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1. Cui Y, Zhao JZ: [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ki-67 antigen in brain ependymoma and the correlation between them]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 23;88(47):3356-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ki-67 antigen in brain ependymoma and the correlation between them].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ki-67 antigen in human brain ependymoma and the correlation between them.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of EGFR and Ki-67 antigen in 40 specimens of brain ependymoma, 8 specimens of normal brain tissues, and 8 specimens of glioblastoma, all obtained during operation.
  • RESULTS: The EGFR positive rate of the III - IV grade ependymoma tissues was 75%, significantly higher than that of the grade I - II grade ependymoma tissues (25%, P < 0.05).
  • The EGFR positive rate of the recurrent ependymoma tissues (5/6) was significantly higher than that of the primary ependymoma tissues (9/34, P < 0.05).
  • The positive rate of Ki-67 L1 in the III - IV grade ependymoma tissues was (9.5 +/- 5.6)%, significantly higher than that in the grade I - II grade ependymoma tissues [(2.2 +/- 1.4)%, P < 0.05)].
  • The positivity of EGFR was positively correlated with the grade level of ependymoma and Ki-67 L1 positivity (both P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR expression positive rate increases with tumor grading.
  • The positive rate of recurrent ependymoma is higher than that of the primary ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


2. Liu XY, Zheng YP, Li JM: Laminoplasty for the treatment of extramedullary intradural tumors in the thoracic and lumbar spine: greater than two-year follow-up. Orthop Surg; 2009 Nov;1(4):275-9
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  • The pathological diagnosis was neurofibroma in 13, ependymoma in 6, lipoma in 2 and teratoma in 3 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Laminectomy / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Thoracic Vertebrae. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2009 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 22009875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-7861
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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3. Shu HK, Sall WF, Maity A, Tochner ZA, Janss AJ, Belasco JB, Rorke-Adams LB, Phillips PC, Sutton LN, Fisher MJ: Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution. Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;110(2):432-41
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  • [Title] Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Because few large studies of pediatric ependymoma treatment are available, the authors believed that a retrospective review of treatment outcomes from a single institution would yield potentially valuable information regarding potential prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviews of patients with intracranial ependymoma who received their initial treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)/Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) between January 1980 and December 2000.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients with pediatric intracranial ependymoma, OS and PFS rates were concordant with the rates published in other modern series.
  • Tumor extension to the cervical spine was identified as a predictor for failure outside of the primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


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4. Quraishi NA, Wolinsky JP, Bydon A, Witham T, Gokaslan ZL: Giant destructive myxopapillary ependymomas of the sacrum. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Feb;12(2):154-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Sacrum. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laminectomy. Lumbar Vertebrae / radiography. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Osteolysis / etiology. Osteolysis / radiography. Osteolysis / surgery. Pelvis / radiography. Pelvis / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20121349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Volpp PB, Han K, Kagan AR, Tome M: Outcomes in treatment for intradural spinal cord ependymomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Nov 15;69(4):1199-204
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  • PURPOSE: Spinal cord ependymomas are rare tumors, accounting for <2% of all primary central nervous system tumors.
  • This study assessed the treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with spinal cord ependymomas within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente system.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that en bloc gross total resection should be the initial treatment, with radiotherapy reserved primarily for postoperative cases with unfavorable characteristics such as residual tumor, anaplastic histologic features, or piecemeal resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Salvage Therapy / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17689025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Lo SS, Abdulrahman R, Desrosiers PM, Fakiris AJ, Witt TC, Worth RM, Dittmer PH, Desrosiers CM, Frost S, Timmerman RD: The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of Gamma Knife (GK)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of gross disease in ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: GK-based SRS appears to be a feasible and safe treatment modality for patients with ependymoma with unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery.
  • SRS provides reasonable local control but out-of-field tumor progression remains an issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16557349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Bradly DP, Reddy VB, Cochran E, Gattuso P: Comparison of cytological features of myxopapillary ependymomas on crush preparations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Aug;37(8):607-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myxopapillary ependymoma (ME) is a rare neoplasm found predominantly in the sacro-coccygeal region in adults and is characterized by its distinct epithelial and stromal components.
  • The epithelial component of ME is strikingly similar for all six cases showing tumor cells appearing singly or in loose clusters, most with papillary branching.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19459157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Merchant TE, Pollack IF, Loeffler JS: Brain tumors across the age spectrum: biology, therapy, and late effects. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2010 Jan;20(1):58-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brain tumors across the age spectrum: biology, therapy, and late effects.
  • The clinical difference between brain tumors in adults and children is striking.
  • Compared with adults, pediatric tumor types (mostly glial and neuronal) are more sensitive to adjuvant irradiation and chemotherapy.
  • In this review of glioma, ependymoma, and medulloblastoma, we highlight the differences between adults and children, including the higher incidence of spinal cord ependymoma and supratentorial high-grade glioma in the adult and a higher incidence of medulloblastoma in the child.
  • In some settings, the radiation oncologist should suggest further surgery or additional adjuvant therapy in an effort to optimize local tumor control.
  • An effort is underway to better characterize adult and pediatric brain tumors biologically with an emphasis on improving our understanding of tumor genesis, malignant transformation, and some of the similarities and differences between tumor types and their response to conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / epidemiology. Glioma / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / therapy. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Radiation Injuries. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19959032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-9461
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425593; NLM/ PMC3529408
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9. Morota N, Deletis V: The importance of brainstem mapping in brainstem surgical anatomy before the fourth ventricle and implication for intraoperative neurophysiological mapping. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 May;148(5):499-509; discussion 509
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brain stem mapping (BSM) is an intraoperative neurophysiological procedure to localize cranial motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle.
  • BSM enables neurosurgeon to understand functional anatomy on the distorted floor of the fourth ventricle, thus, it is emerging as an indispensable tool for challenging brain stem surgery.
  • The authors described the detail of BSM with the special emphasis on its clinical application for the brain stem lesion.
  • Surgical implications based on the result of brains stem mapping would be also informative before planning a brain stem surgery through the floor of fourth ventricle.
  • Despite the recent advancement of MRI to depict the lesion in the brain stem, BSM remains as the only way to provide surgical anatomy in the operative field.
  • BSM could guide a neurosurgeon to the inside of brain stem while preventing direct damage to the cranial motor nuclei on the floor of the fourth ventricle.
  • It is expected that understanding its advantage and limitations would help neurosurgeon to perform safer surgery to the brain stem lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Mapping. Brain Stem / physiopathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Germinoma / surgery. Hemangioma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Monitoring, Intraoperative

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  • (PMID = 16374568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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10. De Pascale G, Pompucci A, Maviglia R, Spanu T, Bello G, Mangiola A, Scoppettuolo G: Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis with intrathecal and intravenous colistin. Minerva Anestesiol; 2010 Nov;76(11):957-60
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  • We report a case of a 42-year-old male patient affected by low-grade ependymoma who developed AB-MDR post-neurosurgical ventriculitis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. Ependymoma / surgery. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Injections, Spinal. Male

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  • (PMID = 20445494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva anestesiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Anestesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; Z67X93HJG1 / Colistin
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11. Santi M, Quezado M, Ronchetti R, Rushing EJ: Analysis of chromosome 7 in adult and pediatric ependymomas using chromogenic in situ hybridization. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):25-8
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  • [Title] Analysis of chromosome 7 in adult and pediatric ependymomas using chromogenic in situ hybridization.
  • The present study utilizes chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), a relatively recent hybridization technique, to retrospectively examine chromosome 7-copy number in pediatric and adult ependymomas.
  • Of the 27 hybridizations, polysomy of chromosome 7 was detected in 10 out of 15 (66%) adult ependymomas, and in only three out of 12 (25%) pediatric lesions.
  • The authors conclude that (1) there are distinct genetic subsets of ependymoma, in particular, increases in copy number of chromosome 7 are almost exclusively found in myxopapillary ependymoma, and that (2) CISH is a rapid and sensitive method of stratifying morphological variants of ependymoma and potentially other central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Ploidies. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogenic Compounds / analysis. Humans. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Infratentorial Neoplasms / classification. Infratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15803371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogenic Compounds
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12. Sarikaya S, Acikgöz B, Tekkök IH, Güngen YY: Conus ependymoma with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Sep;14(9):901-4
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  • [Title] Conus ependymoma with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia.
  • We report a 24-year-old woman with an intramedullary conus ependymoma associated with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia.
  • The tumor was removed and surgery for decompression of the syringohydromyelia was not considered at the first operation.
  • The cause of syringohydromyelia accompanying intradural spinal cord tumors appears to be either direct blockade of the central canal or secondary interruption of the central canal flow by compression of the perimedullary cerebrospinal fluid flow.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Syringomyelia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17660060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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13. Merchant TE, Kiehna EN, Li C, Xiong X, Mulhern RK: Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Dec 01;63(5):1546-54
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  • [Title] Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years +/- 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed.
  • Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes.
  • For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma.
  • The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Intelligence / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Intelligence Tests. Male. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16115736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Neuwelt EA, Gilmer-Knight K, Lacy C, Nicholson HS, Kraemer DF, Doolittle ND, Hornig GW, Muldoon LL: Toxicity profile of delayed high dose sodium thiosulfate in children treated with carboplatin in conjunction with blood-brain-barrier disruption. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Aug;47(2):174-82
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  • [Title] Toxicity profile of delayed high dose sodium thiosulfate in children treated with carboplatin in conjunction with blood-brain-barrier disruption.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the safety of delayed high dose intravenous (i.v.) sodium thiosulfate (STS) in a case series of 12 children with malignant brain tumors who were treated with intraarterial (i.a.) carboplatin in conjunction with blood-brain-barrier disruption (BBBD).
  • RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting were well controlled with anti-emetics administered approximately 30 min prior to STS infusion.
  • Analogous to results in adult patients, there was mild transient hypernatremia and a trend for improved protection from ototoxicity in children who received STS delayed to 4 hr post-treatment versus 2 hr.
  • Tumor responses were seen in heavily pre-treated patients with relatively chemo-resistant tumors, suggesting that STS did not protect the tumor from platinum cytotoxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: High dose STS is well tolerated in children under 12 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Chelating Agents / administration & dosage. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / prevention & control. Thiosulfates / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Auditory Threshold. Blood-Brain Barrier. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Aug;47(2):120-2 [16206212.001]
  • (PMID = 16086410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS34608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS44687
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / Thiosulfates; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; HX1032V43M / sodium thiosulfate
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15. Takei H, Bhattacharjee MB, Rivera A, Dancer Y, Powell SZ: New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Feb;131(2):234-41
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  • [Title] New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an important tool in the diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: We review the features of new, useful or potentially applicable marker antibodies as well as the new uses of already established antibodies in the area of diagnostic neuro-oncologic pathology, focusing on the use of IHC for differential diagnosis and prognosis.
  • We discuss (1) placental alkaline phosphatase, c-Kit, and OCT4 for germinoma, (2) alpha-inhibin and D2-40 for capillary hemangioblastoma, (3) phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3), MIB-1/Ki-67, and claudin-1 for meningioma, (4) PHH3, MIB-1/Ki-67, and p53 for astrocytoma, (5) synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurofilament protein, and neuronal nuclei for medulloblastoma, (6) INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and (7) epithelial membrane antigen for ependymoma.
  • All the markers presented here are used mainly for supporting or confirming the diagnosis, with the exception of the proliferation markers (MIB-1/Ki-67 and PHH3), which are primarily used to support grading and are reportedly associated with prognosis in certain categories of brain tumors.
  • In addition, IHC is also of great help in predicting the prognosis for certain brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17284108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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16. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohmura T, Ohta M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):911-7
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects comprised ten patients with high-grade glioma [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), n=3, gliosarcoma (GS), n=1, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), n=3, anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA), n=1, and anaplastic ependymoma (AE), n=2].
  • As second- or third-line chemotherapy, patients received TMZ for recurrence or tumor progression.
  • As combination therapy, the local administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the addition of carboplatin and etoposide were included for three patients during the course of oral TMZ treatment.
  • One of the patients receiving combination therapy has continued to show shrinkage of the relapsed tumor.
  • Despite prior radio- and chemotherapy, most patients experienced only grade 1-2 hematotoxicity that was well-controlled by conservative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19414327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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17. Castro-Boix S, Coronado-Llanos D, Pradell Teigell J, Nadal Guinard A: [Myxopapillary ependymoma in the sacral region]. Cir Esp; 2007 Nov;82(5):313-4
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  • [Title] [Myxopapillary ependymoma in the sacral region].
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pilonidal Sinus / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18021636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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18. Puget S, Grill J, Valent A, Bieche I, Dantas-Barbosa C, Kauffmann A, Dessen P, Lacroix L, Geoerger B, Job B, Dirven C, Varlet P, Peyre M, Dirks PB, Sainte-Rose C, Vassal G: Candidate genes on chromosome 9q33-34 involved in the progression of childhood ependymomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 10;27(11):1884-92
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  • PURPOSE: The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric ependymoma remains unclear.
  • Our study was designed to identify genetic changes implicated in ependymoma progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We characterized 59 ependymoma samples (33 at diagnosis and 26 at relapse) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
  • Supervised tumor classification showed that gain of 9qter was associated with tumor recurrence, age older than 3 years, and posterior fossa location.
  • Furthermore, inhibition of Notch pathway with a gamma-secretase inhibitor impaired the growth of ependymoma stem cell cultures.
  • CONCLUSION: The activation of the Notch pathway and Tenascin-C seem to be important events in ependymoma progression and may represent future targets for therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Male. Mutation. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Receptors, Notch / genetics. Tenascin / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19289631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Tenascin
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19. Hwang HJ, Sohn JH, Han SJ, Kim TS, Lee YS, Kim JH: Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Aug 31;48(4):719-22
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  • [Title] Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma.
  • Here, we present an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • Histologically, the tumor was characterized by compact columnar neoplastic cells divided by fibrovascular septae.
  • The tumor was thus diagnosed as an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • This is a rare case of extraneural ependymoma for which an in vitro chemosensitivity test was critical in determining the multidisciplinary approach for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • [Cites] Pathology. 2001 Feb;33(1):26-9 [11280604.001]
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  • (PMID = 17722249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628065
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20. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Saito R, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: [The safety of combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE): single-institution retrospective review of 108 cases]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Nov;38(11):997-1005
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  • PURPOSE: The adverse effects of combination chemotherapy of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE) were evaluated in the treatment of various intracranial brain tumors.
  • The histological diagnosis was newly diagnosed or recurrent germ cell tumor in 45 cases, medulloblastoma in 19, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 7, anaplastic ependymoma in 6, recurrent glioblastoma in 13, and others in 18 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21081811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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21. Ginguené C, Champier J, Maallem S, Strazielle N, Jouvet A, Fèvre-Montange M, Ghersi-Egea JF: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 Sep;20(5):926-35
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  • [Title] P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas.
  • Intracranial ependymoma represents a major encephalic tumor in children, while spinal ependymoma develops more frequently in adults.
  • Real-time-PCR analysis showed that all three genes were expressed in all tumors, with no apparent correlation between the level of expression and either age or tumor grade.
  • These data indicate that a biochemical, transporter-dependent blood-tumor barrier may exist in ependymomas, which may reduce the tumoral bioavailability of lipophilic and amphiphilic anticancer drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1 / metabolism. Blood-Testis Barrier / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Microvessels / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family B. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Laminin / metabolism. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Young Adult. von Willebrand Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20406235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family B; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / von Willebrand Factor
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22. Oner AY, Celik H, Tali T, Akpek S, Tokgoz N: Thin-section diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with parallel imaging. Acta Radiol; 2007 May;48(4):456-63
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  • [Title] Thin-section diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with parallel imaging.
  • When a brain lesion was present, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and corresponding ADC were also measured.
  • RESULTS: Mean SNR values of the normal brain were 33.61+/-4.35 and 32.98+/-7.19 for conventional and thin-slice DWI (P>0.05), respectively.
  • Mean ADCs of the brain obtained by both techniques were comparable (P>0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / anatomy & histology. Brain Infarction / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Time Factors


23. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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24. Song JH, Kong DS, Shin HJ: Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Nov;26(11):1593-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors.
  • RESULTS: In 45 of 49 patients (91.8%) neuroendoscopic biopsy specimens were appropriate for diagnosis and revealed 27 germinomas, 11 astrocytomas, and one ependymoma, etc.
  • The tumor location included the pineal gland (n = 28), thalamus (n = 7), intraventricle (n = 3), hypothalamus (n = 3), suprasellar area (n = 2), and diffuse multifocal area (n = 3).
  • Tumor tissue specimens were undiagnostic in two patients (4.1%).
  • There were eight transient morbidities, including four EOM limitations, two central DI, one EVD infection, and one CSF leakage.
  • One patient experienced postoperative tumor bleeding requiring emergent operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Pinealoma / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Male. Pineal Gland / pathology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Thalamus / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20390421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Tang J, Flomenberg P, Harshyne L, Kenyon L, Andrews DW: Glioblastoma patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 15;11(14):5292-9
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  • [Title] Glioblastoma patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells.
  • PURPOSE: There is growing interest in developing cellular immune therapies for glioblastoma multiforme, but little is known about tumor-specific T-cell responses.
  • A glioblastoma multiforme-specific T-cell assay was developed using monocyte-derived dendritic cells to present tumor antigens from the established glioblastoma multiforme cell line U118.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor cells were obtained from nine patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: five glioblastoma multiforme, two oligodendroglioma, one ependymoma, and one astrocytoma.
  • PBMCs were incubated overnight with autologous tumor cells or autologous dendritic cells loaded with a U118 cell lysate, and responses were detected by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and cytokine flow cytometry assays.
  • RESULTS: PBMCs from all glioblastoma multiforme patients exhibited IFN-gamma responses to autologous tumor but not to HLA-mismatched U118 cells.
  • PBMCs from four patients with other brain tumor types and one normal donor failed to respond to U118 lysate-loaded autologous dendritic cells.
  • Moreover, PBMCs stimulated 1 to 2 weeks with U118 lysate-loaded dendritic cells exhibited MHC class I-restricted cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Glioblastoma multiforme patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells that recognize shared tumor antigens from the glioblastoma multiforme cell line U118.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Immunotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigen Presentation. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. HLA Antigens. Humans. Immunoassay. Interferon-gamma / immunology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16033848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HLA Antigens; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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26. Akimoto J, Murakami M, Fukami S, Ikeda Y, Haraoka J: Primary medulla oblongata germinoma--an unusual posterior fossa tumors in young adults. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):705-8
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  • In both patients, there was a midline tumor that extended from the lower part of the fourth ventricle to the C1 lamina level.
  • It was well-demarcated and homogeneously enhanced tumor with a slightly high density on plain CT scan.
  • The preoperative diagnosis for both patients was ependymoma.
  • The former patient had persistent lower cranial nerve palsies due to brain stem injury after tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19282178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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27. Schwartz NE, Rosenberg S, So YT: Action at a distance: a lumbar spine tumor presenting as trigeminal neuralgia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;108(8):806-8
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  • [Title] Action at a distance: a lumbar spine tumor presenting as trigeminal neuralgia.
  • Further investigation revealed a lumbar myxopapillary ependymoma, which in turn was responsible for the communicating hydrocephalus.
  • This unusual set of circumstances is an example of "action at a distance" in the nervous system, and reminds clinicians to think broadly about the various pathophysiologic mechanisms that can potentially underlie common disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / complications. Hydrocephalus / complications. Lumbar Vertebrae. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Trigeminal Neuralgia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt


28. Bonneville F, Savatovsky J, Chiras J: Imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions: an update. Part 2: intra-axial lesions, skull base lesions that may invade the CPA region, and non-enhancing extra-axial lesions. Eur Radiol; 2007 Nov;17(11):2908-20
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  • Finally, brain stem or ventricular tumours can present with a significant exophytic component in the CPA that may be difficult to differentiate from an extra-axial lesion (lymphoma, hemangioblastoma, choroid plexus papilloma, ependymoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Female. Gadolinium / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17569053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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29. Miyazawa T, Hirose T, Nakanishi K, Uozumi Y, Tsuzuki N, Shima K: Supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma occurring with intratumoral hemorrhage. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2007;24(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma occurring with intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • We report here a rare case of supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma.
  • This tumor was localized in the left angular gyrus, occurred with intratumoral hemorrhage, was attached to the dura mater, exhibited no continuity with the ventricular system, showed distinctive pathological features (perivascular pseudo-rosette formations and firework-like giant rosette formations), and finally transformed to a glioblastoma-like high-grade lesion.
  • A cortical ependymoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of supratentorial cortical tumors with intraparenchymal hemorrhage and high vascularity, even if not in contact with the ventricular system.
  • Although malignant transformation is unusual in cortical ependymoma, close observation and adjunctive radiotherapy are strongly recommended after the excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Zhu P, Yan F, Ma Y, Ao Q: Clinicopathological analysis of central and extraventricular neurocytoma: a report of 17 cases. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Dec;30(6):746-50
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological analysis of central and extraventricular neurocytoma: a report of 17 cases.
  • Neurocytoma, a rare brain tumor, is characterized by a mass located mainly in cerebral ventricles.
  • It is prone to be misdiagnosed as oligodendroglioma or ependymoma due to their similar histopathological features in clinical practice.
  • This study aimed to examine the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of central and extraventricular neurocytoma.
  • The clinical and histopathological data of 17 patients (male: female=7:10; age: 4-41 years; mean age: 27.4 years) with central or extraventricular neurocytoma were retrospectively analyzed.
  • The tumor tissue was found to be composed of small uniform cells with round nuclei and clear cytoplasm resembling that of oligodendroglioma and ependymoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed the tumor tissues were positive for neuronal markers such as synaptophysin (SYN) and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN).
  • It was concluded histopathological features of neurocytoma overlaps with some tumors in the central neural system.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Neurocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Nuclear / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21181365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, human
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31. Matsuyama A, Hisaoka M, Yamamoto I, Toyoshima S, Hashimoto H: Extraspinal ependymoma of the broad ligament. Pathol Int; 2010 Mar;60(3):241-4
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  • [Title] Extraspinal ependymoma of the broad ligament.
  • Extraspinal ependymoma is a rare tumor, occurring most commonly in the sacrococcygeal region, and only a small number of cases have been reported to arise in the uterine ligament.
  • Herein is reported a case of extraspinal ependymoma arising in the broad ligament of a 27-year-old woman.
  • On cut section the tumor was found to be solid, and demonstrated hemorrhaging, necrosis, myxoid foci, and central cystic spaces.
  • Microscopically the tumor was composed of a proliferation of short spindle or polygonal cells arranged in short fascicles or in a solid sheet-like fashion with occasional perivascular pseudorosettes, together with myxoid areas and variable histological architectures exhibiting cribriform, pseudopapillary, and variable-sized cystic patterns.
  • On immunohistochemistry most tumor cells were positively reactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD99, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor.
  • Extraspinal ependymoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when examining unusual intrapelvic tumors, especially in young female patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Broad Ligament / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20403052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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32. Engelhard HH, Corsten LA: Leptomeningeal metastasis of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. Cancer Treat Res; 2005;125:71-85
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastasis of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of primary CNS tumors varies widely by histologic subtype.
  • In certain tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, germ cell tumors, and primary CNS lymphoma, seeding of the cerebrospinal fluid space is a critical factor in determining stage, prognosis and appropriate therapy.
  • Other tumor types, such as glioma, may have radiographic evidence of leptomeningeal metastases without clear impact on prognosis or therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Humans. Incidence

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  • (PMID = 16211884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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33. Wang CC, Zhang JT, Liu AL: [Surgical management of brain-stem gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 311 cases]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2005 Feb;27(1):7-12
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of brain-stem gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 311 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To further study the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgery outcome of brain-stem gliomas.
  • METHODS: Totally 311 patients with brain-stem gliomas received surgery operations in our hospital from 1980 to the end of 2001.
  • RESULTS: Different brain-stem gliomas showed different growth patterns.
  • In this series, total excision rate of the tumor was 40.5%, subtotal 29.9%, partial 29.6%, and operative mortality 1.3%.
  • Five years survival rate is 67% in ependymoma patients, 42% in astrocytoma patients.
  • None of brain-stem glioblastoma patients survived up to 5 years.
  • The patients with well-differentiated gliomas of brain-stem may be cured by microsurgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Glioblastoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mesencephalon / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Pons / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15782484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. Mahfouz S, Aziz AA, Gabal SM, el-Sheikh S: Immunohistochemical study of CD99 and EMA expression in ependymomas. Medscape J Med; 2008;10(2):41
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  • Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a unique, heterogeneous population of neoplasms and include both benign and malignant tumors.
  • The present study was carried out on a total of 79 archival cases of ependymal tumors in addition to a variety of other primary CNS tumors.
  • It was found that all 38 ependymoma cases (classic and nonclassic) showed positive membranous and intracytoplasmic CD99 immunoreactivity.
  • Upon comparing with other CNS tumors (41 cases), it was found that CD99 could differentiate between ependymomas and nonependymal tumors, but intensity and pattern of staining were of no consequence in determining variant type or degree of histologic aggressiveness.
  • In regard to EMA immunoreactivity, which was restricted to the ependymoma group, 2 patterns of staining could be detected--the intracytoplasmic dotlike pattern and the ringlike pattern--but some cases were completely negative.
  • Thus, EMA was found to be of little value in the diagnosis of ependymoma and in the differentiation between different types and grades.
  • CD99 can hence be recommended for use as a good marker for differentiation between ependymal and other CNS tumors.
  • EMA expression and pattern of distribution, on the other hand, cannot be employed to determine the type of variant or the degree of tumor aggressiveness, and hence cannot predict the behavior of ependymal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Mucin-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18382710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-1997
  • [Journal-full-title] Medscape journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medscape J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2270873
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35. Jalali R, Dutta D, Kamble R, Gupta T, Munshi A, Sarin R, Dinshaw K: Prospective assessment of activities of daily living using modified Barthel's Index in children and young adults with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):321-8
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  • RESULT: The patient population consisted of 38 patients (male 29, female 9) with a diagnosis of residual or progressive low-grade glioma (pilocytic astrocytoma in 27, fibrillary astrocytoma in 5, ependymoma in 4, and oligodendroglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in 1 each).
  • The mean pre-radiotherapy baseline BI of three patients, who eventually developed local recurrence, was only 64 (SD 32.1) as compared with a baseline score of 97.18 seen in patients whose tumor remained controlled at follow-up (P <or= 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with low-grade gliomas after surgical intervention had a lower than normal BI before starting radiotherapy, suggesting a decrease in ADL possibly due to tumor- and surgery-related factors.
  • Patients who developed tumor recurrence at follow-up had a significantly lower BI at baseline than patients with controlled disease (P <or= 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living. Brain Neoplasms / psychology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / psychology. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Stereotaxic Techniques. Surveys and Questionnaires
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18704269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Fassett DR, Pingree J, Kestle JR: The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(1 Suppl):59-64
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  • [Title] The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature.
  • Only 8 to 20% of these tumors occur in the first two decades of life, making this tumor a rarity in pediatric neurosurgery.
  • Four (80%) of these five patients suffered from disseminated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) at the time of presentation; this incidence is much higher than that reported in the combined adult and pediatric literature.
  • In nine cases (35%) CNS metastases occurred.
  • In those cases in which patients underwent screening for CNS tumor dissemination, however, the incidence of disseminated disease was 58% (seven of 12 patients).
  • In pediatric patients MPEs may spread throughout the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid pathways; therefore, MR imaging of the entire CNS axis is recommended at both presentation and follow-up review to detect tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology


37. Houben MP, Coebergh JW, Birch JM, Tijssen CC, van Duijn CM, McNally RJ: Space-time clustering of glioma cannot be attributed to specific histological subgroups. Eur J Epidemiol; 2006;21(3):197-201
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  • We previously showed that infectious exposures may be involved in the aetiology of adult glioma, by analysing for space-time clustering using population-based data from the South of the Netherlands.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Geography. Glioma / epidemiology. Space-Time Clustering
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Female. Geographic Information Systems. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Netherlands / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Registries. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16547834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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38. Qian X, Goumnerova LC, De Girolami U, Cibas ES: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study. Cancer; 2008 Oct 25;114(5):307-14
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma cells are known to occasionally exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells have not been described in detail to date.
  • In this study, the CSF findings in patients with ependymal neoplasms are summarized and the cytomorphologic features of ependymoma, including its variants, are illustrated.
  • METHODS: A search of the pathology databases of 2 medical centers was performed to identify all patients with a histologic diagnosis of ependymoma in whom CSF samples were examined.
  • RESULTS: In all, 177 patients with a diagnosis of ependymoma were identified.
  • The detection rate of tumor cells in CSF was 6.7% in 15 adults and 21.2% in 33 children, with an overall rate of 16.7%.
  • Of the 8 patients with positive and/or suspicious diagnoses, 5 ependymomas exhibited anaplastic features and 1 tumor was a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • The positive samples were usually hypercellular, with cohesive epithelioid cells; long cytoplasmic processes resembling bipolar tanycytes were observed in the tanycytic variant of ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies


39. Vitanovics D, Bálint K, Hanzély Z, Banczerowski P, Afra D: Ependymoma in adults: surgery, reoperation and radiotherapy for survival. Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Mar;16(1):93-9
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  • [Title] Ependymoma in adults: surgery, reoperation and radiotherapy for survival.
  • PURPOSE: to retrospectively determine the long-term outcome of adult intracranial ependymoma patients treated with surgery, reoperation, and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • Forty patients had World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II ependymoma, and 21 patients had Grade III ependymoma.
  • A statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with WHO tumour grade as well as with MIB-1 labelling index.
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience the use of radiotherapy in adult, intracranial WHO Grade II ependymoma patients had no significant effect on prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19728165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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40. Guyotat J, Metellus P, Giorgi R, Barrie M, Jouvet A, Fevre-Montange M, Chinot O, Durand A, Figarella-Branger D: Infratentorial ependymomas: prognostic factors and outcome analysis in a multi-center retrospective series of 106 adult patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Aug;151(8):947-60
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  • [Title] Infratentorial ependymomas: prognostic factors and outcome analysis in a multi-center retrospective series of 106 adult patients.
  • OBJECT: This study was undertaken to analyze outcomes and to assess the prognostic impact of age, location, surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and histopathology in a series of adult infratentorial ependymomas.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective study of a population of 106 adult patients with infratentorial ependymomas diagnosed between 1990 and 2004.
  • A central pathological review of all cases was performed.
  • Using the Marseille's neograding system, 91 patients were low-grade and 15 high-grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Stem / surgery. Cerebellum / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality. Neurosurgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19499166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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41. Kawasaki K, Kohno M, Inenaga C, Sato A, Hondo H, Miwa A, Fujii Y, Takahashi H: Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: a report of two cases, one with ultrastructural findings. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):85-90
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  • Chordoid glioma, which generally occurs in adults, is a rare CNS tumor arising in the anterior part of the third ventricle.
  • Both tumors showed essentially the same histological and immunohistochemical features; the tumors were composed of cords and nests of epithelioid, GFAP-immunoreactive cells in a mucinous stroma with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates at the tumor periphery.
  • Ultrastructural examination in one case revealed that the tumor cells were characterized by the presence of hemidesmosomes and associated focal basal lamina formation, intermediate junctions, microvilli and cilia, and intercellular microrosettes with microvilli.
  • In the brain, the presence of fenestrated endothelial cells is a feature of the circumventricular organs (except the subcommissural organ), among which the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis is located in the anterior part of the third ventricular floor that is lined by specialized ependymal cells known as tanycytes.
  • These findings further strengthen the hypothesis that chordoid glioma may represent a peculiar clinicopathological subtype of ependymoma (chordoid ependymoma) originating from the lamina terminalis area.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Basement Membrane / pathology. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cilia / pathology. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Hemidesmosomes / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathology. 2009 Apr;29(2):208
  • (PMID = 18498285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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42. Wang Z, Huang G, Yan P, Liang R, Wang J, Yan Q, Zhang J, Cheng H, Hu P, Ma MJ: Ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Dec;55(12):781-4
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  • [Title] Ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Ependymomas generally arise in the central nervous system (CNS), although rare primary extraneural ependymomas have been observed.
  • Reported herein for the first time is the case of a patient with primary ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma.
  • The tumor was found in the right neck root region of a 35-year-old man.
  • No additional tumor was found in the CNS or in other parts of the body.
  • Microscopically, the tumor consisted of round to oval cells with fine chromatin, distinct nucleoli, moderate nuclear atypia and numerous mitoses (>25/10 high-power fields) in a densely cellular growth pattern with characteristic fibrillary cytoplasm and formation of perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), vimentin and S-100 protein.
  • EMA staining showed a membranous as well as a paranuclear pattern of immunoreactivity.
  • Electron microscopic studies revealed that tumor cells form micro rosettes, into which microvilli and cilia projected.
  • The diagnosis was World Health Organization grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • There is no evidence of local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis after 30 months follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Male. Mucin-1 / analysis. Vimentin / analysis


43. Mangels KJ, Johnson MD, Weil RJ: 35-year-old woman with progressive bilateral leg weakness. Brain Pathol; 2006 Apr;16(2):183-4, 187
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  • Serial sections revealed a homogeneous black tumor without necrosis.
  • H&E stained sections showed an occasionally fascicular tumor of melanocytes and small round blue tumor spindle cells with melanin pigmentation and 1-2 mitotic figures per 10 high-powered fields.
  • A diagnosis of primary meningeal melanocytic tumor was made.
  • PMMTs of the CNS consist of a spectrum of tumors ranging from well-differentiated melanocytoma to its overtly malignant counterpart, melanoma.
  • IGMs are more cellular than the well-differentiated variant, with 1-3 mitotic figures per 10 HPFs and MIB-1 labeling of <6%.
  • Once metastasis, including drop metastasis from pigmented medulloblastomas, have been excluded, the differential includes pigmented meningiomas and schwannomas (solitary or as part of Carney complex), as well as other pigmented CNS tumors such as ependymoma and pineoblastoma and systemic diseases such as lymphoma . . .
  • For primary CNS melanocytic neoplasms, complete tumor resection is preferred, as it leads to cure of well-differentiated and intermediate-grade melanocytomas and most melanomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Functional Laterality. Humans. Thoracic Vertebrae. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16768759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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44. Saito R, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence. Neurosurg Rev; 2010 Apr;33(2):185-91; discussion 191-2
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  • [Title] Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence.
  • High resection rate, meticulous follow-up, and intensive treatment for recurrence improved the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


45. Pinto GR, Clara CA, Santos MJ, Almeida JR, Burbano RR, Rey JA, Casartelli C: Mutation analysis of gene PAX6 in human gliomas. Genet Mol Res; 2007;6(4):1019-25
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  • Gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Gene PAX6, which encodes a transcription factor that plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system, was recently recognized as a tumor suppressor in gliomas.
  • Therefore, we conclude that the tumor suppressor role of PAX6, reported in previous studies on gliomas, is not due to mutation in its coding and regulating regions, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the silencing of PAX6 in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Eye Proteins / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Base Sequence. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18273794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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46. Plans G, Brell M, Cabiol J, Villà S, Torres A, Acebes JJ: Intracranial retrograde dissemination in filum terminale myxopapillary ependymomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Mar;148(3):343-6; discussion 346
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  • Myxopapillary ependymomas (ME) are considered benign tumours (WHO grade I) of the central nervous system with long term survival rates and a tendency to local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cauda Equina / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Headache / diagnosis. Headache / etiology. Headache / physiopathology. Humans. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / secondary. Hypothalamus / pathology. Hypothalamus / physiopathology. Hypothalamus / surgery. Laminectomy. Low Back Pain / etiology. Low Back Pain / physiopathology. Low Back Pain / surgery. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / pathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / physiopathology. Pituitary Gland, Posterior / surgery. Radiotherapy / methods. Third Ventricle / pathology. Third Ventricle / physiopathology. Third Ventricle / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16362177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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47. Alkhani A, Blooshi M, Hassounah M: Outcome of surgery for intramedullary spinal ependymoma. Ann Saudi Med; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2):109-13
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  • [Title] Outcome of surgery for intramedullary spinal ependymoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ependymoma is the most frequently encountered intramedullary tumor.
  • This study was designed to define prognostic factors that affect clinical outcome after surgical resection of spinal intramedullary ependymoma.
  • RESULTS: Surgery was performed on 17 patients (14 males, 3 females, mean age of 42+/-15 years) with spinal ependymoma.
  • The cervical spine was the most common tumor location (71%).
  • Total surgical resection of the tumor was achieved in 11 cases (65%).
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neurologic Examination. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18398287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-4947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of Saudi medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Saudi Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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48. Yi W, Haapasalo H, Holmlund C, Järvelä S, Raheem O, Bergenheim AT, Hedman H, Henriksson R: Expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins in human ependymoma relates to tumor location, WHO grade, and patient age. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Jan-Feb;28(1):21-7
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  • [Title] Expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins in human ependymoma relates to tumor location, WHO grade, and patient age.
  • LRIG1 has been shown to be a suppressor of tumor growth by counteracting the signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including EGFR (ERBB1).
  • The indications that expression and subcellular localization of LRIG proteins could be pathogenetically associated with specific clinicopathological features of ependymoma tumors might be of importance in the carcinogeneses and tumor progression of human ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis. World Health Organization


49. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Severson RK, Stanton B, Hamre M, Sloan AE: Pediatric brain tumors in non-Hispanics, Hispanics, African Americans and Asians: differences in survival after diagnosis. Cancer Causes Control; 2005 Jun;16(5):587-92
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  • [Title] Pediatric brain tumors in non-Hispanics, Hispanics, African Americans and Asians: differences in survival after diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Racial differences in survival for children with brain tumors have not been well studied, particularly in Hispanics and Asians.
  • The objective of this study was to assess racial differences in survival of children with brain tumors, focusing on Hispanics, African Americans and Asians compared to Non-Hispanics.
  • METHODS: Subjects identified through the SEER Program were 2799 children, < or =19 years old at diagnosis, newly diagnosed between 1973 and 1996 with primary, malignant brain tumors.
  • Kaplan-Meier models and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess racial differences in overall survival and in survival by histological type of tumor.
  • RESULTS: The distribution histological type of tumor varied significantly by race.
  • Overall survival was similar for Hispanics, African Americans, Asians compared to Non-Hispanics, although trends of increased risk of death for the minority groups were noted when stratifying by histological type of tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in survival could exist by histological type of tumor, but further work is necessary for a more complete understanding of these differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Continental Population Groups / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / ethnology. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / ethnology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / ethnology. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. SEER Program. Survival Analysis. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15986114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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50. Karabatsou K, Crooks D, Williams D, Buxton N: Combination of myxopapillary ependymoma and fatty filum in a child with tethered cord syndrome. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 May;1(5):386-8
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  • [Title] Combination of myxopapillary ependymoma and fatty filum in a child with tethered cord syndrome. Case report.
  • The authors present a case of a child with a tethered spinal cord associated with a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • Histological analysis of the fatty filum suggested the presence of a coexisting myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • The child made a good recovery with no evidence of tumor recurrence after 4-years of follow-up with serial MR imaging.
  • This unusual combination has not previously been reported in children, and to the authors' knowledge there is only one reported case in an adult.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina. Ependymoma / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Neural Tube Defects / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology


51. Attard TM, Giglio P, Koppula S, Snyder C, Lynch HT: Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis. Cancer; 2007 Feb 15;109(4):761-6
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  • [Title] Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis.
  • They are at an increased risk of brain tumors, including cerebellar medulloblastoma, when compared with the general population (Brain Tumor Polyposis-BTP Type 2).
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations between APC gene mutations and central nervous system (CNS) tumors have, thus far not been successful.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their established hereditary CRC Registry for brain tumors in FAP pedigrees (56 families, 213 individuals), pooled their patients with BTP and known APC mutations with those reported thus far elsewhere, and compared the resulting mutation distribution of FAP-BTP with the mutation distribution for APC mutations in the US.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients from 24 families were accrued, the most common brain tumor in BTP was medulloblastoma (60%) predominantly in females (12:5) under the age of 20 (mean age 14.7 SD 9.2).
  • Other histologic subtypes included astrocytoma and ependymoma.
  • Analysis of the pooled APC mutation data by Chi-square test of association shows an odds ratio of 3.7 (P < .005) for all brain tumor subtypes and 13.1 (P < .001) for medulloblastoma in patients harboring segment 2 APC mutation (codons 679-1224) compared to nonsegment 2 mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FAP and identifiable APC gene mutation, CNS tumors, especially medulloblastoma which developed in most cases during childhood, are more common in females with FAP and APC gene mutation in codons 686-1217.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Codon. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Registries


52. Jenkinson MD, Simpson C, Nicholas RS, Miles J, Findlay GF, Pigott TJ: Outcome predictors and complications in the management of intradural spinal tumours. Eur Spine J; 2006 Feb;15(2):203-10
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  • Meningioma, schwannoma and ependymoma accounted for 70% of tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Laminectomy / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16374649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-6719
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3489409
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53. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Strathdee G, Brown R, Gilbertson RJ, Bailey S, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;118(2):346-52
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours.
  • We examined the status of MCJ in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumours [PNETs, comprising cerebellar PNETs (medulloblastomas) and supratentorial PNETs (stPNETs)] and ependymomas, together representing the most common malignant brain tumours of childhood.
  • Evidence of MCJ hypermethylation was found in all 3 tumour types [medulloblastomas, 3/9 (33%) cell lines, 2/28 (7%) primary tumours; stPNETs, 2/2 (100%) cell lines, 3/10 (30%) primary tumours; and ependymomas, 2/20 (10%) primary tumours] but not in nonneoplastic brain tissues (n = 11), indicating that MCJ methylation is a tumour-specific event.
  • These data indicate that epigenetic inactivation of MCJ may play a role in the development of a range of paediatric brain tumour types, and its role in disease pathogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance should now be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16049974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNAJC1 protein, human; 0 / HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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54. Rogers L, Pueschel J, Spetzler R, Shapiro W, Coons S, Thomas T, Speiser B: Is gross-total resection sufficient treatment for posterior fossa ependymomas? J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;102(4):629-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Univariate analyses revealed that radiotherapy, tumor grade, and extent of resection were significant predictors of local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15871504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Albayram S, Urger E, Oz B, Kafadar A, Islak C, Kocer N: MR Imaging of pial melanosis secondary to a posterior fossa melanotic ependymoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Apr;26(4):804-8
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  • [Title] MR Imaging of pial melanosis secondary to a posterior fossa melanotic ependymoma.
  • MR imaging and histopathologic results revealed a posterior fossa melanotic ependymoma.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed that tumor cells and interstitial spaces had abundant melanin accumulation.
  • There was no evidence of hemosiderin in tumor cells and in interstitial spaces.
  • Pial melanin accumulation secondary to a posterior fossa melanotic ependymoma explained our MR findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Ependymoma / complications. Infratentorial Neoplasms / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Melanosis / diagnosis. Melanosis / etiology. Pia Mater
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15814924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Mansur DB, Perry A, Rajaram V, Michalski JM, Park TS, Leonard JR, Luchtman-Jones L, Rich KM, Grigsby PW, Lockett MA, Wahab SH, Simpson JR: Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):387-91
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the long-term outcome of intracranial ependymoma patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • Forty patients had World Health Organization Grade II ependymoma, and 20 patients had Grade III ependymoma.
  • Supratentorial tumor location was independently associated with a worse disease-free survival.
  • No statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with tumor grade, patient age, or radiation dose or volume.
  • CONCLUSION: Our long-term follow-up indicates that half of ependymoma patients will have disease recurrences, indicating the need for more effective treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15667957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Preusser M, Wolfsberger S, Czech T, Slavc I, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Survivin expression in intracranial ependymomas and its correlation with tumor cell proliferation and patient outcome. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Oct;124(4):543-9
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  • [Title] Survivin expression in intracranial ependymomas and its correlation with tumor cell proliferation and patient outcome.
  • Survivin expression has been described as prognostic factor in various tumor types and has been shown to correlate with cytologic anaplasia in ependymoma.
  • We immunohistochemically studied survivin expression and its association with Ki-67 and topoisomerase IIalpha (TIIalpha) expression and outcome in 63 patients with intracranial ependymoma.
  • Survivin is expressed in a fraction of nuclei of tumor and endothelial cells including mitotic figures.
  • On average, 62.86% of Ki-67-expressing tumor cell nuclei coexpress survivin, whereas 92.2% of survivin-expressing nuclei coexpress Ki-67.
  • In ependymoma, survivin is expressed in a subset of proliferating cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Austria / epidemiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16146813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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58. Sala F, Palandri G, Basso E, Lanteri P, Deletis V, Faccioli F, Bricolo A: Motor evoked potential monitoring improves outcome after surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors: a historical control study. Neurosurgery; 2006 Jun;58(6):1129-43; discussion 1129-43
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  • OBJECTIVE: The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (INM) during intramedullary spinal cord tumor surgery remains debated.
  • The historical control group consisted of 50 patients selected from among 301 patients who underwent intramedullary spinal cord tumor surgery, previously operated on by the same team without INM.
  • Matching by preoperative neurological status (McCormick scale), histological findings, tumor location, and extent of removal were blind to outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Evoked Potentials, Motor. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16723892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • OBJECTIVE: The uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (MET) by gliomas is greater than that by intact tissue, making methionine very useful for evaluation of tumor extent.
  • If the degree of malignancy of brain tumors can be evaluated by MET-PET, the usefulness of MET-PET as a means of diagnosing brain tumors will increase.
  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.
  • Tumor activity and degree of malignancy were evaluated using Ki-67LI (LI: labeling index) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • The correlations between methionine uptake and tumor proliferation (tumor versus contralateral gray matter ratio (T/N) and Ki-67LI) were determined for the group of all subjects.
  • Ki-67LI differed significantly between the high-grade group and low-grade group at T/N levels between 1.5 and 1.8 on analysis using tumor proliferative potential (p = 0.019-0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When analysis was confined to cases of astrocytic tumor, a correlation was noted between methionine accumulation and Ki-67LI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Methionine / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic. Tissue Distribution


60. de Bont JM, den Boer ML, Kros JM, Passier MM, Reddingius RE, Smitt PA, Luider TM, Pieters R: Identification of novel biomarkers in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors and ependymomas by proteome-wide analysis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2007 Jun;66(6):505-16
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  • Tumor tissue of 29 PNET and 12 ependymoma patients was subjected to 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis.
  • Calcyphosine immunoreactivity was observed in 59% of the ependymomas and was most profound in ependymoma tissue showing epithelial differentiation. mRNA expression levels of stathmin, annexin A1, and calcyphosine significantly correlated (Rs = 0.65 [p < 0.0001], Rs = 0.50 [p = 0.001], and Rs = 0.72 [p < 0.0001], respectively) with protein expression levels.
  • In conclusion, using a proteome-wide approach, stathmin, annexin A1, and calcyphosine were successfully identified as tumor-specific proteins in pediatric PNETs and ependymomas.
  • Ongoing studies are focused on characterizing the role of these proteins as tumor markers and potential drug targets in pediatric brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / metabolism. Proteomics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Annexin A1 / genetics. Annexin A1 / metabolism. Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Stathmin / genetics. Stathmin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17549010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CAPS protein, human; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Stathmin
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61. Han IH, Kuh SU, Kim JH, Chin DK, Kim KS, Yoon YS, Jin BH, Cho YE: Clinical approach and surgical strategy for spinal diseases in pregnant women: a report of ten cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2008 Aug 1;33(17):E614-9
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  • In another patient with hemangioblastoma at the T10 level, a preoperative cesarean section and tumor removal surgery were performed under the same anesthesia in gestational age 34 weeks.
  • One patient had recurrent intramedullary ependymoma at the C3-T2 level.
  • She had the preterm baby by vaginal delivery before spinal operation in gestational age 33 weeks and underwent tumor removal surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies


62. O'Shaughnessy J, Bussières A: Subtle clinical signs of a spinal cord ependymoma at the cervicothoracic level in an adult: a case report. J Can Chiropr Assoc; 2006 Dec;50(4):244-8
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  • [Title] Subtle clinical signs of a spinal cord ependymoma at the cervicothoracic level in an adult: a case report.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed and revealed an expansive intramedullary lesion between C6 and T1 suggesting a differential diagnosis of spinal cord ependymoma or astrocytoma.
  • Pathological report confirmed a diagnosis of ependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 17549184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-3194
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Can Chiropr Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1840009
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63. Timothy J, Hanna SJ, Furtado N, Shanmuganathan M, Tyagi A: The use of titanium non-penetrating clips to close the spinal dura. Br J Neurosurg; 2007 Jun;21(3):268-71
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  • The commonest diagnoses were meningioma, ependymoma and neurofibroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Subdural Effusion / etiology. Titanium. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17612916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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64. Takano T, Akahira J, Moriya T, Murakami T, Tanaka M, Goto M, Niikura H, Ito K, Mikami Y, Okamura K, Yaegashi N: Primary ependymoma of the ovary: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1138-41
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  • [Title] Primary ependymoma of the ovary: a case report and literature review.
  • Ependymoma is a glioma with differentiation toward ependymal cells that usually arises in the central nervous system.
  • Ovarian ependymoma is extremely rare, and the treatment strategies for this disease have not been established.
  • This is the first report of a patient with advanced ovarian ependymoma who received fertility-sparing surgery and is now alive without disease.
  • Microscopic examination revealed a highly cellular tumor composed of small cells with hyperchromatic, round-to-oval nuclei and scanty cytoplasm.
  • After thorough pathologic examination, she was diagnosed as having stage IIIC ovarian ependymoma.
  • Although rare, primary ovarian ependymoma must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors, especially in young women.
  • Administration of etoposide-based chemotherapy along with cytoreductive surgery is a potential standard treatment for advanced ovarian ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 16343197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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65. Rousseau E, Palm T, Scaravilli F, Ruchoux MM, Figarella-Branger D, Salmon I, Ellison D, Lacroix C, Chapon F, Mikol J, Vikkula M, Godfraind C: Trisomy 19 ependymoma, a newly recognized genetico-histological association, including clear cell ependymoma. Mol Cancer; 2007;6:47
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  • [Title] Trisomy 19 ependymoma, a newly recognized genetico-histological association, including clear cell ependymoma.
  • Ependymal tumors constitute a clinicopathologically heterogeneous group of brain tumors.
  • We define a newly recognized subset of ependymal tumors, the trisomy 19 ependymoma.
  • When containing clear cells they are called clear cell ependymoma.
  • These altered chromosomal regions are indicative of genes and pathways involved in trisomy 19 ependymoma tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Ependymoma / pathology. Trisomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Female. Genome, Human. Humans. Infant. Male. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Tissue Fixation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17626628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1950527
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66. Onilude OE, Lusher ME, Lindsey JC, Pearson AD, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: APC and CTNNB1 mutations are rare in sporadic ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jul 15;168(2):158-61
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  • The ependymoma is the second most common malignant brain tumor of childhood; however, its molecular basis is poorly understood.
  • The formation of multiple ependymomas has been reported as an occasional feature of Turcot syndrome type 2 (TS2), a familial cancer syndrome caused by inherited mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene, and characterised by the concurrence of a primary CNS tumor (predominantly medulloblastoma) and multiple colorectal adenomas.
  • In summary, although inherited APC mutations may be associated with ependymoma development in certain TS2 cases, these data indicate that somatic mutations affecting APC and CTNNB1 do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of sporadic ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16843107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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67. Manzano G, Green BA, Vanni S, Levi AD: Contemporary management of adult intramedullary spinal tumors-pathology and neurological outcomes related to surgical resection. Spinal Cord; 2008 Aug;46(8):540-6
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  • [Title] Contemporary management of adult intramedullary spinal tumors-pathology and neurological outcomes related to surgical resection.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of a series of adult patients with intramedullary spinal tumors treated with microsurgical excision at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center between January 1997 and September 2005.
  • CONCLUSION: We present a contemporary adult series of intramedullary spinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma. Neurosurgery / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18542096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Eroes CA, Zausinger S, Kreth FW, Goldbrunner R, Tonn JC: Intramedullary low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Surgical results and predicting factors for clinical outcome. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Apr;152(4):611-8
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  • [Title] Intramedullary low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Surgical results and predicting factors for clinical outcome.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive adult patients with intramedullary astrocytomas or ependymomas (except filum terminale ependymomas) were included.
  • Complete tumor resection was achieved in 79% of ependymomas, 50% of astrocytomas WHO grade I, and 14% of astrocytomas WHO grade II (significantly more often in ependymomas than in astrocytomas, p < 0.05).
  • Preoperative MCS <3 and extent of tumor <5 levels were significantly (p = 0.01 and p < 0.05) associated with a favorable outcome (MCS <3) in early and late follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: An MCS of less than 3 and a tumor extent of less than 5 levels are the most important factors for a favorable postoperative functional outcome.
  • Therefore, surgery should be initiated before significant clinical symptomatology or substantial tumor growth occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20119838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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69. Sun J, Wang Z, Li Z, Liu B: Microsurgical treatment and functional outcomes of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):666-71
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  • Fifty-six patients with MSICTs underwent microsurgery for tumor removal using a posterior approach.
  • The tumor was exposed through a dorsal myelotomy.
  • Pre-operative and post-operative nervous function was scored using the Improved Japanese Orthopaedic Association (IJOA) grading system.
  • Correlation analyses were performed between functional outcome (IJOA score) and histological features, age, tumor location, and the longitudinal extent of spinal cord involvement.
  • Ependymoma was the most frequent MSICT type, seen in 22 of 56 patients (39%), followed by low grade astrocytoma (17 patients, 30%) and glioblastoma multiforme (3 patients, 5%).
  • Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 33 cases (58%), subtotal resection in 4 (7%), and partial resection in 16 (28%).
  • The histological classification of the tumor was the most important factor influencing the extent of surgical removal (chi2=22.17, p=0.00).
  • Thus, MSICTs were most commonly seen in the medullo cervical and cervicothoracic regions, with ependymoma and low grade astrocytoma the most common tumour types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination / methods. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19303302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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70. Schittenhelm J, Becker R, Capper D, Meyermann R, Iglesias-Rozas JR, Kaminsky J, Mittelbronn M: The clinico-surgico-pathological spectrum of myxopapillary ependymomas--report of four unusal cases and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):21-8
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  • According to the WHO grading system, myxopapillary ependymomas are assigned to WHO Grade I.
  • Herein, we report 4 cases exhibiting lumbar tumor masses, 1 causing muscular atrophy over a 30-year period, 3 displaying clinical history of persisting lumbar pain for only several weeks.
  • On histological examination, two tumors were almost acellular and showed polycyclic hyaline and fibrotic extracellular matrix leading to differential diagnoses of chordoma, meningioma, fibrolipoma and ependymoma.
  • Finally, together with the immunohistochemical investigations, electron microscopy led to the diagnosis of myxopapillary ependymoma, WHO Grade I, with massive degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lumbosacral Region. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18257471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Poulsen HS: [Gliomas in adults: primary non-surgical treatment]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 Nov 20;168(47):4082-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • 900 to 1000 new cases of primary brain tumour occur each year in Denmark, and half of them are gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17134603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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72. Theilen HJ, Heller AR, Litz RJ: Nitrous oxide-induced tension pneumocephalus after thoracic spinal cord surgery: a case report. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol; 2008 Jul;20(3):211-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Nitrous Oxide / adverse effects. Pneumocephalus / chemically induced. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anesthetics, Inhalation / adverse effects. Arousal / drug effects. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Intraoperative Complications / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18580359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-1921
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Anesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Inhalation; K50XQU1029 / Nitrous Oxide
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73. Bauer R, Dobesberger J, Unterhofer C, Unterberger I, Walser G, Bauer G, Trinka E, Ortler M: Outcome of adult patients with temporal lobe tumours and medically refractory focal epilepsy. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Dec;149(12):1211-6; discussion 1216-7
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  • [Title] Outcome of adult patients with temporal lobe tumours and medically refractory focal epilepsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumours are a well-recognized cause of medically intractable epilepsies.
  • Among these, 14 adult patients exhibited temporal lobe neoplasms associated with TLE.
  • Histological results: Astrocytoma 5 patients, ganglioglioma/gangliocytoma 5, oligodendroglioma 2, ependymoma 1 and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Temporal Lobe / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / surgery. Electroencephalography. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Ganglioglioma. Ganglioneuroma. Hemianopsia / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Neurologic Examination. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17940725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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74. Terasaki M, Uchikado H, Takeuchi Y, Shigemori M: Minimally invasive management of ependymoma of the aqueduct of Sylvius: therapeutic considerations and management. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2005 Dec;48(6):322-4
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive management of ependymoma of the aqueduct of Sylvius: therapeutic considerations and management.
  • A major concern in the neuroendoscopic approach to an intraventricular tumor is the histological confirmation from a limited biopsy.
  • However, the effort to excise the whole bulk of the tumor should be made for the minimally invasive management of selected intraventricular tumors.
  • The case of an adult male with focal aqueductal ependymoma who presented with the clinical syndrome of hydrocephalus is reported.
  • This may be of particular interest because it represents the first case of aqueductal ependymoma that has been successfully treated with endoscopic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Aqueduct / pathology. Cerebral Aqueduct / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neuroendoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16432779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Gilbert MR, Ruda R, Soffietti R: Ependymomas in adults. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2010 May;10(3):240-7
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  • Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors in adults.
  • They occur most commonly in the spinal cord, where histopathologic evaluation is critical to differentiate the grade I myxopapillary ependymoma from the grade II ependymoma or grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Brain ependymomas are either grade II or III.
  • For myxopapillary ependymoma, complete removal while maintaining capsule integrity may be curative.
  • Radiation commonly is given to the region of tumor, except in cases in which there is imaging or cerebrospinal fluid evidence of tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Ependymoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Epigenesis, Genetic. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20425040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6293
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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76. Terterov S, Krieger MD, Bowen I, McComb JG: Evaluation of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid cytology in staging pediatric medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):131-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECT: The objective of this study was to determine the role of intracranial CSF examination in detecting true cases of early tumor dissemination.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid dissemination is an ominous feature of pediatric brain tumors, occurring in as many as 30% of medulloblastomas, 25% of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and 5% of ependymomas at diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol, medical records, pathology reports, and radiology reports for 150 patients who had undergone resection of brain tumors (88 with medulloblastomas, 21 with supratentorial PNETs, and 41 with ependymomas) and who had been evaluated using neuraxis MR imaging studies in the last 15 years were retrospectively reviewed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discordance exists between the results of neuraxis MR imaging and lumbar and intracranial CSF cytology in perioperative detection of tumor dissemination for pediatric medulloblastoma, supratentorial PNETs, and ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20672933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Rumboldt Z, Camacho DL, Lake D, Welsh CT, Castillo M: Apparent diffusion coefficients for differentiation of cerebellar tumors in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):1362-9
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  • We hypothesized that cerebellar tumors in children can be differentiated by their ADC values.
  • METHODS: Brain MR imaging studies that included ADC maps were retrospectively reviewed in 32 patients with histologically proved cerebellar neoplasm.
  • There were 17 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), 8 medulloblastomas, 5 ependymomas, and 2 rhabdoid (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor [AT/RT]) tumors.
  • Absolute ADC values of contrast-enhancing solid tumor regions and ADC ratios (ADC of solid tumor to ADC of normal-appearing white matter) were compared with the histologic diagnosis.
  • ADC ratios were also significantly different among these 3 tumor types.
  • CONCLUSION: Assessment of ADC values of enhancing solid tumor is a simple and reliable technique for preoperative differentiation of cerebellar tumors in pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Feb;3(2):78-9 [17279080.001]
  • (PMID = 16775298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Azarpira N, Rakei M, Mokhtari M: Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):1023-6
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  • [Title] Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative imprint cytology has proved to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • Ependymomas are uncommon glial neoplasms of the CNS, arising from ependymal lining of the ventricular system and central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Anaplastic ependymoma is a rare tumor that causes diagnostic difficulties in imprint cytology because of variable cytomorphologic findings.
  • Computed tomography of the head showed hydrocephalus with a large parietal lobe tumor with midline structural shift.
  • The tumor showed pseudorosettes with glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Aggregation. Fatal Outcome. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Rosette Formation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21053591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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79. Otsuka S, Maegawa S, Takamura A, Kamitani H, Watanabe T, Oshimura M, Nanba E: Aberrant promoter methylation and expression of the imprinted PEG3 gene in glioma. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci; 2009;85(4):157-65
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  • Glioma includes astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma and glioblastoma.
  • In this study, we investigated methylation of an exonic CpG island in the promoter region and the expression of PEG3 gene in 20 glioma and 5 non-tumor tissue samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Methylation / physiology. Genomic Imprinting. Glioma / metabolism. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. CpG Islands. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19367087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and biological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / PEG3 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3524298
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80. Goldhoff P, Warrington NM, Limbrick DD Jr, Hope A, Woerner BM, Jackson E, Perry A, Piwnica-Worms D, Rubin JB: Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7717-25
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  • [Title] Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential.
  • Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types.
  • To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells.
  • RESULTS: We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, and meningioma.
  • Bioluminescence imaging indicated that whereas temozolomide and radiation therapy arrested intracranial tumor growth, the addition of Rolipram to this regimen resulted in tumor regression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression.

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  • (PMID = 19047098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108677; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA94056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4; K676NL63N7 / Rolipram
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82831; NLM/ PMC2615415
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81. Gururangan S, Petros WP, Poussaint TY, Hancock ML, Phillips PC, Friedman HS, Bomgaars L, Blaney SM, Kun LE, Boyett JM: Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004). Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1540-6
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004).
  • PURPOSE: A phase I trial of intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan (SuperGen, Inc., San Ramon, CA) was conducted in children with neoplastic meningitis following recurrent primary brain tumors to describe toxicities, estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and document evidence of responses to this agent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan was well tolerated in children with neoplastic meningitis from brain tumors, and the recommended dose for future phase II studies is 13 mg.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / blood. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Ependymoma / blood. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Glioma / blood. Glioma / cerebrospinal fluid. Glioma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / blood. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16533779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA081457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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82. Wöhrer A, Waldhör T, Heinzl H, Hackl M, Feichtinger J, Gruber-Mösenbacher U, Kiefer A, Maier H, Motz R, Reiner-Concin A, Richling B, Idriceanu C, Scarpatetti M, Sedivy R, Bankl HC, Stiglbauer W, Preusser M, Rössler K, Hainfellner JA: The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):401-411
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  • [Title] The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry.
  • In Austria, registration of malignant brain tumours is legally mandatory, whereas benign and borderline tumours are not reported.
  • The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry (ABTR) was initiated under the auspices of the Austrian Society of Neuropathology for the registration of malignant and non-malignant brain tumours.
  • All Austrian neuropathology units involved in brain tumour diagnostics contribute data on primary brain tumours.
  • In 2005, we registered a total of 1,688 newly diagnosed primary brain tumours in a population of 8.2 million inhabitants with an overall age-adjusted incidence rate of 18.1/100,000 person-years.
  • Comparison with the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database showed high congruency of findings.
  • The ABTR model led by neuropathologists in collaboration with epidemiologists and the Austrian National Cancer Registry presents a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry with high quality data.
  • The continued operation of ABTR will aid in monitoring changes in incidence and in identifying regional disease clusters or geographic variations in brain tumour morbidity/mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Registries / standards. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Austria / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Geographic Information Systems. Humans. Incidence. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19562257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Cultrera F, Giuffrida M, Guiducci G, Cerasoli S, Frattarelli M: Central neurocytoma of the fourth ventricle. Case history. J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Sep;49(3):125-8
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  • [Title] Central neurocytoma of the fourth ventricle. Case history.
  • Central neurocytomas are low-grade tumours of neuronal origin, affecting mainly young patients and usually located in the lateral or third ventricle.
  • We report a rare case of central neurocytoma at the fourth ventricle level.
  • The histological diagnosis was of central neurocytoma but the lesion showed a fairly elevated Ki-67 index (6%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 16288195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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84. Armstrong PA, Polley LS: Asymptomatic spinal cord neoplasm detected during induction of spinal anesthesia. Int J Obstet Anesth; 2010 Jan;19(1):91-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a spinal cord ependymoma in the lumbar spine.
  • Central nervous system pathology should be considered in the presence of persistent subarachnoid blood.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Obstetrical. Anesthesia, Spinal. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pregnancy. Subarachnoid Space / physiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19700305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3374
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of obstetric anesthesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Obstet Anesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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85. Barbagallo GM, Caltabiano R, Parisi G, Albanese V, Lanzafame S: Giant cell ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord: case report and review of the literature. Eur Spine J; 2009 Jul;18 Suppl 2:186-90
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  • [Title] Giant cell ependymoma of the cervical spinal cord: case report and review of the literature.
  • Ependymomas account for 2-6% of all central nervous system neoplasms.
  • They develop from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular cavities of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, as well as from ependymal clusters in the filum terminale.
  • Giant cell ependymoma (GCE) is a rare subtype, with few cases reported, mostly in the brain.
  • We describe the case of a cervical spinal cord ependymoma with pleomorphic giant cells and focal calcifications occurring in a 25-year-old woman.
  • This case, the second giant-cell ependymoma to be described in the spinal cord and the first with focal calcifications, highlights the features of GCE and the discrepancy between the worrisome histological appearance, the surgical findings and the clinical relatively good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • [Cites] Clin Neuropathol. 2001 Jan-Feb;20(1):31-7 [11220693.001]
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  • (PMID = 18820954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899556
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86. Gül S, Kalayci M, Edebali N, Yurdakan G, Açikgöz B: A multilevel thoracolumbar meningioma in a young woman. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Aug;150(8):843-4
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  • An intradural extramedullary tumor extending from thoracal 9th to lumbar 2nd vertebral body was detected.
  • The patient was operated and the tumor was totally removed.
  • Interestingly, magnetic resonance imaging of this patient might easily be confused with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Laminectomy. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Fusion. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18548187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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87. Nakamura M, Ishii K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Takaishi H, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: prognosis and complications. Spinal Cord; 2008 Apr;46(4):282-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 68 cases of intramedullary tumors (ependymoma, 33; astrocytoma, 23; hemangioblastoma, 12), treated surgically between 1994 and 2003.
  • The tumor malignancy grade according to the WHO classification was astrocytoma grade I, 3; grade II, 8 (low-grade: 11 cases); grade III, 10; grade IV, 2 (high-grade: 12 cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cervical Vertebrae. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thoracic Vertebrae. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17909556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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88. Garcés-Ambrossi GL, McGirt MJ, Mehta VA, Sciubba DM, Witham TF, Bydon A, Wolinksy JP, Jallo GI, Gokaslan ZL: Factors associated with progression-free survival and long-term neurological outcome after resection of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: analysis of 101 consecutive cases. J Neurosurg Spine; 2009 Nov;11(5):591-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, factors associated with tumor resectability, tumor recurrence, and long-term neurological outcome are poorly understood.
  • Pathological type included ependymoma in 51 cases, hemangioblastoma in 15, pilocytic astrocytoma in 16, WHO Grade II astrocytoma in 10, and malignant astrocytoma in 9.
  • Independent of histological tumor type, an intraoperatively identifiable tumor plane (OR 25.3, p < 0.0001) and decreasing tumor size (OR 1.2, p = 0.05) were associated with GTR.
  • In 31 patients (31%) tumor progression developed by last follow-up (mean 19 months).
  • Tumor histology (p < 0.0001) and the presence of an intraoperatively identified tumor plane (hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, p = 0.027) correlated with improved PFS.
  • A GTR resulted in improved PFS for hemangioblastoma (HR 0.004, p = 0.04) and ependymoma (HR 0.2, p = 0.02), but not astrocytoma.
  • The presence of an identifiable tumor plane (HR 3.1, p = 0.0004) and improvement in neurological symptoms before discharge (HR 2.3, p = 0.004) were associated with overall neurological improvement by last follow-up (mean 19 months).
  • A GTR should be attempted for ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, but it may not affect PFS for astrocytoma.
  • For all tumors, the intraoperative finding of a clear tumor plane of resection carries positive prognostic significance across all pathological types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Therapeutics. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2009 Nov;11(5):588-9; discussion 590 [19929362.001]
  • (PMID = 19929363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Fleming FJ, Vytopil M, Chaitow J, Jones HR Jr, Darras BT, Ryan MM: Thalidomide neuropathy in childhood. Neuromuscul Disord; 2005 Feb;15(2):172-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • More recently, however, thalidomide treatment has been reintroduced to adult and paediatric practice for a variety of dermatologic, immunologic, rheumatologic and neoplastic disorders.
  • We report four cases of sensorimotor axonal neuropathy in children aged 10-15 years, treated with thalidomide for myxopapillary ependymoma, Crohn's disease and recurrent giant aphthous ulceration.
  • [MeSH-major] Gait Disorders, Neurologic / chemically induced. Peripheral Nerves / drug effects. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Thalidomide / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / drug effects. Action Potentials / physiology. Adolescent. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Electromyography. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Muscle Weakness / chemically induced. Muscle Weakness / pathology. Muscle Weakness / physiopathology. Muscle, Skeletal / innervation. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology. Neural Conduction / drug effects. Neural Conduction / physiology. Neurologic Examination / standards. Neurotoxins / adverse effects. Ulcer / drug therapy. Withholding Treatment

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  • (PMID = 15694139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8966
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuromuscular disorders : NMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuromuscul. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurotoxins; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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90. Sharma MC, Ghara N, Jain D, Sarkar C, Singh M, Mehta VS: A study of proliferative markers and tumor suppressor gene proteins in different grades of ependymomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Apr;29(2):148-55
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  • [Title] A study of proliferative markers and tumor suppressor gene proteins in different grades of ependymomas.
  • Ependymomas are CNS tumors that originate from the spinal canal and walls of the ventricular system.
  • Histopathologic grades show relationship with MIB1 and Topo IIalpha labelling indices and cut-off values of 5% can differentiate between anaplastic and lower grades. p53 and MDM2 proteins expression are not common in ependymomas; however, they are seen in higher grades only and may be involved in the tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18721229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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91. Shors SM, Jones TA, Jhaveri MD, Huckman MS: Best cases from the AFIP: myxopapillary ependymoma of the sacrum. Radiographics; 2006 Oct;26 Suppl 1:S111-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Best cases from the AFIP: myxopapillary ependymoma of the sacrum.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sacrum / pathology. Sacrum / radiography. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male


92. Marinovic T, Grahovac G, Habek M, Lambasa S, Tomac D: Simultaneous conus medullaris ependymoma and cerebellar astrocytoma in the same patient. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 May-Jun;28(3):173-6
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  • [Title] Simultaneous conus medullaris ependymoma and cerebellar astrocytoma in the same patient.
  • Multiple primary tumors in the central nervous system of different histological cell types are uncommon.
  • We report a patient who had pilocytic astrocytoma in the cerebellum and ependymoma in the cauda equina region, occurring simultaneously.
  • The suggested mechanism of this association is that primitive multipotent cells might have been displaced in the different CNS areas and developed in different tumor cells.
  • Multiplicity of primary CNS tumors should be considered in certain occasions, when clinical symptoms and signs are pointing in that direction.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cauda Equina / pathology. Cauda Equina / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19537133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Borkar SA, Satyarthee GD, Sharma BS: Conus ependymoma with holocord syringomyelia. Neurol India; 2009 May-Jun;57(3):353-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conus ependymoma with holocord syringomyelia.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Syringomyelia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gadolinium. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male


94. Hemminki K, Tretli S, Sundquist J, Johannesen TB, Granström C: Familial risks in nervous-system tumours: a histology-specific analysis from Sweden and Norway. Lancet Oncol; 2009 May;10(5):481-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Familial risks in nervous-system tumours: a histology-specific analysis from Sweden and Norway.
  • BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on tumour subtype-specific familial risks for nervous-system tumours.
  • METHODS: We used data from the nationwide Swedish and Norwegian databases on familial cancer to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for the familial risk of developing a nervous-system tumour in offspring born after 1931 (Sweden) or 1900 (Norway) whose parents or siblings were probands.
  • FINDINGS: 54 195 patients had nervous-system tumours, 22 331 of whom belonged to the offspring generation aged 0-72 years in Sweden and 0-51 years in Norway.
  • Of 709 familial patients in the offspring generation, 438 (61.8%) had a parent affected by a nervous-system tumour (SIR 1.66; 95% CI 1.51-1.82), 236 (33.3%) had a sibling affected by a nervous-system tumour (SIR 2.01; 95% CI 1.76-2.28), and 35 (4.9%) belonged to families with a parent and at least two siblings affected by a nervous-system tumour (multiplex families; SIR 13.40; 95% CI 9.33-18.66).
  • Histology-specific population-based familial risks were shown for meningioma (1.6 for offspring of affected parents; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), ependymoma (2.7 for young offspring <20 years; 1.1-5.5), medulloblastoma (4.1 for siblings; 1.7-8.1), and neuroblastoma (3.2 for siblings; 1.1-6.9).
  • INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest a complex genetic background for nervous-system tumours, which differs depending on the age of onset and histological subtype of the tumour.
  • As the high-penetrant multiplex families only accounted for about 5% of familial nervous-system tumours, most familial cases are probably caused by low-penetrance genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Norway / epidemiology. Parents. Siblings. Sweden / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 May;10(5):439-40 [19410189.001]
  • (PMID = 19356978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Zacharoulis S, Ashley S, Moreno L, Gentet JC, Massimino M, Frappaz D: Treatment and outcome of children with relapsed ependymoma: a multi-institutional retrospective analysis. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jul;26(7):905-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment and outcome of children with relapsed ependymoma: a multi-institutional retrospective analysis.
  • INTRODUCTION: More than a third of children with ependymoma experience relapse, and despite multimodal treatment, less than 25% of them can then achieve long-term survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 82 patients from four pediatric oncology European institutions in order to identify prognostic factors and influence of treatment modalities in relapsed ependymoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Relapsed ependymoma carries a very poor prognosis with an indolent chronic course, leading to death in approximately 90% of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20039045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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96. Hanemann CO: Magic but treatable? Tumours due to loss of merlin. Brain; 2008 Mar;131(Pt 3):606-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / therapy. Humans. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / genetics. Meningioma / therapy. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / genetics. Neurilemmoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17940085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofibromin 2
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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97. Gilhuis HJ, van der Laak JA, Pomp J, Kappelle AC, Gijtenbeek JM, Wesseling P: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes. Angiogenesis; 2006;9(4):201-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.
  • In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma) as well as of ependymal tumours (low-grade ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma) are recognised.
  • Three-dimensional analysis of ependymal tumours showed that low-grade ependymoma had larger but fewer vessels compared to anaplastic ependymoma, while myxopapillary ependymoma had a complex, heterogeneous pattern of vessels and subependymoma few but regular vessels.
  • In ependymal tumours, the highest values for vessel number, vessel area and vessel perimeter were found in anaplastic ependymoma and the lowest values in subependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / blood supply. Ependymoma / blood supply. Medulloblastoma / blood supply. Models, Biological
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Humans. Mice. Microcirculation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17109194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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98. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH: Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapy is lacking for most types of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children.
  • Temozolomide, an agent with activity against adult brain tumors, was investigated in children and adolescents with recurrent CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: The cohort comprised 122 patients, including 113 with CNS tumors.
  • Among 104 evaluable patients with CNS tumors, 5 PRs and 1 CR were observed.
  • PRs occurred in 1 of 23 evaluable patients with high-grade astrocytoma, 1 of 21 with low-grade astrocytoma, and 3 of 25 with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • No responses were observed in patients with ependymoma, brain-stem glioma, or other CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


99. Yang XH, Wu QL, Yu XB, Xu CX, Ma BF, Zhang XM, Li SN, Lahn BT, Xiang AP: Nestin expression in different tumours and its relevance to malignant grade. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Apr;61(4):467-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recently, nestin was detected in some neoplasms such as glioma, ependymoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), and testicular stromal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / metabolism. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17873113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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100. Schroeder TM, Chintagumpala M, Okcu MF, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Woo SY, Paulino AC: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):987-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized intracranial ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1994 to 2005, 22 children with pathologically proven, localized, intracranial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant IMRT.
  • Of the patients, 12 (55%) had an infratentorial tumor and 14 (64%) had anaplastic histology.
  • The clinical target volume encompassed the tumor bed and any residual disease plus margin (median dose 54 Gy).
  • At last follow-up, no patient had developed visual loss, brain necrosis, myelitis, or a second malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18258381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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