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1. Liu Q, Liu R, Kashyap MV, Agarwal R, Shi X, Wang CC, Yang SH: Brainstem glioma progression in juvenile and adult rats. J Neurosurg; 2008 Nov;109(5):849-55

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brainstem glioma progression in juvenile and adult rats.
  • OBJECT: Brainstem gliomas are common in children and have the worst prognosis of any brain tumor in this age group.
  • On the other hand, brainstem gliomas are rare in adults, and the authors of some clinical studies have suggested that this lesion behaves differently in adults than in children.
  • In the present study, the authors test an orthotopic C6 brainstem glioma model in juvenile and adult rats, and investigate the biological behavior of this lesion in the 2 age groups.
  • METHODS: The C6 glioma cells were stereotactically implanted into the pons of juvenile or adult male rats.
  • Tumor proliferation and the number of apoptotic cells in brainstem gliomas of young and adult rats were determined by immunohistochemical staining with Ki 67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-mediated nick-end labeling assay.
  • RESULTS: Striking differences in the onset of neurological signs, duration of symptoms, survival time, tumor growth pattern, tumor proliferation, and number of apoptotic cells were found between the gliomas in the 2 groups of rats.
  • The lesions were relatively focal in adult rats but more diffuse in young rats.
  • Furthermore, brainstem gliomas in adult rats were less proliferative and had more apoptotic cells than those in young rats.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that the C6 brainstem glioma model in young and adult rats closely imitates the course of brainstem glioma in humans both in neurological findings and histopathological characteristics.
  • Their findings also suggest that the different growth pattern and invasiveness of these lesions in children compared with that in adults could be due to different cellular environments in the 2 age groups, and warrants further investigation into the difference in the host response to brainstem gliomas in children and adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Transplantation / pathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 18976074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054651; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054651-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054687; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054687-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75237; NLM/ PMC2693119
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2. Gururangan S, Chi SN, Young Poussaint T, Onar-Thomas A, Gilbertson RJ, Vajapeyam S, Friedman HS, Packer RJ, Rood BN, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent malignant glioma and diffuse brainstem glioma: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun 20;28(18):3069-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent malignant glioma and diffuse brainstem glioma: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study.
  • PURPOSE: A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in children with recurrent malignant glioma (MG) and intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG).
  • CONCLUSION: BVZ plus CPT-11 was well-tolerated but had minimal efficacy in children with recurrent malignant glioma and brainstem glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Child. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Humans. Phosphorylation. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20479404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2903337
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3. Kurokawa R, Kawase T: Spinal arachnoid cyst causing paraplegia following skull base surgery. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Jun;46(6):309-12
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  • A 40-year-old woman presented with a right petroclival meningioma compressing the brainstem and manifesting as a 6-month history of headache and gait difficulty.
  • The patient underwent subtotal removal of the tumor via an anterior transpetrosal approach.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain showed enlargement of the ventricles and no residual brainstem compression.
  • The patient's gait gradually deteriorated, although repeat brain MR imaging showed no significant increase in ventricular size.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Decompression, Surgical. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocephalus / diagnosis. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neurologic Examination. Recurrence. Reoperation. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16794354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Kalina P, Decker A, Kornel E, Halperin JJ: Lyme disease of the brainstem. Neuroradiology; 2005 Dec;47(12):903-7
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  • [Title] Lyme disease of the brainstem.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement typically causes local inflammation, most commonly meningitis, but rarely parenchymal brain involvement.
  • We describe a patient who presented with clinical findings suggesting a brainstem process.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a brainstem neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16158278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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5. Tanaka K, Sasayama T, Kawamura A, Kondoh T, Kanomata N, Kohmura E: Isolated oculomotor nerve paresis in anaplastic astrocytoma with exophytic invasion. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Apr;46(4):198-201
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  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an intra-axial tumor in the left temporal lobe, extending to the basal and prepontine cisterns, and compressing the brainstem.
  • The tumor was removed subtotally.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebral Arteries / pathology. Cisterna Magna / pathology. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / diagnosis. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / pathology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / surgery. Neuronavigation. Oculomotor Nerve / pathology. Oculomotor Nerve / surgery. Pons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16636512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Suzuki Y, Tanaka K, Negishi D, Shimizu M, Yoshida Y, Hashimoto T, Yamazaki H: Pharmacokinetic investigation of increased efficacy against malignant gliomas of carboplatin combined with hyperbaric oxygenation. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 May;49(5):193-7; discussion 197
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  • The efficacy of intravenous administration of 400 mg carboplatin/m(2) body surface area over 60 minutes combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy (0.2 MPa for 60 min) was investigated in 6 Japanese patients (aged 36-67 years) with malignant or brainstem gliomas.
  • Brain tumor response was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging as a function of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve, or mean residence time (MRT) for carboplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / therapy. Hyperbaric Oxygenation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19465788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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7. Kalkunte R, Macarthur D, Morton R: Glioblastoma in a boy with fragile X: an unusual case of neuroprotection. Arch Dis Child; 2007 Sep;92(9):795-6
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  • Glioblastomas in children usually occur in the brainstem and are often untreatable and associated with an extremely poor prognosis.
  • Such tumours may however occur in supratentorial locations more typically associated with adult gliomas, where the outcome is more variable, but still poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Fragile X Syndrome / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Child. Disease Progression. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 17449516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2044
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2084029
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8. Laigle-Donadey F, Doz F, Delattre JY: Brainstem gliomas in children and adults. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Nov;20(6):662-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brainstem gliomas in children and adults.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to determine if recent advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities result in improvement in the pattern of care of brainstem gliomas.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: New MRI techniques may contribute to differential diagnosis and aid neurosurgeons in removing resectable brainstem tumors.
  • However, biopsy remains indicated in many contrast enhancing brainstem masses in adults because of the great variety of differential diagnosis.
  • SUMMARY: Diffuse brainstem glioma is the most common subtype of brainstem tumor and remains a devastating malignancy in children.
  • Given the lack of efficacy of conventional drugs, a better understanding of the biology of this tumor is the key to more targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem / pathology. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medical Oncology / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / drug therapy. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18841048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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9. Ueoka DI, Nogueira J, Campos JC, Maranhão Filho P, Ferman S, Lima MA: Brainstem gliomas--retrospective analysis of 86 patients. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;281(1-2):20-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brainstem gliomas--retrospective analysis of 86 patients.
  • Brainstem gliomas constitute 10% of brain tumors in children and less than 2% in adults.
  • Since therapeutic options are limited and brainstem gliomas are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, we sought to analyze the prognostic factors associated with a better outcome.
  • We reviewed the records of 86 patients with brainstem gliomas treated between 1996 and 2006.
  • Of 86 patients with brainstem gliomas, 55.8% were females.
  • A short duration of symptoms, which may imply a more aggressive tumor, was associated with a worst prognosis in patients with brainstem gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Brain Stem / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19345380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5883
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Ree A, Jain R, Rock J, Rosenblum M, Patel SC: Direct infiltration of brainstem glioma along the cranial nerves. J Neuroimaging; 2005 Apr;15(2):197-9
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  • [Title] Direct infiltration of brainstem glioma along the cranial nerves.
  • The authors describe a case of a low-grade brainstem glioma extending along the cranial nerves without any evidence of leptomeningeal spread.
  • The tumor extended directly along the VII-VIIIth cranial nerve complex and also along the trigeminal nerve, which is quite an unusual characteristic of the glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Facial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15746234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Cenzato M, Stefini R, Ambrosi C, Giovanelli M: Post-operative remnants of brainstem cavernomas: incidence, risk factors and management. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Sep;150(9):879-86; discussion 887

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post-operative remnants of brainstem cavernomas: incidence, risk factors and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: The risk of leaving a remnant after surgery for a cavernous malformation in the brainstem is generally not stressed enough, even though such remnants appear to have a high risk of re-bleeding.
  • A retrospective analysis of 30 patients with brainstem cavernoma who underwent surgery is presented, focusing on incidence, risk factors and management of post-surgical residuals.
  • All patients had a brain MRI scan within 72 h after surgery to confirm that complete removal had been achieved.
  • CONCLUSION: Immediate post-operative brain MRI scans are therefore strongly recommended for their detection, especially in this group of patients, and if a residual is detected early re-intervention is less risky than the natural history.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / epidemiology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Postoperative Period. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18754072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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12. Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B: Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther; 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem glioma carries the worst prognosis of all malignancies of the brain.
  • Most patients with brainstem glioma fail standard radiation therapy and chemotherapy and do not survive longer than 2 years.
  • Treatment is even more challenging when an inoperable tumor is of high-grade pathology (HBSG).
  • CONCLUSION: Antineoplastons contributed to more than a 5-year survival in recurrent diffuse intrinsic glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas of the brainstem in a small group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzeneacetamides / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glutamine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phenylacetates / administration & dosage. Piperidones / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16484713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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13. Yasui T, Komiyama M, Iwai Y, Yamanaka K, Matsusaka Y, Morikawa T, Ishiguro T: A brainstem cavernoma demonstrating a dramatic, spontaneous decrease in size during follow-up: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2005 Feb;63(2):170-3; discussion 173

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A brainstem cavernoma demonstrating a dramatic, spontaneous decrease in size during follow-up: case report and review of the literature.
  • This report describes a large brainstem cavernoma showing a spontaneous, dramatic reduction in size after removal of only the biopsy specimen of the lesion.
  • She was in a bedridden state with severe brainstem dysfunction when she was transferred to a local hospital.
  • CONCLUSION: A dramatic, spontaneous decrease in size does occur even in the case of a large brainstem cavernoma showing hemorrhages.
  • Conservative therapy may be one of the treatment options for the symptomatic brainstem cavernoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Brain Stem / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pons / pathology. Prognosis. Suction

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  • (PMID = 15680664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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14. Notarianni C, Akin M, Fowler M, Nanda A: Brainstem astroblastoma: a case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2008 Feb;69(2):201-5
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  • [Title] Brainstem astroblastoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Astroblastoma is a rare glial tumor that occurs mainly in the cerebral hemispheres of young adults.
  • Our purpose in writing this article is to report one case of astroblastoma located within the medulla and review the literature on this infrequent tumor.
  • Light microscopy demonstrated a papillary neoplasm composed of mildly pleomorphic cells with indistinct cytoplasmic borders.
  • Occasional rosettes of tumor cells were seen around blood vessels.
  • The tumor exhibited thickened but not hyalinized blood vessel walls.
  • The tumor cells exhibited strong staining for EMA and vimentin throughout the tissue section.
  • Neurofilament, CAM 5.2, and CK immunostains were negative, except for rare positive staining of CK between cells and within rare tumor cells.
  • Ki-67 was positive in small numbers of tumor nuclei, with an overall reactivity of 7%.
  • By electron microscopy, the tumor nuclei had irregularly round to oval nuclei with moderate clumping of the chromatin, especially at the nuclear margins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the radiologic and histopathologic characteristics of this tumor is necessary for making the diagnosis of astroblastoma.
  • This article serves to summarize these characteristics as well as to report of an unusual location for this mainly hemispheric tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17765957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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15. Majchrzak H, Krawczyk L, Majchrzak K, Bierzyńska-Macyszyn G: [Surgical treatment of brainstem gliomas and other tumors in adults]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;39(1):27-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of brainstem gliomas and other tumors in adults].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: After the introduction of MR imaging to the diagnostics of brainstem tumors and after the introduction of microsurgical procedures to their treatment, the successful treatment, particularly of focal and exophytic forms of these tumors has begun all over the world.
  • The objective of this paper is to establish indications for surgical treatment of gliomas and other tumors of brainstem, to determine surgical approaches and to establish the outcome.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Within the last 6 years, 12 patients with focal and exophytic tumors of the brainstem in adults were operated on.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with focal and exophytic forms of the brainstem tumors in MR imaging are qualified for surgical treatment.
  • Immediate results of the treatment depend on the localization and size of the neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15735987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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16. Yamamoto T, Tsuji S: [Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis]. Brain Nerve; 2010 Aug;62(8):838-51
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  • Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis (or anti-Ma2 encephalitis) is a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) characterized by isolated or combined limbic, diencephalic, or brainstem dysfunction.
  • Of the remaining, many exhibit excessive daytime sleepiness, vertical ophthalmoparesis, or both associated with LE, because of frequent involvement of the diencephalon and/or upper brainstem.
  • These patients may have predominant cerebellar and/or brainstem dysfunctions due to more extensive involvement of subtentorial structures.
  • While it can cause severe neurological deficits or death in a substantial proportion of the patients, approximately one-third show neurological improvement and another 20 - 40% stabilize in response to treatment, including immunotherapy and/or tumor treatment.
  • We experienced a 40-year-old patient with severe hypokinesis caused by anti-Ma2 encephalitis associated with bilateral intratubular germ-cell neoplasm of the testes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Autoantibodies. Limbic Encephalitis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Prognosis. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20714032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ma2 antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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17. Rorke-Adams LB, Portnoy H: Long-term survival of an infant with gliomatosis cerebelli. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Nov;2(5):346-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Gliomatosis cerebri is an uncommon but well-established central nervous system neoplasm that occurs primarily in adults.
  • Although the neoplastic process typically arises in the cerebrum, it often spreads to brainstem, cerebellum, or even the spinal cord.
  • In this report the authors document the surgical treatment of a 13-month-old boy whose tumor arose in the cerebellum and over time extended to the thalamus where its growth halted at age 3 years and 10 months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18976105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Wu Z, Zhang J, Zhang L, Jia G, Tang J, Wang L, Wang Z: Prognostic factors for long-term outcome of patients with surgical resection of skull base chordomas-106 cases review in one institution. Neurosurg Rev; 2010 Oct;33(4):451-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The previous radiotherapy or surgery, dedifferentiated pathology, and less tumor resection are risk factors for longterm survival and recurrence (p < 0.05).
  • Although there is no statistic significant role of tumor adherent to vital structure for outcome (p = 0.051), it can not exclude its importance for favorable outcome.
  • Gender, age, tumor size and staging are not independent risk factors for outcome.
  • Surgical technique leading to radical tumor resection with less morbidity is advocatory and beneficial for patients with skull base chordoma with long term outcome, if the tumor could be exposed and resected completely, the recurrence rate was very low for most benign chordomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20668904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-2320
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Wakabayashi T, Natsume A, Hatano H, Fujii M, Shimato S, Ito M, Ohno M, Ito S, Ogura M, Yoshida J: p16 promoter methylation in the serum as a basis for the molecular diagnosis of gliomas. Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3):455-61; discussion 461-2
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  • OBJECTIVE: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation of tumor origin can be detected in the serum/plasma of cancer patients.
  • The aim of this study was to detect aberrant p16 promoter methylation as a potential diagnostic marker in the serum of patients with diffuse glioma to differentiate between gliomas and, particularly, to differentiate those in the brainstem from others; this was done by using the modified methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction technique.
  • In addition, the serum DNA in 7 patients with a brainstem tumor (4 gliomas, 1 schwannoma, 1 cavernous angioma, and 1 ependymoma) was analyzed.
  • Similar methylations were detected in the serum of 9 (75%) of the 12 patients with aberrant methylation in the tumor tissues.
  • Additionally, p16 promoter methylation in the serum was observed in all brainstem astrocytoma cases, but not in other cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / blood. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Genes, p16. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. DNA Methylation / genetics. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19240607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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20. Markakis I, Alexiou E, Xifaras M, Gekas G, Rombos A: Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome with autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Jun;110(6):619-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most cases are associated with a remote neoplasm or a viral infection; however in some instances no underlying aetiology can be demonstrated.
  • They could also be responsible for the clinical triad of OMS, by impairing GABAergic transmission in specific brainstem and cerebellar circuits.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Radioimmunoassay. Syndrome. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use


21. Daly ME, Chen AM, Bucci MK, El-Sayed I, Xia P, Kaplan MJ, Eisele DW: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jan 1;67(1):151-7
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  • Treatment plans were designed to provide a dose of 70 Gy to 95% or more of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and 60 Gy to 95% or more of the clinical tumor volume (CTV) while sparing neighboring critical structures including the optic chiasm, optic nerves, eyes, and brainstem.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiotherapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 17189068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Li DR, Ishikawa T, Zhao D, Michiue T, Quan L, Zhu BL, Maeda H: Unexpected sudden death due to intracranial chordoma: an autopsy case. Forensic Sci Int; 2010 Jul 15;200(1-3):e15-8
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  • We report an autopsy case of a sudden unexpected death due to clinically undiagnosed intracranial chordoma in the brainstem without haemorrhage.
  • The autopsy revealed two small gelatinous and semi-translucent greyish tumours on the ventral surface of the brainstem between the midbrain and pons.
  • The brain was markedly swollen, with enlarged lateral and third ventricles, but the aqueduct was compressed and narrowed.
  • The cause of death was diagnosed as acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to a ventral brainstem tumour.
  • The brainstem is one of the most vulnerable regions in the brain, and careful examination of this region is important for forensic pathologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Chordoma / pathology. Death, Sudden / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Forensic Pathology. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20444561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6283
  • [Journal-full-title] Forensic science international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forensic Sci. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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23. Korah MP, Esiashvili N, Mazewski CM, Hudgins RJ, Tighiouart M, Janss AJ, Schwaibold FP, Crocker IR, Curran WJ Jr, Marcus RB Jr: Incidence, risks, and sequelae of posterior fossa syndrome in pediatric medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):106-12
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  • Five patients had <1.5-cm(2) residual tumor, 4 had >or=1.5-cm(2) residual tumor, and the remainder had no residual tumor.
  • On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion, midline tumor location, younger age, and the absence of radiographic residual tumor were found to be predictors of PFS; the last two variables remained significant on multivariate analysis.
  • From 1990 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2007, the proportions of patients with no radiographic residual tumor were 77% and 94%, respectively.
  • Children with midline tumors exhibiting brainstem invasion are at increased risk.
  • With the increased incidence of PFS and the permanent morbidity in many patients, the risks and benefits of complete tumor removal in all patients need to be reexamined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Analysis of Variance. Ataxia / epidemiology. Ataxia / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cranial Irradiation. Disease-Free Survival. Dysarthria / epidemiology. Dysarthria / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Muscle Hypotonia / epidemiology. Muscle Hypotonia / etiology. Mutism / epidemiology. Mutism / etiology. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Syndrome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19695790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Patel YJ, Payne Smith MD, de Belleroche J, Latchman DS: Hsp27 and Hsp70 administered in combination have a potent protective effect against FALS-associated SOD1-mutant-induced cell death in mammalian neuronal cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Apr 4;134(2):256-74
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  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder characterised by the death of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord; resulting in progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and death from respiratory paralysis, usually within 3-5 years of symptom onset.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / prevention & control. Ganglia, Spinal / cytology. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / administration & dosage. Heat-Shock Proteins / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Proteins / administration & dosage. Neurons / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15836922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones; 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Hspb1 protein, rat; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartyl fluoromethyl ketone; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 1.15.1.- / superoxide dismutase 1; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; H88EPA0A3N / Staurosporine
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25. Fayad JN, Keles B, Brackmann DE: Jugular foramen tumors: clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. Otol Neurotol; 2010 Feb;31(2):299-305

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Presenting symptoms, otologic and neurotologic examination, audiologic thresholds, treatment procedure, surgical technique, tumor size and classification, and postoperative complications were recorded.
  • Extent of tumor removal was determined at time of surgery, followed by routine radiographic follow-up.
  • Total tumor removal was achieved in 81% of surgery cases.
  • However, subtotal removal may be required to preserve CN function, vital vascular structures, and the brainstem.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy is used to control residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Jugulare Tumor / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Audiometry, Pure-Tone. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Facial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Laryngoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19779386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4505
  • [Journal-full-title] Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otol. Neurotol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Abe M, Tokumaru S, Tabuchi K, Kida Y, Takagi M, Imamura J: Stereotactic radiation therapy with chemotherapy in the management of recurrent medulloblastomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(2):81-8
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  • Five patients were treated with one to two sequential courses of high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  • The reduction in tumor size after SRT was often remarkable.
  • In contrast, all 8 patients with metastasis had new lesions either in the spinal canal or on the surface of the brain outside the target area of SRT.
  • One patient had brainstem edema after SRT causing bulbar palsy and quadriparesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16465076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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27. Weber DC, Miller RC, Villà S, Hanssens P, Baumert BG, Castadot P, Varlet P, Abacioglu U, Igdem S, Szutowicz E, Nishioka H, Hofer S, Rutz HP, Ozsahin M, Taghian A, Mirimanoff RO: Outcome and prognostic factors in cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme in adults: a retrospective study from the Rare Cancer Network. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Sep 1;66(1):179-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data from a series of 45 adult patients with cerebellar GBM were collected in a retrospective multicenter study.
  • Brainstem invasion was observed in 9 (20%) patients.
  • RESULTS: The 1-year and 2-year actuarial overall survival rate was 37.8% and 14.7%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by salvage treatment (p = 0.048), tumor volume (p = 0.044), extent of neurosurgical resection (p = 0.019), brainstem invasion (p = 0.0013), additional treatment after surgery (p < 0.001), and completion of the initial treatment (p < 0.001) on univariate analysis.
  • The 1- and 2-year actuarial progression free survival was 25% and 10.7%, respectively, and was significantly influenced by brainstem invasion (p = 0.002), additional treatment after surgery (p = 0.0016), and completion of the initial treatment (p < 0.001).
  • On multivariate analysis, survival was negatively influenced by the extent of surgery (p = 0.03) and brainstem invasion (p = 0.02).
  • Brainstem invasion was observed in a substantial number of patients and was an adverse prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16814953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Toyooka T, Miyazawa T, Fukui S, Otani N, Nawashiro H, Shima K: Central neurogenic hyperventilation in a conscious man with CSF dissemination from a pineal glioblastoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Sep;12(7):834-7
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  • He had tumor dissemination to the brainstem 10 months after undergoing partial removal of a pineal glioblastoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CNH caused by the cerebrospinal fluid dissemination of a tumor.
  • The authors suggest that multiple lesions from an infiltrative tumor in the brainstem may give rise to CNH and further our understanding of the pathogenesis of CNH.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16198924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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29. Packer RJ, Gajjar A, Vezina G, Rorke-Adams L, Burger PC, Robertson PL, Bayer L, LaFond D, Donahue BR, Marymont MH, Muraszko K, Langston J, Sposto R: Phase III study of craniospinal radiation therapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for newly diagnosed average-risk medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Sep 1;24(25):4202-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • EFS was unaffected by sex, race, age, treatment regimen, brainstem involvement, or excessive anaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage


30. Strauss C, Bischoff B, Romstöck J, Rachinger J, Rampp S, Prell J: Hearing preservation in medial vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg; 2008 Jul;109(1):70-6
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  • METHODS: A consecutive series of 31 cases in 30 patients with medial VSs (mean size 31 mm) who underwent surgery between 1997 and 2005 via a suboccipitolateral route was evaluated with respect to pre- and postoperative cochlear nerve function, extent of tumor removal, and radiological findings.
  • Intraoperative monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials was performed in all patients with hearing.
  • Tumor removal was complete in all patients with hearing preservation, except for 2 patients with neurofibromatosis.
  • In 1 patient a recurrent tumor was completely removed 3 years after the initial procedure.
  • Even in large tumors, hearing could be preserved in 37% of cases, since the cochlear nerve in medial schwannomas may not exhibit the adherence to the tumor capsule seen in tumors with comparable size involving the internal auditory canal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cochlear Nerve / physiopathology. Cohort Studies. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Recovery of Function / physiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18590434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, Shah P, Hunt M, Gutin PH, Leibel SA: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 1;64(3):892-7
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  • A comparative dosimetric analysis revealed that regardless of tumor location, IMRT did not significantly improve target coverage compared with three-dimensional planning.
  • The mean brainstem dose also decreased by 7%.
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / radiation effects. Disease Progression. Female. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16458777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ramirez C, Delrieu O, Mineo JF, Paradot G, Allaoui M, Dubois F, Blond S: Intracranial dissemination of primary spinal cord anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Eur J Neurol; 2007 May;14(5):578-80
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  • We support a hypothesis whereby the anaplastic parts of tumors have spread along the spinal cord and brainstem via the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, a process that could be promoted by surgical manipulation, although the relative contribution of the two factors remains speculative.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Oligodendroglioma / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / physiopathology. Hydrocephalus / therapy. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / physiopathology. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17437621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Prabhu K, Daniel RT, Mani S, Chacko AG: Dermoid tumor with diastematobulbia. Surg Neurol; 2009 Dec;72(6):717-21; discussion 721

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoid tumor with diastematobulbia.
  • Dermoid tumor with diastematobulbia is very rare.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a dermoid tumor in an adult female with an unusual location and morphology.
  • The anterior part of the lesion was situated in the prepontine cistern and encircling the anterior half of the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Cisterna Magna / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Fourth Ventricle / surgery. Medulla Oblongata / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pons / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neural Tube Defects / diagnosis. Neural Tube Defects / pathology. Neural Tube Defects / surgery. Neurologic Examination. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19608253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3339
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Weber DC, Rutz HP, Pedroni ES, Bolsi A, Timmermann B, Verwey J, Lomax AJ, Goitein G: Results of spot-scanning proton radiation therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base: the Paul Scherrer Institut experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):401-9
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  • Tumor conformal application of proton beams was realized by spot scanning technology.
  • Median gross tumor volumes (GTV) were 16.4 mL (range, 1.8-48.1 mL) and 15.2 mL (range, 2.3-57.3 mL) for chordoma and CS, respectively.
  • No patient presented with post-PT brainstem or optic pathways necrosis or dysfunction.
  • CONCLUSION: Spot-scanning PT offers high tumor control rates of skull base chordoma and CS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16168833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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35. Inoue HK: Low-dose radiosurgery for large vestibular schwannomas: long-term results of functional preservation. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:111-3
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  • Patients with severe brainstem compression should first be undergo microsurgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cochlear Nerve / physiopathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsurgery / instrumentation. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurofibromatosis 2 / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 2 / surgery. Radiation Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15662791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Chen CC, Cheng PW, Tseng HM, Young YH: Posterior cranial fossa tumors in young adults. Laryngoscope; 2006 Sep;116(9):1678-81
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  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 16 (0.8%) of 2,091 young adults (range, 16-29 years) with dizziness/vertigo, hearing loss, or tinnitus were diagnosed with posterior fossa tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated space-occupying lesions at the cerebellopontine angle in 11, cerebellum in two, brainstem in two, and jugular fossa in one.
  • Diagnoses consisted of vestibular schwannoma and neurofibromatosis II in eight patients (50%), glial neoplasm (including astrocytoma, ependymoma, glioma) in four patients (25%), epidermoid cyst in three patients, and glomus jugulare tumor in one patient.
  • At study close, excluding one lost patient, three patients died as a result of recurrent or residual tumor at the primary site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike predominant medulloblastoma in children, the most frequent posterior fossa tumor in young adults is vestibular schwannoma and neurofibroma.
  • However, the second most frequent one in young adults is glial neoplasm as opposed to meningioma in adults.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Audiometry. Electronystagmography. Female. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Humans. Male. Nystagmus, Pathologic / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16955003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Paniago AM, de Oliveira PA, Aguiar ES, Aguiar JI, da Cunha RV, Leme LM, Salgado PR, Domingos JA, Ferraz RL, Chang MR, Bóia MN, Wanke B: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis: analysis of 13 cases observed in an endemic area in Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg; 2007 Apr;101(4):414-20

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  • Co-morbidity was observed in four patients (malignant neoplasm in three and diabetes mellitus in one).
  • Lesions were seen in the brain hemispheres (nine cases), thalamus (nine cases), cerebellum (four cases), brainstem (four cases) and spinal cord (four cases).
  • These findings emphasize the importance of considering NPCM in the differential diagnosis of brain and spinal cord lesions in endemic areas of paracoccidioidomycosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Gait Disorders, Neurologic / microbiology. Headache / microbiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paresis / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 17011605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9203
  • [Journal-full-title] Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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38. Riffaud L, Saikali S, Leray E, Hamlat A, Haegelen C, Vauleon E, Lesimple T: Survival and prognostic factors in a series of adults with medulloblastomas. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):478-87
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  • OBJECT: In this article, the authors report their experience in the management of adult patients with medulloblastoma at their institution to identify prognostic factors important for survival and disease control.
  • Staging according to the Chang classification showed 4 patients with tumors invading the brainstem (2 with Stage T3b and 2 with Stage T4), 3 patients with metastases (2 with Stage M2 and 1 with Stage M3), and 1 patient in whom the stage was unknown (Stage MX) who died 10 days postoperatively.
  • Patient age, duration of symptoms, Karnofsky Performance Scale score at presentation, hydrocephalus, tumor location, brainstem invasion, extent of resection, histological subtype, preradiotherapy chemotherapy, risk group, and period of presentation were not significant variables.
  • Eleven patients suffered tumor recurrence within a median time of 4.2 years.
  • All patients in whom the tumor recurred have died despite aggressive treatments.
  • Tumor recurrences should be treated with aggressive therapies as some patients may have sustained response.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Sex Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19231932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Benech F, Perez R, Fontanella MM, Morra B, Albera R, Ducati A: Cystic versus solid vestibular schwannomas: a series of 80 grade III-IV patients. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Jul;28(3):209-13
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  • Tighter adherences are found between cystic tumours and nervous elements (particularly brainstem and possibly facial nerve), once compared to solid ones.
  • Careful technique, possibly sharp dissection, to divide the tumour adherences from the nervous tissue must be employed, in order to avoid lesions on brainstem veins and traction on a thin facial nerve.
  • Severe complications may be caused by the excessive efforts to dissect brainstem adherences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Connective Tissue / pathology. Connective Tissue / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pituitary Hormones / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 15739069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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40. Pittock SJ, Parisi JE, McKeon A, Roemer SF, Lucchinetti CF, Tan KM, Keegan BM, Hunter SF, Duncan PR, Baehring JM, Matsumoto JY, Lennon VA: Paraneoplastic jaw dystonia and laryngospasm with antineuronal nuclear autoantibody type 2 (anti-Ri). Arch Neurol; 2010 Sep;67(9):1109-15
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  • Neuropathologic examination revealed diffuse infiltration by CD8(+) T lymphocytes, with axonal loss and gliosis in brainstem and descending spinal cord tracts.
  • We propose that selective damage to antigen-containing inhibitory fibers innervating bulbar motor nuclei by CD8(+) T lymphocytes (histopathologically observed infiltrating brainstem reticular formation) is the proximal cause of this syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Brain / pathology. Dystonic Disorders / immunology. Jaw / immunology. Laryngismus / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Neurol. 2011 Mar;68(3):399 [21403033.001]
  • (PMID = 20837856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ANNA-2 antibody, human; 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm
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41. Sanna M, Bacciu A, Pasanisi E, Taibah A, Piazza P: Posterior petrous face meningiomas: an algorithm for surgical management. Otol Neurotol; 2007 Oct;28(7):942-50
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  • RESULTS: Total removal of the tumor (Simpson Grades I and II) was achieved in most patients (92.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: Total tumor removal (Simpson Grades I-II) remains our treatment of choice and takes priority over hearing preservation.
  • Subtotal resection is indicated for older and debilitated patients with giant lesions to relieve the tumor compression on the cerebellum and brainstem.
  • Subtotal removal is also preferred in the face of the absence of a plane of cleavage between the tumor and the brainstem, in the presence of encasement of vital neurovascular structures, in elderly patients with tumors adherent to preoperatively normal facial or lower cranial nerves.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cochlea / surgery. Ear, Inner / surgery. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Female. Hearing Loss / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Tinnitus / etiology. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17721411.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-7129
  • [Journal-full-title] Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otol. Neurotol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. McFadden K, Hamilton RL, Insalaco SJ, Lavine L, Al-Mateen M, Wang G, Wiley CA: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease without polyglutamine inclusions in a child. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Jun;64(6):545-52
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  • Histological evaluation of the brain revealed widespread NII in most neurons.
  • Because of the abundance of NII and the absence of a relationship between NII and neuronal loss or microglial activation, we conclude that loss of cerebellar, brainstem, and spinal cord neurons reflects selective neuronal vulnerability.
  • The moderate ubiquitin and strong SUMO-1 staining of NII in juvenile cases is the reverse of the pattern noted in adult diseases, suggesting the two age groups are pathogenically distinct.
  • We suggest that juvenile NIID is a spinocerebellar brainstem ataxic disease possibly related to an abnormality in SUMOylation.

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  • (PMID = 15977647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH001717; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH064921; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH01717
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Crystallins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / SNCA protein, human; 0 / Synucleins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Ubiquitin; 0 / alpha-Synuclein; 0 / tau Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; 26700-71-0 / polyglutamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS8896; NLM/ PMC1402362
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43. Bikmaz K, Guerrero CA, Dammers R, Krisht AF, Husain MM: Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngiomas: case report. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2):E382-3; discussion E383
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  • After their surgical resection, recurrence usually occurs in the region of the original tumor bed.
  • Her magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a tumor in the prepontine cistern.
  • INTERVENTION: The first patient underwent operation via a petrosal approach with subtotal resection of the tumor and decompression of the brainstem; this patient had an uneventful postoperative course.
  • The tumor in the second patient was surgically resected through a pterional craniotomy, with an uneventful postoperative course.
  • The third patient's right-sided cerebellopontine angle lesion was microsurgically resected, and the patient was given a single-dose gamma knife for the left-side and residual small right-side tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Although ectopic recurrence of a craniopharyngioma is very rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of what appears to be a new tumor in a patient with a history of previously resected craniopharyngiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19190442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Honnorat J, Cartalat-Carel S, Ricard D, Camdessanche JP, Carpentier AF, Rogemond V, Chapuis F, Aguera M, Decullier E, Duchemin AM, Graus F, Antoine JC: Onco-neural antibodies and tumour type determine survival and neurological symptoms in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with Hu or CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2009 Apr;80(4):412-6
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  • In contrast, dysautonomia, brainstem encephalitis and peripheral neuropathy were more frequent in patients with Hu-Ab.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. ELAV Proteins / immunology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Nervous System Diseases / physiopathology. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18931014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / DPYSL5 protein, human; 0 / ELAV Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ HALMS321230; NLM/ PMC2664637
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45. Hargrave D: Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;23(4):351-63
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  • Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents.
  • The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma.
  • Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome-Wide Association Study. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Prognosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics


46. Tapia-Perez H, Sanchez-Aguilar M, Torres-Corzo JG, Rodriguez-Leyva I, Gonzalez-Aguirre D, Gordillo-Moscoso A, Chalita-Williams C: Use of statins for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: results of a pilot study. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2009 Feb;70(1):15-20
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  • Exclusion criteria were a history of neoplasm, head injury four weeks before admission, non-hypertensive reasons, brainstem hemorrhage, steroid administration, cranial surgery, initial hydrocephalus, and NIHSS > or =30.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Glasgow Coma Scale. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Pilot Projects. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Rosuvastatin Calcium. Sample Size. Stroke / drug therapy. Stroke / mortality. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19197830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4904
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Fluorobenzenes; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 83MVU38M7Q / Rosuvastatin Calcium
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47. Terasaki M, Bouffet E, Katsuki H, Fukushima S, Shigemori M: Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):46-50
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the response and toxicity of patients with recurrent or treatment-induced brain tumors to TMZ and oral VP-16.
  • METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant CNS tumors, including treatment-induced PNET (in 1 patient), brainstem glioma (in 3 patients; 1 with treatment-induced, 2 with recurrence), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (in 3 patients), and recurrent glioblastoma (in 4 patients) were evaluated in a pilot study of TMZ and oral VP-16 chemotherapy.
  • The histologic subtype of the tumor, its location, and its maximum response to chemotherapy did not have an impact on the duration of disease control.
  • CONCLUSION: This limited pilot study confirms the innocuousness and the activity of the combination of TMZ and oral VP-16 in recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18054615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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48. Takahashi S, Kawase T, Yoshida K, Hasegawa A, Mizoe JE: Skull base chordomas: efficacy of surgery followed by carbon ion radiotherapy. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jul;151(7):759-69

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  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical removal of the tumour around the brainstem and the optic nerve combined with post-operative carbon ion radiotherapy will improve the survival rate and quality of life of patients with complicated skull base chordomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Stem / radiation effects. Brain Stem / surgery. Carbon Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Ions / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Optic Nerve / radiation effects. Optic Nerve / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Radiation Dosage. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19434365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Ions
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49. Park DM, Zhuang Z, Chen L, Szerlip N, Maric I, Li J, Sohn T, Kim SH, Lubensky IA, Vortmeyer AO, Rodgers GP, Oldfield EH, Lonser RR: von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated hemangioblastomas are derived from embryologic multipotent cells. PLoS Med; 2007 Feb;4(2):e60
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  • BACKGROUND: To determine the origin of the neoplastic cell in central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and its role in tumor formation and distribution, we characterized and differentiated neoplastic cells from hemangioblastomas removed from VHL patients.
  • Tumor cells from the hemangioblastomas were characterized, grown, and differentiated into multiple lineages.
  • Resected hemangioblastomas were located in the cerebellum (11 tumors), brainstem (five tumors), and spinal cord (15 tumors).
  • Consistent with an embryologically derived hemangioblast, the neoplastic cells demonstrated coexpression of the mesodermal markers brachyury, Flk-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor-2), and stem cell leukemia (Scl).
  • The neoplastic cells also expressed hematopoietic stem cell antigens and receptors including CD133, CD34, c-kit, Scl, erythropoietin, and erythropoietin receptor.
  • These findings may also explain the unique tissue distribution of tumor involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Multipotent Stem Cells / pathology. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD13 / genetics. Blotting, Western. Cell Degranulation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17298169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-1676
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1796910
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50. Ares C, Hug EB, Lomax AJ, Bolsi A, Timmermann B, Rutz HP, Schuller JC, Pedroni E, Goitein G: Effectiveness and safety of spot scanning proton radiation therapy for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base: first long-term report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Nov 15;75(4):1111-8
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

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  • Brainstem compression at the time of PT (p = 0.007) and gross tumor volume >25 mL (p = 0.03) were associated with lower LC rates.
  • No patient experienced brainstem toxicity.
  • With target definition, dose prescription and normal organ tolerance levels similar to passive-scattering based PT series, complication-free, tumor control and survival rates are at present comparable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy Dosage. Relative Biological Effectiveness. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19386442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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51. Szkandera J, Ploner F, Bauernhofer T, Kasparek AK, Payer F, Balic M, Knechtel G, Gerger A, Gallè G, Samonigg H, Hofmann G: Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis in a patient with extragonadal choriocarcinoma--significance of onconeural antibodies. Onkologie; 2010;33(8-9):452-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic limbic or brainstem encephalitis is considered to be an autoimmune-mediated disorder of the nervous system associated with different types of cancer including germ cell tumors.
  • Neurologic tests, brain imaging, and blood chemistry tests failed to determine the cause of the symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with symptoms of limbic or brainstem encephalitis, especially young men, should be tested for anti-Ma2 antibodies in the serum to elucidate their origin.
  • The detection of these antibodies supports the diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome, and may lead to the earlier identification of an otherwise hidden extragonadal germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Limbic Encephalitis / diagnosis. Limbic Encephalitis / immunology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20838061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Ma2 antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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52. Kimura M, Onozawa M, Fujisaki A, Arakawa T, Takeda K, Dalmau J, Hattori K: Anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with testicular germ cell tumor treated by carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin. Int J Urol; 2008 Oct;15(10):942-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CARBOPLATIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with testicular germ cell tumor treated by carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin.
  • Anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis is a paraneoplastic disorder that predominantly affects the limbic system, diencephalon and brainstem, and is usually associated with tumors of the testis.
  • After three courses of carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin for metastatic testicular germ-cell tumor, all elevated tumor markers normalized and the retroperitoneal metastases disappeared, but the neurological disorder deteriorated.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case in which orchiectomy followed by carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin for a testicular tumor with anti-Ma2 encephalitis was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Orchiectomy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19138287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Ma2 antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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53. Akiyama T, Ikeda E, Kawase T, Yoshida K: Pseudocapsule formation after gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neurinoma--case report--. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Oct;45(10):526-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Fifteen months after the GKR, follow-up MR imaging revealed tumor regrowth causing extensive compression of the brainstem, and cyst formation in the tumor.
  • The tumor was totally resected, but the left trigeminal nerve had to be sacrificed because of pseudocapsule formation which covered both the tumor and the trigeminal nerve fibers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Radiosurgery. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 16247239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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54. Hofmann MA, Coll SH, Küchler I, Kiecker F, Wurm R, Sterry W, Trefzer U: Prognostic factors and impact of treatment in melanoma brain metastases: better prognosis for women? Dermatology; 2007;215(1):10-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and impact of treatment in melanoma brain metastases: better prognosis for women?
  • BACKGROUND: Brain metastases are a common consequence in patients with stage IV melanoma associated with a grim prognosis.
  • METHODS: A consecutive series of 133 patients with melanoma brain metastases with regard to prognostic factors and the impact on survival were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: 82 patients had involvement of only the cerebrum at the initial diagnosis, whereas in 7 patients only the cerebellum and the brainstem were involved.
  • The overall median survival time was 24 weeks (1-196) from diagnosis of brain metastases.
  • Multivariate analysis has established as significant prognostic factors: female gender, number of brain metastases, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and corticosteroid application.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cause of Death. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17587834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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55. Ganigi PM, Santosh V, Anandh B, Chandramouli BA, Sastry Kolluri VR: Expression of p53, EGFR, pRb and bcl-2 proteins in pediatric glioblastoma multiforme: a study of 54 patients. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Nov-Dec;41(6):292-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, which have been established as 'de novo' neoplasms, are known to differ from their adult counterparts in terms of biology, genetics and ultimately survival of patients.
  • In order to evaluate the utility of markers of tumor biology for refining prognostic assessment, we retrospectively analyzed 54 pediatric GBMs (age range 9 months to 15 years) occurring at different anatomical sites in the brain, operated at our institute between 1995 and 2001.
  • The expression of p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), bcl-2 and retinoblastoma proteins (pRb) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with the clinical profile, MIB-1 labeling index (LI) and patient survival. p53 immunoreactivity was noted in 53.7% of cases, predominantly in thalamic (75%) and cerebral lobar (62.2%), followed by brainstem tumors (30%).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibodies, Antinuclear / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / immunology. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16293948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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56. Lo SS, Abdulrahman R, Desrosiers PM, Fakiris AJ, Witt TC, Worth RM, Dittmer PH, Desrosiers CM, Frost S, Timmerman RD: The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):51-6
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  • Two patients who received SRS to their brainstem lesions developed symptoms related to radionecrosis and were successfully treated with steroid with good control of symptoms.
  • SRS provides reasonable local control but out-of-field tumor progression remains an issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome






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