencephalography in 31% (N = 19), brain temperature in 18% (N = 11), and cerebral blood flow in 11% (N = 7).
  • The majority of probes (56%; N = 35) were placed into patients with focal brain injuries, while in 43% N = 26 the injury was diffuse.
  • The most frequent complication of multimodality brain monitoring was device malfunction or dislodgement (43%; N = 26).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Injuries / metabolism. Intensive Care Units / statistics & numerical data. Oxygen / metabolism. Stroke / metabolism. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Body Temperature / physiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Electroencephalography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures. Retrospective Studies. Seizures / diagnosis. Seizures / etiology. Seizures / prevention & control. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20107926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-0961
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocritical care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocrit Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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61. Socinski MA, Crowell R, Hensing TE, Langer CJ, Lilenbaum R, Sandler AB, Morris D, American College of Chest Physicians: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IV: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest; 2007 Sep;132(3 Suppl):277S-289S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IV: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
  • BACKGROUND: Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a treatable but incurable disease.
  • Patients for whom bevacizumab is recommended must also be selected on the basis of histology (nonsquamous), absence of brain metastases and hemoptysis, and no indication for therapeutic anticoagulation.
  • In patients with stage IV NSCLC and PS of 2, chemotherapy is recommended, but the optimal approach has not been defined.
  • Last, patients need to be informed of the implication of the diagnosis of stage IV NSCLC and be educated about treatment options that are available to them.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Pancoast Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neoplasm Staging


62. Jin WW, Chung JM, Jung KE, Park JW, Kim MH: A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Granuloma Pyogenicum. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Dec;20(4):263-6
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  • [Title] A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Mimicking Granuloma Pyogenicum.
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its frequent metastasis and particularly to the lungs, liver, bones and brain, but metastasis to the skin is rare.
  • We report here on a case of metastatic RCC in a 73-year-old man who presented with a 1.5 cm sized, moist, beefy-red and exophytic nodule on the scalp.
  • As skin metastasis from renal cell carcinoma signals widespread systemic metastasis and a poor prognosis, clinicians should conduct a careful inspection of the skin of a patient with RCC and they should also have a high index of suspicion for finding a primary internal organ malignancy in the RCC patients who present with a skin lesion.

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  • (PMID = 27303209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4903996
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Granuloma pyogenicum / Metastatic renal cell carcinoma / Scalp
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63. Gilert A, Machluf M: Nano to micro delivery systems: targeting angiogenesis in brain tumors. J Angiogenes Res; 2010;2(1):20
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  • [Title] Nano to micro delivery systems: targeting angiogenesis in brain tumors.
  • Treating brain tumors using inhibitors of angiogenesis is extensively researched and tested in clinical trials.
  • Although anti-angiogenic treatment holds a great potential for treating primary and secondary brain tumors, no clinical treatment is currently approved for brain tumor patients.
  • One of the main hurdles in treating brain tumors is the blood brain barrier - a protective barrier of the brain, which prevents drugs from entering the brain parenchyma.
  • As most therapeutics are excluded from the brain there is an urgent need to develop delivery platforms which will bypass such hurdles and enable the delivery of anti-angiogenic drugs into the tumor bed.
  • In this mini-review we will discuss the latest improvements in nano and micro drug delivery platforms that were designed to deliver inhibitors of angiogenesis to the brain.

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  • (PMID = 20932320.001).
  • [ISSN] 2040-2384
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of angiogenesis research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Angiogenes Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964525
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64. Outin H, Fangio P: [Arousal disorders]. Rev Prat; 2006 Apr 15;56(7):746-53
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  • Management of unconscious patient can be difficult because the potential causes of an altered mental status are considerable and the time for diagnosis and effective intervention is short.
  • The prognosis for recovery depends greatly on the underlying etiology as well as its optimal treatment, which seeks to preserve neurologic function and maximize the potential for recovery by reversing the primary cause of brain injury, if known, and preventing secondary brain injury from anoxia, ischemia, hypoglycemia, cerebral edema, and electrolyte disturbances.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / complications. Brain Injuries / complications. Consciousness Disorders / etiology. Consciousness Disorders / therapy. Emergency Service, Hospital
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16739907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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65. Weller M, Steinbach JP, Wick W: Temozolomide: a milestone in the pharmacotherapy of brain tumors. Future Oncol; 2005 Dec;1(6):747-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Temozolomide: a milestone in the pharmacotherapy of brain tumors.
  • TMZ shows good blood-brain barrier penetration and exhibits a favorable side effect profile.
  • The demonstration of prolonged survival when TMZ was added to radiotherapy in the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 26981/22981/NCIC CE.3 trial has been a breakthrough in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
  • The early preliminary evidence for activity in recurrent malignant gliomas further resulted in a broad evaluation of TMZ for other tumors in neuro-oncology, mainly low-grade gliomas, brain metastases and primary cerebral lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16556052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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66. Christodoulou C, Skarlos DV: Treatment of small cell lung cancer. Semin Respir Crit Care Med; 2005 Jun;26(3):333-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of small cell lung cancer.
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very chemo- and radiosensitive systemic disease.
  • Prophylactic cranial radiotherapy, in patients with complete response following induction chemotherapy, reduces the incidence of brain metastases and improves survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biological Therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pneumonectomy. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16052435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1069-3424
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Respir Crit Care Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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67. Carrick MM, Tyroch AH, Youens CA, Handley T: Subsequent development of thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy in moderate and severe head injury: support for serial laboratory examination. J Trauma; 2005 Apr;58(4):725-9; discussion 729-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk for secondary brain insults such as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15824648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Mizuguchi M: [Revised act on organ transplantation: a pediatrician's viewpoint]. Brain Nerve; 2010 Jun;62(6):587-94
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  • In Japan, from July 2010, an infant or a child with brain death will be legally regarded as a candidate of donor for organ transplantation under the consent of his or her family members.
  • Official diagnostic criteria of brain death in children are currently under compilation.
  • The causes and incidence of brain death remarkably differ among individuals belonging to different age groups.
  • Secondary brain damages resulting from asphyxia, drowning, hypoxemia, and cardiopulmonary arrest more commonly occur in childhood than in adulthood.
  • Child abuse or neglect is suspected to be involved in many of the cases of brain death.
  • Neonates and young infants below 12 weeks of corrected age will also be excluded, because neurological diagnosis of brain death is difficult in these individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Death / diagnosis. Neurology. Organ Transplantation / legislation & jurisprudence. Pediatrics. Physicians. Tissue and Organ Procurement / legislation & jurisprudence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Child Abuse / legislation & jurisprudence. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan. Tissue Donors

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  • (PMID = 20548118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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69. McNett MM, Gianakis A: Nursing interventions for critically ill traumatic brain injury patients. J Neurosci Nurs; 2010 Apr;42(2):71-7; quiz 78-9
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  • [Title] Nursing interventions for critically ill traumatic brain injury patients.
  • Neuroscience intensive care unit (ICU) nurses deliver a number of interventions when caring for critically ill traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.
  • As part of a larger study investigating ICU nurse judgments about secondary brain injury, ICU nurses were asked to identify interventions routinely performed when caring for TBI patients.
  • Nurses were responsible for monitoring intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure approximately 50% of the time.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude of Health Personnel. Brain Injuries / nursing. Critical Care / organization & administration. Nurse's Role / psychology. Nursing Staff, Hospital / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Critical Illness / nursing. Female. Humans. Judgment. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Nursing. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Monitoring, Physiologic / nursing. Nursing Assessment. Nursing Methodology Research. Nursing Process / organization & administration. Prospective Studies. Qualitative Research. Surveys and Questionnaires. Trauma Centers

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  • (PMID = 20422792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosci Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Meier U, Lemcke J, Reyer T, Gräwe A: Decompressive craniectomy for severe head injury in patients with major extracranial injuries. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2006;96:373-6
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  • Neurosurgical therapy aims to minimize secondary brain damage after a severe head injury.
  • Our guidelines for decompressive craniectomy after failure of conservative interventions and evacuation of space-occupying hematomas include: patient age below 50 years without multiple trauma, patient age below 30 years in the presence of major extracranial injuries, severe brain swelling on CT scan, exclusion of a primary brainstem lesion or injury, and intervention before irreversible brain stem damage.

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  • (PMID = 16671488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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71. Chow E, Fan G, Hadi S, Wong J, Kirou-Mauro A, Filipczak L: Symptom clusters in cancer patients with brain metastases. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Feb;20(1):76-82
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  • [Title] Symptom clusters in cancer patients with brain metastases.
  • AIM: To explore the presence of symptom clusters in patients with brain metastases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with brain metastases referred to an outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic were asked to rate their symptom distress using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS).
  • RESULTS: Between January 1999 and January 2002, 170 patients with brain metastases provided complete baseline data on the ESAS.
  • The most common primary cancer sites were lung, breast and gastrointestinal.
  • CONCLUSION: Symptom clusters seemed to exist in patients with brain metastases before and after whole brain radiotherapy.
  • The effectiveness of whole brain radiotherapy in providing palliative relief to patients with brain metastases needs to be explored with regards to symptom clusters.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anorexia / complications. Anxiety / complications. Fatigue / complications. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / complications. Sleep Stages

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  • (PMID = 17981447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Mazza M, Uchegbu IF, Schätzlein AG: Cancer and the blood-brain barrier: 'Trojan horses' for courses? Br J Pharmacol; 2008 Sep;155(2):149-51
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  • [Title] Cancer and the blood-brain barrier: 'Trojan horses' for courses?
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the bioavailability of most bioactive molecules and drugs in the CNS, leaving clinicians with only a few options for pharmacotherapy.
  • Importantly, the authors were able to demonstrate improved therapeutic efficacy of this approach in orthotopic models of primary and metastatic brain cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Transport / physiology. Blood-Brain Barrier / physiology. Drug Delivery Systems. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 / administration & dosage. Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2538701
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73. Hayashi M, Izawa M, Ochiai T, Hori T: [Gamma knife surgery for metastatic brain tumors]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Sep;63 Suppl 9:623-32
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  • [Title] [Gamma knife surgery for metastatic brain tumors].
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Quality of Life. Radiation Injuries / diagnosis. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Robotics. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16201591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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74. Trabold R, Erös C, Zweckberger K, Relton J, Beck H, Nussberger J, Müller-Esterl W, Bader M, Whalley E, Plesnila N: The role of bradykinin B(1) and B(2) receptors for secondary brain damage after traumatic brain injury in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 2010 Jan;30(1):130-9
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  • [Title] The role of bradykinin B(1) and B(2) receptors for secondary brain damage after traumatic brain injury in mice.
  • Inflammatory mechanisms are known to contribute to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
  • Since bradykinin is one of the first mediators activated during inflammation, we investigated the role of bradykinin and its receptors in posttraumatic secondary brain damage.
  • Brain edema, contusion volume, and functional outcome were assessed 24 h and 7 days after CCI.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that B(1) and B(2) receptors were expressed in the brain and were significantly upregulated in the traumatic penumbra 1 to 24 h after CCI.
  • B(2)R(-/-) mice had significantly less brain edema (-51% versus WT, 24 h; P<0.001), smaller contusion volumes ( approximately 50% versus WT 24 h and 7 d after CCI; P<0.05), and better functional outcome 7 days after TBI as compared with WT mice (P<0.05).
  • The present results show that bradykinin and its B(2) receptors play a causal role for brain edema formation and cell death after TBI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries / pathology. Receptor, Bradykinin B1 / physiology. Receptor, Bradykinin B2 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bradykinin / metabolism. Brain Edema / pathology. Contusions / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19773800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-7016
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Bradykinin B1; 0 / Receptor, Bradykinin B2; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2949094
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75. Stafinski T, Jhangri GS, Yan E, Menon D: Effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery alone or in combination with whole brain radiotherapy compared to conventional surgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy for the treatment of one or more brain metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Treat Rev; 2006 May;32(3):203-13
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery alone or in combination with whole brain radiotherapy compared to conventional surgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy for the treatment of one or more brain metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of SRS alone or in combination with WBRT compared to surgery and/or WBRT in prolonging survival and improving the quality-of-life and functional status of patients with brain metastases.
  • Among patients with multiple metastases, no difference in survival between those treated with WBRT + SRS and those treated with WBRT was found.
  • However, in patients with one metastasis, a statistically significant difference, favoring those treated with WBRT + SRS, was observed.
  • Regarding local tumor control at 24 months, rates were significantly higher in the WBRT + SRS treatment arm, regardless of the number of metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adding SRS to WBRT improves survival in patients with one brain metastasis.
  • Combining SRS and WBRT improves local tumour control and functional independence in all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16472924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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76. Braen AP, Perron J, Tellier P, Catala AR, Kolaitis G, Geng W: A 4-week intrathecal toxicity and pharmacokinetic study with trastuzumab in cynomolgus monkeys. Int J Toxicol; 2010 May-Jun;29(3):259-67
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  • Trastuzumab is indicated for the treatment of patients with breast cancer overexpressing human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2).
  • Women with HER2-positive tumors have an increased risk of brain metastases.
  • The blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier may prevent trastuzumab from reaching appropriate concentrations in the brain and CSF following standard intravenous administration.
  • The results support future studies for further evaluation of intrathecal application of trastuzumab in patients with brain metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Body Weight / drug effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Catheters, Indwelling. Central Nervous System / drug effects. Central Nervous System / physiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Infusions, Parenteral. Macaca fascicularis. Male. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / physiology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Spine / drug effects. Spine / pathology. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 20448258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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77. Nishizaki T, Saito K, Jimi Y, Harada N, Kajiwara K, Nomura S, Ishihara H, Yoshikawa K, Yoneda H, Suzuki M, Gibbs IC: The role of cyberknife radiosurgery/radiotherapy for brain metastases of multiple or large-size tumors. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Aug;49(4):203-9
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  • [Title] The role of cyberknife radiosurgery/radiotherapy for brain metastases of multiple or large-size tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Focused, highly targeted radiosurgery and fractionated radiotherapy using the Cyberknife are useful treatments for multiple or large metastases.
  • Here we present our results of Cyberknife radiosurgery for 71 patients with 148 metastatic brain lesions.
  • The mean and median initial volumes of the tumor per lesion were 6.6 and 2.9 cm(3) (range: 0.1-53.2 cm(3)), respectively, at the time of the initial Cyberknife treatment.
  • The Karnofsky performance score and extracranial metastasis were significant prognostic factors at 6 months and 1 year, respectively, in both univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • Age or multiple metastases did not influence prognosis at 6 months and 1 year.
  • Twenty-five patients developed 92 new metastases (range 1-13) outside of the treated lesions with 22.4 weeks of median follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the inclusion of an unfavorable group of patients with large tumors, our results for survival and tumor control rates are comparable to those of published series.
  • The Cyberknife provides the advantage of allowing for fractionated treatment to multiple or large-size tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Neuronavigation / methods. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis / etiology. Necrosis / physiopathology. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Prognosis. Radiation Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17041830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Xu BH, Han L, Lin SJ, Touboul E: [Prognostic factors for brain metastatic tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Nov;25(11):1425-8
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factors for brain metastatic tumors treated with stereotactic radiosurgery].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of brain metastatic tumors treated with linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and evaluate the potential prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 102 patients with 131 brain metastatic tumors treated with a linac-based SRS from 1994 to 2002, including 78 patients with solitary and 24 with multiple brain metastases, with the diameter of tumor all within 4 cm.
  • Among these 102 patients, 18 received planned whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) before or after SRS.
  • Ninety-three patients with 120 lesions were evaluated for local tumor control analysis with follow-up imaging data.
  • The patients' survival and local control of the tumors were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the potential prognostic factors were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analysis.
  • RESULTS: The overall local tumor control rate and the actuarial local tumor control rate at 1 year were 92.5% and 87.6%, respectively.
  • The tumor volume was the single significant predictor for local tumor control (P=0.035).
  • In univariate analysis, patients aged over 60 years (P=0.038) with KPS score above 70 (P=0.001), absence of extracranial metastases (P=0.031) and administration of planned WBRT (P=0.025) were significant factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: SRS is an effective method for treatment of brain metastases, and multiple factors may affect the local tumor control and survival of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16305972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-2588
  • [Journal-full-title] Di 1 jun yi da xue xue bao = Academic journal of the first medical college of PLA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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79. Kwon HC, Oh SY, Kim SH, Lee S, Kwon KA, Choi YJ, Cho GJ, Kim YS, Lee M, Lee JH, Kim DC, Lee HS, Cho SH, Kim HJ: Clinical outcomes and breast cancer subtypes in patients with brain metastases. Onkologie; 2010;33(4):146-52
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes and breast cancer subtypes in patients with brain metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The principal objective of this study was to assess clinical outcomes by breast cancer subtype in patients with brain metastases.
  • The median time intervals from distant metastasis to brain metastasis were 20.6, 19.5, and 9.0 months, respectively (p = 0.012).
  • The times from initial diagnosis to brain metastasis were 52.9, 33.6, and 25.5 months, respectively (p = 0.026).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TN breast cancer were more likely to develop distant metastasis earlier, and also evidenced poor overall survival.
  • Triple receptor status may be employed as a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients with brain metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Korea / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prevalence. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate


80. Guillamo JS, Emery E, Busson A, Lechapt-Zalcman E, Constans JM, Defer GL: [Current management of brain metastases]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2008 Jun-Jul;164(6-7):560-8
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  • [Title] [Current management of brain metastases].
  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebral metastases occur in 15 to 20% of cancers and their incidence is increasing.
  • The majority occur at an advanced stage of the disease, but metastasis may be the inaugural sign of cancer.
  • In case of multiple cerebral metastases occurring at an advanced stage of the disease, whole brain radiation is the most effective therapy for rapid symptom control.
  • On the contrary, surgery is indicated in case of a solitary metastasis, particularly when the patient is young (less than 65 years), with good general status (Karnofsky greater than 70), and when the systemic disease is under control.
  • Radiosurgery offers an attractive alternative for these patients with good prognostic factors and a small number of cerebral metastases (< or = 4).
  • PERSPECTIVES: Chemotherapy, considered in the past as not effective, is taking on a more important place in patients with multiple nonthreatening metastases from chemosensitive cancers (breast, testes...).
  • Radiosurgery and whole brain radiotherapy are complementary techniques.
  • Their respective role in the management of multiple metastases (< 4) remains to be further investigated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic options are increasingly effective to improve the functional prognosis of patients with cerebral metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18565355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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81. Zissimopoulos A, Zanglis A, Andreopoulos D, Baziotis N: The role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan as compared to 99mTc-MDP and CT scans in imaging the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2005 Sep-Dec;8(3):162-4
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  • [Title] The role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan as compared to 99mTc-MDP and CT scans in imaging the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma.
  • The oncophilic complex of technetium-99m labeled pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) has been successfully used for the detection of primary and metastatic medullary thyroid cancer and for imaging various soft tissue tumors like lung, brain and prostate cancer.
  • In this article, the role of 99mTc(V)-DMSA in the diagnosis of the primary tumor and metastases of osteosarcoma patients as compared to the 99mTc-MDP scan and the CT scan was studied.
  • The final diagnosis was made after fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Group A patients showed a selective uptake of 99mTc(V)-DMSA in the primary tumor region.
  • The 99mTc(V)-DMSA scan was found to be superior to the 99mTc-MDP and the CT scans in identifying metastases of osteosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Osteosarcoma / radionuclide imaging. Osteosarcoma / secondary. Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):71 [19330192.001]
  • (PMID = 16390022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 494JNQ8L28 / Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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82. Arvin B, Panchmatia JR, Ashkan K: Recurrence of a metastatic tumour in association with a cranial fixation device. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Dec;149(12):1263-4; discussion 1264
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  • [Title] Recurrence of a metastatic tumour in association with a cranial fixation device.
  • We present a case of recurrent metastatic brain tumour spread across a cranial fixation device.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Transplantation / instrumentation. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Craniotomy / instrumentation. External Fixators. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Seeding. Prostheses and Implants. Titanium
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17965820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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83. Leone M, Visintini P, Alliez JR, Albanèse J: [What sedation for prevention and treatment secondary brain insult?]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim; 2006 Aug;25(8):852-7
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  • [Title] [What sedation for prevention and treatment secondary brain insult?].
  • [Transliterated title] Quelle sédation pour la prévention et le traitement de l'agression cérébrale secondaire ?
  • The aim of sedation and analgesia is to prevent secondary brain insult.
  • In such situation, the use of sedative and analgesic therapy should respect the rate of cerebral blood flow/cerebral oxygen consumption coupling while preserving cerebral perfusion pressure and decreasing the intracranial pressure.
  • Opioids are the basis of analgesia because they do not produce brain haemodynamic alterations if arterial pressure is maintained.
  • Ketamine has no side effects on brain haemodynamics when used in combination with propofol or midazolam.
  • The presence of brain damage in patients makes difficult to assess the level of sedation.

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  • (PMID = 16713168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0750-7658
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales françaises d'anesthèsie et de rèanimation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Muscle Relaxants, Central
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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84. Dawood S, Gong Y, Broglio K, Buchholz TA, Woodward W, Lucci A, Valero V, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Hortobagyi GN, Cristofanilli M: Trastuzumab in Primary Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC): High Pathological Response Rates and Improved Outcome. Breast J; 2010 Sep-Oct;16(5):529-32
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  • [Title] Trastuzumab in Primary Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC): High Pathological Response Rates and Improved Outcome.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) represents a rare but aggressive and lethal form of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and frequently with HER-2 neu overexpressed or amplified.
  • Furthermore, we assessed the expression of CXCR4 in metastatic recurrence sites.
  • Four(25%) patients have experienced a progression, of which three were in the brain.
  • High expression of CXCR4 was detected in the brain metastases.
  • We conclude that in spite of high pCR rates among women with HER-2 ⁄ neu-positive IBC treated with neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based regimens the outcome remains dismal and brain recurrences are frequent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20626396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024149; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024149-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024149-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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85. Olson DM, Bader MK, Dennis C, Mahanes D, Riemen K: Multicenter pilot study: safety of automated chest percussion in patients at risk for intracranial hypertension. J Neurosci Nurs; 2010 Jun;42(3):119-27
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  • In the critical care setting, the focus of care during the first few weeks following acute brain injury is prevention of secondary brain injury by optimizing cerebral perfusion.
  • Ensuring adequate oxygenation and perfusion of cerebral tissues requires attention to all of the body systems.
  • However, many patients with brain injury have intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and conventional wisdom supports limiting activities such as CPT that may stimulate the patient and increase ICP.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Injuries. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / prevention & control. Respiratory Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Beds. Clinical Nursing Research. Critical Care / methods. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Pilot Projects. Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / etiology. Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / prevention & control. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Safety

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurosci Nurs. 2010 Aug;42(4):180
  • (PMID = 20550071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosci Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Shinoura N, Onodera T, Kurokawa K, Tsukada M, Yamada R, Tabei Y, Koizumi T, Yagi K: Damage to the upper portion of area 19 and the deep white matter in the left inferior parietal lobe, including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, results in alexia with agraphia. Eur Neurol; 2010;64(4):224-9
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  • Analysis of lesions and symptoms in patients with brain tumors combined with information from diffusion tensor imaging provides direct evidence of the anatomical localization of brain function.
  • Using these methods, we evaluated 8 patients who underwent surgery for metastatic brain tumors located in the left occipital lobes between 2007 and 2009.
  • The common brain tumors in cases 1-4 were located in the upper portion of area 19, and peritumor edema in that area resulted in compromise of the deep white matter of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL).
  • In cases 5-8, the brain tumors were not located in the upper portion of area 19.
  • [MeSH-major] Agraphia / etiology. Brain Injuries / complications. Dyslexia, Acquired / etiology. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / pathology. Parietal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neuropsychological Tests. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20798545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9913
  • [Journal-full-title] European neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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87. Sejpal SV, Bhate A, Small W: Palliative radiation therapy in the management of brain metastases, spinal cord compression, and bone metastases. Semin Intervent Radiol; 2007 Dec;24(4):363-74
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  • [Title] Palliative radiation therapy in the management of brain metastases, spinal cord compression, and bone metastases.
  • Radiation therapy plays an important role in both curative and palliative cancer treatment.
  • Palliative radiation therapy is given to alleviate symptoms, restore function, relieve suffering caused by cancer, and improve quality of life.
  • Pain relief, control of bleeding or ulceration, prevention of impending compression or obstruction from tumor, and shrinkage of tumor masses causing symptoms are indications for palliative radiotherapy.
  • Site-specific treatment is addressed, divided into palliative radiotherapy for brain metastases, spinal cord compression, and bone metastases.

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  • (PMID = 21326588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0739-9529
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3037246
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Palliative care / bone metastases / brain metastases / spinal cord compression / whole brain radiotherapy
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88. Schueller P, Schroeder J, Micke O, Moustakis C, Willich N: 9 years tumor free survival after resection, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and whole brain radiotherapy of a solitary brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(2):224-5
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  • [Title] 9 years tumor free survival after resection, intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and whole brain radiotherapy of a solitary brain metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


89. Azar JM, Schneider BP, Einhorn LH: Is the blood-brain barrier relevant in metastatic germ cell tumor? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Sep 1;69(1):163-6
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  • [Title] Is the blood-brain barrier relevant in metastatic germ cell tumor?
  • PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors are uniquely chemosensitive and curable, even with advanced metastatic disease.
  • Central nervous system recurrence can terminate a complete remission in other chemosensitive tumors, such as small cell lung cancer, because of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
  • We propose to document that the BBB is also relevant in germ cell tumors despite their dramatic chemosensitivity.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We present five cases illustrating the concept of the BBB in patients with metastatic testicular cancer treated with chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: In our large series of patients with metastatic testicular cancer treated with chemotherapy, we identified 5 unique patients.
  • These patients were rendered free of disease only to experience relapse in the brain alone.
  • This included 1 patient who initially had good-risk metastatic disease by means of the International Germ Cell Collaborative Group staging system at the onset of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The BBB is relevant in patients with metastatic testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood-Brain Barrier. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • (PMID = 17707269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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90. Aguilar MI, Freeman WD: Treatment of coagulopathy in intracranial hemorrhage. Curr Treat Options Neurol; 2010 Mar;12(2):113-28
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  • Patients with coagulopathic ICH require admission to a neuro-intensive unit care with management of airway, oxygenation, and systemic arterial and cerebral perfusion pressure; optimization of serum glucose; aggressive treatment of fever; and rehabilitation.
  • Once the coagulopathic defect is reversed, some patients benefit from emergent neurosurgical intervention to prevent secondary brain injury from raised intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, or mass effect.

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  • (PMID = 20842575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-3138
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Tateno H, Hoshino T, Takahashi K, Matsumura M, Sakaida N, Ohe C: [A rapidly progressed metastatic choroidal tumor from a hepatocellular carcinoma]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Feb;113(2):107-11
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  • [Title] [A rapidly progressed metastatic choroidal tumor from a hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic choroidal tumor stemming from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very rare.
  • We report a case of a metastatic choroidal tumor stemming from a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • He had undergone surgery for HCC nine years before, and had received radiation therapy for lung and brain metastasis of HCC.
  • One month later, light perception of the left eye disappeared with rapid growth of the tumor and high intraocular pressure.
  • In histopathological examination, the choroidal tumor consisted of tumor cells showing characteristics of HCC such as intracytoplasmic glycogen granules, fatty degeneration, and necrosis of the tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics of metastatic choroidal tumors from an HCC are a red appearance and rapid growth with retinal detachment and subretinal hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19260529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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92. Stein ME, Bernstein Z, Abacioglu U, Sengoz M, Miller RC, Meirovitz A, Zouhair A, Freixa SV, Poortmans PH, Ash R, Kuten A: Small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the prostate: etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic implications--a retrospective study of 30 patients from the rare cancer network. Am J Med Sci; 2008 Dec;336(6):478-88
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  • [Title] Small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the prostate: etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic implications--a retrospective study of 30 patients from the rare cancer network.
  • Within the framework of the Rare Cancer Network Study, we examined 30 patients suffering from small cell neuroendocrine prostate cancer, either in an early/localized or an advanced/metastatic stage.
  • No patient presented with brain metastases as the initial site of relapse.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma is a very aggressive disease with a poor prognosis, even in its localized form.
  • Improvement will come from understanding the biology of the disease and integrating new targeted therapies into the treatment of this rare and aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies


93. Ozturk B, Buyukberber S, Coskun U, Yaman E, Yildiz R, Kaya AO, Oner Y, Benekli M: Solitary iris metastasis from breast cancer with dramatic course: case report. Med Oncol; 2007;24(4):463-5
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  • [Title] Solitary iris metastasis from breast cancer with dramatic course: case report.
  • Intraocular metastases are the most common malignancy of eye.
  • Breast cancer is more frequently a cause of intraocular metastases.
  • As a first metastatic site, iris and ciliary body are relatively rare.
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old woman, operated for breast cancer 16 months ago and diagnosed multiple brain metastases 1 month ago.
  • Iris and ciliary metastases were diagnosed by ophthalmological examination.
  • Because of the patient's poor general condition, diagnostic aspiration from eye metastasis could not be performed.
  • Ciliary body and iris metastases of breast cancer must be considered as a manifestation of aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis.
  • The eye metastases of breast cancer are a part of systemic illness and must be treated by systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17917101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Thoelke A, Schmid HP, Figl R, Schadendorf D, Ugurel S: Jo-1 positive paraneoplastic systemic sclerosis in a patient with metastatic melanoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):428-30
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  • [Title] Jo-1 positive paraneoplastic systemic sclerosis in a patient with metastatic melanoma.
  • Here, we describe the first case of paraneoplastic SSc secondary to a primarily diagnosed melanoma.
  • Two months after diagnosis of metastatic melanoma, a 40-year-old female presented with high serum titers of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), but no symptoms of autoimmune disease.
  • Finally, the patient developed severe pulmonary fibrosis, massive pleural effusion, severe thoracic scleroderma and necrosis of the fingertips, simultaneously with a progression of melanoma to disseminated lymph node metastases and a small brain metastasis.
  • This rare case of SSc concurrent with melanoma suggests that besides other possible mechanisms, paraneoplastic etiology can be responsible for the association between SSc and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antinuclear / blood. Melanoma / blood. Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / blood. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / blood. Scleroderma, Systemic / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16935804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Jo-1 antibody
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95. Adam D: [Multiple melanoma metastasis. Case report]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2010 Jul-Aug;105(4):563-9
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  • [Title] [Multiple melanoma metastasis. Case report].
  • OBJECTIVE: Malignant melanoma has a high incidence.
  • Malignant melanoma metastasis can develop in all viscera, including brain.
  • Rarely, the primary tumor remains unknown.
  • Treatment of this metastasis is complex.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old man in an excellent clinical condition was diagnosed with multiple metastasis.
  • In the evolution of the disease, appeared brain metastases.
  • The brain metastases had no response to RCS.
  • Biopsies from subcutaneous nodes and brain lesion sustained the malignant melanoma diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In rare instances there are malignant melanoma metastases without a primary tumor.
  • The results of melanoma metastasis treatment are not satisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 20941984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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96. Kool M, Koster J, Bunt J, Hasselt NE, Lakeman A, van Sluis P, Troost D, Meeteren NS, Caron HN, Cloos J, Mrsić A, Ylstra B, Grajkowska W, Hartmann W, Pietsch T, Ellison D, Clifford SC, Versteeg R: Integrated genomics identifies five medulloblastoma subtypes with distinct genetic profiles, pathway signatures and clinicopathological features. PLoS One; 2008;3(8):e3088
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  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • Recent data showed that patients with WNT-activated tumors have a favorable prognosis, suggesting that these patients could be treated less intensively, thereby reducing the side-effects.
  • Mutations in beta-catenin were identified in all 9 type A tumors, but not in any other tumor.
  • PTCH1 mutations were exclusively identified in type B tumors.
  • Monosomy of chromosome 6 occurred only in type A tumors, loss of 9q mostly occurred in type B tumors, whereas chromosome 17 aberrations, most common in medulloblastoma, were strongly associated with type C or D tumors.
  • Loss of the inactivated X-chromosome was highly specific for female cases of type C, D and E tumors.
  • Clinicopathological features significantly different between the 5 subtypes included metastatic disease and age at diagnosis and histology.
  • Metastatic disease at diagnosis was significantly associated with subtypes C and D and most strongly with subtype E.
  • Patients below 3 yrs of age had type B, D, or E tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18769486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2518524
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97. Fosdal MB: Pleuropulmonary blastoma. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs; 2008 Nov-Dec;25(6):295-302
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  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a dysontogenetic neoplasm of childhood that involves lung and/or pleura.
  • Type II and type III may be associated with metastasis, with the brain being the most common metastatic site.
  • The absence of epithelial malignancy in PPB is a feature that distinguishes it from the adult-type pulmonary blastoma.
  • To make a definitive diagnosis of PPB, an examination of the cystic fluid or solid tumor is required.

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  • (PMID = 18780898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-4542
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric oncology nursing : official journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Laird MD, Vender JR, Dhandapani KM: Opposing roles for reactive astrocytes following traumatic brain injury. Neurosignals; 2008;16(2-3):154-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Opposing roles for reactive astrocytes following traumatic brain injury.
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States.
  • Astrocytes, the predominant cell type in the human brain, are traditionally associated with providing only structural support within the CNS.
  • However, recent work suggests astrocytes may regulate brain homeostasis and limit brain injury.
  • In contrast, reactive astrocytes may also contribute to increased neuroinflammation, the development of cerebral edema, and elevated intracranial pressure, suggesting possible roles in exacerbating secondary brain injury following neurotrauma.
  • As such, a primary focus of this review is to summarize the emerging evidence suggesting reactive astrocytes influence the response of the brain to TBI.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytes / pathology. Brain Injuries / metabolism. Brain Injuries / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain Edema / metabolism. Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Edema / therapy. Humans. Neurons / metabolism. Neurons / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18253055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-8638
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Signals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosignals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 188
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99. Komosinska K, Kepka L, Niwinska A, Pietrzak L, Wierzchowski M, Tyc-Szczepaniak D, Kaczmarczyk A, Bujko K: Prospective evaluation of the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases and poor performance status. Acta Oncol; 2010 Apr;49(3):382-8
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of the palliative effect of whole-brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases and poor performance status.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The benefit of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for RTOG RPA (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis) class 3 patients with brain metastases is not well established.
  • Evaluation of patients' preferences for WBRT, changes in performance and neurological status were secondary aims.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cranial Irradiation. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Poland. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20397770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Wang SX, Boethius J, Ericson K: FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumor: ten years' summary. Acta Radiol; 2006 Feb;47(1):85-90
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  • [Title] FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumor: ten years' summary.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate FDG-PET in post-radiotherapy differentiation of tumor recurrence/malignant degeneration and radiation reaction, and to assess the role of PET in terms of survival.
  • Final diagnosis was based on histopathology or correlated with radiologic and clinical follow-up.
  • Brain metastases from lung carcinomas were further studied separately.
  • The positive predictive value of a PET examination was 96% in all and 100% in brain metastases from lung carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: FDG-PET is a valuable tool in the detection of tumor recurrence, especially lung carcinoma metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Glioma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnostic Errors / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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