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1. Olson MV, Johnson DG, Jiang H, Xu J, Alonso MM, Aldape KD, Fuller GN, Bekele BN, Yung WK, Gomez-Manzano C, Fueyo J: Transgenic E2F1 expression in the mouse brain induces a human-like bimodal pattern of tumors. Cancer Res; 2007 May 1;67(9):4005-9
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  • [Title] Transgenic E2F1 expression in the mouse brain induces a human-like bimodal pattern of tumors.
  • The Rb/E2F pathway is deregulated in most human brain tumors, and the finding that loss of E2F1 reduced pituitary tumorigenesis in Rb(+/-) mice suggests that loss of pRb induces brain tumors by activating E2F1.
  • We therefore investigated the role of E2F1 in the development and maintenance of brain cancer using a transgenic mouse model engineered to express E2F1 specifically within glial cells (GFAP-tgE2F1).
  • GFAP-tgE2F1 mice developed a highly penetrant phenotype characterized by neurologic defects, and examination of the brains revealed the presence of brain tumors in 20% of these animals.
  • Importantly, the distribution of tumors according to mouse age suggests the existence of a bimodal pattern of tumor development, forcing a comparison with the human disease.
  • Mice, at an early age, with deregulated E2F1 show the formation of embryonal brain tumors such as medulloblastoma, choroid plexus carcinoma, and primary neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Conversely, at an older age, mice escaping embryonal tumor formation present with malignant gliomas, which are typically identified in the human adult population.
  • Thus, this study offers the first evidence for a global role of E2F1 in the formation and maintenance of multilineage brain tumors, irrefutably establishing E2F1 as an oncogene in the brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. E2F1 Transcription Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17483310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007784; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA79648
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / E2F1 protein, human
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2. Zawlik I, Zakrzewska M, Witusik M, Golanska E, Kulczycka-Wojdala D, Szybka M, Piaskowski S, Wozniak K, Zakrzewski K, Papierz W, Liberski PP, Rieske P: KCTD11 expression in medulloblastoma is lower than in adult cerebellum and higher than in neural stem cells. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Oct 1;170(1):24-8
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  • [Title] KCTD11 expression in medulloblastoma is lower than in adult cerebellum and higher than in neural stem cells.
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, and the most frequent associated genetic alteration is loss of heterozygosity on chromosome region 7p13.
  • We used real-time polymerase chain reaction in 20 tissue samples of primary MB to examine the transcriptional level of the two genes, with reference to two types of controls: adult cerebellum and fetal neural stem cells.
  • A significant reduction of KCTD11 expression relative to adult normal cerebellum was detected in 14 of 20 (70%) of MB samples.
  • HIC1 gene expression was low ( approximately 100 times lower than KCTD11 expression) in MB, and low also in both adult cerebellum and neural stem cells.
  • Hypermethylation of the 5'UTR or the central region of HIC1 (or both) was detected in a significant number of MB samples, as well as in cerebellum and neural stem cells.
  • Our data suggest that KCTD11 may play an important role in MB tumorigenesis, but do not support the role of HIC1 in this tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellum / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Nervous System / metabolism. Potassium Channels / genetics. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16965951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HIC1 protein, human; 0 / KCTD11 protein, human; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Transcription Factors
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3. Srivastava NK, Pradhan S, Gowda GA, Kumar R: In vitro, high-resolution 1H and 31P NMR based analysis of the lipid components in the tissue, serum, and CSF of the patients with primary brain tumors: one possible diagnostic view. NMR Biomed; 2010 Feb;23(2):113-22
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  • [Title] In vitro, high-resolution 1H and 31P NMR based analysis of the lipid components in the tissue, serum, and CSF of the patients with primary brain tumors: one possible diagnostic view.
  • In vitro, high-resolution (1)H and (31)P NMR based qualitative and quantitative analyses of the lipid components of the tissue, serum, and CSF of patients with primary brain tumors were performed.
  • Proton NMR spectra of the lipid extract of serum (blood specimen collected before the surgical procedure) and surgically discarded tissue showed that the total cholesterol (T.CHOL) and choline containing phospholipids (PL) were significantly higher in quantity in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme as compared to normal subjects.
  • There was a reduction in the quantity of CHOLest in the serum lipid extract of the tumor patients as compared to normal subjects.
  • Ratio of PL to T.CHOL in serum lipid extract showed a significant difference between different grades of tumors versus normal subjects, while, a significant difference was observed only in medulloblastoma versus normal subjects in tissue lipid extract.
  • Ratio of CHOL to CHOLest distinguishes the different grades of tumors versus normal subjects as well as between different grades of tumors (except medulloblastoma versus glioblastoma).
  • The ratio of the Ph (total phospholipids except phosphatidylcholine) to PC (phosphatidylcholine) in (31)P NMR based study showed a significant difference in all grades of tumors (except medulloblastoma) in normal subjects in tissue lipid extract as well as between different grades of tumors.
  • Medulloblastoma could be differentiated from glioblastoma as well as from normal subjects in serum lipid extract by the ratio of the Ph to PC.
  • PL and T.CHOL provided discrimination between different grades of tumors (except glioblastoma versus medulloblastoma) in the lipid extract of the CSF.
  • This study suggests the role of lipid estimation in CSF and serum as a complementary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of brain tumors preoperatively.
  • NMR-based lipid estimation of post-surgical tumor tissue may also contribute to differentiating the tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / blood. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Lipids / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholesterol / analysis. Cholesterol / blood. Cholesterol / cerebrospinal fluid. Female. Humans. Male. Phospholipids / analysis. Phospholipids / blood. Phospholipids / cerebrospinal fluid. Tissue Extracts

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19774696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1492
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Tissue Extracts; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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4. Gibson P, Tong Y, Robinson G, Thompson MC, Currle DS, Eden C, Kranenburg TA, Hogg T, Poppleton H, Martin J, Finkelstein D, Pounds S, Weiss A, Patay Z, Scoggins M, Ogg R, Pei Y, Yang ZJ, Brun S, Lee Y, Zindy F, Lindsey JC, Taketo MM, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Gajjar A, Clifford SC, Roussel MF, McKinnon PJ, Gutmann DH, Ellison DW, Wechsler-Reya R, Gilbertson RJ: Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins. Nature; 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1095-9
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  • [Title] Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins.
  • Medulloblastoma encompasses a collection of clinically and molecularly diverse tumour subtypes that together comprise the most common malignant childhood brain tumour.
  • The pathological processes that drive heterogeneity among the other medulloblastoma subtypes are not known, hindering the development of much needed new therapies.
  • Here we provide evidence that a discrete subtype of medulloblastoma that contains activating mutations in the WNT pathway effector CTNNB1 (hereafter, WNT subtype) arises outside the cerebellum from cells of the dorsal brainstem.
  • We found that genes marking human WNT-subtype medulloblastomas are more frequently expressed in the lower rhombic lip (LRL) and embryonic dorsal brainstem than in the upper rhombic lip (URL) and developing cerebellum.
  • These lesions persisted in all mutant adult mice; moreover, in 15% of cases in which Tp53 was concurrently deleted, they progressed to form medulloblastomas that recapitulated the anatomy and gene expression profiles of human WNT-subtype medulloblastoma.
  • We provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct cellular origins.
  • Our data provide an explanation for the marked molecular and clinical differences between SHH- and WNT-subtype medulloblastomas and have profound implications for future research and treatment of this important childhood cancer.

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  • (PMID = 21150899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4687
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nature
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE24628
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA129541; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 01CA96832; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-06A18120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-078120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037956-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-06A18120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-078120
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245937; NLM/ PMC3059767
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5. Smith AB, Rushing EJ, Smirniotopoulos JG: Pigmented lesions of the central nervous system: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1503-24
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  • [Title] Pigmented lesions of the central nervous system: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Pigmented lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are a diverse group of entities that run the gamut from benign to malignant.
  • Pigmented lesions include primary melanocytic lesions of the CNS and metastatic melanoma, as well as other CNS neoplasms that may undergo melanization, including schwannoma, medulloblastoma, and some gliomas.
  • Primary melanocytic lesions of the CNS arise from melanocytes located within the leptomeninges, and this group includes diffuse melanocytosis and meningeal melanomatosis (seen in neurocutaneous melanosis), melanocytoma, and malignant melanoma.
  • Primary melanin-containing lesions of the CNS must be differentiated from metastatic melanoma because these lesions require different patient workup and therapy.
  • Absence of a known primary malignant melanoma helps in the differential diagnosis, but an occult primary lesion outside the CNS must be sought and excluded.
  • Pigmented lesions of the CNS are uncommon, and knowledge of their imaging characteristics and pathologic features is essential for their identification.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Pigmentation Disorders / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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6. Lai R: Survival of patients with adult medulloblastoma: a population-based study. Cancer; 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1568-74
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  • [Title] Survival of patients with adult medulloblastoma: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: Adult medulloblastoma accounts for less than 1% of adult intracranial tumors.
  • RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-four patients with adult medulloblastoma were diagnosed from 1973-2004 in the 17 regions covered by SEER.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Registries. SEER Program. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18278809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Knight KR, Kraemer DF, Neuwelt EA: Ototoxicity in children receiving platinum chemotherapy: underestimating a commonly occurring toxicity that may influence academic and social development. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8588-96
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  • Children treated for medulloblastoma, osteosarcoma, and neuroblastoma had greater incidence and severity of hearing loss.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child Welfare. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Oregon / epidemiology. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16314621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS34608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS44687
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Gilheeney SW, Khakoo Y, Souweidane M, Wolden S, Boulad F, Dunkel IJ: Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):591-5
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  • [Title] Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system.
  • BACKGROUND: Thiotepa and carboplatin are known to be active in central nervous system tumors.
  • Topotecan potentiates the anti-cancer effects of alkylators and crosses the blood-brain barrier.
  • We present ten patients with recurrent or progressive central nervous system malignancies treated on a myeloablative regimen using these drugs.
  • Five had medulloblastoma (MB), four had high grade glioma (HGG), and one had trilateral retinoblastoma/pineoblastoma (tRB/PB).
  • CONCLUSION: Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin may help consolidate remission of poor prognosis pediatric central nervous system tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prognosis. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19998470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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9. Koontz NA, Hess CP: AJR teaching file: brain tumor in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Sep;195(3 Suppl):S25-8
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  • [Title] AJR teaching file: brain tumor in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / complications. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


10. Nieder C, Mehta MP, Jalali R: Combined radio- and chemotherapy of brain tumours in adult patients. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Sep;21(7):515-24
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  • [Title] Combined radio- and chemotherapy of brain tumours in adult patients.
  • In order to examine the current standards of care regarding combined radio- and chemotherapy for adult patients with brain tumours, a review was carried out of recent studies examining surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma and primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • In medulloblastoma, no comparable landmark trial exists and therefore combined radiochemotherapy must be considered investigational.
  • In primary central nervous system lymphoma, high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of therapy and the value of consolidation radiotherapy for patients achieving a complete response is controversial, even in younger patients who have a lower risk of neurotoxicity than older patients.
  • The challenges associated with brain tumour treatment remain formidable, but rationally designed clinical trials are gradually leading to improved outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19487112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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11. Merchant TE, Kun LE, Krasin MJ, Wallace D, Chintagumpala MM, Woo SY, Ashley DM, Sexton M, Kellie SJ, Ahern V, Gajjar A: Multi-institution prospective trial of reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation (23.4 Gy) followed by conformal posterior fossa (36 Gy) and primary site irradiation (55.8 Gy) and dose-intensive chemotherapy for average-risk medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 1;70(3):782-7
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  • [Title] Multi-institution prospective trial of reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation (23.4 Gy) followed by conformal posterior fossa (36 Gy) and primary site irradiation (55.8 Gy) and dose-intensive chemotherapy for average-risk medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Limiting the neurocognitive sequelae of radiotherapy (RT) has been an objective in the treatment of medulloblastoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between October 1996 and August 2003, 86 patients, 3-21 years of age, with newly diagnosed, average-risk medulloblastoma were treated in a prospective, institutional review board-approved, multi-institution trial of risk-adapted RT and dose-intensive chemotherapy.
  • The planning target volume for the primary site included the postoperative tumor bed surrounded by an anatomically confined margin of 2 cm that was then expanded with a geometric margin of 0.3-0.5 cm.
  • CONCLUSION: This prospective trial has demonstrated that irradiation of less than the entire PF after 23.4 Gy craniospinal irradiation for average-risk medulloblastoma results in disease control comparable to that after treatment of the entire PF.

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  • (PMID = 17892918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021765-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-28
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS40526; NLM/ PMC2716663
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12. Bull KS, Spoudeas HA, Yadegarfar G, Kennedy CR, CCLG: Reduction of health status 7 years after addition of chemotherapy to craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma: a follow-up study in PNET 3 trial survivors on behalf of the CCLG (formerly UKCCSG). J Clin Oncol; 2007 Sep 20;25(27):4239-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction of health status 7 years after addition of chemotherapy to craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma: a follow-up study in PNET 3 trial survivors on behalf of the CCLG (formerly UKCCSG).
  • PURPOSE: To compare quality of survival after craniospinal irradiation (CSI) alone with survival after CSI plus chemotherapy (CT) for medulloblastoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Follow-up study of surviving UK patients with medulloblastoma diagnosed between 1992 and 2000 treated according to one or other treatment arm of the PNET 3 controlled trial.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of CT to CSI for medulloblastoma was associated with a significant decrease in health status.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Follow-Up Studies. Health Status. Humans. Quality of Life. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Survivors. Treatment Outcome


13. Daniel RA, Rozanska AL, Mulligan EA, Drew Y, Thomas HD, Castelbuono DJ, Hostomsky Z, Plummer ER, Tweddle DA, Boddy AV, Clifford SC, Curtin NJ: Central nervous system penetration and enhancement of temozolomide activity in childhood medulloblastoma models by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor AG-014699. Br J Cancer; 2010 Nov 9;103(10):1588-96
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  • [Title] Central nervous system penetration and enhancement of temozolomide activity in childhood medulloblastoma models by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor AG-014699.
  • BACKGROUND: Temozolomide shows activity against medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour.
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors enhance temozolomide activity in extracranial adult and paediatric human malignancies.
  • METHODS: We assessed the effect of AG-014699, a clinically active PARP inhibitor, on temozolomide-induced growth inhibition in human medulloblastoma models.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity to temozolomide in vitro was consistent with methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status; MGMT(+) MMR(+) D384Med cells (temozolomide GI(50)=220 μM), representative of most primary medulloblastomas, were sensitised fourfold by AG-014699; MGMT⁻ MMR(+) D425Med cells were hypersensitive (GI(50)=9 μM) and not sensitised by AG-014699, whereas MGMT(+) MMR⁻ temozolomide-resistant D283Med cells (GI₅₀=807 μM) were sensitised 20-fold.
  • AG-014699 was not toxic, accumulated and reduced PARP activity ≥75% in xenograft and brain tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: We show for the first time central nervous system penetration and inhibition of brain PARP activity by AG-014699.

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  • (PMID = 20978505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C8464/A5414; United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8237F3U7EH / rucaparib; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990587
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14. Secondino S, Citterio A, Pedrazzoli P, Funaioli C, Scialfa GG, Siena S: Neuroimaging abnormalities in adult medulloblastoma undergoing intensified therapy. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):3991-2
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  • [Title] Neuroimaging abnormalities in adult medulloblastoma undergoing intensified therapy.
  • We report on radiological abnormalities resembling recurrent tumor in adult medulloblastoma receiving intensified chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Evidence provided in this paper confirms previous reports in the pediatric population and suggests that neuroradiologist and medical oncologists should be aware of new possible radiological findings related to aggressive treatments for brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19192661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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15. Eede HV, Hoffmann VL, Vercauteren MP: Post-delivery postural headache: not always a classical post-dural puncture headache. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 2007 Jul;51(6):763-5
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  • Further investigation revealed a medulloblastoma within the fourth ventricle.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Epidural / adverse effects. Headache / etiology. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Delivery, Obstetric. Female. Humans. Posture. Pregnancy. Punctures. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17567272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5172
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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16. Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Paioli A, Cavallo G, Spagnolli F, Brandes AA: Challenges and progress in the treatment of adult medulloblastomas. Future Oncol; 2007 Apr;3(2):115-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Challenges and progress in the treatment of adult medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / trends. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17381408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Kean S: Medicine. Disrupting Hedgehog may reverse advanced cancer, if only temporarily. Science; 2009 Sep 4;325(5945):1188
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anilides. Animals. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Mice. Point Mutation. Protein Binding. Pyridines. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19729622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9203
  • [Journal-full-title] Science (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Science
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / HhAntag691; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / SMO protein, human
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18. Korshunov AG, Sycheva RV, Gorelyshev SK, Ozerov SS, Golanov AV: [Chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastomas and their prognostic value]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Apr-Jun;(2):3-5; discussion 5
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  • [Title] [Chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastomas and their prognostic value].
  • The interphasic cytogenetic analysis of chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastoma biopsy specimens may be recommended for its inclusion into a complex of laboratory diagnostic methods used in the examination of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18724421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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19. Misaki K, Marukawa K, Hayashi Y, Fukusato T, Minamoto T, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J, Fujisawa H: Correlation of gamma-catenin expression with good prognosis in medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg; 2005 Mar;102(2 Suppl):197-206
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  • [Title] Correlation of gamma-catenin expression with good prognosis in medulloblastomas.
  • OBJECT: Medulloblastoma is a malignant cerebellar tumor of childhood and is difficult to cure due to frequent cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical and cytogenetic examinations of beta- and gamma-catenin, c-myc, N-myc, and cyclin D1 in 24 primary medulloblastomas were conducted, and their clinical relevance was evaluated.
  • By differential polymerase chain reaction, c-myc and N-myc were amplified separately in two large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Genes, myc / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / genetics. Desmoplakins. Genes, bcl-1 / immunology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Point Mutation / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics. Trans-Activators / immunology. beta Catenin. gamma Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16156230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Desmoplakins; 0 / JUP protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / gamma Catenin
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20. Phi JH, Kim JH, Eun KM, Wang KC, Park KH, Choi SA, Kim YY, Park SH, Cho BK, Kim SK: Upregulation of SOX2, NOTCH1, and ID1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a distinct differentiation pattern from that of medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jun;5(6):608-14
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  • [Title] Upregulation of SOX2, NOTCH1, and ID1 in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a distinct differentiation pattern from that of medulloblastomas.
  • OBJECT: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and medulloblastoma are highly malignant embryonal brain tumors.
  • The authors compared the expression of specific genes involved in neuroglial differentiation in supratentorial PNETs and medulloblastomas to define the distinct characters of these tumors.
  • METHODS: The mRNA expression of 8 genes (SOX2, NOTCH1, ID1, ASCL-1, NEUROD1, NEUROG1, NEUROG2, and NRG1) was evaluated in 25 embryonal tumors (12 supratentorial PNETs and 13 medulloblastomas) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • The expression levels of the transcripts of these genes were compared between the tumor groups.
  • RESULTS: Supratentorial PNETs expressed significantly higher levels of SOX2, NOTCH1, ID1, and ASCL-1 transcripts, whereas the transcription of proneural basic helix-loop-helix factors, NEUROD1, NEUROG1 (significantly), and NEUROG2 (not significantly) was upregulated in medulloblastomas.
  • The proportion of phosphorylated STAT3alpha relative to STAT3alpha was significantly greater in supratentorial PNETs than in medulloblastomas, indicating activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway in supratentorial PNETs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that supratentorial PNET predominantly has glial features and medulloblastoma largely follows a neuronal differentiation pattern.
  • These divergent differentiation patterns may be related to the location and origin of each tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Receptor, Notch1 / genetics. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / genetics. STAT3 Transcription Factor / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Up-Regulation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20515335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ID1 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1; 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human
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21. Silvani A: [Experience with the intrathecal use of liposomal cytarabine at the Besta Institute]. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):suppl 6-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Meningitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Drug Evaluation. Female. Headache / chemically induced. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / complications. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17679480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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22. Huber JF, Bradley K, Spiegler B, Dennis M: Long-term neuromotor speech deficits in survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors: effects of tumor type, radiation, age at diagnosis, and survival years. J Child Neurol; 2007 Jul;22(7):848-54
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  • [Title] Long-term neuromotor speech deficits in survivors of childhood posterior fossa tumors: effects of tumor type, radiation, age at diagnosis, and survival years.
  • The authors studied how childhood cerebellar tumors affect long-term neuromotor speech outcomes, including the relation between outcome and tumor type, radiation, age at diagnosis, and survival years.
  • Videotaped speech samples of child and adult long-term survivors of childhood cerebellar astrocytoma (nonradiated) and medulloblastoma (radiated) tumors and healthy controls were analyzed by 2 speech pathologists for ataxic dysarthria, dysfluency, and speech rate.
  • Ataxia varied with tumor type/radiation.
  • Medulloblastoma survivors had significantly more ataxic dysarthric features than either survivors of astrocytomas or controls, who did not differ from each other.
  • Dysfluency varied with a history of a posterior fossa tumor.
  • Medulloblastoma and astrocytoma survivors were each significantly more dysfluent than controls but did not differ from each other.
  • Speech rate varied with age and tumor type.
  • Adult controls were significantly faster than child controls, although adult tumor survivors were comparable to their child counterparts.
  • Adult controls had significantly faster speech rates than adult survivors of medulloblastoma tumors.
  • Ataxic dysarthric speech characteristics are more frequent in radiated survivors of medulloblastoma tumors than nonradiated survivors of astrocytoma tumors.
  • Dysfluent and slow speech occur in cerebellar tumor survivors, regardless of tumor type and radiation history.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Dysarthria / etiology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / complications. Medulloblastoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Case-Control Studies. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mutism / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Reference Values. Speech Disorders / classification. Speech Disorders / etiology. Survivors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17715277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-0738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P01 HD 35946
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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23. Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S, Howe G, Lubin F, Mueller BA, Holly EA, Filippini G, Peris-Bonet R, McCredie MR, Cordier S, Choi W: An international case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk: a histology-specific analysis by food group. Ann Epidemiol; 2009 Mar;19(3):148-60
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  • [Title] An international case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk: a histology-specific analysis by food group.
  • PURPOSE: Maternal dietary data from an international collaborative case-control study on childhood brain tumors were used to evaluate associations between histology-specific risk and consumption of specific food groups during pregnancy.
  • Other histology-specific associations were decreased risk of anaplastic astrocytomas from cruciferous vegetables (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7 for 4th vs. 1st quartile; p trend<0.0001), decreased risk of astroglial tumors from fresh fish (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9 for 4th vs. 1st quartile; p trend=0.008), and increased risk of medulloblastoma from oil products (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2 for 4th vs. 1(st) quartile; p trend=0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the need for dietary analysis not only by brain tumor histology, but also by specific foods within a broad food group.

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  • (PMID = 19216997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2585
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES007048; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA017054-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01 PC035139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47082; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES007048-029003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47081; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA17054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-05230; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007048-029003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25403; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA017054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CN025403; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN005230; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5P30 ES07048
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitroso Compounds
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS98974; NLM/ PMC2832584
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24. Ongürü O, Karslioglu Y, Ozcan A, Celik E: Anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting markers in adult medulloblastomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6):384-9
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  • [Title] Anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting markers in adult medulloblastomas.
  • AIM: the aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic features, proliferation potential and expression of some anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting markers in adult medulloblastomas.
  • METHOD: we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of survivin, c-KIT, Bcl-2, fascin, p-53 and Ki-67 in 18 adult medulloblastomas (> 16 years of age).
  • 14 cases were classical, 2 desmoplastic/nodular and 2 large cell medulloblastomas.
  • Moderate-to-high nuclear survivin expression was observed with high percentages (55 - 100%) in all medulloblastomas while Bcl-2 was mildly positive in only 1 case.
  • Fascin expression was observed in 13 medulloblastomas (72%), 9 of which showing moderate to high immunoreactivity.
  • CONCLUSION: frequent nuclear survivin expression implies the predominance of anti-apoptotic factors in pathogenesis of adult medulloblastomas.
  • It may also be a potential therapeutic target for adult medulloblastomas.
  • Although Blc-2 immunoreactivity was previously reported in approximately 30% in medulloblastomas, we have observed that it is rarely expressed in the present series of adult medulloblastomas.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating fascin expression in medulloblastomas.
  • Mild-to-moderate cytoplasmic c-KIT immunoreactivity without membranous staining in adult medulloblastomas may support the previous studies reporting low level of c-KIT protein expression with lack of activating mutations in medulloblastomas.
  • It seems p53 is rarely involved in the course of develepment of adult medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Growth Substances / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21073843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 146808-54-0 / fascin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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25. McKibbin T, Panetta JC, Fouladi M, Gajjar A, Bai F, Okcu MF, Stewart CF: Clinical pharmacokinetics of amifostine and WR1065 in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 1;16(3):1049-57
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  • [Title] Clinical pharmacokinetics of amifostine and WR1065 in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and WR1065 in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma to assess the influence of patient covariates, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and genetic polymorphisms, on amifostine and WR1065 pharmacokinetic parameters.
  • Similar to data in adults, amifostine and WR1065 are rapidly cleared from plasma and whole blood in children.

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  • (PMID = 20103669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA023099-239005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA023099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA023099-239005; None / None / / P30 CA021765-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-30
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mercaptoethylamines; 0 / Prodrugs; 31098-42-7 / WR 1065; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS164214; NLM/ PMC2818675
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26. Attard TM, Giglio P, Koppula S, Snyder C, Lynch HT: Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis. Cancer; 2007 Feb 15;109(4):761-6
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  • [Title] Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis.
  • They are at an increased risk of brain tumors, including cerebellar medulloblastoma, when compared with the general population (Brain Tumor Polyposis-BTP Type 2).
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations between APC gene mutations and central nervous system (CNS) tumors have, thus far not been successful.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their established hereditary CRC Registry for brain tumors in FAP pedigrees (56 families, 213 individuals), pooled their patients with BTP and known APC mutations with those reported thus far elsewhere, and compared the resulting mutation distribution of FAP-BTP with the mutation distribution for APC mutations in the US.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients from 24 families were accrued, the most common brain tumor in BTP was medulloblastoma (60%) predominantly in females (12:5) under the age of 20 (mean age 14.7 SD 9.2).
  • Analysis of the pooled APC mutation data by Chi-square test of association shows an odds ratio of 3.7 (P < .005) for all brain tumor subtypes and 13.1 (P < .001) for medulloblastoma in patients harboring segment 2 APC mutation (codons 679-1224) compared to nonsegment 2 mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FAP and identifiable APC gene mutation, CNS tumors, especially medulloblastoma which developed in most cases during childhood, are more common in females with FAP and APC gene mutation in codons 686-1217.
  • Further studies are necessary to determine if this observation and the natural history of medulloblastoma in children justifies novel, aggressive, targeted screening of at-risk individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Codon. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Registries


27. Bal MM, Das Radotra B, Srinivasan R, Sharma SC: Does c-erbB-2 expression have a role in medulloblastoma prognosis? Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Oct;49(4):535-9
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  • [Title] Does c-erbB-2 expression have a role in medulloblastoma prognosis?
  • The prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma has remained same for the last two decades.
  • This study evaluated the role of c-erbB-2 expression in medulloblastoma as a prognostic marker.
  • Fifty cases of medulloblastomas were investigated for the expression of c-erbB-2 protein using immunohistochemistry.
  • The mean DFS in c-erbB-2 positive cases was 19.81 months compared to 48.33 months in c-erbB-2 negative cases. c-erbB-2 positivity was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome in medulloblastoma (p value < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-4

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  • (PMID = 17183845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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28. Schiebel P, Stippich C, Unterberg A: [Adult medulloblastoma]. Rofo; 2010 Sep;182(9):808-9
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  • [Title] [Adult medulloblastoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Adultes Medulloblastom.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20544581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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29. Glantz M, Kesari S, Recht L, Fleischhack G, Van Horn A: Understanding the origins of gliomas and developing novel therapies: cerebrospinal fluid and subventricular zone interplay. Semin Oncol; 2009 Aug;36(4 Suppl 2):S17-24
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  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, carries a poor prognosis, with median survival generally less than 1 year.
  • Although initial therapy often eradicates the bulk of the tumor, disease recurrence, usually within 2 cm of the original tumor, is almost inevitable.
  • An increasing body of preclinical data suggests that these cells may correspond to stem cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ), which migrate to tumor sites and contribute to glioma growth and recurrence.
  • Therapeutic targeting of SVZ stem cell populations via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-directed therapy may provide a means for limiting tumor recurrence.
  • This approach has proved successful in the treatment of medulloblastoma, another brain tumor thought to be derived from stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Neoplastic Stem Cells. Research Design

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  • (PMID = 19660679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Bowers DC, Adhikari S, El-Khashab YM, Gargan L, Oeffinger KC: Survey of long-term follow-up programs in the United States for survivors of childhood brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1295-301
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  • [Title] Survey of long-term follow-up programs in the United States for survivors of childhood brain tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Despite recognition that childhood brain tumor survivors often suffer multiple late effects following therapy, little is known regarding the long-term follow-up (LTFU) programs for these patients.
  • Institutions were asked about the size of their brain tumor program, activities of the LTFU programs and perceived barriers to follow-up.
  • Institutions with a neuro-oncology LTFU clinic were more likely to use neuro-psychological testing following radiation therapy (P = 0.001), have longer duration of continued surveillance imaging (P = 0.02), use growth hormone replacement for medulloblastoma survivors (P < 0.001) and continue the use of growth hormone into adulthood (P = 0.05) than those with a general pediatric oncology program.
  • Perceived barriers to care of brain tumor survivors included limited access and lack of insurance (32.1%), lack of funding or dedicated time for providers (22.9%), patients' uncertainty about need to follow-up (20.6%), and patients' desire to not be followed in a pediatric cancer program (12.2%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation exists across institutions in the United States in the delivery of follow-up care for survivors of childhood brain tumors.
  • We encourage additional investigation to better define and implement optimal follow-up care for childhood brain tumor survivors.
  • [MeSH-major] Aftercare / organization & administration. Ambulatory Care / organization & administration. Brain Neoplasms. Oncology Service, Hospital / organization & administration. Outpatient Clinics, Hospital / organization & administration. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Diseases / etiology. Child. Chronic Disease. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Data Collection. Dwarfism, Pituitary / etiology. Dwarfism, Pituitary / prevention & control. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Human Growth Hormone / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Insurance Benefits. Male. Medulloblastoma / complications. Neuropsychological Tests. Patient Participation. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Societies, Medical. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19688835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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31. Maddrey AM, Bergeron JA, Lombardo ER, McDonald NK, Mulne AF, Barenberg PD, Bowers DC: Neuropsychological performance and quality of life of 10 year survivors of childhood medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;72(3):245-53
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  • [Title] Neuropsychological performance and quality of life of 10 year survivors of childhood medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Survivors of medulloblastoma, the most frequently occurring malignant brain tumor of childhood, suffer neuropsychological damage in the first decade after diagnosis.
  • Cognitive performance, psychosocial functioning and quality of life were assessed in medulloblastoma survivors in the second decade after diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen medulloblastoma survivors [mean age at diagnosis: 7.2 years, range: 1-15 years; 6 males] were tested at a mean age of 22.2 years [range: 13.6-27.9 years].
  • CONCLUSION: Survivors of childhood medulloblastoma frequently suffer severe persistent deficits in a wide-range of neuropsychological functional domains.
  • These severe neuropsychological and psychosocial deficiencies justify further attempts to reduce or delay the use of craniospinal radiation therapy for childhood medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / psychology. Medulloblastoma / psychology. Quality of Life. Survivors / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adult. Child. Cognition / physiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Cognition Disorders / psychology. Education. Employment. Female. Humans. Intelligence Tests. Interpersonal Relations. Male. Neuropsychological Tests. Psychomotor Performance / physiology. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 15937648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Hawkins DS, Bradfield S, Whitlock JA, Krailo M, Franklin J, Blaney SM, Adamson PC, Reaman G: Topotecan by 21-day continuous infusion in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Nov;47(6):790-4
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  • PROCEDURE: Patients with Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT), osteosarcoma (OS), soft tissue sarcomas (STS), medulloblastoma (MB)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), astrocytoma, or neuroblastoma (NB) recurrent or refractory to conventional therapy, measurable disease, and adequate organ function were treated with topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/day by continuous intravenous infusion for 21 consecutive days, followed by 7 days without therapy prior to response assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


33. Curran EK, Le GM, Sainani KL, Propp JM, Fisher PG: Do children and adults differ in survival from medulloblastoma? A study from the SEER registry. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):81-85
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  • [Title] Do children and adults differ in survival from medulloblastoma? A study from the SEER registry.
  • Studies investigating whether adults have diminished survival from medulloblastoma (MB) compared with children have yielded conflicting results.
  • We sought to determine in a population-based registry whether adults and children with MB differ in survival, and to examine whether dissimilar use of chemotherapy might contribute to any disparity.
  • Patients were stratified by age at diagnosis: <3 years (infants), 3-17 years (children) and >or=18 years (adults).
  • There was no significant difference in survival between children and adults with MB in either the SEER-9 (P = 0.17) or SFO (P = 0.89) cohorts but infants fared worse compared to both children (P < 0.01) and adults (P < 0.01).
  • In the SFO sample, children and adults who received chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (XRT) did not differ in survival.
  • Among patients treated with XRT alone, children showed increased survival (P = 0.04) compared with adults.
  • Children and adults with MB do not differ with respect to overall survival, yet infants fare significantly worse.
  • For children and adults with MB treated with both XRT and chemotherapy, we could not demonstrate a survival difference.
  • Similar outcomes between adult and childhood MB may justify inclusion of adults in pediatric cooperative trials for MB.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms. Community Health Planning. Medulloblastoma / classification. Medulloblastoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. San Francisco / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19396401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Hemminki K, Tretli S, Sundquist J, Johannesen TB, Granström C: Familial risks in nervous-system tumours: a histology-specific analysis from Sweden and Norway. Lancet Oncol; 2009 May;10(5):481-8
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  • [Title] Familial risks in nervous-system tumours: a histology-specific analysis from Sweden and Norway.
  • BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on tumour subtype-specific familial risks for nervous-system tumours.
  • METHODS: We used data from the nationwide Swedish and Norwegian databases on familial cancer to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for the familial risk of developing a nervous-system tumour in offspring born after 1931 (Sweden) or 1900 (Norway) whose parents or siblings were probands.
  • FINDINGS: 54 195 patients had nervous-system tumours, 22 331 of whom belonged to the offspring generation aged 0-72 years in Sweden and 0-51 years in Norway.
  • Of 709 familial patients in the offspring generation, 438 (61.8%) had a parent affected by a nervous-system tumour (SIR 1.66; 95% CI 1.51-1.82), 236 (33.3%) had a sibling affected by a nervous-system tumour (SIR 2.01; 95% CI 1.76-2.28), and 35 (4.9%) belonged to families with a parent and at least two siblings affected by a nervous-system tumour (multiplex families; SIR 13.40; 95% CI 9.33-18.66).
  • Histology-specific population-based familial risks were shown for meningioma (1.6 for offspring of affected parents; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), ependymoma (2.7 for young offspring <20 years; 1.1-5.5), medulloblastoma (4.1 for siblings; 1.7-8.1), and neuroblastoma (3.2 for siblings; 1.1-6.9).
  • INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest a complex genetic background for nervous-system tumours, which differs depending on the age of onset and histological subtype of the tumour.
  • As the high-penetrant multiplex families only accounted for about 5% of familial nervous-system tumours, most familial cases are probably caused by low-penetrance genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Norway / epidemiology. Parents. Siblings. Sweden / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 May;10(5):439-40 [19410189.001]
  • (PMID = 19356978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Massimino M, Gandola L, Spreafico F, Biassoni V, Luksch R, Collini P, Solero CN, Simonetti F, Pignoli E, Cefalo G, Poggi G, Modena P, Mariani L, Potepan P, Podda M, Casanova M, Pecori E, Acerno S, Ferrari A, Terenziani M, Meazza C, Polastri D, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F: No salvage using high-dose chemotherapy plus/minus reirradiation for relapsing previously irradiated medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Apr 1;73(5):1358-63
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  • [Title] No salvage using high-dose chemotherapy plus/minus reirradiation for relapsing previously irradiated medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Myeloablative regimens were frequently used for medulloblastoma relapsing after craniospinal irradiation (CSI): in 1997-2002, we used repeated surgery, standard-dose and myeloablative chemotherapy, and reirradiation.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients were treated: previous treatment included CSI of 19.5-36 Gy with posterior fossa/tumor boost and chemotherapy in 16 patients.
  • Relapse sites included leptomeninges in 9 patients, spine in 4 patients, posterior fossa in 3 patients, and brain in 1 patient.
  • Twelve of 14 patients with assessable tumor had an objective response after reinduction; 2 experienced progression and were not given the myeloablative courses.
  • A salvage therapy for medulloblastoma after CSI still needs to be sought.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19019566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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36. Nordfors K, Haapasalo J, Korja M, Niemelä A, Laine J, Parkkila AK, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, Waheed A, Sly WS, Parkkila S, Haapasalo H: The tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases CA II, CA IX and CA XII in a group of medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours: an association of CA IX with poor prognosis. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:148
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  • [Title] The tumour-associated carbonic anhydrases CA II, CA IX and CA XII in a group of medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours: an association of CA IX with poor prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas (MBs) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) are the most common highly aggressive paediatric brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carbonic Anhydrase II / analysis. Carbonic Anhydrases / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / enzymology. Medulloblastoma / enzymology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / enzymology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasm / enzymology. Endothelial Cells / enzymology. Female. Finland. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Proportional Hazards Models. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20398423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 4.2.1.- / Carbonic Anhydrase II; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases; EC 4.2.1.1 / carbonic anhydrase XII
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2874782
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37. Sun YJ, Yu SZ, Sun CY, Wang Q, Jin SM, Wu WX, An TL: [Detection of chromosomal DNA imbalance in medulloblastoma by comparative genomic hybridization]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;39(9):606-10
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  • [Title] [Detection of chromosomal DNA imbalance in medulloblastoma by comparative genomic hybridization].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between chromosomal genomic DNA imbalance in medulloblastoma (MB), and the age and gender.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21092588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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38. Monje ML, Vogel H, Masek M, Ligon KL, Fisher PG, Palmer TD: Impaired human hippocampal neurogenesis after treatment for central nervous system malignancies. Ann Neurol; 2007 Nov;62(5):515-20
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  • [Title] Impaired human hippocampal neurogenesis after treatment for central nervous system malignancies.
  • In this study, we examine neuropathological markers of neurogenesis and inflammation in the human hippocampus after treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia or medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Hippocampus / pathology. Hippocampus / radiation effects. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / radiation effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17786983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-8249
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH071472
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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39. Rumboldt Z, Camacho DL, Lake D, Welsh CT, Castillo M: Apparent diffusion coefficients for differentiation of cerebellar tumors in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):1362-9
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  • METHODS: Brain MR imaging studies that included ADC maps were retrospectively reviewed in 32 patients with histologically proved cerebellar neoplasm.
  • There were 17 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), 8 medulloblastomas, 5 ependymomas, and 2 rhabdoid (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor [AT/RT]) tumors.
  • Absolute ADC values of contrast-enhancing solid tumor regions and ADC ratios (ADC of solid tumor to ADC of normal-appearing white matter) were compared with the histologic diagnosis.
  • ADC values and ratios of JPAs, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas were compared by using a 2-tailed t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
  • RESULTS: ADC values were significantly higher in pilocytic astrocytomas (1.65 +/- 0.27) (mean +/- SD) than in ependymomas (1.10 +/- 0.11) (P = .0003) and medulloblastomas (0.66 +/- 0.15) (P < .0001).
  • Ependymomas demonstrated significantly higher ADC values than medulloblastomas (P = .0005).
  • ADC ratios were also significantly different among these 3 tumor types.
  • AT/RT ADC values were similar to medulloblastoma.
  • The range of ADC values and ratios within JPAs and ependymomas did not overlap with that of medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Assessment of ADC values of enhancing solid tumor is a simple and reliable technique for preoperative differentiation of cerebellar tumors in pediatric patients.
  • Our cutoff values of >1.4 x 10(3) mm(2)/s for JPA and <0.9 x 10(3) mm(2)/s for medulloblastoma were 100% specific.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Feb;3(2):78-9 [17279080.001]
  • (PMID = 16775298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Souweidane MM, Morgenstern PF, Christos PJ, Edgar MA, Khakoo Y, Rutka JT, Dunkel IJ: Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2009 Jul;65(1):72-8; discussion 78
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  • [Title] Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether arachnoid tissue or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is valuable for risk stratification in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • METHODS: Arachnoid tissue and CSF from the cisterna magna (CSFCM) was sampled at the time of primary tumor resection.
  • Arachnoid infiltration and CSF cytology were found in 20.0% and 44.8%, respectively, for medulloblastoma/pineoblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor), 6.9% and 3.6% for pilocytic astrocytoma, and 0.0% and 33.3% for ependymoma.
  • The 3-year EFS for patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor who had positive arachnoid sampling was 33.3%, compared with 67.3% in patients who had no evidence of arachnoid infiltration (P = 0.26).
  • The 3-year EFS for patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor who had positive CSFCM was 50.0% compared with 67.5% in patients who had negative cytological analysis of CSFCM (P = 0.07).
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative evidence of arachnoid infiltration or CSFCM dissemination in patients with posterior fossa brain tumors occurs at a variable frequency that is dependent on tumor type, correlates with conventional M stage, and may be predictive of outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19574827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Bonneville F, Savatovsky J, Chiras J: Imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions: an update. Part 2: intra-axial lesions, skull base lesions that may invade the CPA region, and non-enhancing extra-axial lesions. Eur Radiol; 2007 Nov;17(11):2908-20
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  • Finally, brain stem or ventricular tumours can present with a significant exophytic component in the CPA that may be difficult to differentiate from an extra-axial lesion (lymphoma, hemangioblastoma, choroid plexus papilloma, ependymoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Female. Gadolinium / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17569053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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42. Sasagawa Y, Sasaki T, Fuji T, Akai T, Iizuka H: [Ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction due to pregnancy]. No Shinkei Geka; 2006 Feb;34(2):181-7
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  • At the age of 16 years, she had received a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt for hydrocephalus, induced by a cerebellar medulloblastoma.
  • Magnetic resonance images (MRI) and Thalium-single photon emission tomography (CI-SPECT) revealed no recurrence of the tumor.
  • We performed pumping of a flushing device for the shunt system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16485564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. El-Bahy K: Telovelar approach to the fourth ventricle: operative findings and results in 16 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Feb;147(2):137-42; discussion 142
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  • The inferior medullary velum was infiltrated by the tumour and was not detected as a separate layer in 6 cases (3 cases vermian astrocytomas and 3 cases medulloblastomas).
  • Subtotal removal was achieved in the remaining patients (31.25%); three ependymomas, one medulloblastoma, and one anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Cerebellar Ataxia / pathology. Cerebellar Ataxia / physiopathology. Child. Choroid Plexus / pathology. Choroid Plexus / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15605202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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44. Hamasaki K, Nakamura H, Ueda Y, Makino K, Kuratsu J: Radiation-induced glioblastoma occurring 35 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma: case report. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Apr;27(1):39-43
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  • [Title] Radiation-induced glioblastoma occurring 35 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma: case report.
  • Histological diagnosis was medulloblastoma (MB).
  • Postoperatively he received a total of 40 Gy radiation to the whole brain and 30.5 Gy to the spine without chemotherapy.
  • The tumor was surgically removed, and he received radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ACNU, procarbazine, and vincristine.
  • Postoperative irradiation reduced the size of the second tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Glioblastoma / etiology. Glioblastoma / therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20425047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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45. Riazmontazer N, Daneshbod Y: Cytology of desmoplastic medulloblastoma in imprint smears: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):97-100
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  • [Title] Cytology of desmoplastic medulloblastoma in imprint smears: a report of 2 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic medulloblastoma is a rare subtype of medulloblastoma with astroglial differentiation.
  • The cytomorphologic features in intraoperative imprint smears from 2 cases of desmoplastic medulloblastoma are described.
  • CASE REPORTS: A 22-year-old man and 27-year-old woman with a cerebellar tumor underwent craniotomy and tumor resection.
  • The cytology was misinterpreted as glial tumors, while the final histologic diagnosis in both cases were desmoplastic medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Desmoplastic medulloblastoma shows distinctive cytology in intraoperative smears.
  • However, the occurrence of this rare type in adults and the presence of astroglial elements in imprint smears may cause a cytologic misinterpretation as gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytes / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Glioma / diagnosis. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16514849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Fouladi M, Nicholson HS, Zhou T, Laningham F, Helton KJ, Holmes E, Cohen K, Speights RA, Wright J, Pollack IF, Children's Oncology Group: A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study. Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;110(11):2535-41
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  • [Title] A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: An open-label Phase II study of tipifarnib was conducted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma (MB)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), high-grade glioma (HGG), and diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tipifarnib tolerated well but had little activity as a single agent in children with recurrent central nervous system malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Quinolones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


47. Strenger V, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Dornbusch HJ, Lingitz H, Eder HG, Moser A, Urban C: Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 May;184(5):276-80
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology.
  • RESULTS: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy.
  • Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / radiation effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / radiation effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18427759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Pizem J, Cört A, Zadravec-Zaletel L, Popovic M: Survivin is a negative prognostic marker in medulloblastoma. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):422-8
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  • [Title] Survivin is a negative prognostic marker in medulloblastoma.
  • Our aim was to analyse survivin expression in medulloblastoma, its association with aberrant activation of the WNT (wingless) pathway and to test the prognostic significance of survivin expression.
  • We immuno histochemically analysed survivin expression and localization of beta-catenin, a downstream mediator of the WNT pathway, in 56 cases of medulloblastoma.
  • Survivin expression tended to be higher in medulloblastomas with an aberrant activation of the WNT pathway (nuclear localization of beta-catenin), but did not correlate with histological type, age group or dissemination via cerebrospinal fluid pathways.
  • Survivin expression and dissemination status were two independent negative prognostic variables for the overall survival of patients with medulloblastoma.
  • In conclusion, survivin is up-regulated in medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Up-Regulation. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16008826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin
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49. Goldhoff P, Warrington NM, Limbrick DD Jr, Hope A, Woerner BM, Jackson E, Perry A, Piwnica-Worms D, Rubin JB: Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7717-25
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  • [Title] Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential.
  • Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types.
  • To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells.
  • RESULTS: We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, and meningioma.
  • Moreover, when PDE4A1 was overexpressed in Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells, in vivo doubling times were significantly shorter for PDE4A1-overexpressing xenografts compared with controls.
  • Bioluminescence imaging indicated that whereas temozolomide and radiation therapy arrested intracranial tumor growth, the addition of Rolipram to this regimen resulted in tumor regression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression.

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  • (PMID = 19047098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108677; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA94056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4; K676NL63N7 / Rolipram
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82831; NLM/ PMC2615415
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50. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Viaño J, Carceller F, Gutierrez-Molina M, Morales C, Frutos-Martinez R: Posterior fossa tumors in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Nov;26(11):1599-603
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  • Four of them had astrocytomas but only in one case was the tumour primarily cerebellar while the tumour was primarily of the brain stem with invasion of the adjacent regions of one or both cerebellar hemispheres in three patients.
  • The fifth tumour was a medulloblastoma that had a survival of 3 years following treatment.
  • The patients with the brain stem tumours extending to the cerebellum, showed a chronic slowly progressive cerebellar disease, but remain alive at age of more than 20 years (one was lost to follow-up).
  • This location is very uncommon in patients with NF1, in contrast with those located in other regions, such as pathway optic tumours and brain stem tumours.
  • Only one patient in this series had a medulloblastoma, an exceptionally rare tumour seldom reported in patients with NF1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20464401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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51. Dellovade T, Romer JT, Curran T, Rubin LL: The hedgehog pathway and neurological disorders. Annu Rev Neurosci; 2006;29:539-63
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  • The hedgehog pathway is a major regulator of embryonic development, and mutations that decrease its activity are known to be associated with severe defects in nervous system development.
  • Recent evidence suggests hedgehog continues to function in adult tissue, normal as well as diseased, by regulating both cell proliferation and the production of growth and angiogenic factors.
  • In the adult nervous system, this dual ability is especially important in regulating the behavior of neural stem and progenitor cells.
  • This review summarizes information connecting hedgehog signaling and neural diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and brain tumors, particularly medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nervous System Diseases / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Hedgehog Proteins. Humans. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Stem Cells / drug effects. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16776596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-006X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu. Rev. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS36558
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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52. Barnett JA, Urbauer DL, Murray GI, Fuller GN, Heimberger AB: Cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in glial cell tumors: an immunotherapeutic target. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3559-67
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  • PURPOSE: Among central nervous system malignancies, cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) expression has only been characterized in medulloblastoma.
  • Paradoxically, within specific tumor pathologies, there was a trend toward increased survival as CYP1B1 expression increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / biosynthesis. Gene Expression. Glioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17575219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP1B1 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
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53. Ranke MB, Price DA, Lindberg A, Wilton P, Darendeliler F, Reiter EO: Final height in children with medulloblastoma treated with growth hormone. Horm Res; 2005;64(1):28-34
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  • [Title] Final height in children with medulloblastoma treated with growth hormone.
  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most frequent primary solid central nervous system tumour in children.
  • The present study is an extension of the investigation by the author's group of the effect of exogenous growth hormone (GH) among medulloblastoma patients.
  • METHODS: A total of 113 patients with medulloblastoma (out of 682 cases documented in KIGS, Pfizer International Growth Database) were treated with GH till final height was achieved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that attempts to improve the height outcome in medulloblastoma must involve earlier recognition and treatment with higher-than-replacement doses of GH; additionally, modifications in cancer treatment programs need to be considered, such as lowering the dose of craniospinal irradiation or avoiding it as far as possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Height / drug effects. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Medulloblastoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Disorders / drug therapy. Growth Disorders / etiology. Humans. Male. Puberty / physiology. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 16103682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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54. Mühlisch J, Bajanowski T, Rickert CH, Roggendorf W, Würthwein G, Jürgens H, Frühwald MC: Frequent but borderline methylation of p16 (INK4a) and TIMP3 in medulloblastoma and sPNET revealed by quantitative analyses. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):17-29
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  • [Title] Frequent but borderline methylation of p16 (INK4a) and TIMP3 in medulloblastoma and sPNET revealed by quantitative analyses.
  • Certain risk groups among tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in children take an almost inevitably fatal course.
  • Aberrant methylation is common in malignant brain tumors of childhood and may have implications for stratification and therapy.
  • Methylation of p16 (INK4A), p14 (ARF), TIMP3, CDH1, p15 (INK4B )and DAPK1 in medulloblastoma (MB) and ependymoma has been discussed controversially in the literature.
  • Only p16 (INK4A )and TIMP3 were methylated consistently in medulloblastomas (p16 (INK4A ) 14%, TIMP3 11%) and p16 (INK4A) also in anaplastic ependymomas (1/4 tumors).
  • Therapeutic and diagnostic implications urge into depth analyses of methylation as a mechanism, which might fill some of the gaps of our understanding of brain tumor origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Genes, p16. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Death-Associated Protein Kinases. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17206475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / TIMP3 protein, human; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / DAPK1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Death-Associated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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55. Zhou Y, Liu F, Xu Q, Wang X: Analysis of the expression profile of Dickkopf-1 gene in human glioma and the association with tumor malignancy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2010;29:138
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  • [Title] Analysis of the expression profile of Dickkopf-1 gene in human glioma and the association with tumor malignancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Gliomas represent the most common primary malignant brain tumors, yet little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the expression profile of DKK-1 gene in human glioma and its association with tumor malignancy.
  • METHODS: We determined the expression levels of DKK-1 transcript and protein in 12 glioblastoma cell lines, medulloblastoma cells, low-grade glioma cells, and human astrocyte cells by semiquantitative RT-PCR and ELISA.
  • A total of 47 tumor biopsy specimens and 11 normal brain tissue samples from patients with cerebral trauma internal decompression were embedded in paraffin blocks and used for immunostaining.
  • Twenty-six primary tumors and 7 corresponding brain samples were stored in liquid nitrogen and used for RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: DKK-1 could only be detected in 12 human glioblastoma cell lines, not in a panel of other tumor and normal cell lines.
  • Kendall's tau-c association analysis also revealed the increased DKK-1 protein expression in tumor tissues of higher pathologic classification.
  • The levels of cerebral fluid DKK-1 protein were significantly higher in glioma patients than in healthy donors or in neuronal benign tumor patients, suggesting that the DKK-1 molecule in cerebral fluids can be applicable to detect the presence of glioma and be developed as a novel prognostic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Glioma / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21029453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990739
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56. Suri V, Chaturvedi S, Dua R, Pant I, Kanodia AK: Superficially located medulloblastoma mimicking meningioma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):314-5
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  • [Title] Superficially located medulloblastoma mimicking meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16933756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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57. Ribi K, Relly C, Landolt MA, Alber FD, Boltshauser E, Grotzer MA: Outcome of medulloblastoma in children: long-term complications and quality of life. Neuropediatrics; 2005 Dec;36(6):357-65
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  • [Title] Outcome of medulloblastoma in children: long-term complications and quality of life.
  • To study the outcomes in long-term survivors of paediatric medulloblastoma (MB), we followed 51 consecutive children who were treated between 1980 and 2000 in a single institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / psychology. Medulloblastoma / psychology. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Disease Progression. Endocrine System / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Intelligence. Interviews as Topic. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Neurologic Examination. Neuropsychological Tests. Retrospective Studies. Social Behavior. Statistics, Nonparametric. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16429375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Nicolis SK: Cancer stem cells and "stemness" genes in neuro-oncology. Neurobiol Dis; 2007 Feb;25(2):217-29
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  • Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties.
  • In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.
  • In adult brain residual stem cells are located in the hippocampus, the subventricular zone and possibly the cerebellum.
  • Mutations in man and mouse, in spontaneous or experimental brain tumors, often target stem cell genes or genes lying in their functional pathway, the main examples being the Sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathways.
  • Interestingly, several stem cell genes are often overexpressed in brain tumors, even if they are not mutated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Division / genetics. Cell Lineage / genetics. Humans. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17141509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-9961
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurobiology of disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurobiol. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP05122
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 133
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59. Park JE, Kang J, Yoo KH, Sung KW, Koo HH, Lim DH, Shin HJ, Kang HJ, Park KD, Shin HY, Kim IH, Cho BK, Im HJ, Seo JJ, Park HJ, Park BK, Ahn HS: Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed medulloblastoma: a report on the Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 study. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Aug;25(8):1160-6
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  • [Title] Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed medulloblastoma: a report on the Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology (KSPNO)-S-053 study.
  • The efficacy and toxicity of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) were investigated for improving the outcomes of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
  • A total of 15 patients with relapsed medulloblastoma were enrolled in the KSPNO-S-053 study from May 2005 to May 2007.
  • Survival rates from protocol KSPNO-S-053 are encouraging and show that tumor status prior to HDCT/ASCT is an important factor to consider for improving survival rates of patients with relapsed medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Republic of Korea. Salvage Therapy. Transplantation, Autologous. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20676326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2908784
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / Medulloblastoma / Recurrence / Tandem / Transplantation, Autologous
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60. Tang JY, So PL, Epstein EH Jr: Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2007 Nov 1;224(3):257-64
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  • Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17276471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024130; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024130; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024130-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024130-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Sterols; 0 / Vitamins; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 60
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS33795; NLM/ PMC2719777
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61. Gilbertson RJ, Langdon JA, Hollander A, Hernan R, Hogg TL, Gajjar A, Fuller C, Clifford SC: Mutational analysis of PDGFR-RAS/MAPK pathway activation in childhood medulloblastoma. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Mar;42(5):646-9
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  • [Title] Mutational analysis of PDGFR-RAS/MAPK pathway activation in childhood medulloblastoma.
  • Aberrant signalling via platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) and the RAS/MAPK pathway has been implicated in the development of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour in childhood.
  • To determine whether genetic mechanisms play a role in the activation of PDGFR-RAS/MAPK signalling in medulloblastoma, we performed a direct sequence analysis of the established mutational "hotspots" of known targets of activating mutations within the pathway (PDGFRA, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS and BRAF) and PDFRFB, in a cohort of 28 primary tumours.
  • A synonymous sequence variation in PDGFRA (CCG to CCA; PRO 567 PRO) was detected in two cases (approximately 7%), but not in 150 normal chromosomes assessed, suggesting that the PDGFRA locus may be associated with medulloblastoma development in certain cases.
  • These data demonstrate that activating mutations in established mutational hotspots within the PDGFR-RAS/MAPK pathway are rare events in medulloblastoma development, and suggest that alternative mechanisms are responsible for RAS/MAPK pathway activation in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Exons. Female. Humans. Infant. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16434186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96832-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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62. Lobotesis K, U-King-Im JM, Cross JJ, Gillard JH, Antoun NM: Gliomatosis peritonei associated with a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Clin Radiol; 2009 Jan;64(1):95-9
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19070703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Ferretti E, De Smaele E, Po A, Di Marcotullio L, Tosi E, Espinola MS, Di Rocco C, Riccardi R, Giangaspero F, Farcomeni A, Nofroni I, Laneve P, Gioia U, Caffarelli E, Bozzoni I, Screpanti I, Gulino A: MicroRNA profiling in human medulloblastoma. Int J Cancer; 2009 Feb 01;124(3):568-77
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  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling in human medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastoma is an aggressive brain malignancy with high incidence in childhood.
  • However, no data are yet available on human primary medulloblastomas.
  • A high throughput microRNA expression profiles was performed in human primary medulloblastoma specimens to investigate microRNA involvement in medulloblastoma carcinogenesis.
  • We identified specific microRNA expression patterns which distinguish medulloblastoma differing in histotypes (anaplastic, classic and desmoplastic), in molecular features (ErbB2 or c-Myc overexpressing tumors) and in disease-risk stratification.
  • MicroRNAs expression profile clearly differentiates medulloblastoma from either adult or fetal normal cerebellar tissues.
  • Only a few microRNAs displayed upregulated expression, while most of them were downregulated in tumor samples, suggesting a tumor growth-inhibitory function.
  • This property has been addressed for miR-9 and miR-125a, whose rescued expression promoted medulloblastoma cell growth arrest and apoptosis while targeting the proproliferative truncated TrkC isoform.
  • In conclusion, misregulated microRNA expression profiles characterize human medulloblastomas, and may provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Medulloblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18973228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP07118
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC
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64. Raabe EH, Eberhart CG: High-risk medulloblastoma: does c-myc amplification overrule histopathology? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Mar;54(3):344-5
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  • [Title] High-risk medulloblastoma: does c-myc amplification overrule histopathology?
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, myc. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Gene Amplification. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Mar;54(3):369-76 [19908297.001]
  • (PMID = 20063409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055089
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS376308; NLM/ PMC4517433
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65. Wells EM, Walsh KS, Khademian ZP, Keating RF, Packer RJ: The cerebellar mutism syndrome and its relation to cerebellar cognitive function and the cerebellar cognitive affective disorder. Dev Disabil Res Rev; 2008;14(3):221-8
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  • The postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), consisting of diminished speech output, hypotonia, ataxia, and emotional lability, occurs after surgery in up to 25% of patients with medulloblastoma and occasionally after removal of other posterior fossa tumors.
  • CMS shares many similarities with the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, more commonly described in adults and consisting of disturbances of executive function, visuospatial skills, nonmotor language, and affect regulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Damage, Chronic / etiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Developmental Disabilities / etiology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Mood Disorders / etiology. Mutism / etiology. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Survivors / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child Behavior Disorders / diagnosis. Child Behavior Disorders / etiology. Child Behavior Disorders / psychology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Risk Factors. Young Adult


66. Li KK, Pang JC, Ching AK, Wong CK, Kong X, Wang Y, Zhou L, Chen Z, Ng HK: miR-124 is frequently down-regulated in medulloblastoma and is a negative regulator of SLC16A1. Hum Pathol; 2009 Sep;40(9):1234-43
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  • [Title] miR-124 is frequently down-regulated in medulloblastoma and is a negative regulator of SLC16A1.
  • Given that miR-124 is preferentially expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and external granule cells of cerebellum are thought to be cells-of-origins of medulloblastomas, we investigated if miR-124 played a role in the development of medulloblastomas.
  • Quantitative expression analysis of 29 medulloblastomas demonstrated significant down-regulation of miR-124 in 21 (72%) tumors by at least 2-fold, with 11 of them exhibiting greater than 10-fold reduced level compared to normal cerebella (P < .01).
  • Ectopic expression of miR-124 in medulloblastoma cell lines, ONS-76 and DAOY, inhibited cell proliferation.
  • Knockdown of SLC16A1 by siRNA induced cell death in medulloblastoma cells.
  • In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-124 deregulation is common in medulloblastomas, and restoration of its function inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting that miR-124 may act as a growth suppressor.
  • Our findings also raise the possibility that the miR-124/SLC16A1 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of malignant medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Down-Regulation / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. MicroRNAs / physiology. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / genetics. Symporters / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Luciferases, Renilla / metabolism. Male. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19427019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN124 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Symporters; 0 / monocarboxylate transport protein 1; EC 1.13.12.5 / Luciferases, Renilla
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67. Papaioannou G, Sebire NJ, McHugh K: Imaging of the unusual pediatric 'blastomas'. Cancer Imaging; 2009;9:1-11
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  • The 'commoner' blastomas (neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, medulloblastoma) account for approximately 25% of solid tumors in the pediatric age range.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Child. Child, Preschool. Chondroblastoma / pathology. Chondroblastoma / radiography. Female. Gonadoblastoma / radiography. Gonadoblastoma / ultrasonography. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lipoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / radiography. Lipoma / ultrasonography. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Osteoblastoma / pathology. Osteoblastoma / radiography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / radiography. Pinealoma / pathology. Pinealoma / radiography. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Neoplasms / radiography. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19237343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 52
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2651735
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68. Curran EK, Sainani KL, Le GM, Propp JM, Fisher PG: Gender affects survival for medulloblastoma only in older children and adults: a study from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Registry. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Jan;52(1):60-4
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  • [Title] Gender affects survival for medulloblastoma only in older children and adults: a study from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Registry.
  • BACKGROUND: Males have a higher incidence of medulloblastoma (MB) than females, but the effect of gender on survival is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Medulloblastoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Registries. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Young Adult


69. Tostar U, Malm CJ, Meis-Kindblom JM, Kindblom LG, Toftgård R, Undén AB: Deregulation of the hedgehog signalling pathway: a possible role for the PTCH and SUFU genes in human rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma development. J Pathol; 2006 Jan;208(1):17-25
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  • It is characterized by developmental defects and a predisposition to the development of certain tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and meningioma, and potentially fetal rhabdomyomas and embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Child. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16294371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / SUFU protein, human; 0 / patched receptors
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70. Gajjar A: High-dose chemotherapy for recurrent medulloblastoma: time for a reappraisal. Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;112(8):1643-5
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy for recurrent medulloblastoma: time for a reappraisal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Stem Cell Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer. 2008 Apr 15;112(8):1805-11 [18300237.001]
  • (PMID = 18306390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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71. Biswas S, Burke A, Cherian S, Williams D, Nicholson J, Horan G, Jefferies S, Williams M, Earl HM, Burnet NG, Hatcher H: Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Jul;52(7):796-803
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  • [Title] Non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (sPNET) in teenagers and young adults: Time to reconsider cisplatin based chemotherapy after cranio-spinal irradiation?
  • BACKGROUND: Supratentorial PNET (sPNET) are rare CNS tumors of embryonal origin arising in children and adults.
  • The treatment of sPNET for all age groups at our cancer center has been based on the management of medulloblastoma (MB), involving neurosurgical debulking followed by cranio-spinal irradiation (CSI) and systemic chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviewed to gather demographic and clinical data about all embryonal CNS tumors in children and adults from 2001 to 2007.
  • Tumor pathology, clinical management and survival data were also assessed, particularly as regards those patients who received the Packer chemotherapy regimen for either sPNET or MB.
  • RESULTS: Eleven patients (five children and six adults) were identified with non-pineal sPNET, three children with pineal sPNET, and 19 patients (18 children and 1 adult) with MB.
  • There was no difference in overall survival (OS) rates between pediatric and adult sPNET.
  • We suggest that it is time to reconsider the use of this regimen in teenage and young adult non-pineal sPNET and to investigate the utility of alternative approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19202566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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72. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Anderton JA, Gilbertson RJ, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jul 16;97(2):267-74
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  • [Title] Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma.
  • Using a pharmacological expression reactivation approach, we screened 16 S100 genes for evidence of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood.
  • Four family members (S100A2, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A10) demonstrated evidence of upregulated expression in multiple medulloblastoma cell lines, following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
  • Assessment of these genes in the non-neoplastic cerebellum (from which medulloblastomas develop) revealed strong somatic methylation affecting S100A2 and S100A4, whereas S100A6 and S100A10 were unmethylated.
  • Assessed against these normal tissue-specific methylation states, S100A6 and S100A10 demonstrated tumour-specific hypermethylation in medulloblastoma primary tumours (5 out of 40 and 4 out of 35, respectively, both 12%) and cell lines (both 7 out of 9, 78%), which was associated with their transcriptional silencing.
  • In summary, these data characterise complex patterns of somatic methylation affecting S100 genes in the normal cerebellum and demonstrate their disruption causing epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 family members in medulloblastoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Medulloblastoma / genetics. S100 Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cerebellum / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 17579622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360310
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73. Badruddoja MA, Keir ST, King I, Zeidner J, Vredenburgh JJ, Muhlbaier LH, Bigner DD, Friedman HS: Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Jul;9(3):240-4
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  • [Title] Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice.
  • The current study was designed to assess the activity of VNP40101M administered at a dose of 18 mg/kg daily for five days against a panel of human adult and pediatric CNS tumors growing subcutaneously or intracranially in athymic nude mice.
  • The results demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) growth delays of 15.0, 8.3, 51.0, 60+, 60+, and 60+ days in subcutaneous xenografts derived from childhood glioblastoma multiforme (D-456 MG), childhood ependymoma (D-528 EP and D-612 EP), childhood medulloblastoma (D-425 MED), and adult malignant glioma (D-245 MG and D-54 MG), respectively, with corresponding tumor regressions in 10 of 10, 4 of 10, 8 of 10, 9 of 10, 9 of 10, and 10 of 10 treated mice, respectively.
  • Additional experiments conducted against subcutaneous D-245 MG xenografts by using reduced doses of 13.5 or 9.0 mg/kg daily for five days demonstrated tumor growth delays of 82.2 and 53.5 days, with corresponding tumor regressions in 8 of 9 and 9 of 10 treated mice, respectively (all values, p < 0.001), with one toxic death.
  • These findings suggest that VNP40101M is active in the treatment of a wide range of human central nervous system tumors and warrants translation to the clinic.

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  • (PMID = 17522334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS20023-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Sulfonamides; 14J2G0U3NQ / laromustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1907418
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74. Liu JG, Liu YH, Cai J, Liu XS, Song WZ, Huang Y, Mao Q: [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and PTEN in malignancy brain tumors]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Nov;37(6):868-71
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  • [Title] [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and PTEN in malignancy brain tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect and analysis epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) in different malignancy brain tumors, and to evaluate their prognostic significance.
  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of EGFR and PTEN and adopting confocal technology to verify their location in the specimens of 25 respectively glioblastoma multiformes, medulloblastomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and anaplastic ependymomas.
  • However amplification of EGFR and deletion of PTEN were relatively low in other malignancy brain tumors.
  • They were 36% and 8% in medulloblastomas, and 28% and 8% in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and 24% and 4% in anaplastic ependymomas.
  • PTEN mutation and EGFR overexpression are rare in medulloblastoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and anaplastic ependymoma, so the EGFR or PTEN targeted antitumor approaches may be useful in glioblastoma multiformes but the other 3 tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult


75. Furtado SV, Venkatesh PK, Dadlani R, Reddy K, Hegde AS: Adult medulloblastoma and the "dural-tail" sign: rare mimic of a posterior petrous meningioma. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2009 Jul;111(6):540-3
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  • [Title] Adult medulloblastoma and the "dural-tail" sign: rare mimic of a posterior petrous meningioma.
  • The histological diagnosis was classical medulloblastoma.
  • We review literature of this atypical presentation of medulloblastoma and "dural-tail" sign, which can be associated with other benign or malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Dura Mater / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Meningioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Petrous Bone. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19285790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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76. Roland JT Jr, Cosetti M, Liebman T, Waltzman S, Allen JC: Cochlear implantation following treatment for medulloblastoma. Laryngoscope; 2010 Jan;120(1):139-43
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  • [Title] Cochlear implantation following treatment for medulloblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant tumor of the central nervous system in children.
  • Issues of CI in this population, including diagnosis, treatment of preoperative middle ear disease, operative and postoperative course, performance data, and long-term tumor surveillance are highlighted and reviewed.
  • METHODS: Three patients treated for pediatric medulloblastoma with surgical resection, postoperative hyperfractioned craniospinal radiotherapy, and multiagent adjuvant chemotherapy who underwent cochlear implantation were identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated for pediatric medulloblastoma develop otologic sequelae, including profound SNHL, and may require cochlear implantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cochlear Implantation. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / surgery. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


77. Kaszper E, Hanzély Z, Szende B, Dabasi G, Garami M, Schuler D, Hauser P: [Examination of somatostatin receptor expression in recurrent childhood medulloblastomas]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Dec;52(4):351-5
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  • [Title] [Examination of somatostatin receptor expression in recurrent childhood medulloblastomas].
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric central nervous system tumor.
  • Despite the adequate therapy the tumor often recurs.
  • The primary medulloblastoma expresses somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR-2), but so far we had no experience about the receptor status in recurrent tumors.
  • The presence of SSTR-2 may have an important role in the early detection and treatment of recurrent medulloblastomas.
  • Our aim was to examine the state of SSTR-2 expression in recurrent childhood medulloblastomas.
  • We examined SSTR-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in primary and recurrent medulloblastoma samples of ten children treated with recurrent medulloblastoma at Semmelweis University, Departments of Pediatrics, between 1998 and 2004.
  • We examined the intensity and the percentage of SSTR-2-positive tumor cells in the primary and recurrent tumor samples.
  • All primary tumors were receptor-positive and SSTR-2 was also expressed in all recurrent medulloblastomas.
  • In our samples the percentage of SSTR-2-positive tumor cells was 30-90%.
  • As a conclusion, SSTR-2-positive recurrent tumors can be detected early by Octreoscan imaging, and the presence of SSTR-2 establishes the opportunity of applying somatostatin analogues (octreotide) in the treatment of recurrent childhood medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / chemistry. Medulloblastoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemistry. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Indium Radioisotopes. Infant. Male. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Predictive Value of Tests. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19068462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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78. Kagawa N, Maruno M, Suzuki T, Hashiba T, Hashimoto N, Izumoto S, Yoshimine T: Detection of genetic and chromosomal aberrations in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors with DNA microarrays. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Apr;23(1):41-7
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  • [Title] Detection of genetic and chromosomal aberrations in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors with DNA microarrays.
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent infratentorial malignant brain tumor in children.
  • In contrast, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is defined as a supratentorial malignant tumor generated from the cerebral hemisphere.
  • We investigated the amplification and/or deletion of genes and the chromosomal gain and/or loss in 10 MBs and 3 PNETs with a genomic DNA microarray system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cerebellum / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Male. Microarray Analysis. Young Adult


79. Tabori U, Sung L, Hukin J, Laperriere N, Crooks B, Carret AS, Silva M, Odame I, Mpofu C, Strother D, Wilson B, Samson Y, Bouffet E, Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium: Distinctive clinical course and pattern of relapse in adolescents with medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Feb 1;64(2):402-7
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  • [Title] Distinctive clinical course and pattern of relapse in adolescents with medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical course of adolescents with medulloblastoma, with specific emphasis on prognosis and pattern of relapse.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively studied the clinical course and outcomes of children aged 10-20 years with medulloblastoma, treated at centers throughout Canada between 1986 and 2003.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that adolescents with medulloblastoma might have a unique prognosis and pattern of relapse, dissimilar to those in younger children.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 16198067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Warren K, Jakacki R, Widemann B, Aikin A, Libucha M, Packer R, Vezina G, Reaman G, Shaw D, Krailo M, Osborne C, Cehelsky J, Caldwell D, Stanwood J, Steinberg SM, Balis FM: Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2006 Sep;58(3):343-7
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: [corrected] Lobradimil is a synthetic bradykinin analog that rapidly and transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
  • The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was studied in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors in a phase II trial, the primary endpoints of which were to estimate the response rate and time to disease progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified by histology into five cohorts: brainstem glioma, high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, medullobastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and ependymoma.
  • The study was closed for commercial reasons prior to achieving the accrual goals for the ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/PNET (n = 6) and low-grade glioma (n = 2) cohorts, although responses were observed in 1 patient with PNET and 2 patients with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bradykinin / administration & dosage. Bradykinin / adverse effects. Bradykinin / analogs & derivatives. Bradykinin / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16408203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 159768-75-9 / RMP 7; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
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81. Shim KW, Joo SY, Kim SH, Choi JU, Kim DS: Prediction of prognosis in children with medulloblastoma by using immunohistochemical analysis and tissue microarray. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Mar;1(3):196-205
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  • [Title] Prediction of prognosis in children with medulloblastoma by using immunohistochemical analysis and tissue microarray.
  • OBJECTIVES: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant neuroepithelial tumor found in children.
  • Several reports have described efforts to identify the prognostic significance of various patterns of pathological and immunohistochemical features in medulloblastoma, but the published data appear to be controversial.
  • The authors therefore attempted to demonstrate these prognostic factors convincingly in a retrospective study performed in patients with medulloblastoma.
  • METHODS: The data used were obtained in 58 patients with medulloblastoma who were > 3 years of age and in whom > 1 year of follow-up was available after the maximal resection, craniospinal irradiation, and chemotherapy treatments.
  • In addition, the authors tried to determine the prognostic utility of these results in this tumor category.
  • RESULTS: There was no statistically significant correlation between the prognosis and the degree of cell differentiation, but a positive correlation was noted between the PI and the AI in a tumor mass.
  • The number of cases with a PI > 10% was significantly greater in the group of tumors in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma.
  • Most importantly, the PI is the only significant prognostic factor for the overall survival of patients with medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the authors suggest that the PI is directly linked to the prognostic factor for medulloblastoma and that immunohistochemical staining is a potentially powerful tool for predicting the prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microarray Analysis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptor, ErbB-3 / analysis. Receptor, trkC / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


82. Ulbright TM, Hattab EM, Zhang S, Ehrlich Y, Foster RS, Einhorn LH, Cheng L: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors in patients with testicular germ cell tumors usually resemble pediatric-type central nervous system embryonal neoplasms and lack chromosome 22 rearrangements. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jul;23(7):972-80
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumors in patients with testicular germ cell tumors usually resemble pediatric-type central nervous system embryonal neoplasms and lack chromosome 22 rearrangements.
  • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are one of the most frequent types of 'non-germ cell' tumor in patients with testicular germ cell tumors and have a guarded prognosis when present in metastatic sites after cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Using standard light microscopic criteria for central nervous system and peripheral PNETs, we classified nine tumors as medulloepithelioma, three as medulloblastoma/supratentorial PNET, one as neuroblastic tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes and one as small cell embryonal tumor/PNET (Ewing sarcoma-like).
  • Only 1 tumor, classified as medulloepithelioma, was scored positive for chromosome 22 translocation (22% rearranged cells) and the remaining 13 were negative, including the one case that resembled peripheral PNET.
  • We conclude that PNETs derived from testicular germ cell tumors mostly resemble central nervous system PNETs and generally lack the chromosome 22 translocation of peripheral PNETs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20348883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. McCabe MG, Ichimura K, Pearson DM, Liu L, Clifford SC, Ellison DW, Collins VP: Novel mechanisms of gene disruption at the medulloblastoma isodicentric 17p11 breakpoint. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2009 Feb;48(2):121-31
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  • [Title] Novel mechanisms of gene disruption at the medulloblastoma isodicentric 17p11 breakpoint.
  • Isodicentric 17q is the most commonly reported chromosomal abnormality in medulloblastomas.
  • Its frequency suggests that genes disrupted in medulloblastoma formation may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • CGH with a custom tiling path genomic BAC array of chromosome 17 enriched with fosmids at the breakpoint regions was used to analyze a series of 45 medulloblastomas and three medulloblastoma-derived cell lines.
  • In total, 17 of 45 medulloblastomas had an isodicentric 17q.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Breakage. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Mapping. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Gene Deletion. Gene Dosage. Gene Duplication. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Recombination, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18973140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Weller M: [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients]. Nervenarzt; 2008 Feb;79(2):231-41
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].
  • Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy.
  • Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas.
  • Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Topotecan / adverse effects. Topotecan / therapeutic use. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Cites] J Neurooncol. 2005 Feb;71(3):271-6 [15735916.001]
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  • (PMID = 18253773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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85. Christ G, Denninger D, Dohm OS, Weigel B, Hönes A, Paulsen F: Craniospinal radiotherapy in an advanced technique. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 Oct;184(10):530-5
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whole craniospinal irradiation cannot be achieved in one field at a normal treatment distance for adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Computer Simulation. Ependymoma / radiography. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Female. Germinoma / radiography. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Lasers. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiography. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Pineal Gland / radiography. Pinealoma / radiography. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19016043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Abe M, Tokumaru S, Tabuchi K, Kida Y, Takagi M, Imamura J: Stereotactic radiation therapy with chemotherapy in the management of recurrent medulloblastomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(2):81-8
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiation therapy with chemotherapy in the management of recurrent medulloblastomas.
  • Medulloblastomas are highly lethal tumors when they recur.
  • This report documents the preliminary study results of a treatment for recurrent medulloblastomas consisting of stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) with chemotherapy.
  • The reduction in tumor size after SRT was often remarkable.
  • In contrast, all 8 patients with metastasis had new lesions either in the spinal canal or on the surface of the brain outside the target area of SRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16465076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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87. Meister N, Shalaby T, von Bueren AO, Rivera P, Patti R, Oehler C, Pruschy M, Grotzer MA: Interferon-gamma mediated up-regulation of caspase-8 sensitizes medulloblastoma cells to radio- and chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Aug;43(12):1833-41
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  • [Title] Interferon-gamma mediated up-regulation of caspase-8 sensitizes medulloblastoma cells to radio- and chemotherapy.
  • Loss of caspase-8 expression - which has been demonstrated in a subset of Medulloblastoma (MB) - might block important apoptotic signalling pathways and therefore contribute to treatment resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Caspase 8 / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17627812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8
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88. Sarin S, Bernath A: Turcot syndrome (glioma polyposis): a case report. South Med J; 2008 Dec;101(12):1273-4
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  • Turcot's syndrome (glioma-polyposis) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by association of colonic polyposis with primary tumors of the central nervous system.
  • The patient survived for more than two decades after his initial presentation with medulloblastoma at the age of five years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / genetics. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Genetic Testing. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Multiple Organ Failure / genetics. Multiple Organ Failure / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19005436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Cakar M, Aksoy S, Kilickap S, Harputluoglu H, Erman M: Procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine combination may be effective in adult medulloblastoma patients with systemic metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):233-4
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  • [Title] Procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine combination may be effective in adult medulloblastoma patients with systemic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003 Jun;40(6):396-7 [12692812.001]
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  • (PMID = 16132496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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90. Boman KK, Hovén E, Anclair M, Lannering B, Gustafsson G: Health and persistent functional late effects in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumours: a population-based cohort study. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Sep;45(14):2552-61
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  • [Title] Health and persistent functional late effects in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumours: a population-based cohort study.
  • Survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumours are particularly vulnerable to tumour- and treatment-related disability.
  • We present the incidence of specific and overall functional and health-related late effects in a national adult survivor cohort.
  • Oligodendroglioma, mixed/unspecified glioma, intracranial germ cell tumour and medulloblastoma survivors had poorest overall health.
  • Least late effects were found for other specified/unspecified CNS tumours (including meningeoma and nerve sheath tumours), and for astrocytoma.
  • Comparisons with controls confirm persistent disability in multiple functional domains in adult CNS tumour survivors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Health Status. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cognition Disorders / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Pain / epidemiology. Quality of Life. Risk Factors. Self Care. Sensation Disorders / epidemiology. Sweden / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19616428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Koch A, Hrychyk A, Hartmann W, Waha A, Mikeska T, Waha A, Schüller U, Sörensen N, Berthold F, Goodyer CG, Wiestler OD, Birchmeier W, Behrens J, Pietsch T: Mutations of the Wnt antagonist AXIN2 (Conductin) result in TCF-dependent transcription in medulloblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;121(2):284-91
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  • [Title] Mutations of the Wnt antagonist AXIN2 (Conductin) result in TCF-dependent transcription in medulloblastomas.
  • Medulloblastomas (MBs) represent the most common malignant brain tumors in children.
  • These patients carry germline mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene.
  • APC is part of a multiprotein complex involved in the Wnt signaling pathway that controls the stability of beta-catenin, the central effector in this cascade.
  • The pathway is negatively controlled by the tumor suppressor AXIN2 (Conductin), a scaffold protein of this signaling complex.
  • One MB displayed a somatic, tumor-specific 2 bp insertion in exon 5, leading to carboxy-terminal truncation of the AXIN2 protein.
  • This tumor biopsy showed nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein, indicating an activation of Wnt signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Mutation. TCF Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Axin Protein. Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cerebellum / embryology. Cerebellum / growth & development. Cerebellum / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Wnt1 Protein / genetics. Wnt1 Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17373666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AXIN2 protein, human; 0 / Axin Protein; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / Wnt1 Protein
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92. Duke T, Kinney S, Waters K: Hyponatraemia and seizures in oncology patients associated with hypotonic intravenous fluids. J Paediatr Child Health; 2005 Dec;41(12):685-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Water Intoxication / complications

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  • [CommentIn] J Paediatr Child Health. 2007 May;43(5):415-6 [17489839.001]
  • (PMID = 16398876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1034-4810
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hypotonic Solutions
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93. Eberhart CG, Chaudhry A, Daniel RW, Khaki L, Shah KV, Gravitt PE: Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus. BMC Cancer; 2005 Feb 17;5:19
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  • [Title] Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus.
  • BACKGROUND: p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes.
  • We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors.
  • METHODS: p53 protein levels were evaluated semi-quantitatively in 64 medulloblastomas, 3 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT), and 8 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) using immunohistochemistry.
  • JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
  • RESULTS: p53 expression was detected in 18% of non-anaplastic medulloblastomas, 45% of anaplastic medulloblastomas, 67% of ATRT, and 88% of sPNET.
  • The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant.
  • No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3) was readily detected.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunoreactivity for p53 protein is more common in anaplastic medulloblastomas, ATRT and sPNET than in non-anaplastic tumors, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 15717928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS043279; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08NS43279
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC554768
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94. Barnes M, Eberhart CG, Collins R, Tihan T: Expression of p75NTR in fetal brain and medulloblastomas: evidence of a precursor cell marker and its persistence in neoplasia. J Neurooncol; 2009 Apr;92(2):193-201
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  • [Title] Expression of p75NTR in fetal brain and medulloblastomas: evidence of a precursor cell marker and its persistence in neoplasia.
  • p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and plays a significant role in nervous system development. p75NTR has a dual (proliferative/apoptotic) role in neurogenesis and binds pro-neurotrophins with high affinity.
  • Recent work suggests p75NTR is overexpressed in the developing cerebellum and in nodular/desmoplastic medulloblastomas.
  • We analyzed p75NTR expression in various parts of the fetal and adult human central nervous system, and in 75 patients with medulloblastomas.
  • The expression of p75NTR in the fetal brain was seen solely within the external granular layer with weaker expression in the Purkinje layer, which most likely represents Purkinje cell staining.
  • The staining was present in gestational weeks 20-40, while no staining was identified elsewhere in the fetal brain or within the adult cerebellum. p75NTR positive cells were also positive with the proliferation marker ki-67, but were negative for ret, reelin, CD133, CD34, and cleaved caspase 3.
  • Nine of 75 medulloblastomas (12%) were also showed positive immunostaining for p75NTR.
  • The staining was seen in four classic, two desmoplastic, and three anaplastic medulloblastomas.
  • The persistence of p75NTR in a small group of medulloblastomas raises the possibility that in such tumors, the receptor could be a potential therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19066726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor
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95. De Sio L, Milano GM, Castellano A, Jenkner A, Fidani P, Dominici C, Donfrancesco A: Temozolomide in resistant or relapsed pediatric solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):30-6
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  • Tumor types were: neuroblastoma (NB; n = 17), medulloblastoma (MB; 8), brain stem glioma (BSG; 8), extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (EOES; 4), Ewing's sarcoma (ES; 4), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS; 2), ependymoma (EP; 2), cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (cPNET; 2), hepatocarcinoma (HC; 1), and osteosarcoma (OS; 1).
  • CONCLUSION: Oral TMZ was well tolerated in children with resistant or relapsed solid tumors and showed activity in NB and CNS tumours refractory to standard chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Oct 15;47(5):647-8
  • (PMID = 16047361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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96. Kuroda T, Chida E, Kashiwamura M, Matsumura M, Fukuda S: Changes to spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) due to cisplatin administration. Int J Audiol; 2008 Nov;47(11):695-701
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  • We investigated the influence of cisplatin on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) by measuring SOAEs, before and after cisplatin administration, in 18 ears of nine patients (one female and eight males) who had received chemotherapy with cisplatin for a brain tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Female. Germinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19031228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8186
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of audiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Audiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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97. Parker W, Brodeur M, Roberge D, Freeman C: Standard and nonstandard craniospinal radiotherapy using helical TomoTherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Jul 1;77(3):926-31
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  • One of these, a patient with recurrent medulloblastoma, required a lower dose to be delivered to the posterior fossa because the patient had been previously irradiated to the full dose, and the other required concurrent boosts to leptomeningeal metastases as part of his treatment for newly diagnosed MPE.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Humans. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Scoliosis / complications. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1280; author reply 1280 [20970036.001]
  • (PMID = 20231076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Siu IM, Bai R, Gallia GL, Edwards JB, Tyler BM, Eberhart CG, Riggins GJ: Coexpression of neuronatin splice forms promotes medulloblastoma growth. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Oct;10(5):716-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coexpression of neuronatin splice forms promotes medulloblastoma growth.
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18701710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052507-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052507; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052507; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052507-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NNAT protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666248
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99. Stefanowicz J, Grabiec-Wiśniewska A, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Adamkiewicz-Drozyńska E, Bień E, Kaczorowska-Hać B, Połczyńska K, Szołkiewicz A, Sierota D, Maciejka-Kapuścińska L, Płoszyńska A, Izycka-Swieszewska E, Szutowicz E, Czauderna P, Reiter M, Hennig M, Balcerska A: [Second neoplasms in children with solid tumours in the years 1992-2007. Experiences of Gdańsk medical academy]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2008 Oct-Dec;12(4 Pt 2):1141-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 420 children and young adults included in the study.
  • They were treated for nephroblastoma - 3 cases, soft tissue sarcoma - 2, Ewing's sarcoma - 1, medulloblastoma - 1, retinoblastoma - 1 and neuroblastoma - 1 case.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Sarcoma / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Poland / epidemiology. Prognosis. Young Adult


100. Huse JT, Holland EC: Targeting brain cancer: advances in the molecular pathology of malignant glioma and medulloblastoma. Nat Rev Cancer; 2010 May;10(5):319-31
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  • [Title] Targeting brain cancer: advances in the molecular pathology of malignant glioma and medulloblastoma.
  • Malignant brain tumours continue to be the cause of a disproportionate level of morbidity and mortality across a wide range of individuals.
  • The most common variants in the adult and paediatric populations - malignant glioma and medulloblastoma, respectively - have been the subject of increasingly intensive research over the past two decades that has led to considerable advances in the understanding of their basic biology and pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Pathology, Molecular / trends