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1. Liu Q, Liu R, Kashyap MV, Agarwal R, Shi X, Wang CC, Yang SH: Brainstem glioma progression in juvenile and adult rats. J Neurosurg; 2008 Nov;109(5):849-55

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brainstem glioma progression in juvenile and adult rats.
  • OBJECT: Brainstem gliomas are common in children and have the worst prognosis of any brain tumor in this age group.
  • On the other hand, brainstem gliomas are rare in adults, and the authors of some clinical studies have suggested that this lesion behaves differently in adults than in children.
  • In the present study, the authors test an orthotopic C6 brainstem glioma model in juvenile and adult rats, and investigate the biological behavior of this lesion in the 2 age groups.
  • METHODS: The C6 glioma cells were stereotactically implanted into the pons of juvenile or adult male rats.
  • Tumor proliferation and the number of apoptotic cells in brainstem gliomas of young and adult rats were determined by immunohistochemical staining with Ki 67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-mediated nick-end labeling assay.
  • RESULTS: Striking differences in the onset of neurological signs, duration of symptoms, survival time, tumor growth pattern, tumor proliferation, and number of apoptotic cells were found between the gliomas in the 2 groups of rats.
  • The lesions were relatively focal in adult rats but more diffuse in young rats.
  • Furthermore, brainstem gliomas in adult rats were less proliferative and had more apoptotic cells than those in young rats.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that the C6 brainstem glioma model in young and adult rats closely imitates the course of brainstem glioma in humans both in neurological findings and histopathological characteristics.
  • Their findings also suggest that the different growth pattern and invasiveness of these lesions in children compared with that in adults could be due to different cellular environments in the 2 age groups, and warrants further investigation into the difference in the host response to brainstem gliomas in children and adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Transplantation / pathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 18976074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054651; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054651-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054687; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054687-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75237; NLM/ PMC2693119
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2. Broniscer A, Laningham FH, Kocak M, Krasin MJ, Fouladi M, Merchant TE, Kun LE, Boyett JM, Gajjar A: Intratumoral hemorrhage among children with newly diagnosed, diffuse brainstem glioma. Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;106(6):1364-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intratumoral hemorrhage among children with newly diagnosed, diffuse brainstem glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Children with diffuse brainstem glioma (BSG) commonly undergo novel therapies because their outcome is poor with radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: All available brain imaging studies and medical records of 48 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed BSG treated at the study institution over a 10-year interval (1992-2002) were reviewed.
  • At the time of last follow-up, all patients had died of tumor progression.
  • The uniform occurrence of IH among patients treated with various chemotherapeutic regimens and its association with necrotic areas suggests that tumor biology plays a significant role in this event.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Necrosis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16463390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Joshi BH, Puri RA, Leland P, Varricchio F, Gupta G, Kocak M, Gilbertson RJ, Puri RK, US Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium: Identification of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain overexpression in situ in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brainstem glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Jun;10(3):265-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain overexpression in situ in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brainstem glioma.
  • Human malignant glioma cell lines and adult brain tumors overexpress high levels of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2).
  • Because the IL-13Ralpha2 chain is an important target for cancer therapy and prognosis for patients with brainstem glioma (BSG) remains dismal, we investigated the expression of this receptor in specimens of diffusely infiltrative pediatric BSG relative to normal brain tissue.
  • Twenty-eight BSG specimens and 15 normal brain specimens were investigated for IL-13Ralpha2 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) using two different antibodies in two different laboratories.
  • By Q-dot IHC or a standard IHC assay, 17 of 28 (61%) tumor specimens showed modest to strong staining for IL-13Ralpha2, while 15 normal brain tissue samples showed weak expression for IL-13Ralpha2 protein.
  • High-level IL-13Ralpha2 RNA expression was detected in tumor samples by Q-dot ISH, but only weak RNA expression was observed in normal brain.
  • IL-13Ralpha2 protein and mRNA are expressed to significantly higher levels in BSG than in normal brain tissue.

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  • (PMID = 18430795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2563049
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4. Torcuator R, Zuniga R, Loutfi R, Mikkelsen T: Bevacizumab and irinotecan treatment for progressive diffuse brainstem glioma: case report. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jul;93(3):409-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bevacizumab and irinotecan treatment for progressive diffuse brainstem glioma: case report.
  • Diffuse brainstem glioma carries a dismal prognosis.
  • In this paper, we report our experience in an adult patient with progressive diffuse brainstem glioma treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19139822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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5. Gururangan S, Chi SN, Young Poussaint T, Onar-Thomas A, Gilbertson RJ, Vajapeyam S, Friedman HS, Packer RJ, Rood BN, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent malignant glioma and diffuse brainstem glioma: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun 20;28(18):3069-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent malignant glioma and diffuse brainstem glioma: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study.
  • PURPOSE: A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in children with recurrent malignant glioma (MG) and intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG).
  • Toxicities related to BVZ included grade 1 to 3 fatigue in seven patients, grade 1 to 2 hypertension in seven patients, grade 1 CNS hemorrhage in four patients, and grade 4 CNS ischemia in two patients.
  • CONCLUSION: BVZ plus CPT-11 was well-tolerated but had minimal efficacy in children with recurrent malignant glioma and brainstem glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Child. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Humans. Phosphorylation. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20479404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2903337
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6. Ree A, Jain R, Rock J, Rosenblum M, Patel SC: Direct infiltration of brainstem glioma along the cranial nerves. J Neuroimaging; 2005 Apr;15(2):197-9
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  • [Title] Direct infiltration of brainstem glioma along the cranial nerves.
  • The authors describe a case of a low-grade brainstem glioma extending along the cranial nerves without any evidence of leptomeningeal spread.
  • The tumor extended directly along the VII-VIIIth cranial nerve complex and also along the trigeminal nerve, which is quite an unusual characteristic of the glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Facial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15746234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Riina HA, Knopman J, Greenfield JP, Fralin S, Gobin YP, Tsiouris AJ, Souweidane MM, Boockvar JA: Balloon-assisted superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab for malignant brainstem glioma. A technical note. Interv Neuroradiol; 2010 Mar;16(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Balloon-assisted superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion of bevacizumab for malignant brainstem glioma. A technical note.
  • Malignant brainstem gliomas (BSG) are rare tumors in adults, associated with a grim prognosis and limited treatment options.
  • Intravenous (IV) administration of bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech Pharmaceuticals) has been shown to be active in the treatment of some enhancing malignant brainstem gliomas.
  • In addition, the percentage of IV drug that reaches the tumor site is restricted by the blood brain barrier (BBB).Weill Cornell Brain Tumor Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University: New York, NY, USA.
  • This technical report describes our protocol in performing superselective intra-arterial cerebral infusion (SIACI) of bevacizumab using endovascular balloon-assistance in the top of the basilar artery in a patient with a recurrent malignant brainstem glioma.
  • This method of drug delivery may have important implications in the treatment of both adult and pediatric brainstem gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Catheterization / methods. Glioma / diagnostic imaging. Glioma / drug therapy. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Humans. Male. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 2001 Mar;218(3):724-32 [11230646.001]
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  • (PMID = 20377982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1591-0199
  • [Journal-full-title] Interventional neuroradiology : journal of peritherapeutic neuroradiology, surgical procedures and related neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interv Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3277958
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8. Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B: Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther; 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem glioma carries the worst prognosis of all malignancies of the brain.
  • Most patients with brainstem glioma fail standard radiation therapy and chemotherapy and do not survive longer than 2 years.
  • Treatment is even more challenging when an inoperable tumor is of high-grade pathology (HBSG).
  • CONCLUSION: Antineoplastons contributed to more than a 5-year survival in recurrent diffuse intrinsic glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas of the brainstem in a small group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzeneacetamides / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glutamine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phenylacetates / administration & dosage. Piperidones / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16484713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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9. Laigle-Donadey F, Doz F, Delattre JY: Brainstem gliomas in children and adults. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Nov;20(6):662-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brainstem gliomas in children and adults.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to determine if recent advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities result in improvement in the pattern of care of brainstem gliomas.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: New MRI techniques may contribute to differential diagnosis and aid neurosurgeons in removing resectable brainstem tumors.
  • However, biopsy remains indicated in many contrast enhancing brainstem masses in adults because of the great variety of differential diagnosis.
  • SUMMARY: Diffuse brainstem glioma is the most common subtype of brainstem tumor and remains a devastating malignancy in children.
  • Given the lack of efficacy of conventional drugs, a better understanding of the biology of this tumor is the key to more targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem / pathology. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medical Oncology / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / drug therapy. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18841048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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10. Marin-Sanabria EA, Kobayashi N, Miyake S, Kohmura E: Snoring associated with Ondine's curse in a patient with brainstem glioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2006 Apr;13(3):370-3
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  • [Title] Snoring associated with Ondine's curse in a patient with brainstem glioma.
  • We present an adult patient with brainstem glioma who presented with snoring and Ondine's curse as the only symptoms.
  • MRI and MR spectroscopy revealed a brainstem glioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Exceptionally loud snoring in non-obese adult patients with sleep apnea may be an early feature of a brainstem space-occupying lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Glioma / complications. Sleep Apnea Syndromes / etiology. Snoring / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16546390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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11. Ueoka DI, Nogueira J, Campos JC, Maranhão Filho P, Ferman S, Lima MA: Brainstem gliomas--retrospective analysis of 86 patients. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;281(1-2):20-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brainstem gliomas--retrospective analysis of 86 patients.
  • Brainstem gliomas constitute 10% of brain tumors in children and less than 2% in adults.
  • Since therapeutic options are limited and brainstem gliomas are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, we sought to analyze the prognostic factors associated with a better outcome.
  • We reviewed the records of 86 patients with brainstem gliomas treated between 1996 and 2006.
  • Of 86 patients with brainstem gliomas, 55.8% were females.
  • A short duration of symptoms, which may imply a more aggressive tumor, was associated with a worst prognosis in patients with brainstem gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Brain Stem / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19345380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5883
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Pincus DW, Richter EO, Yachnis AT, Bennett J, Bhatti MT, Smith A: Brainstem stereotactic biopsy sampling in children. J Neurosurg; 2006 Feb;104(2 Suppl):108-14
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  • [Title] Brainstem stereotactic biopsy sampling in children.
  • OBJECT: Although it is widely accepted that biopsy sampling is not indicated for the diagnosis and empiric treatment of diffuse pontine glioma, it is common to encounter patients with brainstem lesions that cannot be diagnosed on the basis of imaging studies alone.
  • METHODS: A three-dimensional graphics workstation was used for trajectory planning to obtain biopsy samples of brainstem lesions in 10 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this small series suggest that brainstem stereotactic biopsy sampling in children is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic yield.
  • In patients in whom radiographic findings are not consistent with diffuse pontine glioma and resection is not appropriate, stereotactic biopsy sampling should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy / adverse effects. Biopsy / methods. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Morbidity. Retrospective Studies. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • (PMID = 16506498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Stark AM, Fritsch MJ, Claviez A, Dörner L, Mehdorn HM: Management of tectal glioma in childhood. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Jul;33(1):33-8
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  • [Title] Management of tectal glioma in childhood.
  • Tectal glioma is a topographical diagnosis including tumors of different histology, mainly low-grade astrocytomas.
  • This report discusses the management of this rare tumor in children.
  • Clinical charts of 12 children with tectal glioma treated in our department between 1976 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The duration between first symptoms and the diagnosis of tectal glioma was in the range of 2 days to 9 years.
  • Ten patients presented with symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure, one patient presented with ataxia, and in one case tectal glioma was an incidental finding.
  • First-line therapy was endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5 cases (42%), ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 6 cases (50%), and combined partial tumor resection and shunting in one case.
  • Tectal glioma represents a distinct subgroup of brainstem tumors associated with a good (or favorable) prognosis.
  • Effective treatment for hydrocephalus is essential; the tumor should be monitored by regular clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Biopsy is warranted in cases with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Superior Colliculi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15876519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Miki T, Nakajima N, Akimoto J, Wada J, Haraoka J: Neuroendoscopic trans-third ventricle approach for lesions of the ventral brainstem surface. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;51(6):313-8

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  • [Title] Neuroendoscopic trans-third ventricle approach for lesions of the ventral brainstem surface.
  • Due to the establishment in recent years of neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), it has become possible during ETV to observe the ventral brainstem surface--particularly the prepontine cistern--in a minimally invasive manner via the third ventricular base with a neuroendoscope.
  • As an adaptation of that technique in this study, we investigated a neuroendoscopic trans-third ventricle approach (ETTVA), which accesses lesions of the ventral brainstem surface with a neuroendoscope inserted via the stoma of the third ventricular floor.
  • Our study included 6 cases, including one case each of neurenteric cyst, chordoma, pontine glioma (astrocytoma), ecchordosis physaliphora, endodermal cyst, and cystic schwannoma.
  • Surgical operations performed by ETTVA included 3 cases of tumor resection, 2 cases of tumor biopsy, and 1 case of cyst puncture and aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Third Ventricle / surgery. Ventriculostomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19061139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Fouladi M, Nicholson HS, Zhou T, Laningham F, Helton KJ, Holmes E, Cohen K, Speights RA, Wright J, Pollack IF, Children's Oncology Group: A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study. Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;110(11):2535-41
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  • [Title] A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: a Children's Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: An open-label Phase II study of tipifarnib was conducted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma (MB)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), high-grade glioma (HGG), and diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tipifarnib tolerated well but had little activity as a single agent in children with recurrent central nervous system malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Quinolones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


16. Kesari S, Kim RS, Markos V, Drappatz J, Wen PY, Pruitt AA: Prognostic factors in adult brainstem gliomas: a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 101 cases. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jun;88(2):175-83
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in adult brainstem gliomas: a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 101 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Adult brainstem gliomas (BSG) are uncommon and poorly understood with respect to prognostic factors.
  • Out of 24 candidate prognosis factors, we selected seven covariates for proportional hazards model by Lasso procedure: age of diagnosis, ethnicity, need for corticosteroids, tumor grade, dysphagia, tumor location, and karnofsky performance status (KPS).
  • Multivariate analysis showed that four covariates significantly increased hazard for survival: ethnicity, tumor location, age of diagnosis, and tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Health Surveys. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18365144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Rachinger W, Grau S, Holtmannspötter M, Herms J, Tonn JC, Kreth FW: Serial stereotactic biopsy of brainstem lesions in adults improves diagnostic accuracy compared with MRI only. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2009 Oct;80(10):1134-9
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  • [Title] Serial stereotactic biopsy of brainstem lesions in adults improves diagnostic accuracy compared with MRI only.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current prospective study was to analyse the validity of MRI based diagnosis of brainstem gliomas which was verified by stereotactic biopsy and follow-up evaluation as well as to assess prognostic factors and risk profile.
  • METHODS: Between 1998 and 2007, all consecutive adult patients with radiologically suspected brainstem glioma were included.
  • RESULTS: 46 adult patients were included.
  • Histological evaluation revealed pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 2), WHO grade II glioma (n = 14), malignant glioma (n = 12), metastasis (n = 7), lymphoma (n = 5), cavernoma (n = 1), inflammatory disease (n = 2) or no tumour/gliosis (n = 3).
  • Patients with low grade glioma and malignant glioma showed a 1 year survival rate of 75% and 25%, respectively; the 1 year survival rate for patients with lymphoma or metastasis was 30%.
  • In the subgroup with a verified brainstem glioma, negative predictors for length of survival were higher tumour grade (p = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance score < or =70 (p = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Intra-axial brainstem lesions with a radiological pattern of glioma represent a very heterogeneous tumour group with completely different outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stereotaxic Techniques
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19520698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Yen CP, Sheehan J, Steiner M, Patterson G, Steiner L: Gamma knife surgery for focal brainstem gliomas. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jan;106(1):8-17
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  • [Title] Gamma knife surgery for focal brainstem gliomas.
  • OBJECT: Focal tumors, a distinct subgroup of which is composed of brainstem gliomas, may have an indolent clinical course.
  • In the present study the authors assess clinical and imaging results in 20 patients who harbored focal brainstem gliomas treated with GKS between 1990 and 2001.
  • The mean tumor volume at the time of GKS was 2.5 cm3.
  • In 10 cases a tumor specimen was obtained either by open surgery or stereotactic biopsy, securing the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma in five patients and nonpilocytic astrocytoma in five others.
  • Another patient whose tumor disappeared 3 years following GKS died of stroke 8 years postoperatively.
  • Tumor progression occurred in four patients; of these four, one patient developed hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, two showed neurological deterioration, and one 4-year-old boy died of tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife surgery may be an effective primary treatment or adjunct to open surgery for focal brainstem gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2007 Sep;107(3):708; author reply 708-9 [17886574.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2007 Jan;106(1):6-7 [17262931.001]
  • (PMID = 17236482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Sanai N, Wachhorst SP, Gupta NM, McDermott MW: Transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy for lesions of the brainstem and peduncles under local anesthesia. Neurosurgery; 2008 Sep;63(3):460-6; discussion 466-8
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  • [Title] Transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy for lesions of the brainstem and peduncles under local anesthesia.
  • OBJECTIVE: For certain brainstem lesions, a diagnostic biopsy is required for treatment planning.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed hospital records for all adult patients with symptomatic lesions of the pons and/or cerebellar peduncle who underwent an awake transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy at our institution over a 7-year period.
  • Diagnoses in the 13 cases included infiltrative glioma (), metastases (), lymphoma (), encephalitis (), and reactive astrogliosis ().
  • CONCLUSION: Tissue diagnosis of lesions in the brainstem and cerebellar peduncles continues to be a significant challenge, with the potential for major morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local / methods. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellum / pathology. Stereotaxic Techniques. Tegmentum Mesencephali / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18812957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Pichler R, Pichler J, Mustafa H, Nussbaumer K, Zaunmüller T, Topakian R: Somatostatin-receptor positive brain stem glioma visualized by octreoscan. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2007 Jun;28(3):250-1
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  • [Title] Somatostatin-receptor positive brain stem glioma visualized by octreoscan.
  • In diffuse brainstem gliomas often surgical biopsies cannot be obtained.
  • MRI detected a suggestive large pontine glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Indium Radioisotopes. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 17627256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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21. Mursch K, Halatsch ME, Markakis E, Behnke-Mursch J: Intrinsic brainstem tumours in adults: results of microneurosurgical treatment of 16 consecutive patients. Br J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;19(2):128-36

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intrinsic brainstem tumours in adults: results of microneurosurgical treatment of 16 consecutive patients.
  • Intrinsic brainstem tumours in adults have a poor prognosis and surgical resection is rarely performed.
  • Our results indicate that open microneurosurgery for intrinsic brainstem tumours is of questionable benefit for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16120515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Kawabori M, Murata J, Abe S, Saito H: [A case of brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome]. No Shinkei Geka; 2009 Nov;37(11):1105-9
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  • [Title] [A case of brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome].
  • A rare case of a brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is reported.
  • Computed tomography imaging (CT) showed his brain stem with a low attenuation.
  • Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) was normal at the brainstem, but apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were slightly elevated at the left midbrain.
  • RPLS associated with predominant involvement of the brainstem and sparing of the supratentorial region is rare, but it should be differentiated from brain stem infarction, pontine glioma, central pontine myelinolysis and infective encephalitis, since the neulological consequences are potentially fully reversible after adequate and prompt treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem. Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 19938667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Ruivo J, Antunes JL: Maffucci syndrome associated with a pituitary adenoma and a probable brainstem tumor. J Neurosurg; 2009 Feb;110(2):363-8
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  • [Title] Maffucci syndrome associated with a pituitary adenoma and a probable brainstem tumor.
  • Malignancies are a common feature of Maffucci syndrome, with chondrosarcomas being the most common tumor type.
  • The authors present the first case of Maffucci syndrome associated with a pituitary adenoma and a probable brainstem glioma and review the literature concerning intracranial tumors related to this disease.
  • Neuroimaging revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and a suspected brainstem tumor.
  • To the authors' knowledge, including the present case, only 7 cases of Maffucci syndrome associated with glioma and 7 cases associated with pituitary adenoma have been reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Enchondromatosis / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pons
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Humans. Nerve Compression Syndromes / diagnosis. Nerve Compression Syndromes / surgery. Optic Chiasm / pathology. Optic Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Diseases / surgery. Vision Disorders / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / etiology. Vision Disorders / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18976063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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24. Mehta VS, Chandra PS, Singh PK, Garg A, Rath GK: Surgical considerations for 'intrinsic' brainstem gliomas: proposal of a modification in classification. Neurol India; 2009 May-Jun;57(3):274-81
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  • [Title] Surgical considerations for 'intrinsic' brainstem gliomas: proposal of a modification in classification.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem gliomas are highly heterogeneous tumors both in their clinical manifestation and in their pathology.
  • Despite significant advances in the surgery for brainstem gliomas many aspects of this pathology are still unclear.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and surgical outcome of 40 focal 'intrinsic' brainstem gliomas and propose a surgical strategy-oriented classification.
  • Our criteria included patients with (1) well-defined gadolinium enhancing tumor;.
  • RESULTS: The 'intrinsic' brainstem tumors were classified into three types: Expanding, diffuse infiltrative and pure ventral varieties.
  • Only patients with expanding variety of brainstem gliomas were subjected to surgery, mean age 19.2 years (range 4-55 years) and male to female ration mean: 3:2).
  • The tumor location included pons (n=19), midbrain (n=13) and medulla (n=8).
  • CONCLUSION: The surgical management of intrinsic brainstem tumors presents a surgical challenge; radical excision yielded a good outcome in the majority of cases.
  • The authors propose a classification system for 'intrinsic' brainstem tumors for defining surgical strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / classification. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / classification. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Neurol India. 2009 May-Jun;57(3):231-2 [19587459.001]
  • (PMID = 19587467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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25. Uchino M, Haga D, Mito T, Kuramitsu T, Nakamura N: Primary midbrain cystic germinoma mimicking glioma: a case with neuroendoscopic biopsy. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(3):255-8
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  • [Title] Primary midbrain cystic germinoma mimicking glioma: a case with neuroendoscopic biopsy.
  • We present the first reported case of cystic midbrain germinoma that lacked evident solid components and mimicked a midbrain glioma.
  • The preoperative diagnosis included brain stem glioma, metastasis, and neuroepithelial cyst.
  • The case illustrates the diagnostic value of neuroendoscopic biopsy in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions in adult.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Endoscopy. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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26. Salmaggi A, Fariselli L, Milanesi I, Lamperti E, Silvani A, Bizzi A, Maccagnano E, Trevisan E, Laguzzi E, Rudà R, Boiardi A, Soffietti R, Associazione Italiana di Neuro-oncologia: Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study. J Neurol; 2008 Feb;255(2):171-7
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  • [Title] Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study.
  • Brainstem gliomas in adults are rare tumors, with heterogeneous clinical course; only a few studies in the MRI era describe the features in consistent groups of patients.
  • In this retrospective study, we report clinical features at onset, imaging characteristics and subsequent course in a group of 34 adult patients with either histologically proven or clinico-radiologically diagnosed brainstem gliomas followed at two centers in Northern Italy.
  • Compared with literature data, our study confirms the clinical and radiological heterogeneity of adult brainstem gliomas and underscores the need for multicenter trials in order to assess the efficacy of treatments in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Italy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18293027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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27. Hargrave D: Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;23(4):351-63
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  • [Title] Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy.
  • Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates.
  • Current therapies rely on neurosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination of these conventional modalities and although histopathology helps to direct therapy, molecular pathology has so far not played a major role in the management of paediatric glioma.
  • However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact on drug development towards targeted therapies.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents.
  • The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma.
  • It is likely that high grade gliomas in children and adults share common aberrant molecular pathways but the frequency and mechanisms involved probably will exhibit key differences and on-going comprehensive molecular analyses of paediatric high grade glioma are essential to determine which targets are important in children.
  • Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets.
  • A new era of molecular based therapies offers the promise of major benefits in the management of paediatric glioma but translating this promise into reality will require further understanding of the biology driving these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome-Wide Association Study. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Prognosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics


28. Frappaz D, Schell M, Thiesse P, Marec-Bérard P, Mottolese C, Perol D, Bergeron C, Philip T, Ricci AC, Galand-Desme S, Szathmari A, Carrie C: Preradiation chemotherapy may improve survival in pediatric diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas: final results of BSG 98 prospective trial. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Aug;10(4):599-607
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  • [Title] Preradiation chemotherapy may improve survival in pediatric diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas: final results of BSG 98 prospective trial.
  • Radiation therapy remains the only treatment that provides clinical benefit to children with diffuse brainstem tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / mortality. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy


29. Majchrzak H, Krawczyk L, Majchrzak K, Bierzyńska-Macyszyn G: [Surgical treatment of brainstem gliomas and other tumors in adults]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;39(1):27-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of brainstem gliomas and other tumors in adults].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: After the introduction of MR imaging to the diagnostics of brainstem tumors and after the introduction of microsurgical procedures to their treatment, the successful treatment, particularly of focal and exophytic forms of these tumors has begun all over the world.
  • The objective of this paper is to establish indications for surgical treatment of gliomas and other tumors of brainstem, to determine surgical approaches and to establish the outcome.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Within the last 6 years, 12 patients with focal and exophytic tumors of the brainstem in adults were operated on.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with focal and exophytic forms of the brainstem tumors in MR imaging are qualified for surgical treatment.
  • Immediate results of the treatment depend on the localization and size of the neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15735987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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30. Pollack IF, Jakacki RI, Blaney SM, Hancock ML, Kieran MW, Phillips P, Kun LE, Friedman H, Packer R, Banerjee A, Geyer JR, Goldman S, Poussaint TY, Krasin MJ, Wang Y, Hayes M, Murgo A, Weiner S, Boyett JM: Phase I trial of imatinib in children with newly diagnosed brainstem and recurrent malignant gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium report. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):145-60
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of imatinib in children with newly diagnosed brainstem and recurrent malignant gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium report.
  • This study estimated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of imatinib with irradiation in children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas, and those with recurrent malignant intracranial gliomas, stratified according to use of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (EIACDs).
  • In the brainstem glioma stratum, imatinib was initially administered twice daily during irradiation, but because of possible association with intratumoral hemorrhage (ITH) was subsequently started two weeks after irradiation.
  • Twenty-four evaluable patients received therapy before the amendment, and three of six with a brainstem tumor experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT): one had asymptomatic ITH, one had grade 4 neutropenia and, one had renal insufficiency.
  • None of 18 patients with recurrent glioma experienced DLT.
  • After protocol amendment, 3 of 16 patients with brainstem glioma and 2 of 11 patients with recurrent glioma who were not receiving EIACDs experienced ITH DLTs, with three patients being symptomatic.
  • The recommended phase II dose for brainstem gliomas was 265 mg/m(2).
  • Three of 27 patients with brainstem gliomas with imaging before and after irradiation, prior to receiving imatinib, had new hemorrhage, excluding their receiving imatinib.
  • In summary, recommended phase II imatinib doses were determined for children with newly diagnosed brainstem glioma and recurrent high-grade glioma who were not receiving EIACDs.
  • Imatinib may increase the risk of ITH, although the incidence of spontaneous hemorrhages in brainstem glioma is sufficiently high that this should be considered in studies of agents in which hemorrhage is a concern.

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  • (PMID = 17293590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00188-37; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871662
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31. Oermann E, Collins BT, Erickson KT, Yu X, Lei S, Suy S, Hanscom HN, Kim J, Park HU, Eldabh A, Kalhorn C, McGrail K, Subramaniam D, Jean WC, Collins SP: CyberKnife enhanced conventionally fractionated chemoradiation for high grade glioma in close proximity to critical structures. J Hematol Oncol; 2010;3:22
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CyberKnife enhanced conventionally fractionated chemoradiation for high grade glioma in close proximity to critical structures.
  • Temozolomide-related improvements in high-grade glioma survival have placed a higher premium on optimal radiation therapy delivery.
  • We investigated the safety and efficacy of utilizing highly conformal and precise CyberKnife radiotherapy to enhance conventional radiotherapy in the treatment of high grade glioma.
  • METHODS: Between January 2002 and January 2009, 24 patients with good performance status and high-grade gliomas in close proximity to critical structures (i.e. eyes, optic nerves, optic chiasm and brainstem) were treated with the CyberKnife.
  • All patients received conventional radiation therapy following tumor resection, with a median dose of 50 Gy (range: 40 - 50.4 Gy).
  • Subsequently, an additional dose of 10 Gy was delivered in 5 successive 2 Gy daily fractions utilizing the CyberKnife image-guided radiosurgical system.
  • At a median follow-up of 63 months for the anaplastic glioma cohort, the median survival has not been reached and the 4-year survival rate was 71%.
  • CONCLUSION: We utilized fractionated CyberKnife radiotherapy as an adjunct to conventional radiation to improve the targeting accuracy of high-grade glioma radiation treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20534128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-8722
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematology & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2891601
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32. Rineer J, Schreiber D, Choi K, Rotman M: Characterization and outcomes of infratentorial malignant glioma: a population-based study using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End-Results database. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):321-6
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  • [Title] Characterization and outcomes of infratentorial malignant glioma: a population-based study using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End-Results database.
  • PURPOSE: Using a population-based database, we sought to characterize brainstem gliomas and to evaluate the prognosis of various subgroups.
  • CONCLUSION: Brainstem glioma is primarily a childhood malignancy with a generally poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Glioma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. SEER Program

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20451276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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33. Giussani C, Poliakov A, Ferri RT, Plawner LL, Browd SR, Shaw DW, Filardi TZ, Hoeppner C, Geyer JR, Olson JM, Douglas JG, Villavicencio EH, Ellenbogen RG, Ojemann JG: DTI fiber tracking to differentiate demyelinating diseases from diffuse brain stem glioma. Neuroimage; 2010 Aug 1;52(1):217-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DTI fiber tracking to differentiate demyelinating diseases from diffuse brain stem glioma.
  • OBJECT: Intrinsic diffuse brainstem tumors and demyelinating diseases primarily affecting the brainstem can share common clinical and radiological features, sometimes making the diagnosis difficult especially at the time of first clinical presentation.
  • To explore the potential usefulness of new MRI sequences in particular diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking in differentiating these two pathological entities, we review a series of brainstem tumors and demyelinating diseases treated at our institution.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical history including signs and symptoms and MRI findings of three consecutive demyelinating diseases involving the brainstem that presented with diagnostic uncertainty and three diffuse intrinsic brainstem tumors were reviewed, along with a child with a supratentorial tumor for comparison.
  • RESULTS: Routine MR imaging was unhelpful in differentiating between intrinsic tumor and demyelination.
  • In contrast, retrospective DTI fiber tracking clearly differentiated the pathology showing deflection of the pyramidal tracts posteriorly and laterally in the case of intrinsic brainstem tumors and, in the case of demyelinating disease, poorly represented and truncated fibers.
  • CONCLUSION: DTI fiber tracking of the pyramid tracts in patients with suspected intrinsic brainstem tumor or demyelinating disease presents two clearly different patterns that may help in differentiating between these two pathologies when conventional MRI and clinical data are inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Demyelinating Diseases / pathology. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Diffusion Tensor Imaging / methods. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Stem / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Pyramidal Tracts / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20363335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] NeuroImage
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Rosenthal MA, Ashley DM, Drummond KJ, Dally M, Murphy M, Cher L, Thursfield V, Giles GG: Brain stem gliomas: patterns of care in Victoria from 1998-2000. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Mar;15(3):237-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brain stem gliomas: patterns of care in Victoria from 1998-2000.
  • This study describes the management of and outcomes for adult and paediatric patients with newly diagnosed brain stem gliomas during 1998-2000 in Victoria.
  • Adult patients were identified in a retrospective cohort study conducted by surveying doctors involved in managing incident brainstem glioma cases identified from the population-based Victorian Cancer Registry.
  • Paediatric cases were identified from a retrospective analysis of the Victorian Paediatric Brain tumour database for the same period.
  • Ten adult and 14 paediatric patients were considered eligible for this study.
  • No adult patients and only eight (57%) paediatric patients received chemotherapy.
  • The median survivals for adult patients, paediatric patients with pontine lesions and paediatric patients with non-pontine lesions were: 57, 10 and 60+ months respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray. Victoria / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18226529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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35. Wakabayashi T, Natsume A, Hatano H, Fujii M, Shimato S, Ito M, Ohno M, Ito S, Ogura M, Yoshida J: p16 promoter methylation in the serum as a basis for the molecular diagnosis of gliomas. Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3):455-61; discussion 461-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation of tumor origin can be detected in the serum/plasma of cancer patients.
  • The aim of this study was to detect aberrant p16 promoter methylation as a potential diagnostic marker in the serum of patients with diffuse glioma to differentiate between gliomas and, particularly, to differentiate those in the brainstem from others; this was done by using the modified methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction technique.
  • The association of p16 hypermethylation in the serum DNA of glioma patients with clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed.
  • In addition, the serum DNA in 7 patients with a brainstem tumor (4 gliomas, 1 schwannoma, 1 cavernous angioma, and 1 ependymoma) was analyzed.
  • Similar methylations were detected in the serum of 9 (75%) of the 12 patients with aberrant methylation in the tumor tissues.
  • Additionally, p16 promoter methylation in the serum was observed in all brainstem astrocytoma cases, but not in other cases.
  • CONCLUSION: This assay has potential for use as a serum-based molecular diagnosis technique for diffuse glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / blood. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Genes, p16. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. DNA Methylation / genetics. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19240607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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36. Wu-Chen WY, Jacobs DA, Volpe NJ, Dalmau JO, Moster ML: Intracranial malignancies occurring more than 20 years after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma. J Neuroophthalmol; 2009 Dec;29(4):289-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The brainstem abnormality was presumptively diagnosed as a malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / etiology. Glioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19952902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, Shah P, Hunt M, Gutin PH, Leibel SA: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 1;64(3):892-7
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  • The overall survival time for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma was 36 and 9 months, respectively.
  • A comparative dosimetric analysis revealed that regardless of tumor location, IMRT did not significantly improve target coverage compared with three-dimensional planning.
  • The mean brainstem dose also decreased by 7%.
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / radiation effects. Disease Progression. Female. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16458777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Qaddoumi I, Sultan I, Gajjar A: Outcome and prognostic features in pediatric gliomas: a review of 6212 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5761-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed available SEER data on 6212 patients younger than 20 years at diagnosis of glioma (1973-2005), according to 4 age categories: <1 year, 1-3 years, 3-5 years, and 5-20 years.
  • Tumor grade emerged as the most significant independent prognostic factor in all age groups except the youngest age group, in which extent of resection was most significant.
  • Age<3 years predicted a greater likelihood of survival in patients with high-grade gliomas and brainstem tumors.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19813274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-30
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS146820; NLM/ PMC2794938
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39. Rath GP, Bithal PK, Chaturvedi A, Dash HH: Complications related to positioning in posterior fossa craniectomy. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Jun;14(6):520-5
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  • Brainstem handling was the most common cause of prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation and was seen more in the sitting position.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Arnold-Chiari Malformation / surgery. Brain Diseases / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroma, Acoustic / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17430775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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40. Kovacs S, Peeters R, Smits M, De Ridder D, Van Hecke P, Sunaert S: Activation of cortical and subcortical auditory structures at 3 T by means of a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm suitable for clinical use. Invest Radiol; 2006 Feb;41(2):87-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Visualization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation of subcortical auditory structures remains challenging because of the cardiac-related pulsatile movement of both the brainstem and the cerebrospinal fluid and involved, until now, special scanning, pre- and postprocessing techniques, which are not convenient in clinical settings.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty subjects (13 volunteers and 7 patients) were examined on a 3 T imaging system with binaural musical stimulation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Female. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tinnitus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16428978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9996
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Benesch M, Lackner H, Sovinz P, Suppan E, Schwinger W, Eder HG, Dornbusch HJ, Moser A, Triebl-Roth K, Urban C: Late sequela after treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 69 long-term survivors treated between 1983 and 2003. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jun;78(2):199-205
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  • Eighty-seven patients with low-grade gliomas grouped according to tumor location (cerebellum: n=28; cerebral hemispheres: n=21; central midline: n=15; brainstem: n=12; tectum: n=5; other locations: n=6) were evaluated for tumor- and/or treatment-related late effects by analysis of medical and computer records, and personal interviews.
  • Median follow-up of survivors is 96 months with an overall survival of 79% (cerebellum: 89%; cerebral hemispheres: 95%; central midline: 80%; brainstem: 25%; tectum: 100%; other locations: 66%).
  • Chronic medical problems (mild ataxia to multiple severe neuroendocrine deficits) are observed in 100% of patients with brainstem/central midline tumors and in 40-50% of patients with low-grade gliomas of other locations.
  • Tumor- and treatment-related late effects are common in patients with low-grade gliomas with the most severe occurring in patients with brainstem or central midline tumors.
  • As long-term survival is excellent in patients with low-grade gliomas except for tumors located in the brainstem, future treatment studies should focus on avoiding long-term late effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Endocrine System Diseases / epidemiology. Glioma / therapy. Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Austria / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hearing Disorders / epidemiology. Hearing Disorders / etiology. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survivors / statistics & numerical data. Vision Disorders / epidemiology. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16739030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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42. Finlay JL, Zacharoulis S: The treatment of high grade gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine tumors of childhood and adolescence: a historical - and futuristic - perspective. J Neurooncol; 2005 Dec;75(3):253-66
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  • Very little progress has been made over the past decades in identifying efficacious therapeutic modalities against both high grade gliomas and diffuse brainstem gliomas in children.
  • The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of older children with high grade gliomas and diffuse brain stem gliomas is undisputed; however the benefit of using radiation for patients less than 6 years of age (with high grade gliomas) might be questionable.
  • Currently temozolomide is being investigated due to its activity in adult trials and based on preliminary data regarding recurrent disease.
  • A small subgroup of patients can be successfully treated with high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell rescue.
  • High dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue in selected patients with minimal residual disease, angiogenesis inhibitors, radiosensitizers and other biological modifiers are being currently investigated in phase I/II trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. History, 20th Century. Humans. Morbidity. Mortality. Patient Selection

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  • (PMID = 16195805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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43. Warren K, Jakacki R, Widemann B, Aikin A, Libucha M, Packer R, Vezina G, Reaman G, Shaw D, Krailo M, Osborne C, Cehelsky J, Caldwell D, Stanwood J, Steinberg SM, Balis FM: Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2006 Sep;58(3):343-7
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: [corrected] Lobradimil is a synthetic bradykinin analog that rapidly and transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
  • The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was studied in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors in a phase II trial, the primary endpoints of which were to estimate the response rate and time to disease progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified by histology into five cohorts: brainstem glioma, high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, medullobastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and ependymoma.
  • No objective responses were observed in the brainstem glioma (n=12) and high-grade glioma (n = 9) cohorts, although two patients with high-grade glioma had prolonged disease stabilization (>6 months).
  • The study was closed for commercial reasons prior to achieving the accrual goals for the ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/PNET (n = 6) and low-grade glioma (n = 2) cohorts, although responses were observed in 1 patient with PNET and 2 patients with ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was inactive in childhood high-grade gliomas and brainstem gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bradykinin / administration & dosage. Bradykinin / adverse effects. Bradykinin / analogs & derivatives. Bradykinin / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16408203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 159768-75-9 / RMP 7; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
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44. Tanaka K, Sasayama T, Kawamura A, Kondoh T, Kanomata N, Kohmura E: Isolated oculomotor nerve paresis in anaplastic astrocytoma with exophytic invasion. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Apr;46(4):198-201
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  • A 30-year-old man presented with a supratentorial malignant glioma manifesting as isolated progressive left oculomotor nerve paresis.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an intra-axial tumor in the left temporal lobe, extending to the basal and prepontine cisterns, and compressing the brainstem.
  • The tumor was removed subtotally.
  • Malignant glioma with exophytic growth in the temporal lobe should be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated oculomotor nerve paresis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebral Arteries / pathology. Cisterna Magna / pathology. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / diagnosis. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / pathology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / surgery. Neuronavigation. Oculomotor Nerve / pathology. Oculomotor Nerve / surgery. Pons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16636512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Li KW, Roonprapunt C, Lawson HC, Abbott IR, Wisoff J, Epstein F, Jallo GI: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus associated with tectal gliomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2005 Jun 15;18(6A):E2
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  • OBJECT: Tectal gliomas are a distinct form of pediatric brainstem tumor that present in patients with symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Glioma / surgery. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Ventriculostomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16048288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Battaglia F, Uro-Coste E, Delisle MB, Tannier C: [Radiation-induced cavernoma: two cases]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2008 May;164(5):468-71
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  • Cavernomas occur several years after radiotherapy for brain neoplasia.
  • Medulloblastoma, glioma and acute lymphoblastic lymphoma are commonly diagnosed and treated in childhood, generally in males.
  • The second concerned a 30-year-old woman treated by radiation and surgery for brainstem medulloblastoma at the age of four.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Pons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18555880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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47. Daw NC, Furman WL, Stewart CF, Iacono LC, Krailo M, Bernstein ML, Dancey JE, Speights RA, Blaney SM, Croop JM, Reaman GH, Adamson PC, Children's Oncology Group: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of gefitinib in children with refractory solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;23(25):6172-80
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  • Disease stabilized for 8 to > or = 60 weeks in two patients with Wilms' tumor and two with brainstem glioma (one exophytic).
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16135484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 97452
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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48. Geyer JR, Stewart CF, Kocak M, Broniscer A, Phillips P, Douglas JG, Blaney SM, Packer RJ, Gururangan S, Banerjee A, Kieran MW, Kun LE, Gilbertson RJ, Boyett JM: A phase I and biology study of gefitinib and radiation in children with newly diagnosed brain stem gliomas or supratentorial malignant gliomas. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Dec;46(18):3287-93
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  • [Title] A phase I and biology study of gefitinib and radiation in children with newly diagnosed brain stem gliomas or supratentorial malignant gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD); study the pharmacology of escalating doses of gefitinib combined with radiation therapy in patients ⩽21 years with newly diagnosed intrinsic brainstem gliomas (BSG) and incompletely resected supratentorial malignant gliomas (STMG); and to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification and expression in STMG.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20708924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188-400568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000188-400568; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA081457-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5M01RR000188
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS224318; NLM/ PMC2988095
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49. Terasaki M, Bouffet E, Katsuki H, Fukushima S, Shigemori M: Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):46-50
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  • [Title] Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the response and toxicity of patients with recurrent or treatment-induced brain tumors to TMZ and oral VP-16.
  • METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant CNS tumors, including treatment-induced PNET (in 1 patient), brainstem glioma (in 3 patients; 1 with treatment-induced, 2 with recurrence), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (in 3 patients), and recurrent glioblastoma (in 4 patients) were evaluated in a pilot study of TMZ and oral VP-16 chemotherapy.
  • The histologic subtype of the tumor, its location, and its maximum response to chemotherapy did not have an impact on the duration of disease control.
  • CONCLUSION: This limited pilot study confirms the innocuousness and the activity of the combination of TMZ and oral VP-16 in recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18054615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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50. Chen CC, Cheng PW, Tseng HM, Young YH: Posterior cranial fossa tumors in young adults. Laryngoscope; 2006 Sep;116(9):1678-81
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  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 16 (0.8%) of 2,091 young adults (range, 16-29 years) with dizziness/vertigo, hearing loss, or tinnitus were diagnosed with posterior fossa tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated space-occupying lesions at the cerebellopontine angle in 11, cerebellum in two, brainstem in two, and jugular fossa in one.
  • Diagnoses consisted of vestibular schwannoma and neurofibromatosis II in eight patients (50%), glial neoplasm (including astrocytoma, ependymoma, glioma) in four patients (25%), epidermoid cyst in three patients, and glomus jugulare tumor in one patient.
  • At study close, excluding one lost patient, three patients died as a result of recurrent or residual tumor at the primary site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike predominant medulloblastoma in children, the most frequent posterior fossa tumor in young adults is vestibular schwannoma and neurofibroma.
  • However, the second most frequent one in young adults is glial neoplasm as opposed to meningioma in adults.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Audiometry. Electronystagmography. Female. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Humans. Male. Nystagmus, Pathologic / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16955003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Gaviani P, Gonzalez RG, Zhu JJ, Batchelor TT, Henson JW: Central neurogenic hyperventilation and lactate production in brainstem glioma. Neurology; 2005 Jan 11;64(1):166-7
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  • [Title] Central neurogenic hyperventilation and lactate production in brainstem glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / complications. Glioma / metabolism. Hyperventilation / etiology. Lactic Acid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15642931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid
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