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1. Kochi M, Itoyama Y, Shiraishi S, Kitamura I, Marubayashi T, Ushio Y: Successful treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors by administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before excision of residual tumors. J Neurosurg; 2003 Jul;99(1):106-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors by administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before excision of residual tumors.
  • OBJECT: The goal of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of our novel treatment strategy, neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) consisting of combined chemo- and radiotherapy, which are performed before complete excision of residual tumor in patients with intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs).
  • METHODS: The authors treated 11 consecutive patients with NGMGCTs by applying NAT consisting of combined platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy, followed by complete excision of residual tumors.
  • The pretreatment diagnosis, based on tumor markers with or without biopsy, was yolk sac tumor in five patients, embryonal carcinoma in one patient, immature teratoma in one patient, and mixed germ cell tumor containing malignant tumor components in four patients.
  • Residual tumors that occurred post-NAT were surgically removed in nine patients.
  • In one patient a leptomeningeal tumor recurred and he died of the disease 21 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant therapy, consisting of combined chemo- and radiotherapy, followed by complete excision of residual tumors is highly effective in patients with intracranial NGMGCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms. Carcinoma. Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Germinoma. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Postoperative Care. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12854751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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2. Kamakura Y, Hasegawa M, Minamoto T, Yamashita J, Fujisawa H: C-kit gene mutation: common and widely distributed in intracranial germinomas. J Neurosurg; 2006 Mar;104(3 Suppl):173-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] C-kit gene mutation: common and widely distributed in intracranial germinomas.
  • OBJECT: Of the intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCTs), 10% of germinomas and most nongerminomatous tumors remain refractory to multimodality therapy.
  • The authors investigated the mutation of c-kit and the expression of its product KIT in IGCTs to identify tumors susceptible to imatinib mesylate, a synthetic agent targeting KIT.
  • METHODS: The authors investigated 26 IGCTs, including 13 germinomas, five mixed germ cell tumors (MGCTs), four immature teratomas (ITs), and two each of yolk sac tumors and choriocarcinomas.
  • These tumors were examined for the expression of KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical analysis, and for mutations in exons 2, 8 to 11, 13, and 17 of c-kit.
  • Strong KIT expression was found in the cell membrane of germinomas (100%) and germinomatous cells of MGCTs (80%), as well as in the cytoplasm of epithelial and smooth-muscle cells of ITs.
  • The membranous expression of CD34 was found in the nongerminomatous tumor cells and the chondrocytes of MGCTs (60%), ITs (100%), and a choriocarcinoma (50%), but not in germinomas and germinomatous cells.
  • The novel mutations E73K, T96M (both in exon 2), and A636V (in exon 13) were detected in a single tumor.
  • The presence or type of c-kit mutation was not correlated with patient prognosis.
  • This study may help in clarifying the pathogenesis of IGCTs and in identifying tumors susceptible to drugs targeting KIT.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Germinoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation, Missense. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16572634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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3. Kunishio K, Okada M, Miyake K, Matsumoto Y, Nagao S, Nishiyama Y, Ohkawa M: [Report of two cases with germinoma treated by individual adjuvant chemotherapy based on the mRNA expression of drug-resistance gene]. No Shinkei Geka; 2004 Jan;32(1):19-26
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  • [Title] [Report of two cases with germinoma treated by individual adjuvant chemotherapy based on the mRNA expression of drug-resistance gene].
  • We reported two cases with germ cell tumor in which new preliminary treatment trials were performed by chemotherapy using anti-cancer drug selected on the basis of multidrug resistance gene mRNA expression, such as MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MXR1, MGMT, GST pi and TopoII alpha, from RT-PCR assay.
  • MR imaging revealed enhanced tumors in the medulla oblongata, the pineal region and the suprasella region.
  • Biopsy of tumor in the medulla oblongata demonstrated germinoma histologically.
  • A 15-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with high intracranial pressure syndrome.
  • MR imaging revealed enhanced tumor in the pineal region.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as a malignant germ cell tumor, histopathologically.
  • It seems that preliminary individual adjuvant chemotherapy based on mRNA expression of drug-resistance gene is available for the treatment of germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression. Genes, MDR / genetics. Germinoma / genetics. Germinoma / therapy. RNA, Messenger
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Pharmacogenetics. Treatment Outcome


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4. Dietrich J, Marienhagen J, Schalke B, Bogdahn U, Schlachetzki F: Vascular neurotoxicity following chemotherapy with cisplatin, ifosfamide, and etoposide. Ann Pharmacother; 2004 Feb;38(2):242-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 38-year-old white man with a testicular germ cell tumor received a cisplatin-based chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin 45 mg (20 mg/m2), etoposide 570 mg (250 mg/m2), and ifosfamide 4600 mg (2000 mg/m2) given on 5 consecutive days during each course.
  • An objective causality assessment revealed that an adverse drug reaction was probable.
  • DISCUSSION: Neurotoxicity has been associated with the administration of various antineoplastic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Intracranial Hemorrhages / chemically induced. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Corpus Callosum / radionuclide imaging. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Germinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 14742759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0280
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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5. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Saito R, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: [The safety of combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE): single-institution retrospective review of 108 cases]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Nov;38(11):997-1005
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  • PURPOSE: The adverse effects of combination chemotherapy of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE) were evaluated in the treatment of various intracranial brain tumors.
  • The histological diagnosis was newly diagnosed or recurrent germ cell tumor in 45 cases, medulloblastoma in 19, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 7, anaplastic ependymoma in 6, recurrent glioblastoma in 13, and others in 18 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21081811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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