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1. Armstrong TS, Vera-Bolanos E, Bekele BN, Aldape K, Gilbert MR: Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):862-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience.
  • This study reports on a series of adult patients with confirmed ependymoma treated at The University of Texas M. D.
  • This series included 123 adult patients [51% male; median age 39 years (18-72)].
  • Forty had tumors in the brain, 80 in the spine, and 3 had both.
  • Eighteen patients had tumors that were reclassified as ependymal tumors at MDACC.
  • Median time to recurrence was 21 months (Grade II) brain and 18 months (Grade III).
  • Worse outcome measured by overall and progression-free survival were associated with brain location (P = .01, P = .04) and tumor anaplasia (P = .0025, P = .001).
  • Tumor grade and brain location are associated with a worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20511182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940672
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2. Lehman NL: Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Sep;67(9):900-10

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  • [Title] Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors.
  • Ependymomas are generally considered to be noninfiltrative tumors that have discrete borders with adjacent brain tissue.
  • Supratentorial ependymal tumors arise near the ventricular system or, more rarely, within the cerebral white matter or cortex.
  • Presented here are 6 supratentorial ependymal tumors, 3 that primarily involve the cerebral cortex and 3 that extend into the cortex from the underlying white matter.
  • By microscopy, all of these tumors locally infiltrate the cortex and/or white matter along small blood vessels and axonal fiber tracts.
  • They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds.
  • The 3 cortical ependymal tumors show a spectrum of features ranging from conventional and clear-cell ependymoma-like patterns to more angiocentric glioma-like histology.
  • Because ependymal tumors generally have a significantly better prognosis than other infiltrating gliomas, recognition of their capacity to infiltrate adjacent cortex and white matter is important to prevent the misdiagnosis of oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, or infiltrating glioma, not otherwise specified.
  • Cortical ependymomas and angiocentric gliomas may comprise a group of locally infiltrative ependymal tumors that are associated with an excellent prognosis after gross total surgical resection.

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  • (PMID = 18716554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS45077
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131630; NLM/ PMC2805172
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3. Pfenninger CV, Roschupkina T, Hertwig F, Kottwitz D, Englund E, Bengzon J, Jacobsen SE, Nuber UA: CD133 is not present on neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone, but on embryonic neural stem cells, ependymal cells, and glioblastoma cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 15;67(12):5727-36
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  • [Title] CD133 is not present on neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone, but on embryonic neural stem cells, ependymal cells, and glioblastoma cells.
  • Human brain tumor stem cells have been enriched using antibodies against the surface protein CD133.
  • An antibody recognizing CD133 also served to isolate normal neural stem cells from fetal human brain, suggesting a possible lineage relationship between normal neural and brain tumor stem cells.
  • Whether CD133-positive brain tumor stem cells can be derived from CD133-positive neural stem or progenitor cells still requires direct experimental evidence, and an important step toward such investigations is the identification and characterization of normal CD133-presenting cells in neurogenic regions of the embryonic and adult brain.
  • Here, we present evidence that CD133 is a marker for embryonic neural stem cells, an intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type in the early postnatal stage, and for ependymal cells in the adult brain, but not for neurogenic astrocytes in the adult subventricular zone.
  • Our findings suggest two principal possibilities for the origin of brain tumor stem cells: a derivation from CD133-expressing cells, which are normally not present in the adult brain (embryonic neural stem cells and an early postnatal intermediate radial glial/ependymal cell type), or from CD133-positive ependymal cells in the adult brain, which are, however, generally regarded as postmitotic.
  • Alternatively, brain tumor stem cells could be derived from proliferative but CD133-negative neurogenic astrocytes in the adult brain.
  • In the latter case, brain tumor development would involve the production of CD133.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism. Ependyma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Prosencephalon / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Astrocytes / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Neuroglia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17575139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501838
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
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4. Shuangshoti S, Rushing EJ, Mena H, Olsen C, Sandberg GD: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2598-605
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  • [Title] Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Published research on the clinicopathologic features of extraventricular ependymal neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres has been scant.
  • Tumors expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (87%), S-100 protein (77%), cytokeratin (43%), and epithelial membrane antigen (17%).
  • Ki-67 proliferation index paralleled tumor grade.
  • Flow cytometry performed in 27 tumors revealed diploidy in 20 cases and aneuploidy in 4 cases (3 anaplastic and 1 classic ependymomas), with S-phase fraction ranging from 0.2-9.7.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that there is no significant relation between histopathology, Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 immunolabeling, tumor ploidy, and biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Prognosis. S Phase. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15861411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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5. Palm T, Figarella-Branger D, Chapon F, Lacroix C, Gray F, Scaravilli F, Ellison DW, Salmon I, Vikkula M, Godfraind C: Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis. Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;115(17):3955-68
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  • [Title] Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymomas derive from ependymal cells that cover the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord.
  • METHODS: The authors performed array-based expression profiling on a series of 34 frozen ependymal tumors with different localizations and histologic grades.
  • RESULTS: Class discovery experiments indicated a strong correlation between profiles and tumor localization as well as World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grades.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the tumor localization-related gene sets mainly implicated in stem cell maintenance, renewal, and differentiation suggest the dysregulation of localized cancer stem cells during ependymoma development.
  • On the basis of the current data, the authors suggest a developmental scheme of ependymomas that integrates tumor localization and tumor grades, and that pinpoints new targets for the development of future therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19536879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Roma AA, Prayson RA: Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors. Neuropathology; 2006 Oct;26(5):422-8
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  • [Title] Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors.
  • Up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), a cytokine-induced enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, has been described in some brain tumors, including astrocytomas.
  • Little is known about its expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • The objective of the present study was to assess COX-2 immunostaining of ependymal tumors.
  • Retrospective COX-2 immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on 117 ependymal tumors.
  • At last known follow-up (range, 12-226 months; mean, 74 months), 52 patients were alive with no evidence of tumor, 16 patients were alive with residual tumor, nine patients died with tumor, one patient died with no tumor and three died with tumor status unknown.
  • Thirty-six (36%) patients had tumors, which demonstrated positive COX-2 staining, including 16/27 (59%) myxopapillary ependymomas, 3/13 (23%) subependymomas, 14/48 (29%) ependymomas and 3/12 (25%) anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Statistically significant COX-2 positive immunostaining was observed in myxopapillary ependymomas versus WHO grade II (P = 0.03) and grade III (P = 0.02) tumors.
  • The reason for this apparent increased immunoexpression in these low-grade tumors is uncertain.
  • COX-2 inhibitors may play a role in treatment of the subset of ependymal tumors that demonstrate increased expression.
  • COX-2 staining did not reliably predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17080719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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7. Scharpf M, Schweizer U, Arzberger T, Roggendorf W, Schomburg L, Köhrle J: Neuronal and ependymal expression of selenoprotein P in the human brain. J Neural Transm (Vienna); 2007 Jul;114(7):877-84
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  • [Title] Neuronal and ependymal expression of selenoprotein P in the human brain.
  • Gene targeting of SePP in mice leads to neurological dysfunction resulting from Se deficiency and associated reduction of selenoenzyme activities in the brain.
  • However, more recent data revealed that isolated hepatic SePP deficiency does not alter brain Se levels, suggesting a role for SePP locally expressed in the brain.
  • Therefore, it was hypothesized that reduced brain Se bioavailability may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease and normal ageing.
  • We present evidence that human CSF contains SePP and that the human brain expresses SePP mRNA.
  • Moreover, SePP-like immunoreactivity localizes to neurons and ependymal cells and thus appears strategically situated for maintenance and control of Se-dependent anti-oxidative defense systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Ependyma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Neurons / metabolism. Proteome / biosynthesis. Selenoprotein P / biosynthesis. Selenoprotein P / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antioxidants / metabolism. COS Cells. Cell Line, Tumor. Cercopithecus aethiops. Humans. Immune Sera / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Mice. Selenium / blood. Selenium / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17245539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1463
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neural Transm (Vienna)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Immune Sera; 0 / Proteome; 0 / Selenoprotein P; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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8. Gibson SE, Zeng WF, Weil RJ, Prayson RA: Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):274-8
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  • [Title] Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • Overexpression of Aurora B kinase, which regulates cell progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, has been shown to be associated with higher-grade tumors and shortened survival in astrocytomas.
  • The association between Aurora B expression and World Health Organization grade II/III tumors was statistically significant (P<0.0001).
  • Aurora B expression was not associated with patient age, sex, tumor location, tumor recurrence, or death from tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18301241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKB protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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9. Cabrera-Socorro A, Pueyo Morlans M, Suarez Sola ML, Gonzalez Delgado FJ, Castañeyra-Perdomo A, Marin MC, Meyer G: Multiple isoforms of the tumor protein p73 are expressed in the adult human telencephalon and choroid plexus and present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Eur J Neurosci; 2006 Apr;23(8):2109-18
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  • [Title] Multiple isoforms of the tumor protein p73 are expressed in the adult human telencephalon and choroid plexus and present in the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • p73, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, codes for full-length transactivating (TA) and N-terminally truncated (DeltaN) isoforms, with pro- and anti-apoptotic activities, respectively.
  • We examined the expression of the main p73 isoforms in adult human and mouse telencephalon and choroid plexus by immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections, and immunoblotting (IB) of tissue extracts and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), using antibodies against different protein domains.
  • IB showed an array of TAp73 variants in adult human cortex and hippocampus.
  • In the mouse, high expression of TAp73 was also detected in the subcommissural organ (SCO), an ependymal gland absent in adult humans.
  • Our findings point to complex and widespread p73 activities in the maintenance of adult cortical neurons and in brain homeostasis.
  • TAp73 in the CSF may play important roles in the maintenance of the adult ventricular wall as well as in the development of the proliferating neuroepithelium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Blotting, Western / methods. Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / metabolism. Cell Line. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Immunoprecipitation / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight. Mutagenesis / physiology. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Transfection / methods. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16630058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-816X
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / SCO-spondin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tumor suppressor protein p73
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10. Boco T, Aalaei S, Musacchio M, Byrne R, Cochran E: Papillary tumor of the pineal region. Neuropathology; 2008 Feb;28(1):87-92
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  • [Title] Papillary tumor of the pineal region.
  • MRI of the brain showed a lesion in the pineal region.
  • The patient was taken for resection of the lesion which was classified as papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR).
  • Although the clinicopathological characteristics of this tumor are not entirely understood, a brief review of the literature as well as our contribution suggest an indolent neoplasm with a tendency for local recurrence.
  • Histologically, PTPR demonstrates a unique assortment of epithelial, ependymal, and neuroendocrine features.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pinealoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diplopia / etiology. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Nystagmus, Pathologic / etiology. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18069972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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11. Maiuri F, Del Basso De Caro M, Siciliano A, Peca C, Vergara P, Mariniello G, Pettinato G: Expression of growth factors in brain tumors: correlation with tumor grade, recurrence and survival. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Mar-Apr;29(2):109-14
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  • [Title] Expression of growth factors in brain tumors: correlation with tumor grade, recurrence and survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the expression of some growth factors (GFs) and the tumor grade, recurrence and survival of brain glial and ependymal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tenascine, transforming growth factor (TGFbeta), isomeres, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and p53 was studied in 40 primary brain tumors, both low-grade and high-grade, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, glioblastomas and ependymomas.
  • The same GFs were also studied in 46 specimens of recurrent tumors from the same patients.
  • The positivity and intensity of the immunohistochemical expression were correlated with the tumor grade, the interval and type of recurrence, and the survival.
  • RESULTS: The expression of all GFs, excepting TGFbeta1, TGFbetaRI and tenascine, was found to be correlated with the tumor grade in all tumors of both astroglial and oligodendroglial origin, whereas ependymomas showed significant differences only for EGFR.
  • Low-grade (Grade II) tumors recurring as anaplastic (Grade III) forms showed GF expression rather similar to initially high-grade gliomas and significantly higher than that of low-grade (Grade II) tumors in both initial surgery and recurrence.
  • Besides, low-grade (Grade II) tumors recurring as low-grade showed significantly longer median recurrence time (5.4 vs. 3.5 years) and better median survival (8.3 vs. 5.4 years) than those recurring as anaplastic forms (WHO III).
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical study of expression of VEGF, EGFR, TGFbeta2, TGFbeta3, PDGF and p53 in all low-grade (Grade II) brain gliomas at the first operation may help to differentiate cases with slower evolution and longer survival from those with higher potential of anaplastic transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20175962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
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12. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Sanai N, Soriano-Navarro M, Gonzalez-Perez O, Mirzadeh Z, Gil-Perotin S, Romero-Rodriguez R, Berger MS, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A: Cellular composition and cytoarchitecture of the adult human subventricular zone: a niche of neural stem cells. J Comp Neurol; 2006 Jan 20;494(3):415-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular composition and cytoarchitecture of the adult human subventricular zone: a niche of neural stem cells.
  • The lateral wall of the lateral ventricle in the human brain contains neural stem cells throughout adult life.
  • With varying thickness and cell densities, four layers were observed throughout the lateral ventricular wall: a monolayer of ependymal cells (Layer I), a hypocellular gap (Layer II), a ribbon of cells (Layer III) composed of astrocytes, and a transitional zone (Layer IV) into the brain parenchyma.
  • Unlike rodents and nonhuman primates, adult human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ subventricular zone (SVZ) astrocytes are separated from the ependyma by the hypocellular gap.
  • However, compared to rodents, the adult human SVZ appears to be devoid of chain migration or large numbers of newly formed young neurons.
  • We provide ultrastructural criteria to identify the different cells types in the human SVZ including three distinct types of astrocytes and a group of displaced ependymal cells between Layers II and III.
  • Ultrastructural analysis of this layer revealed a remarkable network of astrocytic and ependymal processes.
  • This work provides a basic description of the organization of the adult human SVZ.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation. Child. Ependyma / cytology. Ependyma / ultrastructure. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16320258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9967
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of comparative neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1F32NS047011-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD032116
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. De Tommasi A, De Tommasi C, Occhiogrosso G, Cimmino A, Parisi M, Sanguedolce F, Ciappetta P: Primary intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)--case report and review of the literature. Eur J Neurol; 2006 Mar;13(3):240-3
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  • [Title] Primary intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)--case report and review of the literature.
  • Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are very rare tumors, and intramedullary localization is even less common.
  • Following the WHO 2000 classification, PNETs have been considered embryonal tumors composed of undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells with a capacity of differentiation into different cellular lines, such as astrocytic, ependymal, melanotic and muscular.
  • The optimal treatment for these malignant tumors is not yet clear, although, over the years, radiotherapy has been considered the best treatment for spinal PNETs.
  • The patient, 18 months after the onset of his symptomatology, died without cerebral tumor involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Laminectomy / methods. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16618339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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14. Chen Z, Ma L, Lou X, Zhou Z: Diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient values in prediction of neuroepithelial tumor grading. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Jun;31(6):1331-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient values in prediction of neuroepithelial tumor grading.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion weighted image (DWI) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumors grading, and to appraise the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of neuroepithelial tumors with histologic findings as a reference standard.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: ADC values in 110 patients with pathologically proved neuroepithelial tumors, including 77 astrocytic tumors, 16 oligodendroglial tumors, 11 oligoastrocytic tumors, and 6 ependymal tumors, were investigated retrospectively.
  • The minimum ADC (MinADC) value of tumors was measured postoperatively on ADC maps, avoiding cystic, necrotic, or hemorrhagic components.
  • The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.809, and the cutoff MinADC value of 0.900 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s for the differentiation between high and low grade neuroepithelial tumors provided the best combination of sensitivity (85.4%) and specificity (71.0%).
  • CONCLUSION: MinADC value may be a simple and effective optional tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumor grading.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diffusion. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Mar;33(3):755; author reply 756 [21563262.001]
  • (PMID = 20512884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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15. Roelofs RF, Fischer DF, Houtman SH, Sluijs JA, Van Haren W, Van Leeuwen FW, Hol EM: Adult human subventricular, subgranular, and subpial zones contain astrocytes with a specialized intermediate filament cytoskeleton. Glia; 2005 Dec;52(4):289-300
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  • [Title] Adult human subventricular, subgranular, and subpial zones contain astrocytes with a specialized intermediate filament cytoskeleton.
  • In this study, we show that GFAP-delta protein is not expressed by all GFAP-expressing astrocytes but specifically by a subpopulation located in the subpial zone of the cerebral cortex, the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, and, most intensely, by a ribbon of astrocytes following the ependymal layer of the cerebral ventricles.
  • Therefore, at least in the sub ventricular zone (SVZ), GFAP-delta specifically marks the population of astrocytes that contain the neural stem cells in the adult human brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Cytoskeleton / metabolism. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing / genetics. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Cerebral Cortex / ultrastructure. Ependyma / metabolism. Ependyma / ultrastructure. Hippocampus / metabolism. Hippocampus / ultrastructure. Humans. Lateral Ventricles / metabolism. Lateral Ventricles / ultrastructure. Pia Mater / metabolism. Pia Mater / ultrastructure. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16001427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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16. Mobley B, Kalani MY, Harsh GR 4th, Edwards MS, Vogel H: Papillary tumor of the spinal cord: report of 2 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1191-7
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  • [Title] Papillary tumor of the spinal cord: report of 2 cases.
  • Intramedullary spinal cord tumors constitute a small fraction of central nervous system tumors in the pediatric population; of these, the majority are ependymomas or astrocytomas.
  • We report 2 pediatric spinal cord tumor cases with unique morphologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • The first patient presented at age 7 with an intramedullary tumor of the thoracic spine.
  • The second patient presented at age 17 with an intramedullary tumor of the cervical spine.
  • The tumor recurred locally and in the cerebellum.
  • Electron microscopy showed ependymal differentiation.
  • The clinical features, including propensity for recurrence and remote subarachnoid spread, and the pathologic features of these tumors are reminiscent of papillary tumor of the pineal region, ependymoma, and choroid plexus papilloma.
  • The cases presented may constitute a new neoplastic entity within the recently described spectrum of central nervous system tumors with ependymal features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19417584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Ginguené C, Champier J, Maallem S, Strazielle N, Jouvet A, Fèvre-Montange M, Ghersi-Egea JF: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 Sep;20(5):926-35
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  • [Title] P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas.
  • Ependymomas are neuroepithelial tumors that arise from the ependymal layer bordering the cerebral ventricles and spinal canal.
  • Intracranial ependymoma represents a major encephalic tumor in children, while spinal ependymoma develops more frequently in adults.
  • Real-time-PCR analysis showed that all three genes were expressed in all tumors, with no apparent correlation between the level of expression and either age or tumor grade.
  • The MRP1 transcript was expressed at a significantly higher level in spinal tumors than in intracranial tumors.
  • These data indicate that a biochemical, transporter-dependent blood-tumor barrier may exist in ependymomas, which may reduce the tumoral bioavailability of lipophilic and amphiphilic anticancer drugs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Laminin / metabolism. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. P-Glycoproteins. Young Adult. von Willebrand Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20406235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / von Willebrand Factor
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18. Idowu MO, Rosenblum MK, Wei XJ, Edgar MA, Soslow RA: Ependymomas of the central nervous system and adult extra-axial ependymomas are morphologically and immunohistochemically distinct--a comparative study with assessment of ovarian carcinomas for expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):710-8
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  • [Title] Ependymomas of the central nervous system and adult extra-axial ependymomas are morphologically and immunohistochemically distinct--a comparative study with assessment of ovarian carcinomas for expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein.
  • The adult extra-axial cases demonstrated more architectural variability than the CNS cases.
  • We observed that both the CNS and adult extra-axial ependymomas expressed GFAP diffusely, whereas only 9 stage III, high-grade ovarian serous papillary carcinomas stained with GFAP (2 strongly and diffusely and 7 exhibiting focally weak expression).
  • There were significant immunophenotypic differences between adult extra-axial and CNS ependymomas, with extra-axial cases preferentially expressing 34betaE12 (60% vs. 0%), CK18 (100% vs. 20%), CAM 5.2 (60% vs. 10%), CK7 (80% vs. 10%), ER (100% vs. 10%), and PR (80% vs. 20%).
  • The ependymal elements of the sacrococcygeal tumor failed to express 34betaE12, CK18, CAM 5.2, and CK7, like most CNS ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18360284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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19. Katoh N, Shirato H, Aoyama H, Onimaru R, Suzuki K, Hida K, Miyasaka K, Iwasaki Y: Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;78(1):63-9

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  • [Title] Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of post-operative radiotherapy for spinal cord glioma with the emphasis on the hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumors.
  • There were 12 low-grade astrocytic tumors, 11 high-grade astrocytic tumors, 16 low-grade ependymal tumors and 2 high-grade ependymal tumors.
  • Among 11 patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors, 5 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 with glioblastoma received hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation.
  • RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 10 years from the date of the first surgery were 64% for the entire group, 47% for the astrocytic tumors and 84% for the ependymal tumors, respectively (P=0.009).
  • Among 11 patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors, the actuarial survival rate at 10 years was 35%.
  • DISCUSSION: The results for ependymal tumors and low-grade astrocytic tumors were comparable to those reported in the literature.
  • Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation may help to prolong the survival of patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16314938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Whittemore DE, Grondahl RE, Wong K: Primary extraneural myxopapillary ependymoma of the broad ligament. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Oct;129(10):1338-42
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  • Primary extraneural ependymomas are rare tumors that arise in ectopic sites, including pulmonary, sacrococcygeal region, ovarian, and paraovarian tissues.
  • Here we describe a myxopapillary ependymoma of the broad ligament in a 22-year-old woman, which may be the first tumor of this type to be reported in this location.
  • Identification of perivascular ependymal rosettes, ependymal canals, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, cytochemical staining of blepharoplasts or terminal bars by phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, and presence of multiple foci of myxoid degeneration among the ependymal rosettes characterized a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16196528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin
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21. Shintaku M, Nagata N, Itoh H: Tanycytic ependymoma of the spinal cord with anaplastic cytological features. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):7-10
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  • In a 43-year-old man, an intramedullary spinal cord tumor spreading from the level of the T2 to T5 vertebrae was subtotally resected.
  • The tumor predominantly consisted of a fascicular proliferation of spindle cells having bland nuclei and bipolar, long cytoplasmic processes, and a few perivascular pseudo-rosettes were found.
  • Although there were no true ependymal rosettes, intracytoplasmic dot-like immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) was found in a few cells.
  • This is the first documentation of tanycytic ependymoma in which tumor cells showed anaplastic cytological features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anaplasia / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / immunology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 19408091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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22. Rajaram V, Gutmann DH, Prasad SK, Mansur DB, Perry A: Alterations of protein 4.1 family members in ependymomas: a study of 84 cases. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jul;18(7):991-7
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  • Ependymomas are common pediatric and adult CNS malignancies with a wide biologic spectrum that is often hard to predict using classic prognostic variables.
  • The majority of cases harbored one or more detectable genetic alterations, but we found that 4.1B gene deletions and 4.1R loss of expression were statistically more common in the pediatric vs adult, intracranial vs spinal, and grade III vs grade I/II subsets (P-values of 0.038 to <0.001).
  • Also, 4.1G deletions were seen in 11/27 (41%) patients who either died of disease or had residual/recurrent tumor vs 5/41 patients with no evidence of disease at last follow-up (P=0.009).
  • We conclude that alterations of Protein 4.1 family members are common in ependymal tumors and that specific alterations are associated with distinct clinicopathologic subsets.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Proteins / analysis. Blood Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cytoskeletal Proteins / analysis. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Microfilament Proteins. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Neurofibromin 2 / analysis. Neurofibromin 2 / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15731777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / EPB41L3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neurofibromin 2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / erythrocyte membrane band 4.1 protein
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23. Sakakibara A, Aoki E, Hashizume Y, Mori N, Nakayama A: Distribution of nestin and other stem cell-related molecules in developing and diseased human spinal cord. Pathol Int; 2007 Jun;57(6):358-68
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  • In 12 specimens from preterm neonates and term infants up to 14 months old, nestin was expressed in cells that extended fibrous processes and were located around the midline in the ependymal layer.
  • Nestin expression by these cells was not detected in most adult spinal cords, but was observed in three spinal cords from 13 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and eight of 14 spinal cords involved by the tumor.
  • The present observations suggest that during gestation a subpopulation of cells in the ependymal layer remains undifferentiated as potential NSC/neural progenitor cells, and becomes unidentifiable in early infancy.
  • These cells, however, appear in response to disease conditions, especially tumor involvement.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Regeneration

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  • (PMID = 17539967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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24. Fèvre-Montange M, Champier J, Szathmari A, Wierinckx A, Mottolese C, Guyotat J, Figarella-Branger D, Jouvet A, Lachuer J: Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression patterns in tumors of the pineal region. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Jul;65(7):675-84
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  • [Title] Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression patterns in tumors of the pineal region.
  • Several types of tumors are known to originate from the pineal region, among them pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPRs), probably derived from the subcommissural organ.
  • To identify molecular markers, using CodeLink oligonucleotide arrays, gene expression was studied in 3 PPTs (2 pineocytomas and one pineoblastoma), 2 PTPRs, and one chordoid glioma, another rare tumor of the third ventricle.
  • Because PTPR and chordoid glioma may present ependymal differentiation, gene expression was also analyzed in 4 ependymomas.
  • Our results highlight the usefulness of gene expression profiling for classify tumors of the pineal region and identify genes with potential use as diagnostic markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / utilization. Gene Expression Regulation. Pineal Gland. Pinealoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16825954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Phi JH, Park SH, Kim SK, Paek SH, Kim JH, Lee YJ, Cho BK, Park CK, Lee DH, Wang KC: Sox2 expression in brain tumors: a reflection of the neuroglial differentiation pathway. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):103-12
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  • [Title] Sox2 expression in brain tumors: a reflection of the neuroglial differentiation pathway.
  • Moreover, it was recently found that brain tumors contain stem cells that resemble normal neuroglial stem cells in many respects.
  • This study was undertaken to describe Sox2 expression in various brain tumors, and to determine whether Sox2 expression is a universal feature of brain tumors, or whether its expression is limited to a specific lineage of brain tumors.
  • Sox2 immunohistochemistry was performed on 194 brain tumor tissues of various kinds.
  • Fetal and adult normal brain tissues obtained by autopsy and brain tissues of epilepsy patients with cortical dysplasia were used as controls.
  • Sox2 was found to be expressed in various glial tumors, including those with astroglial, oligodendroglial, and ependymal lineages, and in the glial components of mixed neuroglial tumors, regardless of pathologic grade.
  • In brain tumors of embryonal origin, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors showed robust Sox2 expression, whereas medulloblastomas and pineoblastomas did not.
  • The majority of Sox2-positive tumor cells coexpressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, and most Sox2-negative cells in medulloblastomas and pineoblastomas showed neuronal differentiation.
  • This study suggest that Sox2 may be a tumor marker of glial lineages rather than a universal brain tumor stem cell marker, because its expression pattern was found to correspond to differentiation pathways.
  • On the other hand, the aberrant coexpressions of Sox2 and of a neuronal marker were widely observed in glioblastomas, which reflects a disorganized differentiation pattern that characterizes highly malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. HMGB Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroglia / cytology. Neuroglia / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / cytology. Brain / embryology. Brain / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Lineage. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. SOXB1 Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 18162777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / HMGB Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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26. Amini A, Schmidt RH, Salzman KL, Chin SS, Couldwell WT: Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(3):307-14
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  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) tumors are exceedingly rare tumors in the pineal region.
  • Pineal region GBM seems to be a very aggressive tumor with a high rate of leptomeningeal and ependymal metastatic disease.
  • Glioblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the pineal region tumors, especially when evidence of leptomeningeal or ependymal metastatic disease is present.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Pinealoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / etiology. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16645719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Mahfouz S, Aziz AA, Gabal SM, el-Sheikh S: Immunohistochemical study of CD99 and EMA expression in ependymomas. Medscape J Med; 2008;10(2):41
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  • Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a unique, heterogeneous population of neoplasms and include both benign and malignant tumors.
  • The present study was carried out on a total of 79 archival cases of ependymal tumors in addition to a variety of other primary CNS tumors.
  • Upon comparing with other CNS tumors (41 cases), it was found that CD99 could differentiate between ependymomas and nonependymal tumors, but intensity and pattern of staining were of no consequence in determining variant type or degree of histologic aggressiveness.
  • CD99 can hence be recommended for use as a good marker for differentiation between ependymal and other CNS tumors.
  • EMA expression and pattern of distribution, on the other hand, cannot be employed to determine the type of variant or the degree of tumor aggressiveness, and hence cannot predict the behavior of ependymal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Mucin-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Cites] Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2000 Mar;8(1):25-31 [10937045.001]
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  • (PMID = 18382710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-1997
  • [Journal-full-title] Medscape journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medscape J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2270873
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28. Schittenhelm J, Trautmann K, Tabatabai G, Hermann C, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Comparative analysis of annexin-1 in neuroepithelial tumors shows altered expression with the grade of malignancy but is not associated with survival. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1600-11
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of annexin-1 in neuroepithelial tumors shows altered expression with the grade of malignancy but is not associated with survival.
  • It is unclear how annexin-1 is expressed in various neuroepithelial tumors, and whether there is any association with tumor malignancy or survival.
  • We studied annexin-1 expression in 394 glial neoplasms of all grades of malignancy and 81 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays.
  • In the normal human brain, the expression of annexin-1 is limited to ependymal cells and subependymal astrocytes, but is also upregulated in reactive astrocytes.
  • In addition, nuclear staining of annexin-1 in oligodendroglial tumor cells was significantly reduced (P=0.0002), which may be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Although annexin-1 expression in ependymomas decreased with the grade of malignancy, diffuse astrocytomas showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic annexin-1-positive tumor cells.
  • Thus, annexin-1 upregulation in astrocytomas may contribute to tumor progression and its expression profile is similar to its substrate, EGFR, suggesting a possible regulation thereof.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A1 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Glioma / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Blotting, Western. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / chemistry. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19767728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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29. Sangoi AR, Lim M, Dulai M, Vogel H, Chang S: Suprasellar giant cell ependymoma: a rare neoplasm in a unique location. Hum Pathol; 2008 Sep;39(9):1396-401
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ependymomas are glial tumors that usually present in the posterior fossa in children and in the spinal cord in adults.
  • Giant cell ependymoma, a rare ependymal subtype only recently recognized as a diagnostic entity in the last decade, demonstrates pleomorphic giant cells admixed with features of typical ependymoma.
  • Moreover, as these neoplasms demonstrate a high incidence of anaplastic grade, recognition of this ependymal subtype is paramount.
  • We describe the presentation and pertinent radiologic, histologic, immunologic, and ultrastructural findings in conjunction with relevant clinical implications of the first reported case of a suprasellar giant cell ependymoma occurring in a 34-year-old female 7 years after an initial diagnosis of a medullary ependymoma with rare atypical giant cells, a potential tumor seeding culprit.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18602668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Ertan Y, Sarsik B, Ozgiray E, Kitis O, Dalbasti T, Akalin T: Pigmented ependymoma with signet-ring cells and Rosenthal fibers: a rare variant of ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2010 Feb 1;30(1):71-5
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  • The tumor was composed of cells with cytoplasmic vacuoles, signet cells and clear cells.
  • Pseudovascular and ependymal rosettes were observed only in focal areas.
  • Additionally, some tumor cells contained brown cytoplasmic pigment, which was histochemically compatible with lipofuscin and neuromelanin.
  • On immunohistochemical examination, the tumor cells were positive for S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, and negative for synaptophysin, cytokeratin, neurofilament and HMB45.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Pigmentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19508348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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31. Jain D, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Suri V, Rishi A, Garg A, Vaishya S: Chordoid glioma: report of two rare examples with unusual features. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Mar;150(3):295-300; discussion 300
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  • Radiologically, the paediatric chordoid glioma was located in the juxtaventricular region in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle and was of mixed density whereas the adult patient had a typical third ventricle location with homogenous contrast enhancement.
  • Gross total surgical removal was achieved in both but the adult patient died post-operatively due to intra ventricular bleeding and bacterial meningitis.
  • Ultrastructural examination was suggestive of ependymal differentiation.
  • We propose that chordoid glioma is a variant of an ependymoma (WHO grade II) which arises from tanycytes and should be included in the WHO classification of brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / radiography. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningitis, Bacterial / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology. Rare Diseases. Third Ventricle / pathology. Third Ventricle / radiography. Third Ventricle / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18246456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Takano T, Akahira J, Moriya T, Murakami T, Tanaka M, Goto M, Niikura H, Ito K, Mikami Y, Okamura K, Yaegashi N: Primary ependymoma of the ovary: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1138-41
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  • Ependymoma is a glioma with differentiation toward ependymal cells that usually arises in the central nervous system.
  • Microscopic examination revealed a highly cellular tumor composed of small cells with hyperchromatic, round-to-oval nuclei and scanty cytoplasm.
  • Perivascular pseudorosettes, ependymal rosettes, and extensive necrosis were observed.
  • Although rare, primary ovarian ependymoma must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors, especially in young women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 16343197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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33. Rushing EJ, Cooper PB, Quezado M, Begnami M, Crespo A, Smirniotopoulos JG, Ecklund J, Olsen C, Santi M: Subependymoma revisited: clinicopathological evaluation of 83 cases. J Neurooncol; 2007 Dec;85(3):297-305
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  • OBJECT: Subependymomas are rare ependymal neoplasms.
  • Tumors arose in the posterior fossa (n = 43), lateral ventricles (n = 37), spinal cord (2) and only one arose in the temporal horn.
  • Tumors ranged in size from 2.0 mm to 60 mm in greatest dimension (mean, 23.0 mm).
  • Eighteen-percent (15/83) of subependymomas exhibited a mixed histologic pattern; that is, subependymoma together with another glial tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / pathology. Infant. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17569000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. Arai T, Tani S, Isoshima A, Nagashima H, Joki T, Takahashi-Fujigasaki J, Abe T: [Intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis for spinal ependymoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid: technical note]. No Shinkei Geka; 2006 Aug;34(8):811-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: The fluorescence-guided resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a well established method for the treatment of brain tumor, especially malignant glioma.
  • However, there is no report on photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) for spinal tumor.
  • Residual fluorescent samples taken from the tumor cavity were examined histologically RESULTS: Fluorescence peaked at 636nm in the removed tumors in all cases.
  • Fluorescent tissue tended to exist at the cranial and caudal portion in the tumor cavity or around the anterior median fissure.
  • The residual fluorescent tissue was not detected after removal of the tumor in case 1.
  • The residual fluorescent tissue was composed of tumor cells and ependymal lining in case 2 or the infiltrated inflammatory cells and vascular endothelial cells in case 3.
  • Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed no residual tumor in any of the cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate the usefulness of 5-ALA-induced tumor fluorescence in guiding resection of spinal ependymoma.
  • 5-ALA-induced porphyrin fluorescence may label spinal ependymomas easily and clearly enough to enhance the completeness of tumor removal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lighting. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Porphyrins. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16910494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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35. Schrot RJ, Ma JH, Greco CM, Arias AD, Angelastro JM: Organotypic distribution of stem cell markers in formalin-fixed brain harboring glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol; 2007 Nov;85(2):149-57
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  • [Title] Organotypic distribution of stem cell markers in formalin-fixed brain harboring glioblastoma multiforme.
  • To explore this hypothesis, we examined the distribution of two stem cell markers, activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) and CD133, in an autopsy brain specimen from an individual with glioblastoma multiforme.
  • The brain was harvested within several hours after death.
  • After formalin fixation, sectioning, and mapping of tumor location in the gross specimen, histologic specimens were prepared from tumor-bearing and grossly normal hemispheres.
  • Both markers co-localized to the ependymal and subependymal zones on the side of the tumor, but not in the normal hemisphere or more rostrally in the affected hemisphere.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first in situ demonstration of stem cell markers in whole human brain.
  • The robust staining for ATF5 and CD133 in histologically normal ventricular zone suggests that an increase in periventricular stem cell activity occurred in this patient on the side of the tumor, either as a localized response to brain injury or as an integral component of oncogenesis and tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Activating Transcription Factors / metabolism. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricles / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Distribution

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurooncol. 2008 Sep;89(2):247-8; author reply 249 [18568293.001]
  • (PMID = 17516028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / ATF5 protein, human; 0 / Activating Transcription Factors; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
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36. Limaïem F, Bellil SB, Bellil K, Chelly I, Jemel H, Haouet S, Khaldi M, Zitouna M, Kchir N: Subependymomas: a clinicopathological study of 6 symptomatic cases. Pathologica; 2008 Oct;100(5):401-4

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  • BACKGROUND: Subependymomas are rare, slow-growing, ependymal neoplasms that commonly occur in the fourth or lateral ventricles.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebral Ventriculography. Child. Female. Fourth Ventricle / chemistry. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / radiography. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19253599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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37. Preusser M, Hoischen A, Novak K, Czech T, Prayer D, Hainfellner JA, Baumgartner C, Woermann FG, Tuxhorn IE, Pannek HW, Bergmann M, Radlwimmer B, Villagrán R, Weber RG, Hans VH: Angiocentric glioma: report of clinico-pathologic and genetic findings in 8 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1709-18
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  • Angiocentric glioma has recently been described as a novel epilepsy associated tumor with distinct clinico-pathologic features.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic findings in 8 additional cases of this rare tumor type and extend its characterization by genomic profiling.
  • Cortico-subcortical tumors were located in the temporal and parietal lobes.
  • Histologically, the tumors were characterized by diffuse growth and prominent perivascular tumor cell arrangements with features of astrocytic/ependymal differentiation, but lacking neoplastic neuronal features.
  • Electron microscopy showed ependymal characteristics in 2 of 3 cases investigated.
  • All patients are seizure free and without evidence of tumor recurrence at follow-up times ranging from 1/2 to 6.9 years.
  • Our findings support 2 previous reports proposing that angiocentric glioma is a novel glial tumor entity of low-grade malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Epilepsy / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytes / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Ependyma / pathology. Europe. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Nerve Growth Factors / analysis. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3 / genetics. S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit. S100 Proteins / analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18059228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100B protein, human; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPRJ protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 3
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38. Kurimoto M, Nagai S, Hamada H, Tsuboi Y, Hayashi N, Kubota T, Endo S: Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Jun;29(3):299-302
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  • A brain tumor in the left frontal premotor area was removed and an initial pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • The tumor recurred 4 months later, and reoperation of the tumor and adjuvant local radiotherapy were performed.
  • The patient subsequently underwent surgical removal of recurrent tumors on another four occasions (6 times in total) during a period of 11 years and finally died of the original disease.
  • The first and second surgical specimens did not contain any ependymal rosettes or pseudorosettes, and thus a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • At this time, the tumor had an ultrastructural appearance compatible with ependymoma.
  • Thereafter, the recurrent tumors showed anaplastic features such as nuclear pleomorphisms and necrosis with pseudopallisading.
  • The autopsy specimens resembled a feature of glioblastoma but the tumor was sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18647267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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39. Azarpira N, Rakei M, Mokhtari M: Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):1023-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative imprint cytology has proved to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • Ependymomas are uncommon glial neoplasms of the CNS, arising from ependymal lining of the ventricular system and central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Anaplastic ependymoma is a rare tumor that causes diagnostic difficulties in imprint cytology because of variable cytomorphologic findings.
  • Computed tomography of the head showed hydrocephalus with a large parietal lobe tumor with midline structural shift.
  • The tumor showed pseudorosettes with glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen expression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Aggregation. Fatal Outcome. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Rosette Formation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21053591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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40. Järvelä S, Nordfors K, Jansson M, Haapasalo J, Helén P, Paljärvi L, Kalimo H, Kinnula V, Soini Y, Haapasalo H: Decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes is associated with aggressive features in ependymomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):283-91
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  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant enzyme expression and clinicopathological features in 67 ependymal tumors.
  • Their expression was studied in 46 primary (10 grade I, 30 grade II and 6 grade III) and 21 recurrent (3 grade I, 12 grade II and 6 grade III) tumors.
  • Immunoreactivity for MnSOD was found in 87%, GLCL-C in 74%, GLCL-R in 89%, Trx in 72%, TrxR in 54%, of primary tumors.
  • Lower GLCL-C and GLCL-R expression was associated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.047 and 0.049, respectively).
  • MnSOD, GLCL-C and TrxR expressions were significantly higher in tumors located in the spinal cord compared to those in the brain (P = 0.044, 0.046 and 0.004, respectively).
  • In the primary tumors Trx-positivity was found to correlate significantly with patient survival.
  • In univariate survival analysis patients whose tumors did not express Trx had shorter survival (P = 0.045) and there was even more significant association (P = 0.011) when only adults were included in the analysis (in the total material median follow-up time of Trx-positive tumors was 9.7 years and of Trx-negative 5.4 years).
  • The results indicate that AOEs have several biological functions in ependymal tumors.
  • Trx had important prognostic value: all adults with Trx-positive tumors were alive at follow-up (median 7.8 years).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Superoxide Dismutase. Survival Analysis. Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase. Thioredoxins. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18682894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 52500-60-4 / Thioredoxins; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase
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41. Moreno-Manzano V, Rodríguez-Jiménez FJ, Aceña-Bonilla JL, Fustero-Lardíes S, Erceg S, Dopazo J, Montaner D, Stojkovic M, Sánchez-Puelles JM: FM19G11, a new hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) modulator, affects stem cell differentiation status. J Biol Chem; 2010 Jan 8;285(2):1333-42
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  • The results reported in this article show the discovery of FM19G11, a novel chemical entity that inhibits HIFalpha proteins that repress target genes of the two alpha subunits, in various tumor cell lines as well as in adult and embryonic stem cell models from rodents and humans, respectively.
  • FM19G11 inhibits at nanomolar range the transcriptional and protein expression of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Tgf-alpha undifferentiating factors, in adult rat and human embryonic stem cells, FM19G11 activity occurs in ependymal progenitor stem cells from rats (epSPC), a cell model reported for spinal cord regeneration, which allows the progression of oligodendrocyte cell differentiation in a hypoxic environment, has created interest in its characterization for pharmacological research.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. Benzamides / metabolism. Benzoates / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19897487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Benzoates; 0 / FM19G11; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hif1a protein, rat; 0 / Histones; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Sox2 protein, rat; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 2.3.1.48 / p300-CBP Transcription Factors; EC 2.3.1.48 / p300-CBP-associated factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2801260
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42. Vajtai I, Kuhlen D, Kappeler A, Mariani L, Zimmermann A, Paulus W: Rapid spontaneous malignant progression of supratentorial tanycytic ependymoma with sarcomatous features - "Ependymosarcoma". Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jul 15;206(7):493-8
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  • We report on an example of this paradigm, involving tanycytic ependymoma as the host tumor in a 40-year-old female who underwent two tumor extirpation procedures at one-year interval.
  • Microscopically, the tumor consisted of solid, wavy fascicles of elongated cells that were occasionally interrupted by vague perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • While the ependymal component was GFAP and S100 protein positive, and featured punctate staining for EMA, none of these markers was expressed in the adjacent sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19853384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Hwang HJ, Sohn JH, Han SJ, Kim TS, Lee YS, Kim JH: Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Aug 31;48(4):719-22
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  • Histologically, the tumor was characterized by compact columnar neoplastic cells divided by fibrovascular septae.
  • The neoplastic cells formed true ependymal rosettes and perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • The tumor was thus diagnosed as an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628065
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44. Liao SY, Lerman MI, Stanbridge EJ: Expression of transmembrane carbonic anhydrases, CAIX and CAXII, in human development. BMC Dev Biol; 2009 Mar 16;9:22
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Expression of CAIX and CAXII proteins in tumor tissues is primarily induced by hypoxia and this is particularly true for CAIX, which is regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1).
  • Their distributions in normal adult human tissues are restricted to highly specialized cells that are not always hypoxic.
  • Transient CAIX expression was limited to immature tissues of mesodermal origin and the skin and ependymal cells.
  • The only tissues that persistently expressed CAIX protein were coelomic epithelium (mesothelium) and its remnants, the epithelium of the stomach and biliary tree, glands and crypt cells of duodenum and small intestine, and the cells located at those sites previously identified as harboring adult stem cells in, for example, the skin and large intestine.

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  • (PMID = 19291313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-213X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-56000; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666674
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45. Combs SE, Thilmann C, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Local radiotherapeutic management of ependymomas with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). BMC Cancer; 2006;6:222

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In 6 patients irradiation of the posterior fossa was performed with a local boost to the tumor bed, and in 4 patients the tumor bed only was irradiated.
  • In 7 patients FSRT was performed as re-irradiation for tumor progression.
  • All recurrent tumors were localized within the former RT-field.
  • Patients treated with FSRT for primary irradiation showed an overall survival of 100% and 78% at 3 and 5 years after irradiation of the posterior fossa with a boost to the tumor bed, and a survival rate of 100% at 5 years with RT of the tumor bed only.
  • CONCLUSION: The present analysis shows that FSRT is well tolerated and highly effective in the management of ependymal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16959039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1584252
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46. Dagnew E, Langford LA, Lang FF, DeMonte F: Papillary tumors of the pineal region: case report. Neurosurgery; 2007 May;60(5):E953-5; discussion E953-5
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  • [Title] Papillary tumors of the pineal region: case report.
  • On review, these papillary, keratin-positive neoplasms meet the criteria for papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR).
  • CONCLUSION: The morphological features of the tumors in our series, along with the clinical presentations, are similar to those in the original description of the PTPR.
  • Our findings agree with the original hypothesis that the cells composing the PTPR are similar to ependymal cells of the subcommissural organ, thus furthering the hypothesis that the PTPR derives from a specialized ependymocyte associated with the subcommissural organ.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pinealoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17460510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Hasselblatt M, Böhm C, Tatenhorst L, Dinh V, Newrzella D, Keyvani K, Jeibmann A, Buerger H, Rickert CH, Paulus W: Identification of novel diagnostic markers for choroid plexus tumors: a microarray-based approach. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jan;30(1):66-74
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  • [Title] Identification of novel diagnostic markers for choroid plexus tumors: a microarray-based approach.
  • To identify specific markers for the diagnosis of choroid plexus tumors, gene expression profiles of choroid plexus epithelial cells (n = 8) and ependymal cells (n = 6) microdissected from human autopsy brains as well as choroid plexus papilloma tissue were investigated using DNA microarrays.
  • Protein expression of genes overexpressed in choroid plexus was evaluated in normal choroid plexus, choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma, other primary brain tumors, and cerebral metastases.
  • Expression of inward rectifier potassium channel Kir7.1 was confirmed in normal choroid plexus (34 of 35), choroid plexus papilloma (12 of 18), and choroid plexus carcinoma (5 of 5) but was not found in 100 other primary brain tumors and cerebral metastases.
  • Similarly, stanniocalcin-1 stained normal choroid plexus (32 of 35), choroid plexus papilloma (16 of 18), and choroid plexus carcinoma (3 of 5), whereas staining was seen in only 2 of 100 other primary brain tumors and cerebral metastases.
  • Our data suggest that antibodies directed against Kir7.1 and stanniocalcin-1 might serve as sensitive and specific diagnostic markers for choroid plexus tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependyma / metabolism. Ependyma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16330944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Kir7.1 channel; 0 / Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying; 76687-96-2 / teleocalcin
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48. Kawasaki K, Kohno M, Inenaga C, Sato A, Hondo H, Miwa A, Fujii Y, Takahashi H: Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: a report of two cases, one with ultrastructural findings. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):85-90
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  • Chordoid glioma, which generally occurs in adults, is a rare CNS tumor arising in the anterior part of the third ventricle.
  • Both tumors showed essentially the same histological and immunohistochemical features; the tumors were composed of cords and nests of epithelioid, GFAP-immunoreactive cells in a mucinous stroma with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates at the tumor periphery.
  • Ultrastructural examination in one case revealed that the tumor cells were characterized by the presence of hemidesmosomes and associated focal basal lamina formation, intermediate junctions, microvilli and cilia, and intercellular microrosettes with microvilli.
  • In the brain, the presence of fenestrated endothelial cells is a feature of the circumventricular organs (except the subcommissural organ), among which the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis is located in the anterior part of the third ventricular floor that is lined by specialized ependymal cells known as tanycytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Basement Membrane / pathology. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cilia / pathology. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Hemidesmosomes / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathology. 2009 Apr;29(2):208
  • (PMID = 18498285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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49. Brandenburg LO, Varoga D, Nicolaeva N, Leib SL, Wilms H, Podschun R, Wruck CJ, Schröder JM, Pufe T, Lucius R: Role of glial cells in the functional expression of LL-37/rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide in meningitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Nov;67(11):1041-54
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  • The expression of rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide in rat glial cells involved different signal transduction pathways and was induced by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor.
  • In an experimental model of meningitis, infant rats were intracisternally infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and rat cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide was localized in glia, choroid plexus, and ependymal cells by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Brain / cytology. Cells, Cultured. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Muramidase / metabolism. Nitrites / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18957897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Nitrites; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 143108-26-3 / CAP18 lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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50. Qian X, Goumnerova LC, De Girolami U, Cibas ES: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study. Cancer; 2008 Oct 25;114(5):307-14
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  • However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells have not been described in detail to date.
  • In this study, the CSF findings in patients with ependymal neoplasms are summarized and the cytomorphologic features of ependymoma, including its variants, are illustrated.
  • The detection rate of tumor cells in CSF was 6.7% in 15 adults and 21.2% in 33 children, with an overall rate of 16.7%.
  • Of the 8 patients with positive and/or suspicious diagnoses, 5 ependymomas exhibited anaplastic features and 1 tumor was a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exfoliated cells from ependymomas are recognizable in CSF samples, especially in patients with myxopapillary tumors and tumors with anaplastic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies


51. Koos B, Peetz-Dienhart S, Riesmeier B, Frühwald MC, Hasselblatt M: O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is significantly less frequent in ependymal tumours as compared to malignant astrocytic gliomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2010 Jun;36(4):356-8

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  • [Title] O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is significantly less frequent in ependymal tumours as compared to malignant astrocytic gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20202118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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