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1. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor.
  • The target volume generally included the preoperative tumor plus a 2-mm margin for the planning target volume.
  • Five patients, all with optic system/hypothalamic primary tumors, developed central nervous system dissemination 1.0-7.4 years after SRT.
  • One patient developed a presumed radiation-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor 6 years after initial treatment.
  • Six patients died, three of dissemination, two of progression to higher grade tumors, and one of a secondary radiation-induced tumor.
  • All 6 cases of local progression were within the primary tumor bed at the time of progression and had received the full prescription dose.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Allen J, Donahue B, Mehta M, Miller DC, Rorke LB, Jakacki R, Robertson P, Sposto R, Holmes E, Vezina G, Muraszko K, Puccetti D, Prados M, Chan KW: A phase II study of preradiotherapy chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a report from the Children's Oncology Group (CCG 9931). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jul 15;74(4):1006-11
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  • [Title] A phase II study of preradiotherapy chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a report from the Children's Oncology Group (CCG 9931).
  • PURPOSE: To verify feasibility and monitor progression-free survival and overall survival in children with high-risk medulloblastoma and noncerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) treated in a Phase II study with preradiotherapy chemotherapy (CHT) followed by high-dose, hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligibility criteria included age >3 years at diagnosis, medulloblastoma with either high M stage and/or >1.5 cm(2) postoperative residual disease, and all patients with noncerebellar PNET.
  • Treatment was initiated with five alternating monthly cycles of CHT (A [cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and vincristine], B [carboplatin and etoposide], A, B, and A) followed by hyperfractionated CSRT (40 Gy) with a boost to the primary tumor (72 Gy) given in twice-daily 1-Gy fractions.
  • No significant differences were detected in subset analysis related to response to CHT, site of primary tumor, postoperative residual disease, or M stage.

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  • (PMID = 19356859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA003888-44; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA003888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA003888-44
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS128135; NLM/ PMC2739055
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3. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH: Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapy is lacking for most types of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children.
  • Temozolomide, an agent with activity against adult brain tumors, was investigated in children and adolescents with recurrent CNS tumors.
  • Patients with a complete (CR) or partial (PR) response or stable disease (SD) could continue temozolomide for up to 12 cycles.
  • RESULTS: The cohort comprised 122 patients, including 113 with CNS tumors.
  • Among 104 evaluable patients with CNS tumors, 5 PRs and 1 CR were observed.
  • PRs occurred in 1 of 23 evaluable patients with high-grade astrocytoma, 1 of 21 with low-grade astrocytoma, and 3 of 25 with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • The CR occurred in an additional patient with medulloblastoma/PNET.
  • No responses were observed in patients with ependymoma, brain-stem glioma, or other CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


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4. Fouladi M, Nicholson HS, Zhou T, Laningham F, Helton KJ, Holmes E, Cohen K, Speights RA, Wright J, Pollack IF, Children's Oncology Group: A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study. Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;110(11):2535-41
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  • [Title] A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: An open-label Phase II study of tipifarnib was conducted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma (MB)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), high-grade glioma (HGG), and diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG).
  • METHODS: Between January 2004 and July 2005, patients were enrolled and stratified as follows: Stratum 1, recurrent or refractory MB/PNET; Stratum 2, recurrent or refractory HGG; and Stratum 3, recurrent or refractory BSG.
  • No responses were observed in 15 patients with MB/PNET.
  • The 6-month progression-free survival rate (+/-standard deviation) was 14%+/-6% for HGG, 6%+/-6% for MB/PNET and 3%+/-3% for BSG.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tipifarnib tolerated well but had little activity as a single agent in children with recurrent central nervous system malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Quinolones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


5. Lyons SA, O'Neal J, Sontheimer H: Chlorotoxin, a scorpion-derived peptide, specifically binds to gliomas and tumors of neuroectodermal origin. Glia; 2002 Aug;39(2):162-73
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  • [Title] Chlorotoxin, a scorpion-derived peptide, specifically binds to gliomas and tumors of neuroectodermal origin.
  • Highly migratory neuroectodermal cells share a common embryonic origin with cells of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • They include enteric, parasympathetic, sympathoadrenal, and sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells, melanocytes, endocrine cells, and cells forming connective tissue of the face and neck.
  • Because of their common embryologic origin, these cells and the tumors that derive from them can share genetic and antigenic phenotypes with gliomas, tumors derived from CNS glia.
  • We report on the specificity of ClTx as a marker for tumors of neuroectodermal origin that include peripheral neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and gliomas.
  • These include medulloblastomas (4 of 4), neuroblastomas (6 of 7), ganglioneuromas (4 of 4), melanomas (7 of 7), adrenal pheochromocytomas (5 of 6), primitive PNET (1), small cell lung carcinoma (2 of 3), and Ewing's sarcoma (2 of 2).
  • These results suggest that chlorotoxin is a reliable and specific histopathological marker for tumors of neuroectodermal origin and that chlorotoxin derivatives with cytolytic activity may have therapeutic potential for these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Scorpion Venoms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Child. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Neurocytoma / metabolism. Neurocytoma / pathology. Protein Binding / drug effects. Protein Binding / physiology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Sarcoma, Ewing / metabolism. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12112367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R43CA88570-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P30HD38285; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-36692
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chlorotoxin; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Scorpion Venoms; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor VIII; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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6. Doolittle ND, Miner ME, Hall WA, Siegal T, Jerome E, Osztie E, McAllister LD, Bubalo JS, Kraemer DF, Fortin D, Nixon R, Muldoon LL, Neuwelt EA: Safety and efficacy of a multicenter study using intraarterial chemotherapy in conjunction with osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier for the treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors. Cancer; 2000 Feb 1;88(3):637-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), germ cell tumor, cancer metastasis to the brain, or low or high grade glioma were eligible.
  • Between March 1994 and November 1997, 5 universities treated 221 adult patients with intraarterial chemotherapy with or without osmotic opening of the BBB (2464 procedures).
  • All evaluable patients with PNET (n = 17), metastatic disease (n = 12), or germ cell tumor (n = 4) achieved stable disease (SD) or better.
  • In patients with chemotherapy-sensitive tumors, such as PCNSL, PNET, germ cell tumor, and cancer metastasis to the central nervous system, enhanced delivery results in a high degree of tumor response, with an efficacy profile that is reproducible across multiple centers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Germinoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial / adverse effects. Injections, Intra-Arterial / instrumentation. Karnofsky Performance Status. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Neurologic Examination. Osmosis. Remission Induction. Reproducibility of Results. Safety. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10649259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 31770; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 34608
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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7. Inskip PD, Curtis RE: New malignancies following childhood cancer in the United States, 1973-2002. Int J Cancer; 2007 Nov 15;121(10):2233-40
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  • Childhood cancer survivors were at nearly 6-fold risk of developing a new cancer relative to the general population (O/E = 5.9, 95% CI: 5.4-6.5).
  • Most common were subsequent primary cancers of the female breast, central nervous system, bone, thyroid gland and soft tissue, as well as cutaneous melanoma and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL).
  • The greatest risks of subsequent cancers occurred among patients diagnosed previously with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or retinoblastoma.
  • The O/E for subsequent ANLL increased with increasing calendar year of initial cancer diagnosis among survivors of cancers other than HL, most likely due to increasing use of leukemogenic drugs for solid cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Childhood cancer survivors are at markedly increased risk of developing a variety of new cancers relative to the general population, but the magnitude of excess risk and specific types of second cancer vary widely by type of first cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Risk Factors. Sex Characteristics. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17557301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Cardy AH, Little J, McKean-Cowdin R, Lijinsky W, Choi NW, Cordier S, Filippini G, Holly EA, Lubin F, McCredie M, Mueller BA, Peris-Bonet R, Arslan A, Preston-Martin S: Maternal medication use and the risk of brain tumors in the offspring: the SEARCH international case-control study. Int J Cancer; 2006 Mar 1;118(5):1302-8
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  • [Title] Maternal medication use and the risk of brain tumors in the offspring: the SEARCH international case-control study.
  • There is strong experimental data showing that nitrosamides (R(1)NNO.COR(2)), a type of NOC, are potent neuro-carcinogens when administered transplacentally.
  • Some medications are a concentrated source of amides or amines, which in the presence of nitrites under normal acidic conditions of the stomach can form NOC.
  • Therefore, these compounds, when ingested by women during pregnancy, may be important risk factors for tumors of the central nervous system in the offspring.
  • The aim of the present study was to test the association between maternal use of medications that contain nitrosatable amines or amides and risk of primary childhood brain tumors (CBT).
  • Analysis was conducted for all participants combined, by tumor type (astroglial, primitive neuroectodermal tumors and other glioma), and by age at diagnosis (< or =5 years; >5 years).
  • There were no significant associations between maternal intake of medication containing nitrosatable amines or amides and CBT, for all participants combined and after stratification by age at diagnosis and histological subtype.
  • This is the largest case-control study of CBT and maternal medications to date.
  • Our data provide little support for an association between maternal use of medications that may form NOC and subsequent development of CBT in the offspring.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amides / pharmacology. Amines / pharmacology. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Susceptibility. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Pregnancy. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16161045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 17054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 47082; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN 25403; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 51117-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Amines
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9. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • Proof of efficacy requires a prospective single-agent phase II study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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