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1. Campbell RM, Mader RD, Dufresne RG Jr: Meningiomas after medulloblastoma irradiation treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Nov;53(5 Suppl 1):S256-9
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  • [Title] Meningiomas after medulloblastoma irradiation treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome.
  • A 23-year-old woman with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or Gorlin's syndrome, was given the diagnosis at age 2 years of a medulloblastoma that was resected and treated postoperatively with craniospinal irradiation.
  • This case reviews early presentation of BCNS, newly described differences between medulloblastomas in patients with BCNS and nonsyndromic medulloblastomas, and global assessment of patients by the treating dermatologist of this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / epidemiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningioma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Parietal Lobe. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16227103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Poelen J, Bernsen HJ, Prick MJ: Metastatic medulloblastoma in an adult; treatment with temozolomide. Acta Neurol Belg; 2007 Jun;107(2):51-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic medulloblastoma in an adult; treatment with temozolomide.
  • Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumour most frequently seen in children.
  • Relapses of medulloblastoma are sensitive to chemotherapy and treatment with chemotherapeutics in children has increased the survival rates.
  • A medulloblastoma at adult age is extremely rare, and there is no overall accepted treatment, especially not in the case of a relapse.
  • This observation encouraged us to decide to treat an adult patient with a recurrent medulloblastoma with temozolomide.
  • This female patient showed a recurrence of a medulloblastoma 7 years after the initial presentation with metastatic spread along the neuraxis and progressive neurological deterioration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17710841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9009
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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3. Abe M, Tokumaru S, Tabuchi K, Kida Y, Takagi M, Imamura J: Stereotactic radiation therapy with chemotherapy in the management of recurrent medulloblastomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(2):81-8
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiation therapy with chemotherapy in the management of recurrent medulloblastomas.
  • Medulloblastomas are highly lethal tumors when they recur.
  • This report documents the preliminary study results of a treatment for recurrent medulloblastomas consisting of stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) with chemotherapy.
  • The reduction in tumor size after SRT was often remarkable.
  • In contrast, all 8 patients with metastasis had new lesions either in the spinal canal or on the surface of the brain outside the target area of SRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16465076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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4. Koch A, Hrychyk A, Hartmann W, Waha A, Mikeska T, Waha A, Schüller U, Sörensen N, Berthold F, Goodyer CG, Wiestler OD, Birchmeier W, Behrens J, Pietsch T: Mutations of the Wnt antagonist AXIN2 (Conductin) result in TCF-dependent transcription in medulloblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;121(2):284-91
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  • [Title] Mutations of the Wnt antagonist AXIN2 (Conductin) result in TCF-dependent transcription in medulloblastomas.
  • Medulloblastomas (MBs) represent the most common malignant brain tumors in children.
  • These patients carry germline mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene.
  • APC is part of a multiprotein complex involved in the Wnt signaling pathway that controls the stability of beta-catenin, the central effector in this cascade.
  • The pathway is negatively controlled by the tumor suppressor AXIN2 (Conductin), a scaffold protein of this signaling complex.
  • One MB displayed a somatic, tumor-specific 2 bp insertion in exon 5, leading to carboxy-terminal truncation of the AXIN2 protein.
  • This tumor biopsy showed nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein, indicating an activation of Wnt signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Mutation. TCF Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Axin Protein. Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cerebellum / embryology. Cerebellum / growth & development. Cerebellum / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Wnt1 Protein / genetics. Wnt1 Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17373666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AXIN2 protein, human; 0 / Axin Protein; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / Wnt1 Protein
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5. Jacobs JF, Grauer OM, Brasseur F, Hoogerbrugge PM, Wesseling P, Gidding CE, van de Rakt MW, Figdor CG, Coulie PG, de Vries IJ, Adema GJ: Selective cancer-germline gene expression in pediatric brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jul;88(3):273-80
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  • [Title] Selective cancer-germline gene expression in pediatric brain tumors.
  • Their expression has been studied in a wide range of human tumors in adults.
  • We measured the expression of 12 CGGs in pediatric brain tumors, to identify targets for therapeutic cancer vaccines.
  • Real Time PCR was used to quantify the expression of genes MAGE-A1, MAGE-A2, MAGE-A3, MAGE-A4, MAGE-A6, MAGE-A10, MAGE-A12, MAGE-C2, NY-ESO-1 and GAGE-1,2,8 in 50 pediatric brain tumors of different histological subtypes.
  • Fifty-five percent of the medulloblastomas (n = 11), 86% of the ependymomas (n = 7), 40% of the choroid plexus tumors (n = 5) and 67% of astrocytic tumors (n = 27) expressed one or more CGGs.
  • With exception of a minority of tumors, the overall level of CGG expression in pediatric brain tumors was low.
  • CGG-encoded antigens are therefore suitable targets in a very selected group of pediatric patients with a brain tumor.
  • Interestingly, glioblastomas from adult patients expressed CGGs more often and at significantly higher levels compared to pediatric glioblastomas.
  • This observation is in line with the notion that pediatric and adult glioblastomas develop along different genetic pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression. Genes, Neoplasm
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18398575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2440921
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6. Padovani L, André N, Carrie C, Muracciole X: [Childhood and adult medulloblastoma: what difference?]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Oct;13(6-7):530-5
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  • [Title] [Childhood and adult medulloblastoma: what difference?].
  • [Transliterated title] Le médulloblastome de l'enfant et de l'adulte: quelle différence?
  • Medulloblastoma is the most frequent childhood brain tumor (30%) but account only for less than 1% of adult brain tumor.
  • Due to the rarety in adult population, no prospective studies and few data about late effects are available.
  • Adult medulloblastoma is a therapeutic challenge and their therapeutic strategies are similar to pediatric protocols.
  • In order to improve the understanding of adult disease and to homogenize the treatment, National Cancer Institute (INCa) stimulated the creation of web conference to discuss each case prospectively and to propose a protocol of treatment.
  • A better comprehension of biological processes and abnormal cellular signalling pathways involved in medulloblastoma pathogenesis had led toward a new prognostic classification to adapt the therapeutic strategy and gives hope of new therapeutic tools.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Child. Cognition Disorders / epidemiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Molecular Biology / methods. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy / methods. Surgical Procedures, Operative

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  • (PMID = 19713143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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7. McCabe MG, Ichimura K, Pearson DM, Liu L, Clifford SC, Ellison DW, Collins VP: Novel mechanisms of gene disruption at the medulloblastoma isodicentric 17p11 breakpoint. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2009 Feb;48(2):121-31
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  • [Title] Novel mechanisms of gene disruption at the medulloblastoma isodicentric 17p11 breakpoint.
  • Isodicentric 17q is the most commonly reported chromosomal abnormality in medulloblastomas.
  • Its frequency suggests that genes disrupted in medulloblastoma formation may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • CGH with a custom tiling path genomic BAC array of chromosome 17 enriched with fosmids at the breakpoint regions was used to analyze a series of 45 medulloblastomas and three medulloblastoma-derived cell lines.
  • In total, 17 of 45 medulloblastomas had an isodicentric 17q.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Breakage. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Mapping. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Gene Deletion. Gene Dosage. Gene Duplication. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Recombination, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18973140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Klein RD, Dykas DJ, Bale AE: Clinical testing for the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome in a DNA diagnostic laboratory. Genet Med; 2005 Nov-Dec;7(9):611-9
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  • Of these, 26 had jaw cysts in combination with other characteristics or neoplasms including basal cell carcinomas, palmar pits, skeletal abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, medulloblastomas, cardiac or ovarian fibromas, calcification of the falx cerebri, polydactyly, cleft lip and/or palate, and agenesis of the corpus callosum or other central nervous system malformations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers. Humans. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 16301862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-3600
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5T32GM008753; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA93908
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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9. Chang Q, Pang JC, Li KK, Poon WS, Zhou L, Ng HK: Promoter hypermethylation profile of RASSF1A, FHIT, and sFRP1 in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Hum Pathol; 2005 Dec;36(12):1265-72
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  • Medulloblastomas (MBs) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNETs) are histologically alike intracranial PNETs found in different anatomical locations of the brain.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether promoter hypermethylation of putative tumor suppressor genes was involved in both types of intracranial PNETs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. DNA Methylation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Primers / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16311119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATR protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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10. Hui AB, Takano H, Lo KW, Kuo WL, Lam CN, Tong CY, Chang Q, Gray JW, Ng HK: Identification of a novel homozygous deletion region at 6q23.1 in medulloblastomas using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 1;11(13):4707-16
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel homozygous deletion region at 6q23.1 in medulloblastomas using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to comprehensively characterize genome copy number aberrations in medulloblastomas using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: High-density genomic arrays containing 1,803 BAC clones were used to define recurrent chromosomal regions of gains or losses throughout the whole genome of medulloblastoma.
  • A series of 3 medulloblastoma cell lines and 16 primary tumors were investigated.
  • CONCLUSION: Current array comparative genomic hybridization analysis generates a comprehensive pattern of chromosomal aberrations in medulloblastomas.
  • This information will lead to a better understanding of medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.
  • The delineated regions of gains or losses will indicate locations of medulloblastoma-associated genes.
  • Frequent detection of reduced expression of AK091351 and KIAA1913 genes implicates them as suppressors of medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Deletion. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genome, Human. Homozygote. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16000565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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11. Selek U, Zorlu F, Hurmuz P, Cengiz M, Turker A, Soylemezoglu F, Gurkaynak M: Craniospinal radiotherapy in adult medulloblastoma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2007 May;183(5):236-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Craniospinal radiotherapy in adult medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors of adult patients with medulloblastoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 26 adult medulloblastoma patients with a median age of 27 were subjected to craniospinal radiotherapy.
  • Patient characteristics, treatment factors and tumor characteristics failed to show any significance in univariate analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Spine / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17497094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. De Bortoli M, Castellino RC, Lu XY, Deyo J, Sturla LM, Adesina AM, Perlaky L, Pomeroy SL, Lau CC, Man TK, Rao PH, Kim JY: Medulloblastoma outcome is adversely associated with overexpression of EEF1D, RPL30, and RPS20 on the long arm of chromosome 8. BMC Cancer; 2006 Sep 12;6:223
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma outcome is adversely associated with overexpression of EEF1D, RPL30, and RPS20 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood.
  • In the present study, we applied cytogenetic characterization to guide the identification of biologically significant genes from gene expression microarray profiles of medulloblastoma.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 71 primary medulloblastomas for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
  • By applying CGH results to gene expression analysis of medulloblastoma, we identified three 8q-mapped genes that are associated with overall survival in the larger group of 64 patients (p < 0.05): eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1D (EEF1D), ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30), and ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20).
  • CONCLUSION: The complementary use of CGH and expression profiles can facilitate the identification of clinically significant candidate genes involved in medulloblastoma growth.
  • We demonstrate that gain of 8q and expression levels of three 8q-mapped candidate genes (EEF1D, RPL30, RPS20) are associated with adverse outcome in medulloblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16968546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105607; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD042977; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS043517; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD042977; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105607; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS043517; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD041648; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109467; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD041648; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109467
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Elongation Factor 1; 0 / Ribosomal Proteins; 0 / ribosomal protein L30; 0 / ribosomal protein S20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1578584
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13. Fukuda T, Akiyama N, Ikegami M, Takahashi H, Sasaki A, Oka H, Komori T, Tanaka Y, Nakazato Y, Akimoto J, Tanaka M, Okada Y, Saito S: Expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase enzyme in the human central nervous system and in pineal parenchymal cell tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2010 May;69(5):498-510
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  • [Title] Expression of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase enzyme in the human central nervous system and in pineal parenchymal cell tumors.
  • Pineal parenchymal tumor (PPT) cells usually show immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament protein, class III beta-tubulin, tau protein, PGP9.5, chromogranin, serotonin, retinal S-antigen, and rhodopsin, but these markers are not specific for PPTs.
  • We hypothesized that HIOMT could serve as a tumor marker of PPTs, and we investigated HIOMT localization and HIOMT expression in samples of normal human tissue and in PPTs, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and medulloblastomas.
  • The proportions of HIOMT-immunoreactive cells successively decreased in the following tumors: pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, and pineoblastoma.
  • A few HIOMT-immunoreactive cells were observed in one of 6 primitive neuroectodermal tumors and 23 of 42 medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System / enzymology. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pinealoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Arrestin / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Proteins / genetics. Eye Proteins / metabolism. Female. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism. Plant Lectins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retina / pathology. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 20418777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arrestin; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Plant Lectins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Ricinus communis agglutinin-1; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase
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14. Han SR, Sohn MJ, Yoon SW, Yee GT, Choi CY, Lee DJ, Whang CJ: Extracranial metastases of a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Jan;14(1):55-8
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  • Extracranial metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours have rarely been reported in the literature, and glioblastomas and medulloblastomas constitute the majority of these.
  • The tendency of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) to spread within the CNS is well-known, but few cases of extracranial metastases of supratentorial PNET have been reported.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17092726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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15. Ongürü O, Karslioglu Y, Ozcan A, Celik E: Anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting markers in adult medulloblastomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6):384-9
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  • [Title] Anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting markers in adult medulloblastomas.
  • AIM: the aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic features, proliferation potential and expression of some anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting markers in adult medulloblastomas.
  • METHOD: we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of survivin, c-KIT, Bcl-2, fascin, p-53 and Ki-67 in 18 adult medulloblastomas (> 16 years of age).
  • 14 cases were classical, 2 desmoplastic/nodular and 2 large cell medulloblastomas.
  • Moderate-to-high nuclear survivin expression was observed with high percentages (55 - 100%) in all medulloblastomas while Bcl-2 was mildly positive in only 1 case.
  • Fascin expression was observed in 13 medulloblastomas (72%), 9 of which showing moderate to high immunoreactivity.
  • CONCLUSION: frequent nuclear survivin expression implies the predominance of anti-apoptotic factors in pathogenesis of adult medulloblastomas.
  • It may also be a potential therapeutic target for adult medulloblastomas.
  • Although Blc-2 immunoreactivity was previously reported in approximately 30% in medulloblastomas, we have observed that it is rarely expressed in the present series of adult medulloblastomas.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating fascin expression in medulloblastomas.
  • Mild-to-moderate cytoplasmic c-KIT immunoreactivity without membranous staining in adult medulloblastomas may support the previous studies reporting low level of c-KIT protein expression with lack of activating mutations in medulloblastomas.
  • It seems p53 is rarely involved in the course of develepment of adult medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Growth Substances / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21073843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 146808-54-0 / fascin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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16. Birks DK, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Donson AM, Barton VN, McNatt SA, Foreman NK, Handler MH: Claudin 6 is a positive marker for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):140-50
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  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are highly aggressive pediatric brain tumors characterized by the presence of rhabdoid cells and negative immunostaining for INI1 (BAF47).
  • To search for possible candidate proteins of interest in AT/RTs, Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays were utilized to investigate nine AT/RTs vs. 124 other tumor samples.
  • Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of 33 tumor specimens found positive membrane staining in seven of seven AT/RTs, and was negative in 26 of 27 other brain tumor samples.
  • Notably, none of the 16 medulloblastomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors showed IHC staining for CLDN6.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Neoplasm / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Child, Preschool. Claudins. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19220299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / claudin 6
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17. Cakar M, Aksoy S, Kilickap S, Harputluoglu H, Erman M: Procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine combination may be effective in adult medulloblastoma patients with systemic metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):233-4
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  • [Title] Procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine combination may be effective in adult medulloblastoma patients with systemic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003 Jun;40(6):396-7 [12692812.001]
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  • (PMID = 16132496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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18. Hartmann W, Digon-Söntgerath B, Koch A, Waha A, Endl E, Dani I, Denkhaus D, Goodyer CG, Sörensen N, Wiestler OD, Pietsch T: Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/AKT signaling is activated in medulloblastoma cell proliferation and is associated with reduced expression of PTEN. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 May 15;12(10):3019-27
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  • [Title] Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/AKT signaling is activated in medulloblastoma cell proliferation and is associated with reduced expression of PTEN.
  • PURPOSE: Medulloblastomas represent the most frequent malignant brain tumors of childhood.
  • Recently, it has been shown that Sonic Hedgehog-induced formation of medulloblastoma in an animal model is significantly enhanced by activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To examine a role for PI3K/AKT signaling in the molecular pathogenesis of human medulloblastoma, we did an immunohistochemical study of the expression of Ser473-phosphorylated (p)-AKT protein in 22 medulloblastoma samples: All samples displayed p-AKT expression.
  • To investigate if an activated PI3K/AKT pathway is required for medulloblastoma cell growth, we treated five human medulloblastoma cell lines with increasing concentrations of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and analyzed cellular proliferation and apoptosis.
  • As the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling may be associated with alterations of the PTEN gene located at 10q23.3, a chromosomal region subject to frequent allelic losses in medulloblastoma, we screened PTEN for mutations and mRNA expression.
  • RESULTS: Proliferation of all of the medulloblastoma cell lines was dependent on PI3K/AKT signaling, whereas apoptosis was not prominently affected.
  • One medulloblastoma cell line was found to carry a truncating mutation in the PTEN coding sequence.
  • Even more important, PTEN mRNA and protein levels were found to be significantly lower in medulloblastomas compared with normal cerebellar tissue of different developmental stages.
  • Reduction of PTEN expression was found to be associated with PTEN promoter hypermethylation in 50% of the tumor samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway constitutes an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of medulloblastoma and that dysregulation of PTEN may play a significant role in this context.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Signal Transduction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16707597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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19. Balss J, Meyer J, Mueller W, Korshunov A, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Analysis of the IDH1 codon 132 mutation in brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Dec;116(6):597-602
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  • [Title] Analysis of the IDH1 codon 132 mutation in brain tumors.
  • We analyzed the genomic region spanning wild type R132 of IDH1 by direct sequencing in 685 brain tumors including 41 pilocytic astrocytomas, 12 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 7 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, 93 diffuse astrocytomas, 120 adult glioblastomas, 14 pediatric glioblastomas, 105 oligodendrogliomas, 83 oligoastrocytomas, 31 ependymomas, 58 medulloblastomas, 9 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 17 schwannomas, 72 meningiomas and 23 pituitary adenomas.
  • The very high frequency of IDH1 mutations in WHO grade II astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas suggests a role in early tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 18985363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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20. Seymour ZA, Panigrahy A, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Blüml S: Citrate in pediatric CNS tumors? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 May;29(5):1006-11
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  • [Title] Citrate in pediatric CNS tumors?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In a subset of in vivo MR spectra acquired from pediatric brain tumors, we have observed an unassigned peak.
  • The goal of this study was to determine the molecule of origin, and the prevalence and concentration of this chemical in various pediatric brain tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spectra from 85 patients with brain tumors and 469 control subjects were analyzed.
  • Diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma (DIBSG) had the highest mean concentration (4.0 +/- 1.1 mmol/kg in all subjects), and 8 of 12 patients had CRLB less than 25%.
  • "Apparent" citrate with CRLB less than 25% was detected in 5 of 22 medulloblastomas (mean citrate, 2.9 +/- 2.2 mmol/kg), in 5 of 14 ependymomas (2.6 +/- 1.8 mmol/kg), 5 of 14 astrocytomas (1.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg), and 3 of 23 pilocytic astrocytomas (1.4 +/- 1.1 mmol/kg).
  • CONCLUSION: MR signal consistent with citrate was observed in pediatric brain tumors and in the developing brain of infants younger than 6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Citric Acid / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 18272551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 2968PHW8QP / Citric Acid
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21. Kabashi S, Muçaj S, Ahmetgjekaj I, Gashi S, Fazliu I, Dreshaj S, Shala N: Radiological imaging detection of tumors localized in fossa cranii posterior. Med Arh; 2008;62(5-6):271-4
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  • Clinical application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography has provided an earlier detection and treatment of many CNS pathologies.
  • Fifty-nine of them were found to have tumor localized in fossa crani posterior (FCP) without any significant difference between genders (50.8% female vs. 49.2% male, chi2 test=0.02 p=0.896).
  • Tumor types that more often were found in young's individuals were: Astrocytomas with a peak incidence in teenagers (average age was 12-year-old SD +/- 7.5, rank 3-23), next was Medulloblastomas (average age was 11-years-old, SD +/- 2.9, rank 6-16 years) and ependymomas (average age was 6.8-years-old, SD +/- 4.6, rank 1-12).
  • The most frequent tumors in children were medulloblastomas, brainstem gliomas, astrocytomas and ependymomas whereas meningiomas and metastasis were most often found in adults.
  • For FCP tumors detection, MRI had 100% sensitivity, specificity and predictive positive value, whereas brain CT was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 90.4 % specificity and 91% predictive positive value.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19469268.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski arhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Arh
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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22. Larysz D, Blamek S, Larysz P, Pietras K, Mandera M: Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2010;106:271-4
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  • [Title] Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children.
  • The aim of the study was the functional neurodevelopmental assessment of children with posterior fossa tumors, specifically examining whether tumor location in particular cerebellar structures determines particular neuropsychological deficits.
  • There were 21 total and 8 subtotal resections of tumor, and marsupialization was performed in cases of arachnoid cysts.
  • Histopathological diagnoses of tumors were as follows: 4 medulloblastomas, 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 6 fibrillary astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 1 choroid plexus papilloma, and 5 arachnoid cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain. Brain Injuries / etiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Infratentorial Neoplasms. Nervous System Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Functional Laterality / physiology. Humans. Male. Neuropsychological Tests. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19812963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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23. Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Paioli A, Cavallo G, Spagnolli F, Brandes AA: Challenges and progress in the treatment of adult medulloblastomas. Future Oncol; 2007 Apr;3(2):115-7
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  • [Title] Challenges and progress in the treatment of adult medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / trends. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17381408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Thompson MC, Fuller C, Hogg TL, Dalton J, Finkelstein D, Lau CC, Chintagumpala M, Adesina A, Ashley DM, Kellie SJ, Taylor MD, Curran T, Gajjar A, Gilbertson RJ: Genomics identifies medulloblastoma subgroups that are enriched for specific genetic alterations. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr 20;24(12):1924-31
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  • [Title] Genomics identifies medulloblastoma subgroups that are enriched for specific genetic alterations.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression profiles of 46 samples of medulloblastoma were generated using the U133av2 Affymetrix oligonucleotide array and validated using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised analysis of gene expression profiles partitioned medulloblastomas into five distinct subgroups (subgroups A to E).
  • Real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression profiles was then used to predict accurately the presence of mutations in the WNT and SHH pathways in a separate group of 31 medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Genome-wide expression profiles can partition large tumor cohorts into subgroups that are enriched for specific genetic alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cost-Benefit Analysis. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Patient Selection. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16567768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Secondino S, Citterio A, Pedrazzoli P, Funaioli C, Scialfa GG, Siena S: Neuroimaging abnormalities in adult medulloblastoma undergoing intensified therapy. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):3991-2
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  • [Title] Neuroimaging abnormalities in adult medulloblastoma undergoing intensified therapy.
  • We report on radiological abnormalities resembling recurrent tumor in adult medulloblastoma receiving intensified chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Evidence provided in this paper confirms previous reports in the pediatric population and suggests that neuroradiologist and medical oncologists should be aware of new possible radiological findings related to aggressive treatments for brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19192661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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26. Yan B, Omar FM, Das K, Ng WH, Lim C, Shiuan K, Yap CT, Salto-Tellez M: Characterization of Numb expression in astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):479-84
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  • Numb has also been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancers and medulloblastomas.
  • Given its role in maintaining neural progenitor pools in animal models and its reported role as a tumor suppressor, Numb could potentially contribute to astrocytoma oncogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroglia / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18384513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Numb protein, human
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27. Misaki K, Marukawa K, Hayashi Y, Fukusato T, Minamoto T, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J, Fujisawa H: Correlation of gamma-catenin expression with good prognosis in medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg; 2005 Mar;102(2 Suppl):197-206
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  • [Title] Correlation of gamma-catenin expression with good prognosis in medulloblastomas.
  • OBJECT: Medulloblastoma is a malignant cerebellar tumor of childhood and is difficult to cure due to frequent cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical and cytogenetic examinations of beta- and gamma-catenin, c-myc, N-myc, and cyclin D1 in 24 primary medulloblastomas were conducted, and their clinical relevance was evaluated.
  • By differential polymerase chain reaction, c-myc and N-myc were amplified separately in two large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Genes, myc / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / genetics. Desmoplakins. Genes, bcl-1 / immunology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Point Mutation / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics. Trans-Activators / immunology. beta Catenin. gamma Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16156230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Desmoplakins; 0 / JUP protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / gamma Catenin
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28. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Strathdee G, Brown R, Gilbertson RJ, Bailey S, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;118(2):346-52
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours.
  • We examined the status of MCJ in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumours [PNETs, comprising cerebellar PNETs (medulloblastomas) and supratentorial PNETs (stPNETs)] and ependymomas, together representing the most common malignant brain tumours of childhood.
  • Evidence of MCJ hypermethylation was found in all 3 tumour types [medulloblastomas, 3/9 (33%) cell lines, 2/28 (7%) primary tumours; stPNETs, 2/2 (100%) cell lines, 3/10 (30%) primary tumours; and ependymomas, 2/20 (10%) primary tumours] but not in nonneoplastic brain tissues (n = 11), indicating that MCJ methylation is a tumour-specific event.
  • Extensive methylation patterns were associated with the methylation-dependent transcriptional silencing of MCJ in medulloblastoma and stPNET cell lines.
  • These data indicate that epigenetic inactivation of MCJ may play a role in the development of a range of paediatric brain tumour types, and its role in disease pathogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance should now be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16049974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNAJC1 protein, human; 0 / HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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29. Pang JC, Chang Q, Chung YF, Teo JG, Poon WS, Zhou LF, Kong X, Ng HK: Epigenetic inactivation of DLC-1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Hum Pathol; 2005 Jan;36(1):36-43
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of DLC-1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNETs) and medulloblastomas (MBs) are histologically similar intracranial tumors found in different anatomic locations of the brain.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DLC-1, a newly identified tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 8p22, is involved in the tumorigenesis of MBs and the histologically similar SPNETs.
  • Bisulfite sequencing further verified a densely methylated pattern of 35 CpG sites studied in M1 that were not found in normal brain, indicating that inactivation of DLC-1 by hypermethylation is involved in SPNET.
  • [MeSH-major] Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Silencing. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. Female. GTPase-Activating Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Infant. Lasers. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Microdissection. Molecular Sequence Data. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


30. Dagostino C, Clara E, Chio A, Giordana MT: Morphophenotype of medulloblastoma in children and adults. The size of nuclei. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):227-31
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  • [Title] Morphophenotype of medulloblastoma in children and adults. The size of nuclei.
  • OBJECTIVE: Uniform cells with round, regular nuclei characterize the typical histologic aspect of medulloblastoma.
  • Enlargement of nuclei distinguishes the large-cell medulloblastoma variant and is associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric medulloblastomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the size of nuclei between pediatric and adult medulloblastomas by a morphometric analysis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 79 neurosurgical specimens of cerebellar medulloblastomas, the maximum nuclear diameter of the largest nuclei was measured.
  • Measurements were performed with a digital-image analysis system.
  • RESULTS: The difference between the mean values in children and adults was statistically significant (p = 0,001).
  • The distribution of maximum values measured in each case had two distinct peaks in the two age groups, in 3.5% of adult cases and in more than 30% of pediatric cases the maximum nuclear size was superior to 12 microm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present results show that nuclei of tumor cells in pediatric medulloblastomas are larger than those in adult medulloblastomas and confirm that the phenotype of medulloblastoma is different in the two age groups.
  • Distinct genetic events can, thus, underlie medulloblastoma in childhood and adult age, the prognostic role of genetic variables can differ by age.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cerebellar Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Medulloblastoma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17007445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Hauser P, Hanzély Z, Jakab Z, Oláh L, Szabó E, Jeney A, Schuler D, Fekete G, Bognár L, Garami M: Expression and prognostic examination of heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70, and HSP 90) in medulloblastoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Jul;28(7):461-6
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  • [Title] Expression and prognostic examination of heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70, and HSP 90) in medulloblastoma.
  • Expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is of prognostic significance in several tumor types.
  • HSP expression levels were determined in medulloblastomas and tested whether HSPs expression was associated with prognostic parameters.
  • Sample evaluation was based on the estimated percentage of HSP positive tumor cells.
  • Expression of HSPs varied in medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Medulloblastoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibody Specificity. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16825994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins
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32. Sabatier J, Uro-Coste E, Benouaich A, Boetto S, Gigaud M, Tremoulet M, Delisle MB, Galateau-Sallé F, Brousset P: Immunodetection of SV40 large T antigen in human central nervous system tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;58(4):429-31
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  • [Title] Immunodetection of SV40 large T antigen in human central nervous system tumours.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: DNA sequences from Simian virus 40 (SV40) have been previously isolated from various human tumours of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • This study aimed to investigate a series of tumours of the CNS for the expression of the SV40 large T antigen (Tag), which is an oncogenic protein of the virus.
  • METHODS: A French series of 82 CNS tumours was investigated for Tag expression using a monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: None of the tumours (20 ependymomas, 20 glioblastomas, 12 oligodendrogliomas, three plexus choroid adenomas, two plexus choroid carcinomas, 15 meningiomas, and 10 medulloblastomas) contained SV40 Tag positive cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The lack of SV40 Tag in 82 CNS tumours of various types is at variance with previous studies from different countries, and suggests that the virus may not be an important factor in CNS tumorigenesis, at least in French cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15790713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770612
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33. Kool M, Koster J, Bunt J, Hasselt NE, Lakeman A, van Sluis P, Troost D, Meeteren NS, Caron HN, Cloos J, Mrsić A, Ylstra B, Grajkowska W, Hartmann W, Pietsch T, Ellison D, Clifford SC, Versteeg R: Integrated genomics identifies five medulloblastoma subtypes with distinct genetic profiles, pathway signatures and clinicopathological features. PLoS One; 2008;3(8):e3088
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  • [Title] Integrated genomics identifies five medulloblastoma subtypes with distinct genetic profiles, pathway signatures and clinicopathological features.
  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • This illustrates the potential benefits of a robust classification of medulloblastoma patients and a detailed knowledge of associated biological mechanisms.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: To get a better insight into the molecular biology of medulloblastoma we established mRNA expression profiles of 62 medulloblastomas and analyzed 52 of them also by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays.
  • Mutations in beta-catenin were identified in all 9 type A tumors, but not in any other tumor.
  • Monosomy of chromosome 6 occurred only in type A tumors, loss of 9q mostly occurred in type B tumors, whereas chromosome 17 aberrations, most common in medulloblastoma, were strongly associated with type C or D tumors.
  • We validated and confirmed the molecular subtypes and their associated clinicopathological features with expression data from a second independent series of 46 medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The new medulloblastoma classification presented in this study will greatly enhance the understanding of this heterogeneous disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18769486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2518524
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34. Brandes AA, Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Reni M, Gatta G, Vecht C, Kortmann RD: Adult neuroectodermal tumors of posterior fossa (medulloblastoma) and of supratentorial sites (stPNET). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2009 Aug;71(2):165-79
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  • [Title] Adult neuroectodermal tumors of posterior fossa (medulloblastoma) and of supratentorial sites (stPNET).
  • Medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare diseases in adults.
  • Due to this rarity, few prospective clinical trials have been conducted on medulloblastoma in adults, investigations being based exclusively on retrospective studies; the populations considered in literature are small, and the different treatments given span decades, during which diagnostic procedures, neurosurgical skills and radiotherapy techniques have changed.
  • Unlike pediatric patients, adult medulloblastoma patients have been treated according to risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in only a few series and despite risk-tailored treatments, 20-30% of patients experience recurrence.
  • An important challenge for the future will be the biological characterization of medulloblastoma, with the identification of specific genetic patterns of patients with a better or a worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19303318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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35. Yong RL, Kavanagh EC, Fenton D, Dorovini-Zis K, Heran MK, Haw CS: Midline cerebellar medulloblastoma in a seventy-one-year-old patient. Can J Neurol Sci; 2006 Feb;33(1):101-4
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  • [Title] Midline cerebellar medulloblastoma in a seventy-one-year-old patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system tumour in children but, in contrast, quite rare in adults.
  • Hemispheric, rather than midline, cerebellar medulloblastomas are more common in older children and adults.
  • We present the unusual case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a fourth ventricular mass that proved to be a medulloblastoma.
  • A CT scan of the brain revealed a hyperattenuating, partially calcified, avidly enhancing mass within the fourth ventricle.
  • These findings were consistent with a classical medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Adult medulloblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a partially calcified hyperattenuating mass within the fourth ventricle.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16583731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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36. Ferretti E, De Smaele E, Po A, Di Marcotullio L, Tosi E, Espinola MS, Di Rocco C, Riccardi R, Giangaspero F, Farcomeni A, Nofroni I, Laneve P, Gioia U, Caffarelli E, Bozzoni I, Screpanti I, Gulino A: MicroRNA profiling in human medulloblastoma. Int J Cancer; 2009 Feb 01;124(3):568-77
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  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling in human medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastoma is an aggressive brain malignancy with high incidence in childhood.
  • However, no data are yet available on human primary medulloblastomas.
  • A high throughput microRNA expression profiles was performed in human primary medulloblastoma specimens to investigate microRNA involvement in medulloblastoma carcinogenesis.
  • We identified specific microRNA expression patterns which distinguish medulloblastoma differing in histotypes (anaplastic, classic and desmoplastic), in molecular features (ErbB2 or c-Myc overexpressing tumors) and in disease-risk stratification.
  • MicroRNAs expression profile clearly differentiates medulloblastoma from either adult or fetal normal cerebellar tissues.
  • Only a few microRNAs displayed upregulated expression, while most of them were downregulated in tumor samples, suggesting a tumor growth-inhibitory function.
  • This property has been addressed for miR-9 and miR-125a, whose rescued expression promoted medulloblastoma cell growth arrest and apoptosis while targeting the proproliferative truncated TrkC isoform.
  • In conclusion, misregulated microRNA expression profiles characterize human medulloblastomas, and may provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Medulloblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18973228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP07118
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC
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37. Foreid H, Barroso C, Carvalho H, Morgado C, Roque L, Pimentel J: A 22-year-old man with intracraneal hypertension and impaired sensation over the perineum and left foot. Brain Pathol; 2009 Oct;19(4):735-8
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  • This young man presented an intracranial hypertension syndrome and brain MRI features of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement over cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres.
  • A second cerebellar biopsy allowed the diagnosis of a primary diffuse leptomeningeal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET).
  • Besides the paucity of reports of primary leptomeningeal PNET, its differentiation from primary leptomeningeal medulloblastomas is not always clear-cut and is discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / therapy. Hypesthesia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19744046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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38. Li KK, Pang JC, Ching AK, Wong CK, Kong X, Wang Y, Zhou L, Chen Z, Ng HK: miR-124 is frequently down-regulated in medulloblastoma and is a negative regulator of SLC16A1. Hum Pathol; 2009 Sep;40(9):1234-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] miR-124 is frequently down-regulated in medulloblastoma and is a negative regulator of SLC16A1.
  • Given that miR-124 is preferentially expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and external granule cells of cerebellum are thought to be cells-of-origins of medulloblastomas, we investigated if miR-124 played a role in the development of medulloblastomas.
  • Quantitative expression analysis of 29 medulloblastomas demonstrated significant down-regulation of miR-124 in 21 (72%) tumors by at least 2-fold, with 11 of them exhibiting greater than 10-fold reduced level compared to normal cerebella (P < .01).
  • Ectopic expression of miR-124 in medulloblastoma cell lines, ONS-76 and DAOY, inhibited cell proliferation.
  • Knockdown of SLC16A1 by siRNA induced cell death in medulloblastoma cells.
  • In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-124 deregulation is common in medulloblastomas, and restoration of its function inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that miR-124 may act as a growth suppressor.
  • Our findings also raise the possibility that the miR-124/SLC16A1 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of malignant medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Down-Regulation / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. MicroRNAs / physiology. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / genetics. Symporters / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Luciferases, Renilla / metabolism. Male. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19427019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN124 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Symporters; 0 / monocarboxylate transport protein 1; EC 1.13.12.5 / Luciferases, Renilla
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39. Srikantha U, Balasubramaniam A, Santosh V, Somanna S, Bhagavatula ID, Ashwathnarayana CB: Recurrence in medulloblastoma - influence of clinical, histological and immunohistochemical factors. Br J Neurosurg; 2010 Jun;24(3):280-8
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  • [Title] Recurrence in medulloblastoma - influence of clinical, histological and immunohistochemical factors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The therapy for medulloblastomas has gone through several changes over the years.
  • Research has shown that patients with medulloblastoma cannot be satisfactorily stratified into risk groups based on clinical and therapeutic factors alone.
  • AIM: To study the clinical, histological features and expression of immunohistochemical markers in medulloblastoma, and to correlate these features with recurrence rates.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three cases of medulloblastomas operated at our institute from 1996-2003 were selected and retrospectively analyzed for therapy received, histological features and immunohistochemical expression of GFAP, synaptophysin, erb B2, p53, Bcl-2 and Trk-C along with assessment of MIB-1 labeling index(LI).
  • CONCLUSION: We propose a clinical-histological-immunohistochemical' model for medulloblastoma where extent of resection, administration of chemotherapy, presence of gross anaplasia and c-erb B2 overexpression status are the most important predictors of recurrence rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. India / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20465457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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40. Mittal P, Gupta K, Saggar K, Kaur S: Adult medulloblastoma mimicking Lhermitte-Duclos disease: can diffusion weighted imaging help? Neurol India; 2009 Mar-Apr;57(2):203-5
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  • [Title] Adult medulloblastoma mimicking Lhermitte-Duclos disease: can diffusion weighted imaging help?
  • Lhermitte-Duclos disease, also known as dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma, is a rare cerebellar benign tumor with characteristic appearance of thickened cerebellar folia giving a laminated or striated appearance, quite diagnostic of the condition.
  • We had seen a patient with medulloblastoma with imaging findings suspicious for thickened cerebellar folia reminiscent of Lhermitte-Duclos disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19439857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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41. Northcott PA, Fernandez-L A, Hagan JP, Ellison DW, Grajkowska W, Gillespie Y, Grundy R, Van Meter T, Rutka JT, Croce CM, Kenney AM, Taylor MD: The miR-17/92 polycistron is up-regulated in sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastomas and induced by N-myc in sonic hedgehog-treated cerebellar neural precursors. Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 15;69(8):3249-55
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  • [Title] The miR-17/92 polycistron is up-regulated in sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastomas and induced by N-myc in sonic hedgehog-treated cerebellar neural precursors.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, and mechanisms underlying its development are poorly understood.
  • We identified recurrent amplification of the miR-17/92 polycistron proto-oncogene in 6% of pediatric medulloblastomas by high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays and subsequent interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on a human medulloblastoma tissue microarray.
  • Profiling the expression of 427 mature microRNAs (miRNA) in a series of 90 primary human medulloblastomas revealed that components of the miR-17/92 polycistron are the most highly up-regulated miRNAs in medulloblastoma.
  • Expression of miR-17/92 was highest in the subgroup of medulloblastomas associated with activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway compared with other subgroups of medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastomas in which miR-17/92 was up-regulated also had elevated levels of MYC/MYCN expression.
  • Consistent with its regulation by Shh, we observed that Shh treatment of primary cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNP), proposed cells of origin for the Shh-associated medulloblastomas, resulted in increased miR-17/92 expression.
  • We conclude that miR-17/92 is a positive effector of Shh-mediated proliferation and that aberrant expression/amplification of this miR confers a growth advantage to medulloblastomas.

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  • (PMID = 19351822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS061070-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS061070; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS061070-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01NS061070
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / MIRN17 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / SHH protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS100132; NLM/ PMC2836891
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42. Sugita Y, Nakamura Y, Yamamoto M, Ogasawara S, Ohshima K, Shigemori M: Expression of KIAA 0864 protein in neuroepithelial tumors: an analysis based on the presence of monoclonal antibody HFB-16. J Neurooncol; 2008 Sep;89(2):151-8
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  • The KIAA 0864 (KA) protein is a putative protein of a cDNA from 100 cDNA clones that was newly determined from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries and their coding potentials of large proteins (180-200 kD) by using in vitro transcription assays.
  • Among the 55 NETs, a moderate-to-intense KA protein immunoreactivity was observed in 8 of 8 medulloblastomas, 1 of 1 central nervous system supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS supratentorial PNET), 4 of 4 retinoblastomas, 1 of 1 neuroblastoma, 8 of 8 central neurocytomas, 4 of 4 oligodendrogliomas, 4 of 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 of 1 extraventricular neurocytoma, and 1 of 1 gangliocytoma.
  • In addition, it could be a useful tool for performing the differential diagnosis between GBs and CNS supratentorial PNET.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18458818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. El-Bahy K: Telovelar approach to the fourth ventricle: operative findings and results in 16 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Feb;147(2):137-42; discussion 142
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  • The inferior medullary velum was infiltrated by the tumour and was not detected as a separate layer in 6 cases (3 cases vermian astrocytomas and 3 cases medulloblastomas).
  • Subtotal removal was achieved in the remaining patients (31.25%); three ependymomas, one medulloblastoma, and one anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Cerebellar Ataxia / pathology. Cerebellar Ataxia / physiopathology. Child. Choroid Plexus / pathology. Choroid Plexus / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15605202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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44. Chargari C, Feuvret L, Levy A, Lamproglou I, Assouline A, Hemery C, Ghorbal L, Lopez S, Tep B, G GB, Lang P, Laigle-Donadey F, Cornu P, Mazeron JJ, Simon JM: Reappraisal of clinical outcome in adult medulloblastomas with emphasis on patterns of relapse. Br J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;24(4):460-7
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  • [Title] Reappraisal of clinical outcome in adult medulloblastomas with emphasis on patterns of relapse.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical outcome and prognostic factors were assessed in adult medulloblastoma patients, with emphasis on patterns of relapse.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of 36 consecutive adult patients with medulloblastoma were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Middle Aged. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20726753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Lai R: Survival of patients with adult medulloblastoma: a population-based study. Cancer; 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1568-74
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  • [Title] Survival of patients with adult medulloblastoma: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: Adult medulloblastoma accounts for less than 1% of adult intracranial tumors.
  • RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-four patients with adult medulloblastoma were diagnosed from 1973-2004 in the 17 regions covered by SEER.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Registries. SEER Program. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18278809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Choi YL, Kim CJ, Matsuo T, Gaetano C, Falconi R, Suh YL, Kim SH, Shin YK, Park SH, Chi JG, Thiele CJ: HUlip, a human homologue of unc-33-like phosphoprotein of Caenorhabditis elegans; Immunohistochemical localization in the developing human brain and patterns of expression in nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;73(1):19-27
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  • [Title] HUlip, a human homologue of unc-33-like phosphoprotein of Caenorhabditis elegans; Immunohistochemical localization in the developing human brain and patterns of expression in nervous system tumors.
  • HUlip is a human homologue of a C. elegans gene, unc-33, that is developmentally regulated during maturation of the nervous system.
  • HUlip is highly expressed only in the fetal brain and spinal cord, and is undetected in the adult brain.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of hUlip expression in the developing human brain and nervous system tumors.
  • Ten human brains at different developmental stages and 118 cases of nervous system tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • Twelve related tumor cell lines were also analyzed by northern blotting and immunoblotting.
  • HUlip was expressed in late fetal and early postnatal brains; strongly in the neurons of the brain stem, basal ganglia/thalamus, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and relatively weakly in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex.
  • Among tumors, hUlip expression was easily detected in tumor cells undergoing neuronal differentiation such as ganglioneuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas.
  • Furthermore, hUlip immunoreactivity was also found in various brain tumors showing neuronal differentiation: central neurocytomas (6 of 6 cases were positive), medulloblastomas (5/11), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (1/1) and gangliogliomas (4/7).
  • The results of this study indicate that the expression of hUlip protein is distinctly restricted to the late fetal and early postnatal periods of human nervous system development and to certain subsets of nervous system tumors.
  • The exact function of hUlip needs to be further clarified; yet the results of our study strongly imply that hUlip function is important in human nervous system development and its aberrant expression in various types of nervous system tumors suggests a role of hUlip as an oncofetal neural antigen.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / cytology. Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neuroblastoma / genetics. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15933812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DPYSL3 protein, human; 0 / Muscle Proteins
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47. Duggan A, Madathany T, de Castro SC, Gerrelli D, Guddati K, García-Añoveros J: Transient expression of the conserved zinc finger gene INSM1 in progenitors and nascent neurons throughout embryonic and adult neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol; 2008 Apr 01;507(4):1497-520
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  • [Title] Transient expression of the conserved zinc finger gene INSM1 in progenitors and nascent neurons throughout embryonic and adult neurogenesis.
  • INSM1 is a zinc-finger protein expressed in the developing nervous system and pancreas as well as in medulloblastomas and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • With in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry, we detected INSM1 mRNA in all embryonic to adult neuroproliferative areas examined: embryonic neocortex, ganglionic eminence, midbrain, retina, hindbrain, and spinal cord; autonomic, dorsal root, trigeminal and spiral ganglia; olfactory and vomeronasal organ epithelia; postnatal cerebellum; and juvenile to adult subgranular zone of dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, and rostral migratory stream leading to olfactory bulb.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Nervous System / embryology. Neurons / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18205207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of comparative neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9826762; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9900837; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS044363
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 147955-03-1 / INSM1 protein, human
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48. Figols-Ladrón de Guevara J, Lafuente-Sánchez JV: [The medulloblastoma]. Rev Neurol; 2006 Aug 16-31;43(4):213-7
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  • [Title] [The medulloblastoma].
  • INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT: Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar small cell tumor, whose ancestor cell has not been yet identified in the human normal embriology: its exact origin is, in fact, still unknown.
  • Nevertheless, one of the most acceptable possibilities facing the origin of the tumor is the remaining rests of cerebellar outer granular sheet.
  • It is a predominantly infantile tumor, less frequent in young adults, and World Health Organization (WHO) classification has assignated grade IV of malignancy.
  • In this publication of the WHO, medulloblastomas have been subclassified into: classic, desmoplastic, medulloblastomas with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellum / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Isochromosomes. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16883510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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49. Muñoz-Mármol AM, Mola G, Ruiz-Larroya T, Fernández-Vasalo A, Vela E, Mate JL, Ariza A: Rarity of JC virus DNA sequences and early proteins in human gliomas and medulloblastomas: the controversial role of JC virus in human neurooncogenesis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Apr;32(2):131-40
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  • [Title] Rarity of JC virus DNA sequences and early proteins in human gliomas and medulloblastomas: the controversial role of JC virus in human neurooncogenesis.
  • Moreover, JCV genomic DNA and early viral protein T-antigen have been detected in various types of human central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms.
  • To further explore this association we have studied paraffin-embedded brain biopsy tissue from 60 neoplasms (55 gliomas and five medulloblastomas) and 15 reactive gliosis cases for the presence of JCV DNA sequences and proteins.
  • Additionally, IHC with both antibodies was applied to a tissue micro-array including 109 CNS tumours and 21 reactive gliosis samples.
  • The rarity of JCV DNA sequences and early proteins in our brain tumours enriches the controversy over the role of JCV in human neurooncogenesis, whose clarification is in need of further molecular and epidemiologic studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Glioma / virology. JC Virus / genetics. Medulloblastoma / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / isolation & purification. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16599942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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50. Rieken S, Gaiser T, Mohr A, Welzel T, Witt O, Kulozik AE, Wick W, Debus J, Combs SE: Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:450
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplasia in medulloblastoma is often diagnosed in adult patients and was repeatedly associated with improved results.
  • Today, all medulloblastoma patients receive intensive multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • This study was set up to investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with desmoplastic medulloblastomas.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients treated for desmoplastic medulloblastoma in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Heidelberg between 1984 and 2007 were included.
  • Tumor resection was performed in all patients.
  • Two patients underwent whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), and 18 patients received craniospinal irradiation (CSI).
  • The median dose to the whole brain and the craniospinal axis was 35.2 Gray (Gy), and 54.4 Gy to the posterior fossa.
  • Five patients died from recurrent medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal approaches with surgical resection followed by chemoirradiation achieved high response rates with long OS in desmoplastic medulloblastoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2939548
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51. Nakamura Y, Kanemura Y, Yamada T, Sugita Y, Higaki K, Yamamoto M, Takahashi M, Yamasaki M: D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):974-85
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  • [Title] D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells.
  • Some brain tumors such as anaplastic ependymoma, some medulloblastomas, glioblastoma, pineal germinoma, craniopharyngioma, choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma, and meningioma showed positive immunoreactivity with D2-40.
  • Therefore, D2-40 antibody is considered a useful marker for research on developing brain and diagnosis of brain tumors, differentiation between choroid plexus carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cerebellum / immunology. Telencephalon / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cell Differentiation. Cells, Cultured. Child, Preschool. Fetus / immunology. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Middle Aged. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / immunology. Prosencephalon / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16648867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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52. Daniel RA, Rozanska AL, Mulligan EA, Drew Y, Thomas HD, Castelbuono DJ, Hostomsky Z, Plummer ER, Tweddle DA, Boddy AV, Clifford SC, Curtin NJ: Central nervous system penetration and enhancement of temozolomide activity in childhood medulloblastoma models by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor AG-014699. Br J Cancer; 2010 Nov 9;103(10):1588-96
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  • [Title] Central nervous system penetration and enhancement of temozolomide activity in childhood medulloblastoma models by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor AG-014699.
  • BACKGROUND: Temozolomide shows activity against medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour.
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors enhance temozolomide activity in extracranial adult and paediatric human malignancies.
  • METHODS: We assessed the effect of AG-014699, a clinically active PARP inhibitor, on temozolomide-induced growth inhibition in human medulloblastoma models.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity to temozolomide in vitro was consistent with methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status; MGMT(+) MMR(+) D384Med cells (temozolomide GI(50)=220 μM), representative of most primary medulloblastomas, were sensitised fourfold by AG-014699; MGMT⁻ MMR(+) D425Med cells were hypersensitive (GI(50)=9 μM) and not sensitised by AG-014699, whereas MGMT(+) MMR⁻ temozolomide-resistant D283Med cells (GI₅₀=807 μM) were sensitised 20-fold.
  • AG-014699 was not toxic, accumulated and reduced PARP activity ≥75% in xenograft and brain tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: We show for the first time central nervous system penetration and inhibition of brain PARP activity by AG-014699.

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  • (PMID = 20978505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C8464/A5414; United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8237F3U7EH / rucaparib; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990587
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53. De Bustos C, Smits A, Strömberg B, Collins VP, Nistér M, Afink G: A PDGFRA promoter polymorphism, which disrupts the binding of ZNF148, is associated with primitive neuroectodermal tumours and ependymomas. J Med Genet; 2005 Jan;42(1):31-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha) expression is typical for a variety of brain tumours, while in normal adult brain PDGFRalpha expression is limited to a small number of neural progenitor cells.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We have investigated the link between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PDGFRalpha gene promoter and the occurrence of brain tumours (medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), ependymal tumours, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed gliomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Ependymoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15635072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-6244
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / ZNF148 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1735903
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54. Riffaud L, Saikali S, Leray E, Hamlat A, Haegelen C, Vauleon E, Lesimple T: Survival and prognostic factors in a series of adults with medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):478-87
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  • [Title] Survival and prognostic factors in a series of adults with medulloblastomas.
  • OBJECT: In this article, the authors report their experience in the management of adult patients with medulloblastoma at their institution to identify prognostic factors important for survival and disease control.
  • METHODS: Between 1977 and 2005, 27 patients who were >or=16 years old and had medulloblastoma were treated consecutively.
  • Six patients had the desmoplastic variant, and 21 patients presented with classic medulloblastoma.
  • Patient age, duration of symptoms, Karnofsky Performance Scale score at presentation, hydrocephalus, tumor location, brainstem invasion, extent of resection, histological subtype, preradiotherapy chemotherapy, risk group, and period of presentation were not significant variables.
  • Eleven patients suffered tumor recurrence within a median time of 4.2 years.
  • All patients in whom the tumor recurred have died despite aggressive treatments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is possible in adults treated for medulloblastoma.
  • Tumor recurrences should be treated with aggressive therapies as some patients may have sustained response.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sex Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19231932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Nakahara Y, Northcott PA, Li M, Kongkham PN, Smith C, Yan H, Croul S, Ra YS, Eberhart C, Huang A, Bigner D, Grajkowska W, Van Meter T, Rutka JT, Taylor MD: Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of Kruppel-like factor 4 in medulloblastoma. Neoplasia; 2010 Jan;12(1):20-7
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  • [Title] Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of Kruppel-like factor 4 in medulloblastoma.
  • Although medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor, its molecular underpinnings are largely unknown.
  • We have identified rare, recurrent homozygous deletions of Kruppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) in medulloblastoma using high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, digital karyotyping, and genomic real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • Furthermore, we show that there is loss of physiological KLF4 expression in more than 40% of primary medulloblastomas both at the RNA and protein levels.
  • Medulloblastoma cell lines drastically increase the expression of KLF4 in response to the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and demonstrate dense methylation of the promoter CpG island by bisulfite sequencing.
  • Methylation-specific PCR targeting the KLF4 promoter demonstrates CpG methylation in approximately 16% of primary medulloblastomas.
  • Reexpression of KLF4 in the D283 medulloblastoma cell line results in significant growth suppression both in vitro and in vivo.
  • We conclude that KLF4 is inactivated by either genetic or epigenetic mechanisms in a large subset of medulloblastomas and that it likely functions as a tumor suppressor gene in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 20072650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055089
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / GKLF protein; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2805880
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56. Sousa R, Sá G, Reimão S, Lopes L, Ruivo J, Albuquerque L, Campos J: [Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: imaging findings in eight cases]. Acta Med Port; 2006 Nov-Dec;19(6):466-70
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  • [Title] [Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: imaging findings in eight cases].
  • Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuroepithelial origin, frequent in children but rare in adults.
  • The imaging pattern is well studied in the pediatric group thought there is controversy about the imaging characteristics in adults.
  • We report CT and MRI imaging findings of 8 adult patients with cerebellar medulloblastoma.
  • The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are unspecific and different from those in child.
  • They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar tumor in adults, especially if they are hyperdense on CT, with well defined margins, with superficial extension and with dural involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / radiography. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17583605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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57. Nern C, Sommerlad D, Acker T, Plate KH: Brain tumor stem cells. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2009;171:241-59
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  • [Title] Brain tumor stem cells.
  • The dogma that solid tumors are composed of tumor cells that all share the same ability to produce proliferating daughter cells has been challenged in recent years.
  • There is growing evidence that many adult tissues contain a set of tissue stem cells, which might undergo malignant transformation while retaining their stem cell characteristics.
  • Brain tumors such as medulloblastomas or glioblastomas often contain areas of divergent differentiation, which raises the intriguing question of whether these tumors could derive from neural stem cells (NSCs).This chapter reviews the current knowledge of NSCs and relates them to brain tumor pathology.
  • Current therapy protocols for malignant brain tumors are targeted toward the reduction of bulk tumor mass.
  • The concept of brain-tumor stem cells could provide new insights for future therapies, if the capacity for self-renewal of tumor cells and growth of the tumor mass would reside within a small subset of cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19322548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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58. Svärd J, Rozell B, Toftgård R, Teglund S: Tumor suppressor gene co-operativity in compound Patched1 and suppressor of fused heterozygous mutant mice. Mol Carcinog; 2009 May;48(5):408-19
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  • [Title] Tumor suppressor gene co-operativity in compound Patched1 and suppressor of fused heterozygous mutant mice.
  • Dysregulation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway is central to the development of certain tumor types, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Patched1 (Ptch1) and Suppressor of fused (Sufu) are two essential negative regulators of the pathway with tumor suppressor activity.
  • Ptch1(+/-) mice are predisposed to developing medulloblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, while Sufu(+/-) mice develop a skin phenotype characterized by basaloid epidermal proliferations.
  • Here, we have studied tumor development in Sufu(+/-)Ptch1(+/-) mice to determine the effect of compound heterozygosity on the onset, incidence, and spectrum of tumors.
  • For medulloblastoma, the cumulative 1-yr incidence was 1.5-fold higher in Sufu(+/-)Ptch1(+/-) compared to Ptch1(+/-) female mice but this strong trend was not statistically significant.
  • Together this suggests a weak genetic interaction of the two tumor suppressor genes.
  • Interestingly, most of the medulloblastomas from the Sufu(+/-)Ptch1(+/-) mice had lost expression of the remaining Ptch1 wild-type allele but not the Sufu wild-type allele.
  • On the contrary, Sufu as well as Gli1 and Gli2 expression was upregulated in the medulloblastomas compared to adult cerebellum in Ptch1(+/-) and Sufu(+/-)Ptch1(+/-) mice.

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  • (PMID = 18781608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105491-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105491; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105491-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / SUFU protein, human; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS77932; NLM/ PMC2674531
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59. Warnke PC, Timmer J, Ostertag CB, Kopitzki K: Capillary physiology and drug delivery in central nervous system lymphomas. Ann Neurol; 2005 Jan;57(1):136-9
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  • [Title] Capillary physiology and drug delivery in central nervous system lymphomas.
  • To evaluate whether the chemosensitivity of primary central nervous system lymphomas to water-soluble drugs could result from improved drug delivery, we quantitatively assessed pharmacokinetic factors in seven patients.
  • The capillary permeability surface product was found to be significantly increased in central nervous system lymphomas compared with glioblastoma multiforme, medulloblastomas, and metastases.
  • Our results suggest favorable pharmacokinetics to water- and lipid-soluble drugs in primary central nervous system lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Capillaries / physiopathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / physiopathology. Lymphoma / physiopathology. Regional Blood Flow / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain Mapping. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Iopamidol / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Theoretical. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15622544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-5134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; JR13W81H44 / Iopamidol
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60. Valentin MD, Canalle R, Queiroz Rde P, Tone LG: Frequency of polymorphisms and protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) in central nervous system tumors. Sao Paulo Med J; 2009 Sep;127(5):288-94
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  • [Title] Frequency of polymorphisms and protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) in central nervous system tumors.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic investigation of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides valuable information about the genes regulating proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, migration and apoptosis in the CNS.
  • The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms (codon 31 and 3' untranslated region, 3'UTR) and protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A) gene in patients with and without CNS tumors.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pediatric Oncology Department, Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto.
  • METHODS: 41 patients with CNS tumors and a control group of 161 subjects without cancer and paires for sex, age and ethnicity were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
  • Protein analysis was performed on 36 patients with CNS tumors, using the Western Blotting technique.
  • These frequencies were not statistically different (P > 0.05) from those seen in the patients with CNS tumors (19.4% and 0.0%, codon 31; 15.8% and 2.6%, 3'UTR site).
  • The results for medulloblastomas and astrocytomas were similar: neither of them expressed the protein (57.14% and 61.54%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: No significant differences in protein expression patterns or polymorphisms of CDKN1A in relation to the three types of CNS tumors were observed among Brazilian subjects.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 3' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Codon / genetics. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20169278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9460
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Codon; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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61. Pizem J, Cör A, Zadravec Zaletel L, Popovic M: Prognostic significance of apoptosis in medulloblastoma. Neurosci Lett; 2005 Jun 10-17;381(1-2):69-73
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of apoptosis in medulloblastoma.
  • Since apoptosis is a major contributor to cell loss in medulloblastoma, either spontaneous or induced by radiation and chemotherapy, the apoptotic rate in resection specimens could have prognostic significance.
  • We analysed the apoptotic rate in 58 medulloblastoma resection specimens using an antibody against cleaved caspase 3, a specific marker of apoptotic cell death, and tested its possible prognostic significance.
  • The apoptotic rate varied considerably among medulloblastomas (0.1-25.9%, median 1.1%).
  • The apoptotic rate was higher in medulloblastomas with CSF dissemination, tended to be higher in desmoplastic medulloblastomas, but there was no association with age group and sex.
  • The variation in apoptotic rate among medulloblastomas is very likely predominantly associated with variations in tumour microenvironment, as supported by apoptotic cell clustering and rimming around necrotic areas.
  • The apoptotic rate in medulloblastoma resection specimens does not seem to be of prognostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / classification. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / classification. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15882792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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62. Menon G, Krishnakumar K, Nair S: Adult medulloblastoma: clinical profile and treatment results of 18 patients. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Feb;15(2):122-6
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  • [Title] Adult medulloblastoma: clinical profile and treatment results of 18 patients.
  • The objective of this article is to examine the clinicoradiological features and surgical outcomes of adult patients (>16 years) with medulloblastoma.
  • An attempt was made to identify the predictors of poor outcome and assess patterns of relapse and to compare these with pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • Retrospective case record analyses were performed on 18 adults (>16 years) and 79 children (<16 years) operated upon after January 1990, who had at least 5 years of follow-up.
  • The tumor was located in the vermis in 12 patients (66.6%) and in the cerebellar hemisphere in six (16.6%).
  • In spite of recent advances in management, patients with medulloblastoma still have a poor prognosis.
  • However, adults fared better than children.
  • Vermian location had a better outcome in adults, but not in children.
  • Desmoplastic variant histology was not observed to be a significant prognostic factor in the adult group while brain stem invasion carried a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18078755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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63. Yin XL, Pang CS, Ng HK: [Analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 16 in medulloblastomas]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 May;34(5):305-6
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  • [Title] [Analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 16 in medulloblastomas].
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16. Loss of Heterozygosity. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16181555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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64. Tehrani M, Friedman TM, Olson JJ, Brat DJ: Intravascular thrombosis in central nervous system malignancies: a potential role in astrocytoma progression to glioblastoma. Brain Pathol; 2008 Apr;18(2):164-71
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  • [Title] Intravascular thrombosis in central nervous system malignancies: a potential role in astrocytoma progression to glioblastoma.
  • We investigated whether intravascular thrombosis was more frequent or prominent in GBM than other central nervous system (CNS) malignancies and considered its prognostic significance in anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; WHO grade III), which lacks necrosis.
  • Histologic sections were examined for thrombosis, necrosis and microvascular hyperplasia from each of 297 CNS tumors, including 103 GBMs, 46 AAs, 20 diffuse astrocytoma (DAs; WHO grade II), eight anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs; WHO grade III), 20 oligodendrogliomas (ODs; WHO grade II), 49 metastatic carcinomas (METs), 31 primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and 20 medulloblastomas (MBs).
  • Among newly diagnosed tumors, thrombosis was present in 92% of GBM resections, significantly greater than other types of CNS malignancies.
  • Thus, intravascular thrombosis is more frequent in GBM than other CNS malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 18093251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053727-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053727; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053727; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053727-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82090; NLM/ PMC2610479
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65. Mangels KJ, Johnson MD, Weil RJ: 35-year-old woman with progressive bilateral leg weakness. Brain Pathol; 2006 Apr;16(2):183-4, 187
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  • Serial sections revealed a homogeneous black tumor without necrosis.
  • H&E stained sections showed an occasionally fascicular tumor of melanocytes and small round blue tumor spindle cells with melanin pigmentation and 1-2 mitotic figures per 10 high-powered fields.
  • A diagnosis of primary meningeal melanocytic tumor was made.
  • PMMTs of the CNS consist of a spectrum of tumors ranging from well-differentiated melanocytoma to its overtly malignant counterpart, melanoma.
  • Once metastasis, including drop metastasis from pigmented medulloblastomas, have been excluded, the differential includes pigmented meningiomas and schwannomas (solitary or as part of Carney complex), as well as other pigmented CNS tumors such as ependymoma and pineoblastoma and systemic diseases such as lymphoma . . .
  • For primary CNS melanocytic neoplasms, complete tumor resection is preferred, as it leads to cure of well-differentiated and intermediate-grade melanocytomas and most melanomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Functional Laterality. Humans. Thoracic Vertebrae. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16768759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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66. Barnes M, Eberhart CG, Collins R, Tihan T: Expression of p75NTR in fetal brain and medulloblastomas: evidence of a precursor cell marker and its persistence in neoplasia. J Neurooncol; 2009 Apr;92(2):193-201
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  • [Title] Expression of p75NTR in fetal brain and medulloblastomas: evidence of a precursor cell marker and its persistence in neoplasia.
  • p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and plays a significant role in nervous system development. p75NTR has a dual (proliferative/apoptotic) role in neurogenesis and binds pro-neurotrophins with high affinity.
  • Recent work suggests p75NTR is overexpressed in the developing cerebellum and in nodular/desmoplastic medulloblastomas.
  • We analyzed p75NTR expression in various parts of the fetal and adult human central nervous system, and in 75 patients with medulloblastomas.
  • The expression of p75NTR in the fetal brain was seen solely within the external granular layer with weaker expression in the Purkinje layer, which most likely represents Purkinje cell staining.
  • The staining was present in gestational weeks 20-40, while no staining was identified elsewhere in the fetal brain or within the adult cerebellum. p75NTR positive cells were also positive with the proliferation marker ki-67, but were negative for ret, reelin, CD133, CD34, and cleaved caspase 3.
  • Nine of 75 medulloblastomas (12%) were also showed positive immunostaining for p75NTR.
  • The staining was seen in four classic, two desmoplastic, and three anaplastic medulloblastomas.
  • The persistence of p75NTR in a small group of medulloblastomas raises the possibility that in such tumors, the receptor could be a potential therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19066726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor
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67. Nicoletti F, Arcella A, Iacovelli L, Battaglia G, Giangaspero F, Melchiorri D: Metabotropic glutamate receptors: new targets for the control of tumor growth? Trends Pharmacol Sci; 2007 May;28(5):206-13
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  • [Title] Metabotropic glutamate receptors: new targets for the control of tumor growth?
  • Transformed neural stem-progenitor cells of the brain subventricular zone and the external granular layer of the cerebellum are the putative cells of origin of malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas, which are the most frequent malignant brain tumors in adults and children, respectively.
  • The proliferation of neural stem-progenitor cells is regulated by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, which are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS.
  • At least two receptor subtypes - mGlu(3) and mGlu(4) receptors - control the proliferation of brain tumor cells, whereas mGlu(1) receptors have been implicated in the development of melanomas.
  • We believe that individual mGlu receptor subtypes represent new potential targets for the treatment of several malignant tumors, including brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Child. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression. Humans. Ligands. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / physiopathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17433452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-6147
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Pharmacol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate
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68. Spiller SE, Ravanpay AC, Hahn AW, Olson JM: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is effective in preclinical studies of medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(3):259-70
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  • [Title] Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is effective in preclinical studies of medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been studied in adult solid and hematologic malignancies.
  • However, little information has been reported on the effects of SAHA on central nervous system (CNS) tumors including medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • We investigated SAHA in preclinical medulloblastoma models to determine its anti-cancer efficacy as well as its ability to affect intracranial lesions when administered systemically.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: Tissue culture studies were performed treating primary human fibroblasts, established medulloblastoma cell lines, and primary human medulloblastoma tumors with SAHA.
  • At 10 microM concentration, SAHA had little effect on normal fibroblasts but caused >90% apoptosis in cultured medulloblastoma cells.
  • Primary medulloblastomas from patients were sensitive to SAHA compared to vehicle alone in ex vivo studies.
  • In athymic mice with medulloblastoma xenograft tumors, oral SAHA resulted in apoptosis of tumor tissue and significantly slowed tumor growth.
  • In the ND2:Smo transgenic mouse medulloblastoma model, SAHA treatment caused significant apoptosis in these cerebellar tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SAHA effectively induces cell death in established medulloblastoma cell lines, human patient primary tumor cultures, medulloblastoma xenografts and intracranial spontaneous medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16645722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112350-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat
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69. Sarrazin JL: [Infra tentorial tumors]. J Radiol; 2006 Jun;87(6 Pt 2):748-63
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  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs de la fosse postérieure.
  • Infra tentorial tumors in adults are half as frequent as supra tentorial tumors.
  • Tumors of the pons and cerebellum are fewer but medulloblastomas and hemangioblastomas are located primarily in the cerebellum: they are typical tumors of this area.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16778745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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70. Herrlinger U, Steinbrecher A, Rieger J, Hau P, Kortmann RD, Meyermann R, Schabet M, Bamberg M, Dichgans J, Bogdahn U, Weller M: Adult medulloblastoma: prognostic factors and response to therapy at diagnosis and at relapse. J Neurol; 2005 Mar;252(3):291-9
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  • [Title] Adult medulloblastoma: prognostic factors and response to therapy at diagnosis and at relapse.
  • Adult medulloblastoma is a rare tumor with few retrospective studies published so far.
  • This study reports therapy and outcome in all adult (>or=16 years old) medulloblastoma (n=34) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) patients (n=2) treated in 2 neuro-oncological centers between 1976 and 2002.
  • In conclusion, adjuvant chemotherapy may prolong survival in adult medulloblastoma patients.
  • As in pediatric medulloblastoma patients, primary infiltration of the floor of the 4(th) ventricle indicates a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy. Demography. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / methods. Recurrence. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16189725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Gessi M, Monego G, Calviello G, Lanza P, Giangaspero F, Silvestrini A, Lauriola L, Ranelletti FO: Human parathyroid hormone-related protein and human parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 are expressed in human medulloblastomas and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in medulloblastoma-derived cell lines. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):135-45
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  • [Title] Human parathyroid hormone-related protein and human parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 are expressed in human medulloblastomas and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in medulloblastoma-derived cell lines.
  • Human parathyroid hormone-related protein (hPTHrP), identified in patients with paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and expressed by different cell types during development and adult life, plays important roles in many human neoplasms.
  • Immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses of hPTHrP and human parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTHR-1) in primary medulloblastoma confirmed their expression in both classic and desmoplastic variants at RNA and protein levels.
  • To evaluate the functional role of hPTHrP, DAOY and D283 medulloblastoma and U87MG glioma cells, expressing high levels of hPTHrP and PTHR-1, were treated with anti-sense oligonucleotides for hPTHrP.
  • This study indicates that hPTHrP and PTHR-1 are expressed in medulloblastoma and could promote tumor growth, protecting cells from apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / biosynthesis. Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Oligonucleotides, Antisense. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17372745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1
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72. Schüller U, Koch A, Hartmann W, Garrè ML, Goodyer CG, Cama A, Sörensen N, Wiestler OD, Pietsch T: Subtype-specific expression and genetic alterations of the chemokinereceptor gene CXCR4 in medulloblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2005 Oct 20;117(1):82-9
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  • [Title] Subtype-specific expression and genetic alterations of the chemokinereceptor gene CXCR4 in medulloblastomas.
  • As medulloblastomas (MBs), the most common malignant brain tumors of childhood, are believed to arise from neuronal cerebellar precursors, we asked whether there is a potential role for Cxcr4 in the pathogenesis of MB.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Receptors, CXCR4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amino Acid Substitution. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. RNA / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Trans-Activators. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15880586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATOH1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Gli protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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73. Mühlisch J, Bajanowski T, Rickert CH, Roggendorf W, Würthwein G, Jürgens H, Frühwald MC: Frequent but borderline methylation of p16 (INK4a) and TIMP3 in medulloblastoma and sPNET revealed by quantitative analyses. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):17-29
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  • [Title] Frequent but borderline methylation of p16 (INK4a) and TIMP3 in medulloblastoma and sPNET revealed by quantitative analyses.
  • Certain risk groups among tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in children take an almost inevitably fatal course.
  • Aberrant methylation is common in malignant brain tumors of childhood and may have implications for stratification and therapy.
  • Methylation of p16 (INK4A), p14 (ARF), TIMP3, CDH1, p15 (INK4B )and DAPK1 in medulloblastoma (MB) and ependymoma has been discussed controversially in the literature.
  • Only p16 (INK4A )and TIMP3 were methylated consistently in medulloblastomas (p16 (INK4A ) 14%, TIMP3 11%) and p16 (INK4A) also in anaplastic ependymomas (1/4 tumors).
  • Therapeutic and diagnostic implications urge into depth analyses of methylation as a mechanism, which might fill some of the gaps of our understanding of brain tumor origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Genes, p16. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Death-Associated Protein Kinases. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17206475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / TIMP3 protein, human; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / DAPK1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Death-Associated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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74. Gibson P, Tong Y, Robinson G, Thompson MC, Currle DS, Eden C, Kranenburg TA, Hogg T, Poppleton H, Martin J, Finkelstein D, Pounds S, Weiss A, Patay Z, Scoggins M, Ogg R, Pei Y, Yang ZJ, Brun S, Lee Y, Zindy F, Lindsey JC, Taketo MM, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Gajjar A, Clifford SC, Roussel MF, McKinnon PJ, Gutmann DH, Ellison DW, Wechsler-Reya R, Gilbertson RJ: Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins. Nature; 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1095-9
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  • [Title] Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins.
  • Medulloblastoma encompasses a collection of clinically and molecularly diverse tumour subtypes that together comprise the most common malignant childhood brain tumour.
  • The pathological processes that drive heterogeneity among the other medulloblastoma subtypes are not known, hindering the development of much needed new therapies.
  • Here we provide evidence that a discrete subtype of medulloblastoma that contains activating mutations in the WNT pathway effector CTNNB1 (hereafter, WNT subtype) arises outside the cerebellum from cells of the dorsal brainstem.
  • We found that genes marking human WNT-subtype medulloblastomas are more frequently expressed in the lower rhombic lip (LRL) and embryonic dorsal brainstem than in the upper rhombic lip (URL) and developing cerebellum.
  • These lesions persisted in all mutant adult mice; moreover, in 15% of cases in which Tp53 was concurrently deleted, they progressed to form medulloblastomas that recapitulated the anatomy and gene expression profiles of human WNT-subtype medulloblastoma.
  • We provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct cellular origins.
  • Our data provide an explanation for the marked molecular and clinical differences between SHH- and WNT-subtype medulloblastomas and have profound implications for future research and treatment of this important childhood cancer.

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  • (PMID = 21150899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4687
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nature
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE24628
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA129541; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 01CA96832; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-06A18120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-078120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037956-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-06A18120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-078120
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245937; NLM/ PMC3059767
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75. Onilude OE, Lusher ME, Lindsey JC, Pearson AD, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: APC and CTNNB1 mutations are rare in sporadic ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jul 15;168(2):158-61
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  • The ependymoma is the second most common malignant brain tumor of childhood; however, its molecular basis is poorly understood.
  • The formation of multiple ependymomas has been reported as an occasional feature of Turcot syndrome type 2 (TS2), a familial cancer syndrome caused by inherited mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene, and characterised by the concurrence of a primary CNS tumor (predominantly medulloblastoma) and multiple colorectal adenomas.
  • APC is a critical component of the Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway, which is disrupted in sporadic cancers (e.g., colorectal adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and medulloblastomas) by somatic mutations affecting multiple genes encoding alternative pathway components, including APC and CTNNB1 (encoding beta-catenin).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16843107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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76. Dave KA, Bordey A: GABA increases Ca2+ in cerebellar granule cell precursors via depolarization: implications for proliferation. IUBMB Life; 2009 May;61(5):496-503
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  • The amino acids glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have primarily been characterized as the most prevalent excitatory and inhibitory, respectively, neurotransmitters in the vertebrate central nervous system.
  • GABA, glutamate, and their complement of receptors are essential signaling molecules that regulate developmental processes in both embryonic and young adult mammals.
  • From our review of the literature and these data, we hypothesize that GABA(A) receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors may be a novel target for the pharmacological regulation of the cerebellar tumors, medulloblastomas.

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  • (PMID = 19391160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6551
  • [Journal-full-title] IUBMB life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IUBMB Life
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC007681; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048256; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC007681-02; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC007681; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048256-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048256; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048256-04; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / R01 DC007681-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 104
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS100672; NLM/ PMC2675662
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77. Infante JR, Rayo JI, Serrano J, Domínguez ML, García L, Sánchez R: Adult medulloblastoma relapse visualized by in-111 octreotide scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Oct;31(10):633-5
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  • [Title] Adult medulloblastoma relapse visualized by in-111 octreotide scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Medulloblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16985373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 111In-octreotide, DTPA(0)-; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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78. Michalowski MB, de Fraipont F, Michelland S, Entz-Werle N, Grill J, Pasquier B, Favrot MC, Plantaz D: Methylation of RASSF1A and TRAIL pathway-related genes is frequent in childhood intracranial ependymomas and benign choroid plexus papilloma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 1;166(1):74-81
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  • Ependymomas (EP) represent the third most frequent type of central nervous system (CNS) tumor of childhood, after astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Three adult corteses were used as a control.
  • Although we did not observe a statistical relationship between methylation and clinical outcome, the methylation pattern does not appear to be randomly distributed in ependymoma and may represent a mechanism of tumor development and evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Ependymoma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


79. Roussos I, Balaña C, Cuadras P, Ballester R, Etxaniz O, Hostalot C: Medulloblastoma in young adults. Must we give adjuvant chemotherapy? Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Feb;9(2):121-3
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma in young adults. Must we give adjuvant chemotherapy?
  • Medulloblastoma is a rare entity in adult patients.
  • Reports of medulloblastoma in adults are scarce but in all of them the prognosis seems similar to the prognosis of children.
  • We present our experience in five cases of medulloblastoma in young adults, treated at the University Hospital "Germans Trias i Pujol" from June 1994 to October 2003.
  • We have reviewed the literature, concluding that we have to adapt the findings in children to our adult patients, offering them adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17329226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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80. Melchiorri D, Cappuccio I, Ciceroni C, Spinsanti P, Mosillo P, Sarichelou I, Sale P, Nicoletti F: Metabotropic glutamate receptors in stem/progenitor cells. Neuropharmacology; 2007 Sep;53(4):473-80
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  • Different mGlu receptor subtypes, mGlu3 and mGlu5 receptors in particular, are found in neural stem cells (stem cells resident in the CNS that give rise to neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes) isolated from the developing brain or from regions of persistent neurogenesis of the adult brain (e.g. the subventricular zone lining the wall of the lateral ventricles).
  • A link among mGlu receptors, stem cells and cancer is supported by the finding that mGlu4 receptors are expressed by cerebellar granule cell neuroprogenitors, which are the putative cells of origin of medulloblastomas.
  • The study of mGlu receptors in stem/progenitor cells has potential applications in the optimisation of protocols of cell expansion and differentiation aimed at cell replacement strategies, and may gain new insights into the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Brain / embryology. Humans. Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5

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  • (PMID = 17675103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3908
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Metabotropic Glutamate 5; 0 / Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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81. Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):940-6
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  • [Title] Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADC and tumor cellularity in medulloblastoma and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • METHODS: Pre-operative diffusion-weighted MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 26 patients with posterior fossa neoplasms: 11 medulloblastomas, one atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), four glioblastomas, four ependymomas, three pilocytic astrocytomas and three hemangioblastomas.
  • The minimum ADC (minADC) value of each tumor was determined on ADC maps derived from isotropic diffusion-weighted MR images.
  • Tumor cellularity measured in surgical specimens was compared with the minADC value by simple linear regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: The mean minADC value of the medulloblastoma was significantly lower than those of ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma without overlap in the range of minADC values.
  • Therefore, medulloblastomas could be clearly differentiated by absolute minADC values.
  • AT/RT and glioblastoma had similar minADC values to medulloblastoma.
  • Tumor cellularity was negatively correlated with the minADC value in medulloblastomas and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • DISCUSSION: The low minADC value of medulloblastomas reflects the high tumor cellularity.
  • Analysis of ADC values has high predictive value for the differentiation of medulloblastoma from other posterior fossa tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Body Water / physiology. Cell Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Extracellular Space / metabolism. Female. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19138469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Su X, Gopalakrishnan V, Stearns D, Aldape K, Lang FF, Fuller G, Snyder E, Eberhart CG, Majumder S: Abnormal expression of REST/NRSF and Myc in neural stem/progenitor cells causes cerebellar tumors by blocking neuronal differentiation. Mol Cell Biol; 2006 Mar;26(5):1666-78
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  • Medulloblastoma, one of the most malignant brain tumors in children, is thought to arise from undifferentiated neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) present in the external granule layer of the cerebellum.
  • However, the mechanism of tumorigenesis remains unknown for the majority of medulloblastomas.
  • In this study, we found that many human medulloblastomas express significantly elevated levels of both myc oncogenes, regulators of neural progenitor proliferation, and REST/NRSF, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal differentiation genes.
  • Previous studies have shown that neither c-Myc nor REST/NRSF alone could cause tumor formation.
  • To determine whether c-Myc and REST/NRSF act together to cause medulloblastomas, we used a previously established cell line derived from external granule layer stem cells transduced with activated c-myc (NSC-M).
  • In contrast, the NSC-M-R cells did produce tumors in the cerebellum, the site of human medulloblastoma formation, but not when injected into the cerebral cortex.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study in which abnormal expression of a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcriptional repressor has been shown to contribute directly to brain tumor formation.
  • Furthermore, these results suggest that such a mechanism plays a role in the formation of human medulloblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16478988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-7306
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08NS43279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS043279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA081255; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 81255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RE1-silencing transcription factor; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1430235
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83. Sauvageot CM, Kesari S, Stiles CD: Molecular pathogenesis of adult brain tumors and the role of stem cells. Neurol Clin; 2007 Nov;25(4):891-924, vii
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of adult brain tumors and the role of stem cells.
  • Primary brain tumors consist of neoplasms with varied molecular defects, morphologic phenotypes, and clinical outcomes.
  • The genetic and signaling abnormalities involved in tumor initiation and progression of the most prevalent adult primary brain tumors, including gliomas, meningiomas, and medulloblastomas, are described in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology. Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Phenotype. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17964020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Number-of-references] 272
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84. Hu WW, Zheng XJ, Shen G, Liu WG, Shen H, Fu WM, Zhou JY: [Diagnosis and micro-neurosurgery for the fourth cerebral ventricle tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;29(2):144-6
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  • METHODS: Tumor of the fourth ventricle was clinically diagnosed in 86 patients basing on the preliminary assessment of symptom and CT or MRI findings.
  • The pathology included 32 medulloblastomas, 23 ependymoma, 15 astrocytoma, 10 hemangiblastomas, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 4 epidermoid cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: Medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and hemangiblastoma are suggested to be removed totally whenever technically possible according to the site, character and volume of the tumor.
  • For ependymoma, if close to the brain stem, is recommended to be subtotally removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / radiography. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / radiography. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17645855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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85. Brandes AA, Franceschi E: Neuro-oncology: Genetic variation in pediatric and adult brain tumors. Nat Rev Neurol; 2010 Dec;6(12):653-4
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  • [Title] Neuro-oncology: Genetic variation in pediatric and adult brain tumors.
  • Two new studies suggest that pediatric medulloblastomas and high-grade gliomas are genetically different from the same tumors in adults.
  • Age-dependent gene expression might affect tumor biology; therefore, therapies for adult medulloblastomas or gliomas might not produce the same clinical outcomes in pediatric patients, and vice versa.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Glioma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Genetic Variation. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21131914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4766
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Motta FJ, Valera ET, Lucio-Eterovic AK, Queiroz RG, Neder L, Scrideli CA, Machado HR, Carlotti-Junior CG, Marie SK, Tone LG: Differential expression of E-cadherin gene in human neuroepithelial tumors. Genet Mol Res; 2008;7(2):295-304
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  • This study aimed to evaluate the expression of E-cadherin and their correlation with clinical features in microdissected brain tumor samples from 81 patients, divided into 62 astrocytic tumors grades I to IV and 19 medulloblastomas, and from 5 white matter non-neoplasic brain tissue samples.
  • Non-neoplasic brain tissue showed a higher expression level of CDH1 gene than did neuroepithelial tumors.
  • Low-grade malignancy astrocytomas (grades I-II) showed higher CDH1 expression than did high-grade malignancy astrocytomas (grades III-IV) and medulloblastomas (P < 0.0001).
  • Non-neoplasic brain tissue showed a higher expression level of CDH1 gene than grade I malignancy astrocytomas, considered as benign tumors (P = 0.0473).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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87. Privitera G, Acquaviva G, Ettorre GC, Spatola C: Antiangiogenic therapy in the treatment of recurrent medulloblastoma in the adult: case report and review of the literature. J Oncol; 2009;2009:247873
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  • [Title] Antiangiogenic therapy in the treatment of recurrent medulloblastoma in the adult: case report and review of the literature.
  • Medulloblastoma is a rare tumor in central nervous system, with an even rarer occurrence in adulthood.
  • We report the case of a 51-year-old man with recurrent medulloblastoma.
  • The aim of this report is to show that recurrent medulloblastoma in adults can be approached with a multimodality treatment and that antiangiogenic therapy should have a role in the management of this disease.

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  • (PMID = 20111585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804042
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88. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Anderton JA, Gilbertson RJ, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jul 16;97(2):267-74
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  • [Title] Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma.
  • Using a pharmacological expression reactivation approach, we screened 16 S100 genes for evidence of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood.
  • Four family members (S100A2, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A10) demonstrated evidence of upregulated expression in multiple medulloblastoma cell lines, following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
  • Assessment of these genes in the non-neoplastic cerebellum (from which medulloblastomas develop) revealed strong somatic methylation affecting S100A2 and S100A4, whereas S100A6 and S100A10 were unmethylated.
  • Assessed against these normal tissue-specific methylation states, S100A6 and S100A10 demonstrated tumour-specific hypermethylation in medulloblastoma primary tumours (5 out of 40 and 4 out of 35, respectively, both 12%) and cell lines (both 7 out of 9, 78%), which was associated with their transcriptional silencing.
  • In summary, these data characterise complex patterns of somatic methylation affecting S100 genes in the normal cerebellum and demonstrate their disruption causing epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 family members in medulloblastoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Medulloblastoma / genetics. S100 Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cerebellum / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 17579622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360310
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89. Phi JH, Kim JH, Eun KM, Wang KC, Park KH, Choi SA, Kim YY, Park SH, Cho BK, Kim SK: Upregulation of SOX2, NOTCH1, and ID1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a distinct differentiation pattern from that of medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jun;5(6):608-14
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  • [Title] Upregulation of SOX2, NOTCH1, and ID1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a distinct differentiation pattern from that of medulloblastomas.
  • OBJECT: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and medulloblastoma are highly malignant embryonal brain tumors.
  • The authors compared the expression of specific genes involved in neuroglial differentiation in supratentorial PNETs and medulloblastomas to define the distinct characters of these tumors.
  • METHODS: The mRNA expression of 8 genes (SOX2, NOTCH1, ID1, ASCL-1, NEUROD1, NEUROG1, NEUROG2, and NRG1) was evaluated in 25 embryonal tumors (12 supratentorial PNETs and 13 medulloblastomas) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • The expression levels of the transcripts of these genes were compared between the tumor groups.
  • RESULTS: Supratentorial PNETs expressed significantly higher levels of SOX2, NOTCH1, ID1, and ASCL-1 transcripts, whereas the transcription of proneural basic helix-loop-helix factors, NEUROD1, NEUROG1 (significantly), and NEUROG2 (not significantly) was upregulated in medulloblastomas.
  • The proportion of phosphorylated STAT3alpha relative to STAT3alpha was significantly greater in supratentorial PNETs than in medulloblastomas, indicating activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway in supratentorial PNETs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that supratentorial PNET predominantly has glial features and medulloblastoma largely follows a neuronal differentiation pattern.
  • These divergent differentiation patterns may be related to the location and origin of each tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Receptor, Notch1 / genetics. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / genetics. STAT3 Transcription Factor / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Up-Regulation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20515335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ID1 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1; 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human
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90. Korshunov AG, Sycheva RV, Gorelyshev SK, Ozerov SS, Golanov AV: [Chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastomas and their prognostic value]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Apr-Jun;(2):3-5; discussion 5
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  • [Title] [Chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastomas and their prognostic value].
  • The interphasic cytogenetic analysis of chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastoma biopsy specimens may be recommended for its inclusion into a complex of laboratory diagnostic methods used in the examination of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18724421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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91. Jahnke K, Kraemer DF, Knight KR, Fortin D, Bell S, Doolittle ND, Muldoon LL, Neuwelt EA: Intraarterial chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for patients with embryonal and germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. Cancer; 2008 Feb 1;112(3):581-8
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  • [Title] Intraarterial chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for patients with embryonal and germ cell tumors of the central nervous system.
  • BACKGROUND: The rate of durable responses in embryonal and certain germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is unsatisfactory.
  • Intraarterial chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (IA/BBBD) increases drug delivery to the CNS.
  • The median OS was 2.8 years for all patients, 2.5 years for supratentorial and disseminated primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs, n = 29), 1.7 years for medulloblastomas (n = 12), and 5.4 years for germ cell tumors (n = 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / physiopathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / methods. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18072268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS44687
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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92. Viana-Pereira M, Almeida I, Sousa S, Mahler-Araújo B, Seruca R, Pimentel J, Reis RM: Analysis of microsatellite instability in medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Oct;11(5):458-67
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  • [Title] Analysis of microsatellite instability in medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in brain tumors, particularly medulloblastomas, has not been properly addressed.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of MSI in medulloblastoma carcinogenesis.
  • This study is the most comprehensive analysis of MSI in medulloblastomas to date.
  • We observed the presence of MSI together with mutations of MSI target genes in a small fraction of cases, suggesting a new genetic pathway for a role in medulloblastoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Microsatellite Instability
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Young Adult


93. Liu JG, Liu YH, Cai J, Liu XS, Song WZ, Huang Y, Mao Q: [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and PTEN in malignancy brain tumors]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Nov;37(6):868-71
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  • [Title] [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and PTEN in malignancy brain tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect and analysis epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) in different malignancy brain tumors, and to evaluate their prognostic significance.
  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of EGFR and PTEN and adopting confocal technology to verify their location in the specimens of 25 respectively glioblastoma multiformes, medulloblastomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and anaplastic ependymomas.
  • However amplification of EGFR and deletion of PTEN were relatively low in other malignancy brain tumors.
  • They were 36% and 8% in medulloblastomas, and 28% and 8% in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and 24% and 4% in anaplastic ependymomas.
  • PTEN mutation and EGFR overexpression are rare in medulloblastoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and anaplastic ependymoma, so the EGFR or PTEN targeted antitumor approaches may be useful in glioblastoma multiformes but the other 3 tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult


94. Rumboldt Z, Camacho DL, Lake D, Welsh CT, Castillo M: Apparent diffusion coefficients for differentiation of cerebellar tumors in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):1362-9
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  • METHODS: Brain MR imaging studies that included ADC maps were retrospectively reviewed in 32 patients with histologically proved cerebellar neoplasm.
  • There were 17 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), 8 medulloblastomas, 5 ependymomas, and 2 rhabdoid (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor [AT/RT]) tumors.
  • Absolute ADC values of contrast-enhancing solid tumor regions and ADC ratios (ADC of solid tumor to ADC of normal-appearing white matter) were compared with the histologic diagnosis.
  • ADC values and ratios of JPAs, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas were compared by using a 2-tailed t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
  • RESULTS: ADC values were significantly higher in pilocytic astrocytomas (1.65 +/- 0.27) (mean +/- SD) than in ependymomas (1.10 +/- 0.11) (P = .0003) and medulloblastomas (0.66 +/- 0.15) (P < .0001).
  • Ependymomas demonstrated significantly higher ADC values than medulloblastomas (P = .0005).
  • ADC ratios were also significantly different among these 3 tumor types.
  • AT/RT ADC values were similar to medulloblastoma.
  • The range of ADC values and ratios within JPAs and ependymomas did not overlap with that of medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Assessment of ADC values of enhancing solid tumor is a simple and reliable technique for preoperative differentiation of cerebellar tumors in pediatric patients.
  • Our cutoff values of >1.4 x 10(3) mm(2)/s for JPA and <0.9 x 10(3) mm(2)/s for medulloblastoma were 100% specific.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Feb;3(2):78-9 [17279080.001]
  • (PMID = 16775298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Gilhuis HJ, van der Laak JA, Pomp J, Kappelle AC, Gijtenbeek JM, Wesseling P: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes. Angiogenesis; 2006;9(4):201-8
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.
  • In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma) as well as of ependymal tumours (low-grade ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma) are recognised.
  • Under the hypothesis that the microvascular architecture of tumours is a reflection of the histopathological subtype, we performed three-dimensional reconstructions of the microvasculature in these subtypes of medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours using computerised image analysis.
  • Three-dimensional reconstructions showed a dense pattern of irregular vessels in classic and large cell medulloblastoma.
  • In desmoplastic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, the vessels were more unevenly distributed and organised around the nodular areas.
  • Classic medulloblastoma and large cell medulloblastoma had on average the largest vessel area and perimeter.
  • The highest number of vessels was seen in classic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity.
  • We conclude that our three-dimensional reconstructions shed unprecedented light on the tumour vasculature in medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours and expect that such reconstructions are helpful tools for further studies on tumour angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / blood supply. Ependymoma / blood supply. Medulloblastoma / blood supply. Models, Biological
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Humans. Mice. Microcirculation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17109194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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96. Hambardzumyan D, Becher OJ, Holland EC: Cancer stem cells and survival pathways. Cell Cycle; 2008 May 15;7(10):1371-8
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  • Gliomas and medulloblastomas are the most frequent malignant brain tumors in adult and children respectively.
  • Although both tumors arise in the CNS, there is a significant difference in their therapeutic response.
  • Medulloblastomas are relatively curable, while glioblastomas are basically incurable.
  • During the last decade several reports have demonstrated the existence of cancer stem cells in brain tumors, their location and their response to treatment.
  • We have recently described the therapeutic response of medulloblastomas to radiation in their native microenvironment, illustrating how p53 and Pi3K signaling pathways lead to the evasion of cell death by the nestin-expressing cells in the perivascular stem cell niche, even while the bulk of tumor succumbs to apoptosis.(1) It remains to be determined whether this mechanism of tumor resistance applies to the more complex stem-cell niche and tumor bulk of gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplastic Stem Cells / radiation effects. Signal Transduction / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Models, Biological. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Receptors, Notch / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18421251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 5R01CA100688-2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA 5R01CA099489-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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97. Korshunov A, Benner A, Remke M, Lichter P, von Deimling A, Pfister S: Accumulation of genomic aberrations during clinical progression of medulloblastoma. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Oct;116(4):383-90
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  • [Title] Accumulation of genomic aberrations during clinical progression of medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastomas comprise the most frequent malignant brain tumor in childhood and one of the biggest challenges in pediatric oncology.
  • The current concept suggests that these tumors may undergo stepwise progression as it has been shown for other brain tumors.
  • However, conclusive evidence of molecular progression over time has not been demonstrated yet for medulloblastoma.
  • In the present study, 28 pairs of medulloblastoma at primary diagnosis and at the time of recurrence, either occurring as local tumor regrowth or tumor dissemination, were histopathologically and molecularly analyzed.
  • These results suggest that early recurrence in medulloblastoma mainly occurs in tumors with a highly malignant genotype and phenotype per se, whereas late recurrence is often dependent on tumor evolution toward a more malignant biology.
  • Therefore, biopsy of recurrent tumors should be performed to assess the biologic properties of the relapsed tumor, especially when targeted therapy approaches are considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18704466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
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98. Kaszper E, Hanzély Z, Szende B, Dabasi G, Garami M, Schuler D, Hauser P: [Examination of somatostatin receptor expression in recurrent childhood medulloblastomas]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Dec;52(4):351-5
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