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1. Hargrave D: Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;23(4):351-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates.
  • However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact on drug development towards targeted therapies.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents.
  • The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma.
  • Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome-Wide Association Study. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Prognosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics


2. Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B: Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther; 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem glioma carries the worst prognosis of all malignancies of the brain.
  • Most patients with brainstem glioma fail standard radiation therapy and chemotherapy and do not survive longer than 2 years.
  • RESULTS: The overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 39% and 22%, respectively, and maximum survival was more than 17 years for a patient with anaplastic astrocytoma and more than 5 years for a patient with glioblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Antineoplastons contributed to more than a 5-year survival in recurrent diffuse intrinsic glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas of the brainstem in a small group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzeneacetamides / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glutamine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phenylacetates / administration & dosage. Piperidones / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16484713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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3. Salgado JV, Costa-Silva M, Malloy-Diniz LF, Siqueira JM, Teixeira AL: Prefrontal cognitive dysfunction following brainstem lesion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2007 May;109(4):379-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prefrontal cognitive dysfunction following brainstem lesion.
  • As ascending monoaminergic brainstem systems modulate PFC functioning, it is possible that lesions in the brainstem lead to symptoms similar to prefrontal dysfunction.
  • A 29-year-old man developed several cognitive and behavioral symptoms after neurosurgery for resection of a pilocytic astrocytoma in the pontine-mesencephalic area.
  • A careful analysis of symptoms indicated PFC dysfunction that could be attributed to lesions in the ascending monoaminergic brainstem systems.
  • Interestingly, the cognitive symptoms improved after treatment with methylphenidate, which is a drug that modules catecholaminergic neurotransmission, thereby supporting this hypothesis.
  • This is a unique case of PFC dysfunction that may be related to post-operative lesion of the catecholaminergic nuclei in the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cognition Disorders / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Prefrontal Cortex / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Attention / drug effects. Attention / physiology. Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use. Educational Status. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Impulsive Behavior / diagnosis. Impulsive Behavior / drug therapy. Impulsive Behavior / physiopathology. Inhibition (Psychology). Interpersonal Relations. Learning Disorders / diagnosis. Learning Disorders / drug therapy. Learning Disorders / physiopathology. Male. Methylphenidate / therapeutic use. Neuropsychological Tests. Problem Solving / drug effects. Problem Solving / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17275997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 207ZZ9QZ49 / Methylphenidate
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4. Suzuki Y, Tanaka K, Negishi D, Shimizu M, Yoshida Y, Hashimoto T, Yamazaki H: Pharmacokinetic investigation of increased efficacy against malignant gliomas of carboplatin combined with hyperbaric oxygenation. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 May;49(5):193-7; discussion 197
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  • The efficacy of intravenous administration of 400 mg carboplatin/m(2) body surface area over 60 minutes combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy (0.2 MPa for 60 min) was investigated in 6 Japanese patients (aged 36-67 years) with malignant or brainstem gliomas.
  • Brain tumor response was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging as a function of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve, or mean residence time (MRT) for carboplatin.
  • These results suggest that HBO therapy prolongs the biological residence time of carboplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / therapy. Hyperbaric Oxygenation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19465788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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5. Terasaki M, Bouffet E, Katsuki H, Fukushima S, Shigemori M: Pilot trial of the rate of response, safety, and tolerability of temozolomide and oral VP-16 in patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant central nervous system tumors. Surg Neurol; 2008 Jan;69(1):46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the response and toxicity of patients with recurrent or treatment-induced brain tumors to TMZ and oral VP-16.
  • METHODS: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant CNS tumors, including treatment-induced PNET (in 1 patient), brainstem glioma (in 3 patients; 1 with treatment-induced, 2 with recurrence), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (in 3 patients), and recurrent glioblastoma (in 4 patients) were evaluated in a pilot study of TMZ and oral VP-16 chemotherapy.
  • Five (45%) of 11 patients showed a PR to treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: This limited pilot study confirms the innocuousness and the activity of the combination of TMZ and oral VP-16 in recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18054615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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6. Marcus KJ, Dutton SC, Barnes P, Coleman CN, Pomeroy SL, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Kieran M, Tarbell NJ: A phase I trial of etanidazole and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with diffuse brainstem glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1182-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I trial of etanidazole and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with diffuse brainstem glioma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the toxicity and maximum tolerated dose of etanidazole administered concurrently with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HRT) for children with brainstem glioma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighteen patients with brainstem glioma were treated with etanidazole and HRT on a dose escalation protocol (Phase I trial) between 1990 and 1996.
  • CONCLUSION: The MTD of etanidazole in children receiving HRT for brainstem glioma is 42 g/m(2), with cutaneous rash as the dose-limiting toxicity.
  • This is in contrast to the adult experience, which demonstrates a 24% lower MTD of 34 g/m(2) limited by peripheral neuropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Dose Fractionation. Etanidazole / therapeutic use. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, High-Energy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12654425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 30DKA3Q1HL / Etanidazole
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7. Dreyer ZE, Kadota RP, Stewart CF, Friedman HS, Mahoney DH, Kun LE, McCluggage CW, Burger PC, Kepner J, Heideman RL, Pediatric Oncology Group: Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237. Neuro Oncol; 2003 Oct;5(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of idarubicin in pediatric brain tumors: Pediatric Oncology Group study POG 9237.
  • In previous reports, the alcohol metabolite of IDA, 4-demethoxydaunorubicinol (idarubicinol, or IDOL), had cytotoxic activity and the ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
  • For this reason, the Pediatric Oncology Group conducted a Phase 2 trial of IDA for children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors.
  • Patients were stratified by tumor types into 6 categories: stratum 1, low-grade astrocytoma; stratum 2, malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma); stratum 3, medulloblastoma; stratum 4, brainstem glioma; stratum 5, ependymoma; and stratum 6, miscellaneous malignant tumors not included in the previous diagnoses.
  • The systemic clearance data for IDA and IDOL were nearly identical to those published on patients with leukemia, and the plasma elimination of the IDOL metabolite was substantially longer than that of the parent drug IDA.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Idarubicin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 14565163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920677
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