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1. Chen PY, Chen WY, Ho DM, Pan CC: Malignant ganglioneuroma arising from mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor. J Chin Med Assoc; 2007 Feb;70(2):76-9
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  • [Title] Malignant ganglioneuroma arising from mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors with non-germ cell malignant components rarely occur in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Mixed germ cell tumor was initially diagnosed based on the pathologic findings of germinoma on thoracoscopic biopsy and clinical findings of elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a malignant ganglioneuroma arising from mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17339149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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2. Netto GJ, Nakai Y, Nakayama M, Jadallah S, Toubaji A, Nonomura N, Albadine R, Hicks JL, Epstein JI, Yegnasubramanian S, Nelson WG, De Marzo AM: Global DNA hypomethylation in intratubular germ cell neoplasia and seminoma, but not in nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors. Mod Pathol; 2008 Nov;21(11):1337-44
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  • [Title] Global DNA hypomethylation in intratubular germ cell neoplasia and seminoma, but not in nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors.
  • Alterations in methylation of CpG dinucleotides at the 5 position of deoxycytidine residues (5(m)C) are a hallmark of cancer cells, including testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Virtually all testicular germ cell tumors are believed to be derived from intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU), which is thought to arise from primordial germ cells.
  • Prior studies revealed that seminomas contain reduced levels of global DNA methylation as compared with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • Smiraglia et al have proposed a model whereby seminomas arise from IGCNU cells derived from primordial germ cells that have undergone 5(m)C erasure, and nonseminomas arise from IGCNU cells derived from primordial germ cells that have already undergone de novo methylation after the original erasure of methylation and contain normal 5(m)C levels.
  • We used immunohistochemical staining against 5(m)C to evaluate global methylation in IGCNU and associated invasive testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Strikingly, staining for 5(m)C was undetectable (or markedly reduced) in the majority of IGCNU and seminomas, yet there was robust staining in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • The lack of staining for 5(m)C in IGCNU and seminomas was also found in mixed germ cell tumors containing both seminomatous and nonseminomatous components.
  • We conclude that testicular germ cell tumors are derived in most cases from IGCNU cells that have undergone developmentally programmed 5(m)C erasure and that the degree of subsequent de novo methylation is most closely related to the differentiation state of the neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Deoxycytidine / genetics. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Spermatozoa / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18622385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DMAP1 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS404173; NLM/ PMC4086525
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3. Guo CC, Punar M, Contreras AL, Tu SM, Pisters L, Tamboli P, Czerniak B: Testicular germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: an analysis of 33 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1173-8
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: an analysis of 33 cases.
  • The development of sarcomatous component (SC) in testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon phenomenon.
  • The GCTs were pure teratomas in 3 cases, and were mixed GCTs in the other cases.

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  • (PMID = 19561445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091846; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091846-100006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085078-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085078-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085078; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091846-100006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS229448; NLM/ PMC3812063
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4. Daling JR, Doody DR, Sun X, Trabert BL, Weiss NS, Chen C, Biggs ML, Starr JR, Dey SK, Schwartz SM: Association of marijuana use and the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors. Cancer; 2009 Mar 15;115(6):1215-23
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  • [Title] Association of marijuana use and the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) has been increasing the past 4 to 6 decades; however, exposures that account for this rise have not been identified.
  • In analyses according to histologic type, most of the association between current marijuana use and TGCT was observed in men who had nonseminomas/mixed histology tumors (current use: OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.0).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19204904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35142; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA085914; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35142; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R37DA06668; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-01; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R37 DA006668; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085914-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085914-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS89266; NLM/ PMC2759698
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5. Dobashi M, Son S, Ikeda M, Fujita T, Matsumoto K, Satoh T, Iwamura M, Baba S: [Three case reports of metastatic germ cell tumors in the lumbar vertebra during first-line chemotherapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Dec;54(12):803-7
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  • [Title] [Three case reports of metastatic germ cell tumors in the lumbar vertebra during first-line chemotherapy].
  • We report three patients with germ cell tumors whose diagnosis was confirmed in the progress of the first-line chemotherapy regimen as metastatic cancer in the lumbar vertebra.
  • Two of the 3 cases were mixed-type nonseminoma, and the other case was an extragonadal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lumbar Vertebrae. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 19175007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Ehrlich Y, Konichezky M, Yossepowitch O, Baniel J: Multifocality in testicular germ cell tumors. J Urol; 2009 Mar;181(3):1114-9; discussion 1119-20
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  • [Title] Multifocality in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Standard treatment for testicular germ cell tumor is radical orchiectomy.
  • Several groups have suggested an organ sparing approach in patients with bilateral tumors or tumor in a solitary testis.
  • We determined the prevalence of multifocality in testicular germ cell tumor cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orchiectomy specimens from 145 consecutive patients treated for testicular germ cell tumor between 1995 and 2006 were included in the study.
  • Multifocality was defined as 1 of 4 distinct pathological entities, including 1) distinct tumor focus conspicuously separable from the main tumor mass, 2) microinvasive tumor characterized by a single or small groups of malignant germ cells scattered within the normal interstitial parenchyma, 3) extra tumor vascular invasion and 4) rete testis invasion by pagetoid tumor spread.
  • Multifocality was more prevalent in men with smaller tumors and seminomatous histology (pure seminoma or as part of a mixed germ cell tumor).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multifocality is a frequent finding in testicular germ cell tumor cases that is associated with small mass size and seminomatous histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Jun;183(6):2467-8 [20417527.001]
  • (PMID = 19150559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Kuriu A, Shimono T, Kuwabara M, Ashikaga R, Hosono M, Murakami T: Fourth ventricular mixed germ cell tumor demonstrating adipose tissue in a young adult. Jpn J Radiol; 2010 Feb;28(2):166-8
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  • [Title] Fourth ventricular mixed germ cell tumor demonstrating adipose tissue in a young adult.
  • We report a case of fourth ventricular mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) in a 20-year-old man.
  • We suspected mixed GCT because adipose tissue was seen preoperatively, but mixed GCT occurring after childhood in this location has not previously been reported.
  • We describe herein the imaging findings for mixed GCT and discuss the differential diagnoses of fourth ventricular tumors with adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / diagnostic imaging. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / diagnostic imaging. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cerebral Ventriculography / methods. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hydrocephalus / complications. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Vomiting / etiology. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins

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  • (PMID = 20182853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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8. Devi M, Leonard N, Silverman S, Al-Qahtani M, Girgis R: Testicular mixed germ cell tumor in an adolescent with cowden disease. Oncology; 2007;72(3-4):194-6
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  • [Title] Testicular mixed germ cell tumor in an adolescent with cowden disease.
  • Cowden disease (also known as Cowden syndrome) is characterized by multiple organ hamartomatous tumors and an increased risk of malignancy, in particular of the breast, thyroid and endometrium.
  • Testicular tumors including seminoma have previously been reported in adult patients.
  • We are reporting, for the first time, a case of testicular mixed germ cell tumor in an adolescent with Cowden disease.
  • An association of testicular malignancy in Cowden disease could be explained by the previous observation of strong PTEN gene expression in the basal cell layer around seminiferous tubules and increased frequency of PTEN mutations in cultured testicular cancer cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18160807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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9. Korkola JE, Houldsworth J, Dobrzynski D, Olshen AB, Reuter VE, Bosl GJ, Chaganti RS: Gene expression-based classification of nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors. Oncogene; 2005 Jul 28;24(32):5101-7
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  • [Title] Gene expression-based classification of nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors.
  • Male adult germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and nonseminomas.
  • NSGCTs frequently present as mixed tumors consisting of two or more histological subtypes, often limiting correlative studies of clinical and molecular features to histology.
  • We sought to develop a molecular classifier that could predict the predominant histologic subtype within mixed NSGCT tumor samples.
  • The expression profiles of 84 NSGCTs (42 pure and 42 mixed) and normal age-matched testes were obtained using Affymetrix microarrays.
  • When applied to mixed NSGCTs, the classifier predicted a histology that was consistent with one of the reported components in 93% of cases.
  • Thus, the expression-based classifier accurately assigned a single predominant histology to mixed NSGCTs, and identified transcripts differentially expressed between histologic components with relevance to NSGCT differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 15870693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Michal M, Vanecek T, Sima R, Mukensnabl P, Hes O, Kazakov DV, Matoska J, Zuntova A, Dvorak V, Talerman A: Mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis and ovary. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of seven cases. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):612-22
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  • [Title] Mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis and ovary. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic study of seven cases.
  • We present the morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features of three cases of testicular and four cases of ovarian mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCT).
  • The germ cells in the testicular MGSCTs morphologically differed from those in classical seminomas by lacking the typical "square off" quality of the nuclei.
  • Quite on the contrary, the variability in the size of the nuclei of the germ cells in the testicular MGSCTs was more similar to that seen in the germ cells of spermatocytic seminomas.
  • Immunohistochemically, the germ cells of MGSCTs in one case reacted positively with antibody to AE1-AE3 by paranuclear dot-like or rodlike positivity.
  • Ovarian MGSCT in our series differed from the testicular lesions in both the germ cell component and the sex cord component.
  • The germ cells in all four ovarian cases had cytomorphological and immunohistochemical features identical to those in classical seminomas/dysgerminomas.
  • They possessed the typical "square off" quality of the nuclei, which were much more blastic, with more mitoses compared with the testicular tumors in our series, and they were PLAP (4/4), OCT4 (4/4) and c-kit protein (3/4) positive immunohistochemically.
  • The cytoplasm of the germ cells in ovarian neoplasms contained PAS positive glycogen.
  • Germ cells in one ovarian MGSCTs showed amplification of 12p.
  • All other germ cells were negative for amplification of 12p.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Molecular Biology

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2007 Jan;450(1):131-2 [17109154.001]
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  • (PMID = 16538443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Smith HO, Berwick M, Verschraegen CF, Wiggins C, Lansing L, Muller CY, Qualls CR: Incidence and survival rates for female malignant germ cell tumors. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 May;107(5):1075-85
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  • [Title] Incidence and survival rates for female malignant germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 30-year, population-based trends in incidence and survival rates for malignant germ cell tumors originating within the female genital tract.
  • METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data were used to identify malignant germ cell tumors (1973-2002).
  • RESULTS: Of 1,262 cases, there were 414 (32.8%) dysgerminomas, 449 (35.6%) immature teratomas, 37 (2.9%) mature teratomas with malignant degeneration, and 362 (28.7%) mixed germ cell tumors.
  • The 30-year, age-adjusted incidence rate per 100,000 women-years was 0.338, decreasing by 29.4% for dysgerminomas (P = .18) and by 31.5% for mixed germ cell tumors (P = .22).
  • CONCLUSION: Over the past 30 years, germ cell tumor incidence rates have declined in women and differ from rising trends reported for testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / ethnology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / ethnology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ethnic Groups. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Humans. Incidence. Indians, North American. Infant. Middle Aged. SEER Program. Survival Rate / trends. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16648414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / N01-67007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Angulo JC, González J, Rodríguez N, Hernández E, Núñez C, Rodríguez-Barbero JM, Santana A, López JI: Clinicopathological study of regressed testicular tumors (apparent extragonadal germ cell neoplasms). J Urol; 2009 Nov;182(5):2303-10
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of regressed testicular tumors (apparent extragonadal germ cell neoplasms).
  • PURPOSE: Testicular germ cell tumors sometimes regress spontaneously and manifest exclusively by metastasis.
  • We report our experience with extragonadal germ cell tumors of probable testicular origin to study the frequency of this entity, and clinical, ultrasound and histopathological correlations in a series of patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective 16-year review of 1.2 million inhabitants in Spain revealed 17 with regressed testicular tumors treated at a total of 4 institutions.
  • This entity is more common than initially suspected since it accounts for 4% of consecutive germ cell tumors.
  • Metastasis histology was nonseminomatous in 53% of cases, pure seminoma in 29% and mixed in 18%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous regression of a germ cell testicular tumor should be considered in each patient with extragonadal germ cell neoplasms.
  • Ultrasound diagnosis of and surgical treatment for these primary testicular tumors appear critical to prevent relapse because residual disease develops in a significant proportion of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2009 Nov;182(5):2310 [19762050.001]
  • (PMID = 19762049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. DiLuna ML, Two AM, Levy GH, Patel T, Huttner AJ, Duncan CC, Piepmeier JM: Primary, non-exophytic, optic nerve germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):437-443
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  • [Title] Primary, non-exophytic, optic nerve germ cell tumors.
  • Tumors of the optic chiasm are relatively uncommon and usually associated with phakomatoses such as neurofibromatosis.
  • Even more rare is the presentation of a primary, non-exophytic, isolated optic chiasm germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • These tumors have imaging characteristics nearly indistinguishable from optic chiasmatic gliomas (OCGs).
  • Pathology demonstrated a malignant mixed GCT in the first patient and a germinoma in the second.
  • This case series highlights the importance of tissue biopsy for patients with progressive symptoms from optic chiasm tumors.
  • Furthermore, this is the first report of a primary, non-exophytic malignant mixed GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Optic Chiasm / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Craniotomy. Diabetes Insipidus / pathology. Diabetes Insipidus / surgery. Diabetes Insipidus / therapy. Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19554263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Zagamé L, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Castaigne D, Patte C, Lhommé C: Growing teratoma syndrome after ovarian germ cell tumors. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 1):509-14
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome after ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze a series of occurrences of growing teratoma syndrome after ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: We analyzed a database containing 103 patients affected by pure or mixed ovarian immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Syndrome. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16946208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Bryant CS, Kumar S, Shah JP, Mahdi H, Ali-Fehmi R, Munkarah AR, Deppe G, Morris RT: Racial disparities in survival among patients with germ cell tumors of the ovary--United States. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):437-41
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  • [Title] Racial disparities in survival among patients with germ cell tumors of the ovary--United States.
  • OBJECTIVE(S): To compare the survival of African American (AA) and white (W) patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OGCT).
  • Histology was grouped into dysgerminoma (D), malignant teratoma (MT), and mixed germ cell tumors with pure non-dysgerminoma cell tumors (MGCT/PNDCT).
  • Advanced stage (FIGO III and IV) tumors were more prominent in AA (24% vs. 18%, p>0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / ethnology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / ethnology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. African Continental Ancestry Group. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Health Status Disparities. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19560191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lau SK, Weiss LM, Chu PG: Association of intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma with invasive testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;31(7):1045-9
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  • [Title] Association of intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma with invasive testicular germ cell tumors.
  • The classification of intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis includes an unclassified type (IGCNU), in addition to various other intratubular lesions that show specific forms of differentiation, such as intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma.
  • Although IGCNU is recognized as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, the relationship between differentiated types of intratubular germ cell neoplasia and invasive germ cell tumors of the testis is not well established.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the association between invasive testicular germ cell tumors and intratubular neoplastic lesions, with particular emphasis on differentiated types of intratubular germ cell neoplasia.
  • The seminiferous tubules adjacent to 42 testicular germ cell tumors were evaluated for the presence of various forms of intratubular germ cell neoplasia.
  • Intratubular seminoma was associated primarily with seminomas or mixed germ cell tumors with a seminomatous component, but was also present in a case of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • Intratubular embryonal carcinoma was associated exclusively with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • The presence of intratubular seminoma in a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor suggests that it is a true preinvasive lesion rather than a manifestation of intratubular spread of an established invasive seminoma.
  • The low incidence of intratubular embryonal carcinoma supports the theory that most nonseminomatous germ cell tumors evolve initially as seminomas, rather than directly from a differentiated intratubular neoplastic lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Germ Cells / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Seminiferous Tubules / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17592271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Maubec E, Avril MF, Duvillard P, Leclère J, Caë AL, Crickx B, Theodore C: Mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumor presenting as a subcutaneous tissue mass. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Dec;28(6):523-5
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  • [Title] Mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumor presenting as a subcutaneous tissue mass.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors most commonly arise in the midline of the retroperitoneum or the mediastinum.
  • Primary tumors involving the skin are very rare.
  • Only one case of malignant primary germ cell tumor located in the skin has been reported.
  • We present the case of a 44-year-old white man with a primary subcutaneous mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • Microscopic examination showed a mixed germ cell tumor with a 90% immature teratoma component and a 10% embryonal carcinoma component.
  • Review of the literature indicates that primary cutaneous extragonadal germ cell tumors usually occur as cutaneous or subcutaneous solitary nodules or as ulcerated lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male


18. Cicin I, Ozyilmaz F, Karagol H, Yalcin F, Uzunoglu S, Kaplan M: Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from pure metastatic choriocarcinoma in patient with mixed germ cell tumor with subclinical intestinal metastasis. Urology; 2009 Feb;73(2):443.e15-7
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  • [Title] Massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from pure metastatic choriocarcinoma in patient with mixed germ cell tumor with subclinical intestinal metastasis.
  • Although testicular germ cell tumors have become curable neoplasms, a better understanding of the clinicopathologic features is needed for the rare manifestations associated with treatment failure.
  • We report a rare case of metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving the small intestine arising from a testicular mixed germ cell tumor.
  • We propose an approach for the determination of subclinical intestinal metastases of testicular germ cell tumor; the case is discussed in light of similar reports in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Ileal Neoplasms / complications. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Jejunal Neoplasms / complications. Jejunal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Young Adult


19. Balzer BL, Ulbright TM: Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors: an analysis of 42 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):858-65
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors: an analysis of 42 cases.
  • Spontaneous regression of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is a well-recognized phenomenon but has been incompletely characterized.
  • Less common features in the scars included angiomatous foci (22/42), siderophages (15/42), and coarse intratubular calcifications (6/42); in the surrounding testis they included intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU) (22/42), Leydig cell prominence (18/42), and necrosis (5/42).
  • Metastases in 31 cases were: pure seminoma (17, 3 with residual testicular seminoma), mixed GCT with seminoma (4, 3 with residual testicular seminoma), mixed nonseminomatous GCT (4, 3 with residual testicular GCT), pure embryonal carcinoma (2), pure teratoma (2, 1 with residual testicular teratoma), and pure yolk sac tumor (2).
  • Testicular tumors in the remaining 6 cases having residual primaries without concomitant metastases were pure seminoma (3), mixed GCT with seminoma (2), and pure embryonal carcinoma (1).
  • Ghost tubules in many scars are not evidence of a non-neoplastic process but likely reflect regression of tumors with intertubular growth.
  • Intertubular growth is a common finding in seminoma, which is the single most frequent type of regressed GCT, occurring either in pure or mixed form in the metastases of 68% (21/31) of the cases and identifiable in 62% (10/16) of persistent testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Cicatrix / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16819328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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20. Bing Z, Pasha T, Tomaszewski JE, Zhang P: CDX2 expression in yolk sac component of testicular germ cell tumors. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Oct;17(5):373-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CDX2 expression in yolk sac component of testicular germ cell tumors.
  • CDX2 has been detected in the majority of colorectal adenocarcinoma cases and may be useful in determining the sites of origin of tumors.
  • In this study, the authors evaluated CDX2 expression in germ cell tumors (GCTs) by immunohistochemistry.
  • In the 40 cases of testicular GCTs, 13 were pure seminomas and 27 mixed GCTs.
  • Yolk sac tumor (YST) was identified by morphology and glypican 3 staining in 20 testicular mixed GCTs.
  • For the 6 cases of metastatic mixed GCT with YST, 4 cases were positive, 2+ in 2 cases and 1+ in 2 cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Glypicans / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19578052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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21. Kumar S, Shah JP, Bryant CS, Imudia AN, Cote ML, Ali-Fehmi R, Malone JM Jr, Morris RT: The prevalence and prognostic impact of lymph node metastasis in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Aug;110(2):125-32
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  • [Title] The prevalence and prognostic impact of lymph node metastasis in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and prognostic importance of lymph node metastasis in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OGCT).
  • In dysgerminoma, malignant teratoma and mixed germ cell tumors including pure non-dysgerminoma histology, the lymphnode metastasis was present in 28%, 8% and 16% patients respectively (p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prevalence. SEER Program. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2008 Aug;110(2):121-2 [18644475.001]
  • (PMID = 18571705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Dimov ND, Zynger DL, Luan C, Kozlowski JM, Yang XJ: Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):955-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Inhibitors of topoisomerase II alpha (TopoIIalpha), an enzyme with a crucial role in DNA maintenance, are included in the chemotherapy protocols for testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • METHODS: Primary GCT specimens from 109 patients, including 57 seminomas and 52 mixed GCTs (41 embryonal carcinomas, 23 yolk sac tumors, 19 seminomas, 8 choriocarcinomas, 17 teratomas with immature elements, and 16 teratomas with mature elements), were obtained from our archives.
  • The metastatic lesions from 11 of the patients with mixed GCTs included seven teratomas with mature components, five embryonal carcinomas, one yolk sac tumor, one choriocarcinoma, and one teratoma with immature components.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that TopoIIalpha is expressed in most seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinomas, suggesting a possible mechanism of sensitivity of these components to TopoIIalpha inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / enzymology. Testicular Neoplasms / enzymology. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / enzymology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / enzymology. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / enzymology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sampling Studies. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / enzymology. Seminoma / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / enzymology. Teratoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17482942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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23. Hamel N, Wong N, Alpert L, Galvez M, Foulkes WD: Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor in a BRCA2 mutation carrier. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Apr;26(2):160-4
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  • [Title] Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor in a BRCA2 mutation carrier.
  • BRCA2 germ-line mutations confer an increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.
  • We report the occurrence of a mixed ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT) (50% embryonal carcinoma, 20%-25% choriocarcinoma, 10%-15% dysgerminoma, and 10%-15% immature teratoma) in a 33-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish woman, carrier of the BRCA2:6174delT mutation.
  • Molecular analysis of the proband's tumor DNA revealed there was no loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele in the tumor, as is usually the case for epithelial BRCA-related ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / genetics. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / genetics. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Female. Genes, BRCA2. Humans. Jews / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Pedigree. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17413983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA2 Protein
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24. Chang MC, Vargas SO, Hornick JL, Hirsch MS, Crum CP, Nucci MR: Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):347-55
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  • [Title] Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • SUMMARY: The embryonic stem cell transcription factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT3/4 are involved in the regulation of germ cell tumor growth and differentiation.
  • They, and D2-40 (podoplanin), an antigen expressed in seminomas, are emerging as useful diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • This study evaluates the use of these markers in ovarian tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (n=31) have distinct immunostaining profiles, depending on the type of differentiation as follows: dysgerminoma (SOX2-, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40+), embryonal carcinoma (SOX2+, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40-), immature teratomas (SOX2+, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-), yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinoma (SOX2-, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-).
  • Nongerm cell tumors (n=57, including surface-epithelial stromal tumors and sex-cord stromal tumors) were negative for NANOG and D2-40.
  • OCT3/4 was positive in 4 of 9 adult granulosa cell tumors (15% to 85% of cells).
  • In a small number of surface-epithelial stromal tumors, SOX2 and/or OCT3/4 were variably positive (20% to 90% of cells).
  • NANOG distinguished between either of these 2 tumors and nongerm cell tumors.
  • The inclusion of these markers should therefore be considered in cases of pure or mixed ovarian germ cell tumors that are difficult to classify, and to exclude nongerm cell tumor mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19483629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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25. Lai CH, Chang TC, Hsueh S, Wu TI, Chao A, Chou HH, Wang PN: Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):784-91
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs).
  • RESULTS: Of the study patients, 32 had dysgerminoma (DSG), 29 immature teratoma (IMT), 23 endodermal sinus tumor, 7 mixed germ cell tumors, and 1 each had choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Liu DL, Lu YP, Shi HY, Zhu SX, Lü JW, Li WF, Rong X: [Expression of CD117 in human testicular germ cell tumors and its diagnostic value for seminoma and nonseminoma]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2008 Jan;14(1):38-41
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  • [Title] [Expression of CD117 in human testicular germ cell tumors and its diagnostic value for seminoma and nonseminoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of CD117 in human testicular germ cell tumors and its value in the differential diagnosis of seminoma and nonseminoma.
  • METHODS: Seventy-four human testicular germ cell tumor specimens were studied by ABC kit immunohistochemical staining detection using CD117 monoclonal antibodies.
  • RESULTS: Among the 74 germ cell tumors, 31 out of 32 (9 6.9%) seminomas showed positive staining of the CD117 mostly on the cell membrane.
  • In 10 of 11 mixed germ cell tumors, a relatively weak expression of CD117 was shown only in the seminoma component.
  • The CD117 expression was diagnostically decreased from seminoma to mixed seminoma and to nonseminoma successively, with IRS of 6.82 +/- 2.76, 1.25 +/- 0.42 and 0.60 +/- 0.16, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18297810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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27. Mannisto S, Butzow R, Salonen J, Leminen A, Heikinheimo O, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors. Tumour Biol; 2005 Sep-Oct;26(5):265-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, and their potential downstream effectors in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs) are histologically heterogeneous neoplasms originating from activated germ cells, the oocyte stem cells.
  • These rare tumors often contain many different tissues mixed together, and malignant components are occasionally hidden within benign tissues thus complicating the diagnosis.
  • The reasons for the variable differentiation of germ cells are still largely unknown.
  • The malignant endoderm in yolk sac tumors expressed all factors of endodermal development included in the study.
  • The fact that GATA-6 and HNF-4 are expressed exclusively in endodermal tissues indicates that these transcription factors play a role in the differentiation of germ cells towards the endodermal phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Female. GATA4 Transcription Factor. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Gene Expression Profiling. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4. Humans. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16110260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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28. Nishio S, Ushijima K, Fukui A, Fujiyoshi N, Kawano K, Komai K, Ota S, Fujiyoshi K, Kamura T: Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Aug;32(4):416-21
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  • [Title] Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fertility preservation influences the clinical outcome in patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (MGCTO).
  • Thirty-five patients were included in the study, 14 with immature teratoma, 11 with dysgerminoma, eight with endodermal sinus tumor, and two with mixed germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Fertility. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ovariectomy

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  • (PMID = 16882268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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29. Huang X, Zhang R, Zhou LF: [Grading system for diagnosis and treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep 8;89(33):2333-6
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  • [Title] [Grading system for diagnosis and treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical feature, treatment and prognosis of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCT).
  • RESULTS: In these 39 cases, there were 15 mix germ cell tumors, 15 immature teratomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas and 2 yolk sac tumors.
  • Embryonal carcinoma can be classified to the intermediate prognosis group because of its similar prognosis with immature teratoma and mixed tumors composed mainly of germinoma or teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20095355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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30. Allan RW, Algood CB, Shih IeM: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1902-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • This report describes a rare case of a concurrent epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and a teratoma in a para-aortic lymph node from a 39-year-old male patient with the initial diagnosis of testicular malignant mixed germ-cell tumor.
  • Demonstration of ETT as one of the histologic manifestations of recurrent testicular germ-cell tumors should encourage pathologists to recognize this unique feature in assessing posttreatment mixed germ-cell neoplasm.
  • Furthermore, this case represents a unique opportunity to understand the pathobiology of trophoblastic neoplasms arising from germ-cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19898219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Yang CJ, Cheng MS, Chou SH, Tsai KB, Huang MS: Primary germ cell tumors of the mediastinum: 10 years of experience in a tertiary teaching hospital. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2005 Sep;21(9):395-400

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary germ cell tumors of the mediastinum: 10 years of experience in a tertiary teaching hospital.
  • Germ cell tumors occur mostly in the gonad.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare, and most occur in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum.
  • Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are often found in the anterior portion of the mediastinum and include teratomas and non-teratomatous tumors.
  • Non-teratomatous tumors include seminomas and malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (MNSGCTs).
  • MNSGCTs include yolk sac tumors, choriocarcinomas, embryonal carcinomas, and mixed type germ cell tumors.
  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors of the mediastinum, and seminomas are the most common non-teratomatous germ cell tumors of the mediastinum.
  • In this report, we review all primary mediastinal germ cell tumors from a 10-year period at the Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital of Kaohsiung Medical University.
  • A total of 14 cases were reviewed, including 11 patients with mature teratomas, two with yolk sac tumors, and one with seminoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 16248122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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32. Malagón HD, Valdez AM, Moran CA, Suster S: Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1356-62
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases.
  • The clinicopathologic features of 46 patients with germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components (GCTSC) involving either the primary site or their metastases were studied.
  • Twenty-three tumors arose in the mediastinum, 2 in the retroperitoneum, and 21 in the gonads.
  • The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1).
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Ovariectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Cicin I, Eralp Y, Saip P, Ayan I, Kebudi R, Iyibozkurt C, Tuzlali S, Gorgun O, Topuz E: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a single-institution experience. Am J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;32(2):191-6
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  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a single-institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • The histologic subtypes included 36 dysgerminomas, 11 yolk sac tumors, 3 immature teratomas, 1 embryonal carcinomas, and 19 mixed types.
  • Two patients had contralateral sex-cord tumors at presentation and follow-up.
  • Occurrence of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors may be associated with immunosuppression in some patients.
  • Sex-cord stromal tumors may present with bilateral involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19307952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Cao D, Li J, Guo CC, Allan RW, Humphrey PA: SALL4 is a novel diagnostic marker for testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jul;33(7):1065-77
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  • [Title] SALL4 is a novel diagnostic marker for testicular germ cell tumors.
  • The diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) sometimes can be challenging without ancillary markers.
  • Here we performed an immunohistochemical study of a novel stem cell marker SALL4 in a large series of 110 primary testicular GCTs (65 pure and 45 mixed) containing the following types of tumors and/or tumor components: 50 intratubular germ cell neoplasias (ITGCNs), 62 classic seminomas, 2 spermatocytic seminomas, 39 embryonal carcinomas (EC), 5 pediatric and 26 postpubertal yolk sac tumors (YST), 7 pediatric and 25 postpubertal teratomas, and 5 choriocarcinomas.
  • To test SALL4 specificity, 23 testicular non-GCTs (10 Leydig cell tumors, 4 Sertoli cell tumors, 3 adenomatoid tumors, 3 paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and 1 rete testis papillary cystadenoma) and 275 nontesticular tumors (158 metastatic carcinomas, 12 metastatic melanomas, 11 primary and 2 metastatic mesotheliomas, and 72 primary and 20 metastatic sarcomas) were also stained for SALL4.
  • Of 275 nontesticular tumors, only 10 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma showed focal (<25% tumor cells) weak SALL4 staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19390421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / SALL4 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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35. Lee D, Suh YL: Histologically confirmed intracranial germ cell tumors; an analysis of 62 patients in a single institute. Virchows Arch; 2010 Sep;457(3):347-57
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  • [Title] Histologically confirmed intracranial germ cell tumors; an analysis of 62 patients in a single institute.
  • This study was undertaken to document the clinicopathologic characteristics of histologically verified, primary intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs), determine treatment outcomes, and to identify prognostic factors.
  • The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (48.4%), followed by mixed GCT (27.4%), and teratoma (19.4%).
  • Germinomas and malignant non-germinomatous germ cell tumors were most prevalent in the pineal gland, suprasellar region, and basal ganglia, whereas teratomas dominated at other sites.
  • Mixed GCTs are more common in Korea than in the West.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20652714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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36. Fritzsche FR, Kristiansen G, Frauenfelder T, Opitz I, Bode P, Moch H, Montani M: Large mixed germ cell tumor in a young patient presenting as an intrapulmonary mass. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(8):572-8
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  • [Title] Large mixed germ cell tumor in a young patient presenting as an intrapulmonary mass.
  • The subsequent needle core biopsy was diagnostic for a mixed germ cell tumor comprising immature teratoma and seminoma.
  • We describe this exceptional large intrapulmonary germ cell tumor and discuss the spectrum of such rare tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19201104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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37. Ding QM, Liang W, Wang G, Lu Y, Jin CD, Ren HL, Zhang HB, Qiu ZK, Su Z: [Testicular mixed nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a case report and review of the literature]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2010 Oct;16(10):925-7
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  • [Title] [Testicular mixed nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a case report and review of the literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: Testicular mixed nonseminomatous germ cell cancer (TMNGCC) is rarely reported.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the clinical data of 1 case of TMNGCC, observed its pathological characteristics under the light microscope by histology, cytochemistry, immunohistochemistry and immune marking, and investigated the clinical features of such tumors by reviewing the relevant literature.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging


38. Vogt AP, Chen Z, Osunkoya AO: Rete testis invasion by malignant germ cell tumor and/or intratubular germ cell neoplasia: what is the significance of this finding? Hum Pathol; 2010 Sep;41(9):1339-44
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  • [Title] Rete testis invasion by malignant germ cell tumor and/or intratubular germ cell neoplasia: what is the significance of this finding?
  • Pathologic stage and postsurgical treatment guidelines of malignant germ cell tumors, currently take into account angiolymphatic invasion, degree of extra testicular invasion, and serum tumor marker levels.
  • The significance of rete testis invasion by malignant germ cell tumors or intratubular germ cell neoplasia however remains controversial.
  • A search through the surgical pathology and expert consultation files at our institution from 2002 to 2009 was made for malignant germ cell tumors and intratubular germ cell neoplasia in orchiectomy specimens.
  • One hundred thirty-six were associated with malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Fifty-six were pure seminoma (40%), 50 were nonseminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (35%), and 35 were mixed malignant germ cell tumors including a seminoma component (25%).
  • Intratubular germ cell neoplasia was identified in 99 cases (70%).
  • Intratubular germ cell neoplasia was present in patients with rete testis invasion in 18 cases (90%), compared to only 13 cases (57%) in patients without rete testis invasion, P = .02.
  • Rete testis status should be documented in orchiectomy specimens with malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Intratubular germ cell neoplasia may be the only component of a malignant germ cell tumor involving the rete testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Orchiectomy. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20573373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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39. Wehle D, Yonescu R, Long PP, Gala N, Epstein J, Griffin CA: Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 12p in germ cell tumors using a bacterial artificial chromosome clone 12p probe on paraffin-embedded tissue: clinical test validation. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jun;183(2):99-104
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  • [Title] Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 12p in germ cell tumors using a bacterial artificial chromosome clone 12p probe on paraffin-embedded tissue: clinical test validation.
  • Most germ cell tumors have an isochromosome 12p (detected by metaphase cytogenetics), 12p overrepresentation (detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]), or both.
  • We describe an interphase FISH assay for detection of increased 12p copy number in germ cell tumors using a bacterial artificial chromosome-derived probe localized to 12p12.1 and a commercially available probe for the centromere of chromosome 12.
  • Twenty-four paraffin-embedded blocks from 14 tumor cases (7 malignant mixed germ cell tumors, 2 dysgerminomas, 4 non-germ cell malignancies arising in germ cell tumors, and 1 mediastinal adenocarcinoma) and 18 normal controls were studied.
  • All germ cell tumors and non-germ cell malignancies arising in germ cell tumors were positive for 12p overrepresentation.
  • Because germ cell tumors may metastasize with non-germ cell tumor morphology, interphase FISH may be helpful in distinguishing de novo malignancy from germ cell tumor recurrence in its various forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 18503827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Topuz S, Iyibozkurt AC, Akhan SE, Keskin N, Yavuz E, Salihoglu Y, Bengisu E, Berkman S: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary: a review of 41 cases and risk factors for recurrence. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(6):635-7
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary: a review of 41 cases and risk factors for recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the outcome of treatment in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and to define the risk factors for recurrence.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors were reviewed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three (56%) had dysgerminomas, eight (19.5%) had mixed germ cell tumors, three (7.3%) had yolk sac tumors, three (7.3%) had immature teratomas, two (4.8%) had squamous cell carcinoma arising from a mature teratoma, one (2.4%) had embryonal carcinoma and one choriocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Regardless of histologic types and stages the prognosis of germ cell tumors are satisfactory with current therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19115694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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41. Gupta R, Mathur SR, Arora VK, Sharma SG: Cytologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumors: a study of 88 cases with aspiration cytology. Cancer; 2008 Dec 25;114(6):504-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumors: a study of 88 cases with aspiration cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to evaluate and describe the cytologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs), both primary and metastasis from gonadal sites, in fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • The smears were assessed for cellularity, cell patterns, and cytologic features, which were summarized.
  • Yolk sac tumors revealed papillary fragments of tumor cells with metachromatic basement membrane-like material in the fragments.
  • Mixed germ cell tumors were difficult to diagnose except for cases in which more than 1 type of GCT was observed on cytologic smears.
  • In 37% of cases with mixed GCT, only 1 component was observed on cytology.
  • Immature teratoma and mixed GCTs pose a significant problem in cytology because of sampling error on needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18980289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. McKenney JK, Heerema-McKenney A, Rouse RV: Extragonadal germ cell tumors: a review with emphasis on pathologic features, clinical prognostic variables, and differential diagnostic considerations. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):69-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extragonadal germ cell tumors: a review with emphasis on pathologic features, clinical prognostic variables, and differential diagnostic considerations.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively uncommon, but represent 1% to 5% of all GCTs.
  • Their morphology varies widely and includes mature teratoma, immature teratoma, seminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and mixed GCTs.
  • Predicting behavior in these tumors can be confusing because it is based on a combination of varying factors including patient age, histologic subtype, anatomic site, and clinical stage.
  • This review attempts to dissect these issues by separating the discussion into 3 age groups: neonatal (congenital), children (prepubertal), and adult (postpubertal).
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17471115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 186
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43. Mei K, Liu A, Allan RW, Wang P, Lane Z, Abel TW, Wei L, Cheng H, Guo S, Peng Y, Rakheja D, Wang M, Ma J, Rodriguez MM, Li J, Cao D: Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: a study of 77 cases. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1628-36
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: a study of 77 cases.
  • Primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) sometimes pose diagnostic difficulty.
  • In this study we analyzed the diagnostic utility of a novel marker, SALL4, in 77 such tumors (59 pure and 18 mixed) consisting of the following tumors/tumor components: 49 germinomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas, 27 yolk sac tumors, 3 choriocarcinomas, and 14 teratomas.
  • We also stained SALL4 in 99 primary non-germ cell tumors to test SALL4 specificity.
  • We compared SALL4 with OCT4 in all germ cell tumors and compared SALL4 with alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3 in all yolk sac tumors.
  • Strong SALL4 staining was observed in all 49 germinomas (4+ in 48, 3+ in 1), 7 embryonal carcinomas (all 4+), and 27 yolk sac tumors (1+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 3+ in 7, 4+ in 17).
  • All germinomas and embryonal carcinomas showed strong OCT4 staining (4+ in all except 1 germinoma with 3+), whereas other germ cell tumors were negative.
  • Out of 27 yolk sac tumors, 26 showed positive alpha-fetoprotein staining (1+ in 9, 2+ in 7, 3+ in 5, and 4+ in 5).
  • All yolk sac tumors showed positive glypican-3 staining (1+ in 6, 2+ in 6, 3+ in 7, and 4+ in 8).
  • No non-germ cell tumors showed SALL4 staining.
  • Our results indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive diagnostic marker for primary germ cell tumors of the CNS with high specificity.
  • SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3 for yolk sac tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / chemistry. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / chemistry. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Glypicans / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Male. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19820689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SALL4 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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44. Miyai K, Yamamoto S, Asano T, Tamai S, Matsubara O, Tsuda H: Protein overexpression and gene amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor in adult testicular germ cell tumors: potential role in tumor progression. Cancer Sci; 2010 Sep;101(9):1970-6
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  • [Title] Protein overexpression and gene amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor in adult testicular germ cell tumors: potential role in tumor progression.
  • Little is known about the pathologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) in adults.
  • From the primary tumor sites of a cohort of 110 TGCT cases, we obtained 209 histologically distinct components: 53 intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU) lesions, 83 seminomas (66 pure-form seminomas and 17 seminoma components in the mixed-form with nonseminomatous TGCTs), 27 embryonal carcinomas, eight choriocarcinomas, 18 yolk sac tumors, and 20 immature teratomas.
  • Overexpression of the EGFR protein was detected in 28% of seminomas (27% in the pure-form and 29% in the mixed-form), 11% of embryonal carcinomas, 88% of choriocarcinomas, 44% of yolk sac tumors, and none of the IGCNU lesions or immature teratomas.
  • A higher copy number (≥4 copies per cell) and amplification of the EGFR gene were detected in 20% and 10% of seminomas, 13% and 0% of embryonal carcinomas, 71% and 60% of choriocarcinomas, 15% and 8% of yolk sac tumors, and none of the IGCNU lesions or immature teratomas, respectively.
  • These results suggest that overexpression of EGFR protein and increased copy number or amplification of the EGFR gene occur relatively frequently in primary TGCTs, and may play roles in the formation of invasive cancer and in the progression, especially morphological evolution, of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Amplification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Progression. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tissue Array Analysis. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.
  • (PMID = 20608935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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45. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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46. Ghavamnasiri MR, Saeedi Saedi H, Shahid Sales S, Ghafarzadegan K: Clinical relevance of HER-2/neu overexpression in patients with testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Urol J; 2010;7(1):26-9
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  • [Title] Clinical relevance of HER-2/neu overexpression in patients with testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • This study evaluated the overexpression of HER-2/neu protein and its clinical importance in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Testis specimens of 54 patients with testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, referred to Omid Hospital from 2001 to 2007, were re-evaluated and the patients' records were reviewed.
  • Overexpression of HER-2/neu was seen in 33.3% of the patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, especially in those with teratocarcinoma subtype compared to those with mixed germ cell tumors or embryonal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: We observed overexpression of HER-2/neu receptor in teratocarcinoma subtype of germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male


47. Massimino M, Gandola L, Spreafico F, Biassoni V, Terenziani M, Pecori E, Arcella A, Giangaspero F: Unusual primary secreting germ cell tumor of the spine. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2006 Jul;5(1):65-7

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  • [Title] Unusual primary secreting germ cell tumor of the spine. Case report.
  • The authors describe a young man with a rare primary spinal germ cell tumor that secreted beta-human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • The occurrence of this rare tumor located primarily in the spine warrants attention in pathological studies of spinal tumors in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secretion. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / secretion. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / secretion. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secretion. Teratoma / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Male

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  • (PMID = 16850959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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48. Calestroupat JP, Sanchez-Salas R, Cathelineau X, Rozet F, Galiano M, Smyth G, Kasraeian A, Barret E, Vallancien G: Postchemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in nonseminomatous germ-cell tumor. J Endourol; 2009 Apr;23(4):645-50
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  • [Title] Postchemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in nonseminomatous germ-cell tumor.
  • RESULTS: Primary pathologic evaluation of the testis tumor revealed pure embryonal carcinoma in 4 patients, teratocarcinoma in 1 patient, and mixed nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors in 21 patients.

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  • (PMID = 19335332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Nakayama M, Saito T, Bando M, Kondo Y, Kawai K, Sugiyama Y, Akaza H, Itoh K: [Case of a testicular germ cell tumor presenting with multiple metastasized pulmonary nodules and masses]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Dec;48(12):976-9
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  • [Title] [Case of a testicular germ cell tumor presenting with multiple metastasized pulmonary nodules and masses].
  • He was referred to the urology department with a suspected testicular germ cell tumor.
  • A testicular mixed germ cell tumor was diagnosed on the basis of the histological features of the tumor removed by high orchiectomy, and systemic chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) was initiated.
  • Testicular germ cell tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules or masses in young men.
  • Because high orchiectomy is indispensable for the treatment of testicular germ cell tumor, aggressive investigative studies of the testis are essential in patients with pulmonary, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Gynecomastia / etiology. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21226308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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50. Soriano Sarrió P, Chirivella I, Navarro Fos S: [Coexistence of two germinal cell tumors, seminomatous and nonseminomatous, with an uncommon clinical presentation]. Arch Esp Urol; 2008 Jun;61(5):626-30
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  • [Title] [Coexistence of two germinal cell tumors, seminomatous and nonseminomatous, with an uncommon clinical presentation].
  • OBJECTIVES: The existence of non seminomatous mixed germ cell tumors of the testis is a frequent event in urologic oncology.
  • Nevertheless, the presence of both components, seminomatous and non seminomatous, in a germ cell tumor is unusual.
  • CONCLUSION: The interest of the case is to remark an unusual aggressive clinical presentation as well as to perform a bibliographic review with emphasis in the theories regarding heterogeneous differentiation and spontaneous regression of germ cell tumors of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18709819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Valdevenito Sepúlveda JP, Merhe Nieva E, Valdevenito Sepúlveda R, Cuevas Toro M, Gómez Gallo A, Bermúdez Luna H, Contreras Meléndez L, Gallegos Méndez I, Gallardo Escobar J, Palma Ceppi C: [Reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Apr;60(3):245-54
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  • [Title] [Reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer].
  • OBJECTIVES: The best treatment of clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (NSGCTC) is controversial.
  • RESULTS: 36 patients with 37 testicular tumors were analysed (1 bilateral case).
  • Twenty nine mixed tumors (78%); most frequent histology embryonal carcinoma (76%).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17601299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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52. Luz MA, Kotb AF, Aldousari S, Brimo F, Tanguay S, Kassouf W, Aprikian AG: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:97
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for residual masses after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been advocated for the management of post-chemotherapy (PC-RPLND) residual masses of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT).
  • Fifty-three percent had mixed germ cell tumors.
  • The subgroups presenting fibrosis and large tumors were more likely to have a surgical complication and had less nerve sparing procedures.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21062470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991320
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53. Collen J, Carmichael M, Wroblewski T: Metastatic malignant teratoma arising from mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: a case report. Mil Med; 2008 Apr;173(4):406-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant teratoma arising from mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: a case report.
  • Primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) have a worse prognosis than gonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Incomplete resection of the residual tumor revealed high-grade mixed sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Male. Mesna / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology


54. Fujimura T, Yamada Y, Nasu M, Hamasaki K, Minowada S, Kitamura T: Different transformation of mature teratoma in a patient with mixed germ cell tumor of the testis. Int J Urol; 2005 Jun;12(6):588-90
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  • [Title] Different transformation of mature teratoma in a patient with mixed germ cell tumor of the testis.
  • Here we report a case of mature teratoma with metastases at supraclavicular and para-aortic lymph nodes which had different transformations in spite of both regions consisting of cystic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 15985085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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55. Merino MJ, Torres-Cabala C, Pinto P, Linehan WM: The morphologic spectrum of kidney tumors in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1578-85
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  • [Title] The morphologic spectrum of kidney tumors in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome.
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant familial syndrome characterized by the development of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas as well as renal tumors.
  • We reviewed 40 renal tumors resected from 38 patients belonging to HLRCC families with proven fumarate hydratase germline mutation.
  • Tumors were unilateral in all but 2 cases.
  • The size of the tumors varied between 2.3 and 20 cm and there was no laterality preference.
  • Mixed patterns were also present in 4 cases.
  • The most important histologic feature of these neoplasms, which we believe to be the hallmark of the HLRCC tumors, is the presence of a characteristic large nucleus with a very prominent inclusion like orangiophilic or eosinophilic nucleolus, surrounded by a clear halo.
  • Immunohistochemical studies did not provide a specific marker for these tumors, however, loss of heterozygosity at 1q32 and 1q42-44 was frequently found.
  • These tumors are associated with poor prognosis and frequent spread to regional lymph nodes.
  • At the moment, morphology is the best tool to recognize these tumors.
  • Proper diagnosis of this syndrome by the pathologist may assist in early detection of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome


56. Li J, Yang W, Wu X: Prognostic factors and role of salvage surgery in chemorefractory ovarian germ cell malignancies: a study in Chinese patients. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):769-75
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and role of salvage surgery in chemorefractory ovarian germ cell malignancies: a study in Chinese patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of the studies on ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs) focused on combination chemotherapy and fertility sparing surgery in primary treatment.
  • The histological subtypes included 2 dysgerminomas (DSG), 7 immature teratomas (IMT), 22 endodermal sinus tumors (EST) (including 16 pure EST, 3 mixed type with DSG, 3 with EC), 2 embryonal carcinomas (EC) and 1 mixed form (with component of sex cord-stromal tumor).
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. China. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17459461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; PVB protocol
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57. Marjanović S, Cerović S, Brajusković G: [Use of high-dosage chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a first-line therapy for the patients with poor-prognosis testicular tumors]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2005 Mar;62(3):213-8
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  • [Title] [Use of high-dosage chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a first-line therapy for the patients with poor-prognosis testicular tumors].
  • BACKGROUND: High-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell support can be used as a first-line treatment in patients with germ-cell tumor (GCT) with poor prognosis.
  • METHODS: Between 1997 and 2003, five patients with high-risk germ-cell tumors were treated with high-dosage chemotherapy followed by an autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • All the patients were with non-seminomatous germ-cell tumors with mixed histology, and one was with extragonadal retroperitoneal germ-cell tumor.
  • One patient was with residual tumor resection, using retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, after autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • CONCLUSION: Early high-dose chemotherapy associated with hematopoietic stem cell support as a first-line treatment in the patients with germ-cell tumor with a poor prognosis, represented an efficient treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 15790050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Yugoslavia
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58. Yano M, Fujii Y: [Results of surgical treatment for pimary germcell tumors of the mediastinum]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Nov;107(6):278-83
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  • [Title] [Results of surgical treatment for pimary germcell tumors of the mediastinum].
  • Primary germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are relatively rare with complicated backgrounds including various pathology with mixed types and characteristics.
  • It would be possible to improve the prognosis with the establishment of a standard treatment regimen, development of new agents for the treatment of tumors resistant to current chemotherapy regimens, and detection of more tumors in the early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17147287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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59. Mori Y, Kobayashi T, Hasegawa T, Yoshida K, Kida Y: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors. Prog Neurol Surg; 2009;23:106-18
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors.
  • Radiosurgery is increasingly being used to treat pineal region tumors, either as an additional therapy after conventional treatments or as a primary treatment.
  • We report our experience with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of pineal and related tumors.
  • Forty-nine patients underwent GKRS for pineal and related tumors (n = 74) between February 1992 and September 2007.
  • The diagnosis was germ cell tumors (GCTs) in 38 patients (53 tumors), pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) in 9 (19 tumors), and unknown in 2 (2 tumors).
  • We evaluated the treatment results with categorization of GCT cases into 2 groups, i.e. germinoma (group 1), and germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT (group 2).
  • PPT cases were also divided into 2 groups, i.e. pineocytoma (group 3) and pineoblastoma and mixed pineocytoma/pineoblastoma (group 4).
  • Intermediate prognosis was obtained in germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT.
  • GKRS is expected to be an effective and safe adjuvant treatment approach to pineal and related tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19329865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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60. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA: Immunohistochemical evaluation of GATA-4 in canine testicular tumors. Vet Pathol; 2009 Sep;46(5):893-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of GATA-4 in canine testicular tumors.
  • GATA-4 is a transcription factor expressed in Sertoli cells and less commonly in Leydig (interstitial) cells but not germ cells in adult human beings, cattle, pigs, and mice.
  • We examined GATA-4 in 76 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine testicular tumors, including 21 Sertoli cell tumors (SCT), 28 Leydig (interstitial) cell tumors (LCT), 24 seminomas (GCT), and 3 mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCT).
  • Our hypothesis was that immunohistochemistry for GATA-4 could discriminate between germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors of the canine testis.
  • These results indicate that GATA-4 is mainly expressed in sex cord-stromal tumors and not in germ cell tumors of the canine testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / pathology. GATA4 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19429994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor
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61. Matsuura Y, Kitajima M, Hachisuga T, Tanimoto A, Okura N, Kihara I: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):907-11
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm.
  • Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components.
  • This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20666968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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62. Marynka-Kalmani K, Treves S, Yafee M, Rachima H, Gafni Y, Cohen MA, Pitaru S: The lamina propria of adult human oral mucosa harbors a novel stem cell population. Stem Cells; 2010 May;28(5):984-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The lamina propria of adult human oral mucosa harbors a novel stem cell population.
  • The highly regenerative capacity of the human adult oral mucosa suggests the existence of a robust stem cell (SC) population in its lamina propria (OMLP).
  • Cells positive for the embryonic stem cell transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 and for p75 formed distinct cord-like structure in the OMLP.
  • Regardless of donor age, trillions of cells, termed human oral mucosa stem cells (hOMSC), 95% of which express mesenchymal stromal cell markers, were simply, and reproducibly produced from a biopsy of 3-4 x 2 x 1 mm(3).
  • Unexpectedly, hOMSC treated with dexamethasone formed tumors consisting of two germ layer-derived tissues when transplanted in severe combined immune deficiency mice.
  • The tumors consisted of tissues produced by neural crest cells during embryogenesis-cartilage, bone, fat, striated muscle, and neural tissue.
  • These results show that the adult OMLP harbors a primitive SC population with a distinct primitive neural-crest like phenotype and identifies the in vivo localization of putative ancestors for this population.
  • This is the first report on ectodermal- and mesodermal-derived mixed tumors formation by a SC population derived from a nonmalignant somatic adult human tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / cytology. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / cytology. Mouth Mucosa / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Lineage / physiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / cytology. Mucous Membrane / physiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20474080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4918
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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63. Young RH: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S81-98
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  • [Title] Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems.
  • Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors contain some of the most morphologically interesting neoplasms of the gonads and these lead to many important issues in differential diagnosis.
  • The pathology of these tumors is reviewed with emphasis on new information, similarities and differences in the two gonads, and diagnostic problems.
  • Sertoli cell tumors occur in both gonads being more common in the testis where they usually exhibit a lobular pattern of hollow or solid tubules.
  • One variant of Sertoli cell tumor, the large cell calcifying form, appears to be restricted to the male gonad and in contrast to other sex cord tumors is much more frequently bilateral and is associated in many cases with unusual clinical manifestations.
  • In females, it is in the form of the sex cord with annular tubules whereas in males, the lesion has features that are often intermediate between those of a sex cord tumor with annular tubules and a large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are more morphologically diverse than pure Sertoli cell tumors and for practical purposes are an issue only in ovarian pathology being exceptionally rare in the testis.
  • Heterologous tumors most often contain mucinous epithelium, sometimes with small foci of carcinoid or less commonly, and generally in poorly differentiated neoplasms, rhabdomyosarcoma or fetal-type cartilage.
  • Such tumors should be distinguished from pure sarcomas and teratomas.
  • The retiform neoplasms, which tend to occur in young females, may mimic serous borderline tumors or even serous carcinomas.
  • Granulosa cell tumors are much more common in females and in both gonads are divided into adult and juvenile forms.
  • In females, granulosa cell tumors and other sex cord tumors may have markedly bizarre nuclei potentially leading to overdiagnosis as more malignant neoplasms.
  • The juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis tends to occur in the first 6 months of life and should be carefully distinguished from the yolk sac tumor of the testis, which usually occurs in a slightly older age group.
  • Occasional sex cord-stromal tumors cannot be readily categorized into the Sertoli or granulosa families and are diagnosed as sex cord-stromal tumors unclassified.
  • Unclassified tumors are overall more common in males and may entrap residual normal germ cells potentially leading to the erroneous placement of the tumor in the category of a mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • From the practical viewpoint, the most helpful immunohistochemical findings are the negative staining of sex cord tumors for epithelial membrane antigen, and positive staining for inhibin and calretinin, findings that are converse to those seen in endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary, which commonly have formations that simulate sex cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Male. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15502809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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64. Ghaemmaghami F, Hasanzadeh M, Karimi Zarchi M, Fallahi A: Nondysgerminomatous ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A case-controlled study. Int J Surg; 2008 Oct;6(5):382-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nondysgerminomatous ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A case-controlled study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the response of patients with nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ-cell tumors (NDOGCT) to platinum-based chemotherapy and to determine association of prognostic factors to relapse of disease.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who had surgical resection of nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ-cell tumors (NDOGCT) and received adjuvant chemotherapy in Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 1997-2004.
  • Histological type of tumors included the following: immature teratoma (n=7), mixed germ-cell tumor (n=7), yolk sac tumors (n=4), and embryonal carcinoma (n=3).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18715834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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65. Simon RA, Laughlin TS, Nuccie B, Wang N, Rothberg PG, Wang X: A 46 XY phenotypic female adolescent with bilateral gonadal tumors consisting of five different components. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):407-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A 46 XY phenotypic female adolescent with bilateral gonadal tumors consisting of five different components.
  • 46 XY gonadal dysgenesis patients often develop gonadal tumors, including gonadoblastoma and other types of germ cell tumors.
  • Microscopic examination of the gonads revealed bilateral gonadoblastoma mixed with dysgerminoma and mature teratoma.
  • The tumor in the right gonad was also mixed with yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma with rhabdomyoblastic components, mimicking adult rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Panosyan EH, Laks DR, Masterman-Smith M, Mottahedeh J, Yong WH, Cloughesy TF, Lazareff JA, Mischel PS, Moore TB, Kornblum HI: Clinical outcome in pediatric glial and embryonal brain tumors correlates with in vitro multi-passageable neurosphere formation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):644-51
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome in pediatric glial and embryonal brain tumors correlates with in vitro multi-passageable neurosphere formation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cultured brain tumors can form neurospheres harboring tumorigenic cells with self renewal and differentiation capacities.
  • Renewable neurosphere formation has clinical predictive value in adult malignant gliomas, yet its prognostic role for pediatric brain tumors is unknown.
  • METHODS: Established neurosphere conditions were used for culturing samples from glial, embryonal and mixed glioneuronal tumors from 56 pediatric patients.
  • Furthermore, neurosphere formation correlated with adverse progression free survival (PFS) in glial and embryonal tumors, but not in mixed glioneuronal tumors.
  • Overall survival (OS) was significantly worse for neurosphere-forming patients with embryonal tumors, as a group and amongst the subgroup with medulloblastoma, but not in the glial group.
  • Neurosphere formation was an independent predictor of diminished PFS of glial tumors after adjusting for grade.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20589659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052563; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA119347; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01NS052563
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS572199; NLM/ PMC4017922
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67. Heerema-McKenney A, Harrison MR, Bratton B, Farrell J, Zaloudek C: Congenital teratoma: a clinicopathologic study of 22 fetal and neonatal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;29(1):29-38
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  • [Title] Congenital teratoma: a clinicopathologic study of 22 fetal and neonatal tumors.
  • We report detailed histologic studies of 22 congenital teratomas, including eight tumors resected in utero for developing hydrops, and correlate the histologic features with initial serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and clinical outcome.
  • All fetal tumors that required in utero intervention were grade 3 immature teratomas, with admixed conventional YST in 44%.
  • Among tumors resected postnatally, those presenting in utero were more commonly immature (71% vs. 50%).
  • Among 15 survivors with follow-up, 5 patients had malignant mixed germ cell tumors (immature teratoma with foci of conventional YST) and 5 had immature teratomas with foci of hepatic differentiation or immature endodermal glands with subnuclear vacuoles (so-called "well-differentiated YST").
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fetus. Gestational Age. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Pregnancy. Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15613854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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68. Tirabosco R, Mangham DC, Rosenberg AE, Vujovic S, Bousdras K, Pizzolitto S, De Maglio G, den Bakker MA, Di Francesco L, Kalil RK, Athanasou NA, O'Donnell P, McCarthy EF, Flanagan AM: Brachyury expression in extra-axial skeletal and soft tissue chordomas: a marker that distinguishes chordoma from mixed tumor/myoepithelioma/parachordoma in soft tissue. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):572-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brachyury expression in extra-axial skeletal and soft tissue chordomas: a marker that distinguishes chordoma from mixed tumor/myoepithelioma/parachordoma in soft tissue.
  • Axial chordoma represents approximately 1% of malignant bone tumors.
  • In this report, we describe 10 cases (6 men, 4 women: age 18 to 68 y; mean 44.6) of extra-axial tumors, 8 in bone and 2 in soft tissue, with morphologic and immunohistochemical features identical to those of axial chordoma.
  • Three tumors occurred in the tibia, the others in the rib, metatarsal, ulna, femur, pubis: 2 intracortical, 6 intramedullary.
  • Both soft tissue brachyury-positive tumors, one involving the thumb the other the wrist, were sited in the juxta-articular region.
  • Seven of the tumors were widely excised and these patients are disease-free but of the 3 tumors that recurred, 1 was curetted, 1 was marginally excised, and 1 had a pathologic fracture on presentation.
  • We also confirm the expression of brachyury in hemangioblastomas, and for the first time demonstrates its expression in spermatogonia and testicular germ cell tumors by immunohistochemistry.
  • Brachyury was not detected in a wide range of tumors including carcinomas, lymphomas, and sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / chemistry. Chordoma / chemistry. Fetal Proteins / analysis. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / chemistry. Myoepithelioma / chemistry. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / chemistry. T-Box Domain Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemangioblastoma / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / chemistry. Positron-Emission Tomography. Recurrence. Spermatogonia / chemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / chemistry. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18301055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brachyury protein; 0 / Fetal Proteins; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins
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69. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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70. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • Tumors were mostly unilateral, cystic, or solid/cystic and ranged in size from 5 to 26 cm (mean 16.2).
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • All tumors had a brisk mitotic activity.
  • According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, 4 cases were stage I tumors, 3 cases were stage III tumors, and 4 cases were stage IV tumors.
  • Four of 5 patients who died of disease had either stage III or IV tumors and 3 of 5 patients who are alive without evidence of disease have stage I tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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71. Escalera Almendros C, Chiva Robles V, Pascual Mateo C, Rodríguez García N, García Tello A, Berenguer Sánchez A: [Post chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jun;59(5):517-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the laparoscopic excision of a postchemotherapy retroperitoneal residual mass in a patient with mixed germ cell testicular tumor.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the operative technique of laparoscopic excision of a retroperitoneal mass in a 33 year old patient with mixed germ cell testicular tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach is another option for the surgical treatment of residual masses after chemotherapy in testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • (PMID = 16903554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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72. Sah RP, Anaparthy R, Sugumar A: A case of malignant abdominal pain. Onkologie; 2009 Nov;32(11):666-8
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  • There is a lack of awareness among primary-care physicians about the less common presentations of testicular tumors.
  • These nodes were sampled and revealed a mixed germ cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of atypical abdominal pain in young men should include testicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19887871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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73. Mohanty SK, Balani JP, Parwani AV: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in a testicular teratoma with retroperitoneal metastasis: report of an interesting case with review of literature. Urology; 2007 Oct;70(4):812.e7-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Teratomas with malignant transformation occur in approximately 3 to 6% of patients with metastatic germ cell tumors treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The histology of the nongerm cell (somatic) malignant elements most commonly includes carcinoma and various types of sarcomas; however, so far as the primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are concerned the experience is quite limited.
  • We report a relatively unusual case of PNET arising in a malignant mixed germ cell tumor in a 35-year-old man.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male

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  • (PMID = 17991577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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74. Chitale DA, Jungbluth AA, Marshall DS, Leitao MM, Hedvat CV, Kolb D, Spagnoli GC, Iversen K, Soslow RA: Expression of cancer-testis antigens in endometrial carcinomas using a tissue microarray. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):119-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors, but in normal adult tissue, they are only expressed in testicular germ cells.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 130 endometrial carcinomas of the following types and grades were analyzed using a tissue microarray: 85 endometrioid carcinomas (FIGO grade 1, 39; grade 2, 11; and grade 3, 35), 18 papillary serous carcinomas, 12 clear cell carcinomas, 13 malignant mixed mullerian tumors, one mucinous adenocarcinoma, and one undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • In low-grade tumors, the most immunoreactivity was seen with mAb M3H67 but little labeling was observed with the other monoclonal antibodies.
  • In high-grade tumors, monoclonal antibodies M3H67 (25%), 57B (23%), and CT7-33 (20%) showed the highest reactivity, while ES121 showed the lowest immunoreactivity (6%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / immunology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / immunology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / immunology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / immunology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Testis / immunology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15272278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CT7 antigen, human; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / MAGEA4 protein, human; 0 / MAGEC1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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75. Corakçi A, Ozeren S, Ozkan S, Gürbüz Y, Ustün H, Yücesoy I: Pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of ovary. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2005 Feb;271(2):176-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Primary ovarian choriocarcinoma arising presumably from a germ cell is extremely rare.
  • Besides arising gestationally or nongestationally, it may be pure or mixed with other germ cell tumors like immature teratoma, dysgerminoma, polyembryoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 14991382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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76. Guerra A, Cunha TM, Félix A: Magnetic resonance evaluation of adnexal masses. Acta Radiol; 2008 Jul;49(6):700-9
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  • The criteria for adnexal malignancy were contrast-enhanced solid lesions, contrast-enhanced solid components in mixed lesions (except those with low-signal-intensity solid components on T2-weighted imaging [T2WI]), contrast-enhanced papillary projections in cystic lesions (except those with low-signal-intensity papillary projections on T2WI), or septal thickness >or=3 mm.
  • Histopathologic evaluation of the adnexal lesions showed that 83 were malignant (true positives), 100 were non-malignant (true negatives), and seven were uncertain malignant potential tumors; two were false negative and seven were false positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / diagnosis. Cystadenoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18568564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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77. Lau SK, Weiss LM, Chu PG: D2-40 immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma: a comparative immunohistochemical study with KIT (CD117) and CD30. Mod Pathol; 2007 Mar;20(3):320-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • D2-40 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts with an oncofetal antigen expressed by fetal germ cells and testicular germ cell tumors.
  • D2-40 immunoreactivity was evaluated in a series of testicular germ cell tumors and compared with that of KIT (CD117) and CD30, to assess the relative utility of this marker in discriminating between seminoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Forty testicular germ cell neoplasms were examined, which included 19 seminomas, three embryonal carcinomas, three teratomas, one yolk sac tumor, and 14 mixed germ cell tumors.
  • The 14 cases of mixed germ cell tumors contained components of seminoma (n=7), embryonal carcinoma (n=11), teratoma (n=10), yolk sac tumor (n=2), and choriocarcinoma (n=1).
  • All cases of pure seminoma and the seminomatous components of mixed germ cell tumors exhibited positive immunoreactivity for D2-40.
  • Other germ cell components showed no immunoreactivity for D2-40, KIT, or CD30.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 17277761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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78. Dong Z, Yang Z, Li Y, Min P, Zhang X: [Extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis: correlation of multi-detector row computed tomography, anatomy and pathology]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;26(1):75-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between multi-detector row CT (MDCT) features, pathological findings and the anatomic basis of extra-organic primary tumors in pelvis so as to improve the document diagnosis of these entities.
  • We retrospectively analyzed the MDCT manifestations of 20 cases with surgically and/or pathologically evidenced diagnoses of extra-organic primary tumors in pelvis.
  • The results showed that, in 14 cases, the tumors were located in the pelvis, and 6 of them involved both pelvis and hypogastric zone.
  • There were 8 tumors located in the peritoneal cavity of the pelvis, and 3 of them also involved the extraperitoneal space of the pelvis.
  • In the peritoneal cavity, 2 tumors of male patients were located in the rectovesical pouch while 3 tumors of female patients were located in the rectouterine pouch.
  • The majority of entities in these 2 pouches were germ cell tumors (3/5 cases, 60.0%).
  • In the extraperitoneal space, 5 of 12 tumors were located in the pararectal space and 5 of them were located in the retrorectal space.
  • The majority entities of these 10 cases were germ cell tumors (7/10 cases, 70.0%).
  • The fatty element occurred in 7 masses, including 4 cases of teratoma, 1 case of malignant teratoma, 1 case of mixed germ cell tumor, and 1 case of liposarcoma.
  • MDCT with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) could more clearly reveal the anatomic location of the extra-organic primary tumor in pelvis, could unveil the tumor's relationship with its surrounding organs, and could help to differentiate benign tumors from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19334559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5515
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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79. Ulbright TM, Young RH: Seminoma with conspicuous signet ring cells: a rare, previously uncharacterized morphologic variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Aug;32(8):1175-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The tumors occurred in men, 24 and 69 years of age, who presented with testicular masses; 1 seminoma was a component of a mixed germ cell tumor and the other was pure.
  • The signet ring cells occurred in a multifocal fashion in areas of otherwise typical seminoma and comprised approximately 70% and 10%, respectively, of the tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus Shape. Humans. Male. Vacuoles / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Roma AA, Humphrey PA: Bile duct-like differentiation in teratoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):402-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We reviewed available mixed germ cell tumors and pure teratomas for the last 18 years at our institution.
  • Forty-five cases were included (19 testicular neoplasms, 20 retroperitoneal lymph node resections, 5 mediastinal tumors, and 1 pulmonary resection), obtained from male patients 15 to 48 years old (mean, 28.8 years; median, 29 years).
  • The presence of these structures did not adversely affect patient's prognosis; however, diagnostic awareness of their existence is relevant, as treatment and prognosis may vary significantly between teratomas and yolk sac or Sertoli cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Humans. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7
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81. Gauchez AS, Dreux S, Stéfani L, Mousseau M, Jouk PS, Muller F: Could ovarian choriocarcinoma be detected by maternal serum screening for Down syndrome? Prenat Diagn; 2007 Jul;27(7):682-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ovarian malignancies that produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are limited to germ cell tumors, of which dysgerminoma is the most frequent (45%) malignant type encountered in pregnant patients, the others being ovarian choriocarcinoma and mixed germ cell tumors (Boulay and Podczaski, 1998).
  • Given the extreme rarity of these tumors, the long-term prognosis is difficult to establish.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature. Mass Screening. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17533625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-3851
  • [Journal-full-title] Prenatal diagnosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prenat. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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82. Serrano P, Fantova A, Pascual M, Allué M, Gil MJ, Rioja LA: [The treatment of metastasic testicular pure mature teratoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jun;59(5):524-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Given the low frequency of testicular teratoma in relation to the rest of germ cell testicular tumors and the various treatment options for advanced stages, we report one case of advanced testicular mature teratoma with retroperitoneal adenopathy in which orchyectomy was performed after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, with the some pathology found in the primary tumor.
  • METHODS: We do an update on the treatment for these stages with the possibility of beginning with chemotherapy leaving lymphadenectomy for residual masses, or the contrary, being most cases treated in a mixed way.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Without clear evidence for guidelines in these tumors, it is recommended to individualize the treatment for each patient, accordingly to tumor characteristics, probability of relapse and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male

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  • (PMID = 16903555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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83. Cheng L, Zhang S, Talerman A, Roth LM: Morphologic, immunohistochemical, and fluorescence in situ hybridization study of ovarian embryonal carcinoma with comparison to solid variant of yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma. Hum Pathol; 2010 May;41(5):716-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The prognosis and therapy for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors including embryonal carcinoma differ from those of other categories of ovarian tumors, making accurate diagnosis imperative for patient care.
  • In a series of 6 ovarian mixed germ cell tumors with a component of embryonal carcinomas, OCT4, CD30, SOX2, and glypican 3 expressions were analyzed immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.
  • The results were compared to 4 cases of mixed germ cell tumor that were originally mistaken for embryonal carcinoma.
  • In 1 case of mixed germ cell tumor containing embryonal carcinoma, embryoid bodies from a component of polyembryoma were demonstrated to be both OCT4 and CD30 positive.
  • In summary, a panel of immunostains is more useful than a single biomarker in the differential diagnosis of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD30 / genetics. Antigens, CD30 / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glypicans / genetics. Glypicans / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / genetics. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Prognosis. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / genetics. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20096442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors
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84. Kao HW, Wu CJ, Chen CY, Sun GH, Lee SS, Peng YJ: Malignant tumor of testis imitating epididymo-orchitis. Arch Androl; 2005 Sep-Oct;51(5):407-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • From April 1994 to November 2004, a total of 65 patients with malignant testicular tumors underwent surgical interventions in our hospital.
  • Unfortunately, the patient presented with metastatic lymphadenopathy of the neck from mixed germ cell tumor of the testis 2 months later.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16087569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5016
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. García Bocanegra I, Márquez Moreno AJ, Julve Villalta E, Pérez Villa L, Ruíz Escalante J, Blanes Berenguel A: [Seminoma and teratocarcinoma: synchronic unitesticular presentation as independent nodules with different histologies? Ultrasound characteristics]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jun;60(5):582-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although seminoma and mixed germ cell tumors are common, "their presentation in the some testicle as independent nodules with different histologies is a rarely referred case in the literature, which allows us to apply a histogenetic and ultrasound-pathologic correlation model in seminomatous and nonseminomatous tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17718216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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86. Kamakura Y, Hasegawa M, Minamoto T, Yamashita J, Fujisawa H: C-kit gene mutation: common and widely distributed in intracranial germinomas. J Neurosurg; 2006 Mar;104(3 Suppl):173-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECT: Of the intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCTs), 10% of germinomas and most nongerminomatous tumors remain refractory to multimodality therapy.
  • The authors investigated the mutation of c-kit and the expression of its product KIT in IGCTs to identify tumors susceptible to imatinib mesylate, a synthetic agent targeting KIT.
  • METHODS: The authors investigated 26 IGCTs, including 13 germinomas, five mixed germ cell tumors (MGCTs), four immature teratomas (ITs), and two each of yolk sac tumors and choriocarcinomas.
  • These tumors were examined for the expression of KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical analysis, and for mutations in exons 2, 8 to 11, 13, and 17 of c-kit.
  • Strong KIT expression was found in the cell membrane of germinomas (100%) and germinomatous cells of MGCTs (80%), as well as in the cytoplasm of epithelial and smooth-muscle cells of ITs.
  • This study may help in clarifying the pathogenesis of IGCTs and in identifying tumors susceptible to drugs targeting KIT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation, Missense. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16572634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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87. Agrawal M, Uppin MS, Patibandla MR, Bhattacharjee S, Panigrahi MK, Saradhi V, Rani JY, Purohit AK, Challa S: Teratomas in central nervous system: a clinico-morphological study with review of literature. Neurol India; 2010 Nov-Dec;58(6):841-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: A total of 14 tumors were diagnosed as teratomas.
  • Of these, 11 were mature cystic teratomas; and 1 case each, of teratoma with malignant transformation, terato-carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor (immature teratoma with germinoma).
  • Excision was curative or provided symptomatic relief in most cases; terato-carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients needed adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21150046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
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88. McBee WC Jr, Brainard J, Sawady J, Rose PG: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary associated with endometrioid carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):244-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Mixed yolk sac tumors of the ovary are biologically aggressive even in early stage disease.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first case of a mixed ovarian germ cell tumor with vaginal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17316775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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89. Ishida M, Hasegawa M, Kanao K, Oyama M, Nakajima Y: Non-palpable testicular embryonal carcinoma diagnosed by ultrasound: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;39(2):124-6
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  • With the extensive use of scrotal ultrasound (US), incidental non-palpable testicular tumors have thus been unexpectedly discovered.
  • This report documents the case of 24-year-old male with a non-palpable testicular tumor that contained non-seminomatous germ cell components detected by US.
  • Radical orchiectomy was performed and histological examinations confirmed a diagnosis of a mixed tumor of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19066212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Jones TD, Wang M, Sung MT, Zhang S, Ulbright TM, Eble JN, Beck SD, Foster RS, Anagnostou JJ Jr, Conner C, Cheng L: Clonal origin of metastatic testicular teratomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Sep 15;12(18):5377-83
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  • PURPOSE: Testicular teratomas in adult patients are histologically diverse tumors that frequently coexist with other germ cell tumor (GCT) components.
  • These mixed GCTs often metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes where multiple GCT elements are frequently present in the same metastatic lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Gene Frequency. Humans. Laser Therapy / methods. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Microdissection / methods. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16982812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Jakacki RI, Hamilton M, Gilbertson RJ, Blaney SM, Tersak J, Krailo MD, Ingle AM, Voss SD, Dancey JE, Adamson PC: Pediatric phase I and pharmacokinetic study of erlotinib followed by the combination of erlotinib and temozolomide: a Children's Oncology Group Phase I Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 20;26(30):4921-7
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  • PURPOSE: We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib as a single agent and in combination with temozolomide in children with refractory solid tumors.
  • One patient with a neurocytoma had stable disease for 19 months, two patients with neuroblastoma remained on study for 23 and 24 months, and one patient with myoepithelioma had a mixed response.
  • CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of erlotinib in recurrent pediatric solid tumors is 85 mg/m(2)/d, either alone or in combination with temozolomide.

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  • (PMID = 18794549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2652086
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92. Ayhan A, Taskiran C, Bozdag G, Altinbas S, Altinbas A, Yuce K: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Dec 1;123(2):230-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment regimens used for patients with endodermal sinus tumors (EST), and also to examine the prognostic value of surgicopathological variables.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two patients treated for pure EST, and seven patients who had mixed germ cell tumors with EST components were included.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Hospitals, University. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16026921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
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93. Phi JH, Park SH, Paek SH, Kim SK, Lee YJ, Park CK, Cho BK, Lee DH, Wang KC: Expression of Sox2 in mature and immature teratomas of central nervous system. Mod Pathol; 2007 Jul;20(7):742-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sox2 immunohistochemistry was performed in 14 cases of central nervous system teratoma: five mature, five immature teratomas, and four mixed germ cell tumors with a prominent teratoma component.
  • Immunofluorescence with double labeling of stem cells and neuroglial cell markers was used for phenotyping of Sox2-positive cells.
  • The majority of Sox2-positive neuroepithelial cells also expressed neural stem cell markers, nestin and vimentin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Microscopy, Confocal. SOXB1 Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17464316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / HMGB Proteins; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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94. Tischkowitz M, Xia B, Sabbaghian N, Reis-Filho JS, Hamel N, Li G, van Beers EH, Li L, Khalil T, Quenneville LA, Omeroglu A, Poll A, Lepage P, Wong N, Nederlof PM, Ashworth A, Tonin PN, Narod SA, Livingston DM, Foulkes WD: Analysis of PALB2/FANCN-associated breast cancer families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Apr 17;104(16):6788-93
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  • Most of these genes, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, ATM, and FANCJ/BRIP1, function in DNA repair, raising the possibility that germ line mutations in other genes that contribute to this process also predispose to breast cancer.
  • Given its close relationship with BRCA2, PALB2 was sequenced in affected probands from 68 BRCA1/BRCA2-negative breast cancer families of Ashkenazi Jewish, French Canadian, or mixed ethnic descent.
  • There was no loss of heterozygosity in tumors with either mutation.
  • Moreover, comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed major similarities to that of BRCA2 tumors but with some notable differences, especially loss of 18q, a change that was previously unknown in BRCA2 tumors and less common in sporadic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms, Male / blood. Breast Neoplasms, Male / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Fanconi Anemia / blood. Fanconi Anemia / genetics. Female. Frameshift Mutation. Humans. Male. Melanoma / blood. Melanoma / genetics. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Point Mutation


95. Hirunpat S, Tanomkiat W, Sriprung H, Chetpaophan J: Optic tract edema: a highly specific magnetic resonance imaging finding for the diagnosis of craniopharyngiomas. Acta Radiol; 2005 Jul;46(4):419-23
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  • None of the 28 pituitary macroadenomas, 4 meningiomas, 2 hypothalamic astrocytomas, 2 germinomas, 1 mixed-germ cell tumor and 1 arachnoid cyst in our study showed edema of the optic pathways.
  • CONCLUSION: Optic tract edema, commonly seen in craniopharyngiomas, is a useful MR finding for distinguishing craniopharyngiomas from other parasellar tumors with considerable sensitivity and high specificity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16134321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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96. Skolarus TA, Bhayani SB, Chiang HC, Brandes SB, Kibel AS, Landman J, Figenshau RS: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for low-stage testicular cancer. J Endourol; 2008 Jul;22(7):1485-9
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current management options for low-stage mixed malignant germ-cell testicular tumors (MMGCT) after radical orchiectomy include surveillance, chemotherapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND).

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  • (PMID = 18613781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Adler JR Jr, Gibbs IC, Puataweepong P, Chang SD: Visual field preservation after multisession cyberknife radiosurgery for perioptic lesions. Neurosurgery; 2006 Aug;59(2):244-54; discussion 244-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although preliminary studies have recently demonstrated that multisession radiosurgery for selected perioptic tumors is both safe and effective, the number of patients in these clinical series was modest and the length of follow-up limited.
  • METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive patients with meningioma (n = 27), pituitary adenoma (n = 19), craniopharyngioma (n = 2), or mixed germ cell tumor (n = 1) situated within 2 mm of a "short segment" of the optic apparatus underwent multisession image-guided radiosurgery at Stanford University Medical Center.
  • CONCLUSION: Multisession radiosurgery resulted in high rates of tumor control and preservation of visual function in this group of perioptic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / physiopathology. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / physiopathology. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / standards. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Visual Pathways / injuries. Visual Pathways / physiopathology. Visual Pathways / radiation effects

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  • [ReprintIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb;62 Suppl 2:733-43 [18596432.001]
  • (PMID = 16883165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Adham WK, Raval BK, Uzquiano MC, Lemos LB: Best cases from the AFIP: bilateral testicular tumors: seminoma and mixed germ cell tumor. Radiographics; 2005 May-Jun;25(3):835-9
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  • [Title] Best cases from the AFIP: bilateral testicular tumors: seminoma and mixed germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Seminoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15888629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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