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1. Kurimoto M, Nagai S, Hamada H, Tsuboi Y, Hayashi N, Kubota T, Endo S: Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Jun;29(3):299-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma.
  • Recurrence of clear cell ependymoma is not a rare condition, but malignant transformation of clear cell ependymoma has not yet been well presented.
  • A brain tumor in the left frontal premotor area was removed and an initial pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • The tumor recurred 4 months later, and reoperation of the tumor and adjuvant local radiotherapy were performed.
  • At this time, the tumor had an ultrastructural appearance compatible with ependymoma.
  • The autopsy specimens resembled a feature of glioblastoma but the tumor was sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18647267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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2. Stark AM, Maslehaty H, Hugo HH, Mahvash M, Mehdorn HM: Glioblastoma of the cerebellum and brainstem. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Oct;17(10):1248-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GB) is the most common and most malignant primary intracranial tumor.
  • Patients younger than 21years of age, as well as patients with gliomatosis cerebri, were excluded from the analysis.
  • Because of its rarity and the non-specific radiological features of iGB, it can easily be misdiagnosed as a brain metastasis, ependymoma or even as a benign lesion such as vestibular schwannoma or meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20619657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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3. Kubota T, Hirano A, Tanaka R, Takahashi H: Fine structural study of a cerebral tumor characterized by a honeycomb appearance after a 20-year post-mortem interval. Neuropathology; 2006 Apr;26(2):158-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine structural study of a cerebral tumor characterized by a honeycomb appearance after a 20-year post-mortem interval.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Autopsy. Formaldehyde. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Time Factors. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 16708549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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4. Järvelä S, Nordfors K, Jansson M, Haapasalo J, Helén P, Paljärvi L, Kalimo H, Kinnula V, Soini Y, Haapasalo H: Decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes is associated with aggressive features in ependymomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):283-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Lower GLCL-C and GLCL-R expression was associated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.047 and 0.049, respectively).
  • MnSOD, GLCL-C and TrxR expressions were significantly higher in tumors located in the spinal cord compared to those in the brain (P = 0.044, 0.046 and 0.004, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Superoxide Dismutase. Survival Analysis. Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase. Thioredoxins. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18682894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 52500-60-4 / Thioredoxins; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase
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5. Goldhoff P, Warrington NM, Limbrick DD Jr, Hope A, Woerner BM, Jackson E, Perry A, Piwnica-Worms D, Rubin JB: Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7717-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential.
  • Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types.
  • To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells.
  • RESULTS: We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, and meningioma.
  • Bioluminescence imaging indicated that whereas temozolomide and radiation therapy arrested intracranial tumor growth, the addition of Rolipram to this regimen resulted in tumor regression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression.

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  • (PMID = 19047098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108677; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA94056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4; K676NL63N7 / Rolipram
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82831; NLM/ PMC2615415
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6. Qian X, Goumnerova LC, De Girolami U, Cibas ES: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study. Cancer; 2008 Oct 25;114(5):307-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma cells are known to occasionally exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells have not been described in detail to date.
  • In this study, the CSF findings in patients with ependymal neoplasms are summarized and the cytomorphologic features of ependymoma, including its variants, are illustrated.
  • METHODS: A search of the pathology databases of 2 medical centers was performed to identify all patients with a histologic diagnosis of ependymoma in whom CSF samples were examined.
  • RESULTS: In all, 177 patients with a diagnosis of ependymoma were identified.
  • The detection rate of tumor cells in CSF was 6.7% in 15 adults and 21.2% in 33 children, with an overall rate of 16.7%.
  • Of the 8 patients with positive and/or suspicious diagnoses, 5 ependymomas exhibited anaplastic features and 1 tumor was a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • The positive samples were usually hypercellular, with cohesive epithelioid cells; long cytoplasmic processes resembling bipolar tanycytes were observed in the tanycytic variant of ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies


7. Fassett DR, Pingree J, Kestle JR: The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(1 Suppl):59-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature.
  • Only 8 to 20% of these tumors occur in the first two decades of life, making this tumor a rarity in pediatric neurosurgery.
  • Four (80%) of these five patients suffered from disseminated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) at the time of presentation; this incidence is much higher than that reported in the combined adult and pediatric literature.
  • In nine cases (35%) CNS metastases occurred.
  • In those cases in which patients underwent screening for CNS tumor dissemination, however, the incidence of disseminated disease was 58% (seven of 12 patients).
  • In pediatric patients MPEs may spread throughout the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid pathways; therefore, MR imaging of the entire CNS axis is recommended at both presentation and follow-up review to detect tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology


8. Onilude OE, Lusher ME, Lindsey JC, Pearson AD, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: APC and CTNNB1 mutations are rare in sporadic ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jul 15;168(2):158-61
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  • The ependymoma is the second most common malignant brain tumor of childhood; however, its molecular basis is poorly understood.
  • The formation of multiple ependymomas has been reported as an occasional feature of Turcot syndrome type 2 (TS2), a familial cancer syndrome caused by inherited mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene, and characterised by the concurrence of a primary CNS tumor (predominantly medulloblastoma) and multiple colorectal adenomas.
  • In summary, although inherited APC mutations may be associated with ependymoma development in certain TS2 cases, these data indicate that somatic mutations affecting APC and CTNNB1 do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of sporadic ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16843107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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9. Kieran MW, Packer RJ, Onar A, Blaney SM, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Geyer JR, Gururangan S, Banerjee A, Goldman S, Turner CD, Belasco JB, Broniscer A, Zhu Y, Frank E, Kirschmeier P, Statkevich P, Yver A, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3137-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study.
  • PURPOSE: A dose-escalation phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib (SCH66336) was conducted in children with recurrent or progressive CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three children with progressive or recurrent brain tumors were enrolled, with a median age of 12.2 years (range, 3.9 to 19.5 years).
  • Both radiographic response (one anaplastic astrocytoma) and stable disease (one medulloblastoma, two high-grade and four low-grade gliomas, one ependymoma, and one sarcoma) were noted, and seven patients remained on treatment for 1 year or longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Piperidines / pharmacokinetics. Pyridines / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17634493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 193275-84-2 / lonafarnib; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase
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10. Song JH, Kong DS, Shin HJ: Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Nov;26(11):1593-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors.
  • RESULTS: In 45 of 49 patients (91.8%) neuroendoscopic biopsy specimens were appropriate for diagnosis and revealed 27 germinomas, 11 astrocytomas, and one ependymoma, etc.
  • The tumor location included the pineal gland (n = 28), thalamus (n = 7), intraventricle (n = 3), hypothalamus (n = 3), suprasellar area (n = 2), and diffuse multifocal area (n = 3).
  • Tumor tissue specimens were undiagnostic in two patients (4.1%).
  • There were eight transient morbidities, including four EOM limitations, two central DI, one EVD infection, and one CSF leakage.
  • One patient experienced postoperative tumor bleeding requiring emergent operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Pinealoma / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Male. Pineal Gland / pathology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Thalamus / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20390421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Schuurmans M, Vanneste JA, Verstegen MJ, van Furth WR: Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):57-9
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  • [Title] Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed an extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression.
  • During surgery an intradural extramedullary tumor was found.
  • Further imaging showed a second lumbar spinal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16614942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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12. Shu HK, Sall WF, Maity A, Tochner ZA, Janss AJ, Belasco JB, Rorke-Adams LB, Phillips PC, Sutton LN, Fisher MJ: Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution. Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;110(2):432-41
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  • [Title] Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Because few large studies of pediatric ependymoma treatment are available, the authors believed that a retrospective review of treatment outcomes from a single institution would yield potentially valuable information regarding potential prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviews of patients with intracranial ependymoma who received their initial treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)/Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) between January 1980 and December 2000.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients with pediatric intracranial ependymoma, OS and PFS rates were concordant with the rates published in other modern series.
  • Tumor extension to the cervical spine was identified as a predictor for failure outside of the primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


13. Ginguené C, Champier J, Maallem S, Strazielle N, Jouvet A, Fèvre-Montange M, Ghersi-Egea JF: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 Sep;20(5):926-35
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  • [Title] P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas.
  • Intracranial ependymoma represents a major encephalic tumor in children, while spinal ependymoma develops more frequently in adults.
  • Real-time-PCR analysis showed that all three genes were expressed in all tumors, with no apparent correlation between the level of expression and either age or tumor grade.
  • These data indicate that a biochemical, transporter-dependent blood-tumor barrier may exist in ependymomas, which may reduce the tumoral bioavailability of lipophilic and amphiphilic anticancer drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1 / metabolism. Blood-Testis Barrier / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Microvessels / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family B. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Laminin / metabolism. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Young Adult. von Willebrand Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20406235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family B; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / von Willebrand Factor
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14. Tekkök IH, Sav A: Aggressive spinal germinoma with ascending metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):135-41
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  • At surgery, an encapsulated intradural extramedullary tumor was removed en bloc.
  • The initial histopathological diagnosis was ependymoma.
  • The tumor recurred locally to double its original size only 4 months later.
  • After second surgery, 5,100 cGy of local spinal radiation was given since the pathologist believed that the new tumor exhibited anaplastic features.
  • Subsequently tumor recurred at T6-10 levels and later in the right parasellar region.
  • Surgery was undertaken for both recurrences and radiation to whole spine and to whole brain respectively followed surgery.
  • At 11 months after the initial presentation, a new tumor was diagnosed at T11-T12 levels.
  • Our case is clearly unique in aggressivity of the tumor, a feature often unexpected for germinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Sacrum / anatomy & histology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
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15. Combs SE, Thilmann C, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Local radiotherapeutic management of ependymomas with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). BMC Cancer; 2006;6:222
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  • In 6 patients irradiation of the posterior fossa was performed with a local boost to the tumor bed, and in 4 patients the tumor bed only was irradiated.
  • In 7 patients FSRT was performed as re-irradiation for tumor progression.
  • Patients treated with FSRT for primary irradiation showed an overall survival of 100% and 78% at 3 and 5 years after irradiation of the posterior fossa with a boost to the tumor bed, and a survival rate of 100% at 5 years with RT of the tumor bed only.
  • After re-irradiation with FSRT, survival rates of 83% and 50% at 3-and 5 years, respectively, were obtained.Progression-free survival rates after primary RT as compared to re-irradiation were 64% and 60% at 5 years, respectively.FSRT was well tolerated by all patients and could be completed without interruptions due to side effects.
  • CONCLUSION: The present analysis shows that FSRT is well tolerated and highly effective in the management of ependymal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dose Fractionation. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16959039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1584252
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16. Kawashima M, Matsushima T, Nakahara Y, Takase Y, Masuoka J, Ohata K: Trans-cerebellomedullary fissure approach with special reference to lateral route. Neurosurg Rev; 2009 Oct;32(4):457-64
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  • Based on the anatomic findings, we adopted the lateral route of the trans-CMF approach for four patients, each with a tumor near the jugular tubercle extending into the fourth ventricle through the CMF.
  • A tumor is safely removed by this approach with easy feeder or tumor bed controls, especially if it is anchored at the lateral part of the CMF as is the jugular tubercle meningioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
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  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • OBJECTIVE: The uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (MET) by gliomas is greater than that by intact tissue, making methionine very useful for evaluation of tumor extent.
  • If the degree of malignancy of brain tumors can be evaluated by MET-PET, the usefulness of MET-PET as a means of diagnosing brain tumors will increase.
  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.
  • Tumor activity and degree of malignancy were evaluated using Ki-67LI (LI: labeling index) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • The correlations between methionine uptake and tumor proliferation (tumor versus contralateral gray matter ratio (T/N) and Ki-67LI) were determined for the group of all subjects.
  • Ki-67LI differed significantly between the high-grade group and low-grade group at T/N levels between 1.5 and 1.8 on analysis using tumor proliferative potential (p = 0.019-0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When analysis was confined to cases of astrocytic tumor, a correlation was noted between methionine accumulation and Ki-67LI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Methionine / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic. Tissue Distribution


18. Rousseau A, Idbaih A, Ducray F, Crinière E, Fèvre-Montange M, Jouvet A, Delattre JY: Specific chromosomal imbalances as detected by array CGH in ependymomas in association with tumor location, histological subtype and grade. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;97(3):353-64
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  • [Title] Specific chromosomal imbalances as detected by array CGH in ependymomas in association with tumor location, histological subtype and grade.
  • Moreover, key molecular events in the pathogenesis of ependymoma are yet to be defined.
  • The main objective of the present study was to identify specific patterns of chromosomal aberrations that correlate with tumor location, histological subtype and grade.
  • Forty-five ependymoma samples were analyzed by 1-megabase resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
  • Identification of specific genomic imbalances at a given tumor location suggests that ependymomas from different central nervous system (CNS) regions represent genetically distinct diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes. Ependymoma. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19865800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Singh NG, Sarkar C, Sharma MC, Garg A, Gaikwad SB, Kale SS, Mehta VS: Paraganglioma of cauda equina: report of seven cases. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2005;22(1):15-20
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  • One patient presented with ataxia and superficial sidrosis of the brain.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed well-circumscribed lesions that were isointense on T1- and T2-weighted images with flow voids.
  • All the tumors were well circumscribed and could be excised completely; however, one recurred.
  • Two mimicked ependymoma but were confirmed as paraganglioma by immunohistochemistry.
  • Thus, there were no identifying clinical or radiological features that helped in differentiating paraganglioma from other common tumors, such as ependymoma or neurinoma, in this region, and preoperative diagnosis was not possible in any of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina / pathology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Low Back Pain / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18095099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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20. Fronda C, Miller D, Kappus C, Bertalanffy H, Sure U: The benefit of image guidance for the contralateral interhemispheric approach to the lateral ventricle. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Jun;110(6):580-6
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  • Our image-guided system directed:.
  • The callosal incision was kept as limited as possible (1.2-2.1cm) depending on the size of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / surgery. Child. Corpus Callosum / anatomy & histology. Corpus Callosum / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Functional Laterality / physiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningioma / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18423851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Puget S, Grill J, Valent A, Bieche I, Dantas-Barbosa C, Kauffmann A, Dessen P, Lacroix L, Geoerger B, Job B, Dirven C, Varlet P, Peyre M, Dirks PB, Sainte-Rose C, Vassal G: Candidate genes on chromosome 9q33-34 involved in the progression of childhood ependymomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 10;27(11):1884-92
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  • PURPOSE: The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric ependymoma remains unclear.
  • Our study was designed to identify genetic changes implicated in ependymoma progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We characterized 59 ependymoma samples (33 at diagnosis and 26 at relapse) using array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
  • Supervised tumor classification showed that gain of 9qter was associated with tumor recurrence, age older than 3 years, and posterior fossa location.
  • Furthermore, inhibition of Notch pathway with a gamma-secretase inhibitor impaired the growth of ependymoma stem cell cultures.
  • CONCLUSION: The activation of the Notch pathway and Tenascin-C seem to be important events in ependymoma progression and may represent future targets for therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Male. Mutation. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Receptors, Notch / genetics. Tenascin / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19289631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Tenascin
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22. Preusser M, Wolfsberger S, Czech T, Slavc I, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Survivin expression in intracranial ependymomas and its correlation with tumor cell proliferation and patient outcome. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Oct;124(4):543-9
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  • [Title] Survivin expression in intracranial ependymomas and its correlation with tumor cell proliferation and patient outcome.
  • Survivin expression has been described as prognostic factor in various tumor types and has been shown to correlate with cytologic anaplasia in ependymoma.
  • We immunohistochemically studied survivin expression and its association with Ki-67 and topoisomerase IIalpha (TIIalpha) expression and outcome in 63 patients with intracranial ependymoma.
  • Survivin is expressed in a fraction of nuclei of tumor and endothelial cells including mitotic figures.
  • On average, 62.86% of Ki-67-expressing tumor cell nuclei coexpress survivin, whereas 92.2% of survivin-expressing nuclei coexpress Ki-67.
  • In ependymoma, survivin is expressed in a subset of proliferating cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Austria / epidemiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16146813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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23. Shuangshoti S, Rushing EJ, Mena H, Olsen C, Sandberg GD: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2598-605
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  • Ki-67 proliferation index paralleled tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that there is no significant relation between histopathology, Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 immunolabeling, tumor ploidy, and biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Prognosis. S Phase. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15861411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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24. Preusser M, Wolfsberger S, Haberler C, Breitschopf H, Czech T, Slavc I, Harris AL, Acker T, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Vascularization and expression of hypoxia-related tissue factors in intracranial ependymoma and their impact on patient survival. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Feb;109(2):211-6
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  • [Title] Vascularization and expression of hypoxia-related tissue factors in intracranial ependymoma and their impact on patient survival.
  • We investigated angiogenic patterns and expression of hypoxia-related tissue factors and their prognostic impact in 100 cases of intracranial ependymoma.
  • HIF-1alpha expression occurs in a significantly smaller fraction of cases and only in a few tumor cells without clear association with necrosis.
  • We conclude that bizarre vascular pattern, necrosis and high hypoxia score are frequently detectable in intracranial ependymoma, but seem less important for patient outcome than tumor cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15614581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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25. Hargrave DR, Hargrave UA, Bouffet E: Quality of health information on the Internet in pediatric neuro-oncology. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Apr;8(2):175-82
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  • The Internet is now the single largest source of health information and is used by many patients and their families who are affected by childhood brain tumors.
  • To assess the quality of pediatric neuro-oncology information on the Internet, we used search engines to look for information on five common tumor types (brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, low-grade glioma, and medulloblastoma).
  • Few sites offered information in languages other than English, and readability statistics showed an average required reading level of U.S. grade 12+ (the suggested level being grades 6-8 for an adult audience).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Internet / standards. Medical Informatics / standards. Medical Oncology. Neurology


26. Miyazawa T, Hirose T, Nakanishi K, Uozumi Y, Tsuzuki N, Shima K: Supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma occurring with intratumoral hemorrhage. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2007;24(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma occurring with intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • We report here a rare case of supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma.
  • This tumor was localized in the left angular gyrus, occurred with intratumoral hemorrhage, was attached to the dura mater, exhibited no continuity with the ventricular system, showed distinctive pathological features (perivascular pseudo-rosette formations and firework-like giant rosette formations), and finally transformed to a glioblastoma-like high-grade lesion.
  • A cortical ependymoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of supratentorial cortical tumors with intraparenchymal hemorrhage and high vascularity, even if not in contact with the ventricular system.
  • Although malignant transformation is unusual in cortical ependymoma, close observation and adjunctive radiotherapy are strongly recommended after the excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Sharma MK, Mansur DB, Reifenberger G, Perry A, Leonard JR, Aldape KD, Albin MG, Emnett RJ, Loeser S, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):890-900
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  • [Title] Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin.
  • Whereas many PAs are slow-growing or clinically indolent, others exhibit more aggressive features with tumor recurrence and death.
  • Lastly, we also identified a gene expression pattern common to PAs and normal mouse astrocytes and neural stem cells from these distinct brain regions as well as a gene expression pattern shared between PAs and another human glial tumor (ependymoma) arising supratentorially compared with those originating in the posterior fossa.
  • These results suggest that glial tumors share an intrinsic, lineage-specific molecular signature that reflects the brain region in which their nonmalignant predecessors originated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / metabolism. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17283119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5582/ GSE5675
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 91842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Rourke T, Davies S, Samandouras G: Serial LPS without serial imaging in idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a lesson learned. Headache; 2008 Apr;48(4):630-2
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  • The authors present a case of a patient who was diagnosed with IIH and treated with serial lumbar punctures for 4 years prior to her final diagnosis of a large intracranial tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Medical Errors. Pseudotumor Cerebri / pathology. Spinal Puncture
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18298581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8748
  • [Journal-full-title] Headache
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Headache
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Nakamura M, Ishii K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Long-term surgical outcomes for myxopapillary ependymomas of the cauda equina. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Oct 1;34(21):E756-60
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  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Some patients with myxopapillary ependymoma develop cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination leading to poor prognosis.
  • Because of the rarity of this tumor, there is no consensus on its optimal treatment options and prognosis.
  • The effects of surgical margins at surgery and postoperative radiotherapy on tumor recurrence and prognosis were investigated.
  • RESULTS: In 15 patients, total resection achieved (6 cases of en bloc resection without postoperative radiation, and in 9 cases piecemeal resection) was followed by whole brain and spinal cord radiation or local irradiation.
  • Fourteen of these patients survived without tumor recurrence.
  • In 1 case of total resection without radiotherapy, the tumor capsule was violated intraoperatively and local recurrence occurred 2 years after surgery.
  • Of these, 2 patients who received radiation (24 Gy) only to the whole brain and spinal cord developed recurrence, and 2 who received whole brain and spinal cord radiation (24 Gy) supplemented with local radiation (46 Gy) developed no recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the surgical margin obtained at the initial surgery and the extent and amount of postoperative radiation can be crucial factors determining the prognosis of patients with myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • Although this tumor is histologically benign, CSF dissemination can occur once tumor capsule is violated, before or during surgery.
  • Therefore, early diagnosis is essential, and a therapeutic strategy including radiotherapy, on the assumption that this tumor is malignant, should be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina. Ependymoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Incidence. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19934795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Palm T, Figarella-Branger D, Chapon F, Lacroix C, Gray F, Scaravilli F, Ellison DW, Salmon I, Vikkula M, Godfraind C: Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis. Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;115(17):3955-68
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  • [Title] Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymomas derive from ependymal cells that cover the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord.
  • RESULTS: Class discovery experiments indicated a strong correlation between profiles and tumor localization as well as World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grades.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the tumor localization-related gene sets mainly implicated in stem cell maintenance, renewal, and differentiation suggest the dysregulation of localized cancer stem cells during ependymoma development.
  • On the basis of the current data, the authors suggest a developmental scheme of ependymomas that integrates tumor localization and tumor grades, and that pinpoints new targets for the development of future therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19536879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):940-6
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  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADC and tumor cellularity in medulloblastoma and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • METHODS: Pre-operative diffusion-weighted MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 26 patients with posterior fossa neoplasms: 11 medulloblastomas, one atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), four glioblastomas, four ependymomas, three pilocytic astrocytomas and three hemangioblastomas.
  • The minimum ADC (minADC) value of each tumor was determined on ADC maps derived from isotropic diffusion-weighted MR images.
  • Tumor cellularity measured in surgical specimens was compared with the minADC value by simple linear regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: The mean minADC value of the medulloblastoma was significantly lower than those of ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma without overlap in the range of minADC values.
  • Therefore, medulloblastomas could be clearly differentiated by absolute minADC values.
  • Tumor cellularity was negatively correlated with the minADC value in medulloblastomas and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • DISCUSSION: The low minADC value of medulloblastomas reflects the high tumor cellularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Body Water / physiology. Cell Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Extracellular Space / metabolism. Female. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19138469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Mahfouz S, Aziz AA, Gabal SM, el-Sheikh S: Immunohistochemical study of CD99 and EMA expression in ependymomas. Medscape J Med; 2008;10(2):41
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  • Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a unique, heterogeneous population of neoplasms and include both benign and malignant tumors.
  • The present study was carried out on a total of 79 archival cases of ependymal tumors in addition to a variety of other primary CNS tumors.
  • It was found that all 38 ependymoma cases (classic and nonclassic) showed positive membranous and intracytoplasmic CD99 immunoreactivity.
  • Upon comparing with other CNS tumors (41 cases), it was found that CD99 could differentiate between ependymomas and nonependymal tumors, but intensity and pattern of staining were of no consequence in determining variant type or degree of histologic aggressiveness.
  • In regard to EMA immunoreactivity, which was restricted to the ependymoma group, 2 patterns of staining could be detected--the intracytoplasmic dotlike pattern and the ringlike pattern--but some cases were completely negative.
  • Thus, EMA was found to be of little value in the diagnosis of ependymoma and in the differentiation between different types and grades.
  • CD99 can hence be recommended for use as a good marker for differentiation between ependymal and other CNS tumors.
  • EMA expression and pattern of distribution, on the other hand, cannot be employed to determine the type of variant or the degree of tumor aggressiveness, and hence cannot predict the behavior of ependymal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Mucin-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18382710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-1997
  • [Journal-full-title] Medscape journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medscape J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2270873
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33. Plotkin M, Amthauer H, Eisenacher J, Wurm R, Michel R, Wust P, Stockhammer F, Röttgen R, Gutberlet M, Ruf J, Felix R: Value of 123I-IMT SPECT for diagnosis of recurrent non-astrocytic intracranial tumours. Neuroradiology; 2005 Jan;47(1):18-26
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  • The value of single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) using iodine-123-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) for the diagnosis of recurrent or residual gliomas is well established.
  • In the current study we investigated whether IMT-SPECT could also be useful in the follow-up of brain metastases and other intracranial tumours of non-astrocytic origin.
  • The study included 22 patients with suspected recurrent intracranial tumours of non-astrocytic origin (12 brain metastases, one supratentorial primitive neuroendocrine tumour (PNET), one rhabdoid tumour, two clivus chordomas, three ependymomas, two pituitary tumours, one anaplastic meningioma) who had previously been treated by surgery and/or radio/chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Methyltyrosines. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chordoma / diagnostic imaging. Ependymoma / diagnostic imaging. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioma / diagnostic imaging. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningioma / diagnostic imaging. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnostic imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 15630586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Methyltyrosines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A77N8J5H5T / 3-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine
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34. Attard TM, Giglio P, Koppula S, Snyder C, Lynch HT: Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis. Cancer; 2007 Feb 15;109(4):761-6
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  • [Title] Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis.
  • They are at an increased risk of brain tumors, including cerebellar medulloblastoma, when compared with the general population (Brain Tumor Polyposis-BTP Type 2).
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations between APC gene mutations and central nervous system (CNS) tumors have, thus far not been successful.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their established hereditary CRC Registry for brain tumors in FAP pedigrees (56 families, 213 individuals), pooled their patients with BTP and known APC mutations with those reported thus far elsewhere, and compared the resulting mutation distribution of FAP-BTP with the mutation distribution for APC mutations in the US.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients from 24 families were accrued, the most common brain tumor in BTP was medulloblastoma (60%) predominantly in females (12:5) under the age of 20 (mean age 14.7 SD 9.2).
  • Other histologic subtypes included astrocytoma and ependymoma.
  • Analysis of the pooled APC mutation data by Chi-square test of association shows an odds ratio of 3.7 (P < .005) for all brain tumor subtypes and 13.1 (P < .001) for medulloblastoma in patients harboring segment 2 APC mutation (codons 679-1224) compared to nonsegment 2 mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FAP and identifiable APC gene mutation, CNS tumors, especially medulloblastoma which developed in most cases during childhood, are more common in females with FAP and APC gene mutation in codons 686-1217.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Codon. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Registries


35. Kalapurakal JA, Goldman S, Stellpflug W, Curran J, Sathiaseelan V, Marymont MH, Tomita T: Phase I study of intraoperative radiotherapy with photon radiosurgery system in children with recurrent brain tumors: preliminary report of first dose level (10 Gy). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):800-8
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  • [Title] Phase I study of intraoperative radiotherapy with photon radiosurgery system in children with recurrent brain tumors: preliminary report of first dose level (10 Gy).
  • PURPOSE: To describe the preliminary results after intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with the photon radiosurgery system in children with recurrent brain tumors treated at the first dose level (10 Gy) of a Phase I protocol.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A Phase I IORT dose escalation protocol was initiated at Children's Memorial Hospital to determine the maximal tolerated IORT dose in children with recurrent brain tumors.
  • Thirteen children had ependymoma.
  • Eight patients (57%) had tumor control within the surgical bed after IORT.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of IORT to a dose of 10 Gy to 2 mm in children with previously irradiated brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Photons / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / radiation effects. Child. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fibrosarcoma / radiotherapy. Fibrosarcoma / surgery. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Necrosis / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 16580791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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37. Badruddoja MA, Keir ST, King I, Zeidner J, Vredenburgh JJ, Muhlbaier LH, Bigner DD, Friedman HS: Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Jul;9(3):240-4
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  • [Title] Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice.
  • The current study was designed to assess the activity of VNP40101M administered at a dose of 18 mg/kg daily for five days against a panel of human adult and pediatric CNS tumors growing subcutaneously or intracranially in athymic nude mice.
  • The results demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) growth delays of 15.0, 8.3, 51.0, 60+, 60+, and 60+ days in subcutaneous xenografts derived from childhood glioblastoma multiforme (D-456 MG), childhood ependymoma (D-528 EP and D-612 EP), childhood medulloblastoma (D-425 MED), and adult malignant glioma (D-245 MG and D-54 MG), respectively, with corresponding tumor regressions in 10 of 10, 4 of 10, 8 of 10, 9 of 10, 9 of 10, and 10 of 10 treated mice, respectively.
  • Additional experiments conducted against subcutaneous D-245 MG xenografts by using reduced doses of 13.5 or 9.0 mg/kg daily for five days demonstrated tumor growth delays of 82.2 and 53.5 days, with corresponding tumor regressions in 8 of 9 and 9 of 10 treated mice, respectively (all values, p < 0.001), with one toxic death.
  • These findings suggest that VNP40101M is active in the treatment of a wide range of human central nervous system tumors and warrants translation to the clinic.

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  • (PMID = 17522334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS20023-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Sulfonamides; 14J2G0U3NQ / laromustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1907418
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38. Adam Y, Benezech J, Blanquet A, Fuentes JM, Bousigue JY, Debono B, Duplessis E, Espagno C, Plas JY, Lescure JP, Destandau J, Hladky JP, Grunewald P, Mahla K, Remond J, Louis E: [Intramedullary tumors. Results of a national investigation in private neurosurgery]. Neurochirurgie; 2010 Aug;56(4):344-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumor removal was complete in the cases of ependymoma and hemangioblastoma and subtotal in the cases of astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Ependymoma: 38 cases with three cases of ependymoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Delayed Diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. France / epidemiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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39. Lehman NL: Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Sep;67(9):900-10
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  • [Title] Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors.
  • Ependymomas are generally considered to be noninfiltrative tumors that have discrete borders with adjacent brain tissue.
  • Supratentorial ependymal tumors arise near the ventricular system or, more rarely, within the cerebral white matter or cortex.
  • They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds.
  • The 3 cortical ependymal tumors show a spectrum of features ranging from conventional and clear-cell ependymoma-like patterns to more angiocentric glioma-like histology.

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  • (PMID = 18716554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS45077
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131630; NLM/ PMC2805172
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40. Lopez-Gines C, Gil-Benso R, Faus C, Monleon D, Mata M, Morales JM, Cigudosa JC, Gonzalez-Darder J, Celda B, Cerda-Nicolas M: Metastasizing anaplastic ependymoma in an adult. Chromosomal imbalances, metabolic and gene expression profiles. Histopathology; 2009 Mar;54(4):500-4
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  • [Title] Metastasizing anaplastic ependymoma in an adult. Chromosomal imbalances, metabolic and gene expression profiles.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anaplasia. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, p53. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mutation. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19309408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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41. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
  • Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types.
  • All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor.
  • The target volume generally included the preoperative tumor plus a 2-mm margin for the planning target volume.
  • Five patients, all with optic system/hypothalamic primary tumors, developed central nervous system dissemination 1.0-7.4 years after SRT.
  • One patient developed a presumed radiation-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor 6 years after initial treatment.
  • Six patients died, three of dissemination, two of progression to higher grade tumors, and one of a secondary radiation-induced tumor.
  • All 6 cases of local progression were within the primary tumor bed at the time of progression and had received the full prescription dose.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Warren K, Jakacki R, Widemann B, Aikin A, Libucha M, Packer R, Vezina G, Reaman G, Shaw D, Krailo M, Osborne C, Cehelsky J, Caldwell D, Stanwood J, Steinberg SM, Balis FM: Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2006 Sep;58(3):343-7
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: [corrected] Lobradimil is a synthetic bradykinin analog that rapidly and transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
  • The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was studied in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors in a phase II trial, the primary endpoints of which were to estimate the response rate and time to disease progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified by histology into five cohorts: brainstem glioma, high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, medullobastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and ependymoma.
  • The study was closed for commercial reasons prior to achieving the accrual goals for the ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/PNET (n = 6) and low-grade glioma (n = 2) cohorts, although responses were observed in 1 patient with PNET and 2 patients with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bradykinin / administration & dosage. Bradykinin / adverse effects. Bradykinin / analogs & derivatives. Bradykinin / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16408203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 159768-75-9 / RMP 7; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
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43. Lo SS, Abdulrahman R, Desrosiers PM, Fakiris AJ, Witt TC, Worth RM, Dittmer PH, Desrosiers CM, Frost S, Timmerman RD: The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):51-6
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  • [Title] The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of Gamma Knife (GK)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of gross disease in ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: GK-based SRS appears to be a feasible and safe treatment modality for patients with ependymoma with unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery.
  • SRS provides reasonable local control but out-of-field tumor progression remains an issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16557349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Jinhu Y, Jianping D, Jun M, Hui S, Yepeng F: Metastasis of a histologically benign choroid plexus papilloma: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):47-52
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  • Plain CT scan of the cranium revealed a partly calcified tumor filling the fourth ventricle and its right recess.
  • Cranial MRI showed an inhomogeneously contrast-enhancing tumor and leptomeningeal enhancement encasing the brain stem.
  • Complete resection of the tumor was carried out, and seedings to the floor of the fourth ventricle and cervico-medullary junction were found during the operation.
  • While intraoperative frozen section suggested pathology of papillary ependymoma or CPP, to our surprise, final histological examination revealed a benign choroid plexus papilloma.
  • Two months after the first operation, on follow-up MRI of the cranium, the leptomeningeal enhancement encasing the brain stem had resolved spontaneously.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / secondary. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / secondary. Fourth Ventricle. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Seeding. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Subarachnoid Space. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17387433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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45. Stark AM, Fritsch MJ, Claviez A, Dörner L, Mehdorn HM: Management of tectal glioma in childhood. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Jul;33(1):33-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This report discusses the management of this rare tumor in children.
  • First-line therapy was endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5 cases (42%), ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 6 cases (50%), and combined partial tumor resection and shunting in one case.
  • Histology was obtained in 5 cases (low-grade astrocytoma, n = 4; ependymoma, n = 1).
  • Effective treatment for hydrocephalus is essential; the tumor should be monitored by regular clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Biopsy is warranted in cases with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Superior Colliculi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15876519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Zhang S, Wang X, Zhang Z, Chen Y: Tanycytic ependymoma arising from the right lateral ventricle: a case report and review of the literature. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):427-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tanycytic ependymoma arising from the right lateral ventricle: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Histologically, the tumor composed of nuclear dense zones consisting of a cluster of spindle cells and fibrillary zones consisting of streaming of cell processes.
  • The tumor cells showed the characteristics of monopolar or bipolar processes.
  • Some tumor cell processes extended to the vessel wall and formed ill-defined perivascular rosettes.
  • Four cases of tanycytic ependymoma arising from the lateral ventricle have been reported in literature.
  • Tanycytic ependymoma has slightly better prognosis than other ependymoma subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 18312548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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47. Kashyap R, Ryan C, Sharma R, Maloo MK, Safadjou S, Graham M, Tretheway D, Jain A, Orloff M: Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective. Liver Transpl; 2009 Oct;15(10):1204-8
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  • [Title] Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze our experience with the use of liver grafts from donors with central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • A retrospective review of 1173 liver transplants performed between 1992 and 2006 identified 42 donors diagnosed with a CNS tumor.
  • Twenty (47.6%) of the CNS tumors were glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV), 11 (26.2%) were other astrocytomas, and 1 (2.4%) was an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Over 80% of the patients had at least 1 kind of invasive procedure violating the blood-brain barrier.
  • The rate of recurrence for the entire group was 2.4% (all CNS tumors).
  • There was no difference in survival between recipients of grafts from donors with CNS tumors and recipients of grafts from donors without CNS tumors (1 year: 82% versus 83.3%, P = not significant; 3 years: 77.4% versus 72%, P = not significant).
  • In conclusion, in our experience, despite violation of the blood-brain barrier and high-grade CNS tumors, recurrence was uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood-Brain Barrier. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AASLD
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):916 [20583090.001]
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):914-5 [20583288.001]
  • (PMID = 19790151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Takei H, Bhattacharjee MB, Rivera A, Dancer Y, Powell SZ: New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Feb;131(2):234-41
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  • [Title] New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an important tool in the diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: We review the features of new, useful or potentially applicable marker antibodies as well as the new uses of already established antibodies in the area of diagnostic neuro-oncologic pathology, focusing on the use of IHC for differential diagnosis and prognosis.
  • We discuss (1) placental alkaline phosphatase, c-Kit, and OCT4 for germinoma, (2) alpha-inhibin and D2-40 for capillary hemangioblastoma, (3) phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3), MIB-1/Ki-67, and claudin-1 for meningioma, (4) PHH3, MIB-1/Ki-67, and p53 for astrocytoma, (5) synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurofilament protein, and neuronal nuclei for medulloblastoma, (6) INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and (7) epithelial membrane antigen for ependymoma.
  • All the markers presented here are used mainly for supporting or confirming the diagnosis, with the exception of the proliferation markers (MIB-1/Ki-67 and PHH3), which are primarily used to support grading and are reportedly associated with prognosis in certain categories of brain tumors.
  • In addition, IHC is also of great help in predicting the prognosis for certain brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17284108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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49. Wang CC, Zhang JT, Liu AL: [Surgical management of brain-stem gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 311 cases]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2005 Feb;27(1):7-12
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of brain-stem gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 311 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To further study the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgery outcome of brain-stem gliomas.
  • METHODS: Totally 311 patients with brain-stem gliomas received surgery operations in our hospital from 1980 to the end of 2001.
  • RESULTS: Different brain-stem gliomas showed different growth patterns.
  • In this series, total excision rate of the tumor was 40.5%, subtotal 29.9%, partial 29.6%, and operative mortality 1.3%.
  • Five years survival rate is 67% in ependymoma patients, 42% in astrocytoma patients.
  • None of brain-stem glioblastoma patients survived up to 5 years.
  • The patients with well-differentiated gliomas of brain-stem may be cured by microsurgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Glioblastoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mesencephalon / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Pons / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15782484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Pica A, Miller R, Villà S, Kadish SP, Anacak Y, Abusaris H, Ozyigit G, Baumert BG, Zaucha R, Haller G, Weber DC: The results of surgery, with or without radiotherapy, for primary spinal myxopapillary ependymoma: a retrospective study from the rare cancer network. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jul 15;74(4):1114-20
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  • [Title] The results of surgery, with or without radiotherapy, for primary spinal myxopapillary ependymoma: a retrospective study from the rare cancer network.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of patients with primary spinal myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE).
  • Fifteen patients presented treatment failure at the primary site only, whereas 2 and 1 patients presented with brain and distant spinal failure only.
  • Three and 2 patients with local failure presented with concomitant spinal distant seeding and brain failure, respectively.
  • One patient failed simultaneously in the brain and spine.
  • Age greater than 36 years (p = 0.01), absence of neurologic symptoms at diagnosis (p = 0.01), tumor size >or=25 mm (p = 0.04), and postoperative high-dose RT (p = 0.05) were variables predictive of improved PFS on univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed pattern of failure was mainly local, but one fifth of the patients presented with a concomitant spinal or brain component.
  • Postoperative high-dose RT appears to significantly reduce the rate of tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19250760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Engelhard HH, Corsten LA: Leptomeningeal metastasis of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. Cancer Treat Res; 2005;125:71-85
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastasis of primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of primary CNS tumors varies widely by histologic subtype.
  • In certain tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, germ cell tumors, and primary CNS lymphoma, seeding of the cerebrospinal fluid space is a critical factor in determining stage, prognosis and appropriate therapy.
  • Other tumor types, such as glioma, may have radiographic evidence of leptomeningeal metastases without clear impact on prognosis or therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Humans. Incidence

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  • (PMID = 16211884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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52. Otsuka S, Maegawa S, Takamura A, Kamitani H, Watanabe T, Oshimura M, Nanba E: Aberrant promoter methylation and expression of the imprinted PEG3 gene in glioma. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci; 2009;85(4):157-65
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  • Glioma includes astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma and glioblastoma.
  • In this study, we investigated methylation of an exonic CpG island in the promoter region and the expression of PEG3 gene in 20 glioma and 5 non-tumor tissue samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Methylation / physiology. Genomic Imprinting. Glioma / metabolism. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. CpG Islands. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19367087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and biological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, Phys. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / PEG3 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3524298
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53. Jain D, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Suri V, Rishi A, Garg A, Vaishya S: Chordoid glioma: report of two rare examples with unusual features. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Mar;150(3):295-300; discussion 300
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  • Radiologically, the paediatric chordoid glioma was located in the juxtaventricular region in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle and was of mixed density whereas the adult patient had a typical third ventricle location with homogenous contrast enhancement.
  • Gross total surgical removal was achieved in both but the adult patient died post-operatively due to intra ventricular bleeding and bacterial meningitis.
  • The younger patient is doing well at the last follow up two years post-operatively.
  • We propose that chordoid glioma is a variant of an ependymoma (WHO grade II) which arises from tanycytes and should be included in the WHO classification of brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / radiography. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / radiography. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / radiography. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningitis, Bacterial / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology. Rare Diseases. Third Ventricle / pathology. Third Ventricle / radiography. Third Ventricle / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18246456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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54. Kurian KM, Jones DT, Marsden F, Openshaw SW, Pearson DM, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Genome-wide analysis of subependymomas shows underlying chromosomal copy number changes involving chromosomes 6, 7, 8 and 14 in a proportion of cases. Brain Pathol; 2008 Oct;18(4):469-73
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  • Subependymomas (SE) are slow-growing brain tumors that tend to occur within the ventricles of middle-aged and elderly adults.
  • The World Health Organization classifies these tumors within the ependymoma group.
  • Previous limited analysis of this tumor type had not revealed significant underlying cytogenetic abnormalities.
  • The observation that five of 12 cases examined (42%) at 0.97-Mb resolution showed chromosomal copy number abnormalities is a novel finding in this tumor type.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomic Library. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sequence Deletion

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  • (PMID = 18397339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2659379
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55. Schueller P, Micke O, Palkovic S, Schroeder J, Moustakis C, Bruns F, Schuck A, Wassmann H, Willich N: 12 years' experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) of malignant gliomas. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Aug;181(8):500-6
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  • Total versus subtotal resection had no significant influence on survival (p = 0.0741), nor had age, sex, tumor site, performance status, size, primary versus recurrence, and radiation dose.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / mortality. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / mortality. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16044217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Schroeder TM, Chintagumpala M, Okcu MF, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Woo SY, Paulino AC: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):987-93
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized intracranial ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1994 to 2005, 22 children with pathologically proven, localized, intracranial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant IMRT.
  • Of the patients, 12 (55%) had an infratentorial tumor and 14 (64%) had anaplastic histology.
  • The clinical target volume encompassed the tumor bed and any residual disease plus margin (median dose 54 Gy).
  • At last follow-up, no patient had developed visual loss, brain necrosis, myelitis, or a second malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18258381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohmura T, Ohta M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):911-7
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects comprised ten patients with high-grade glioma [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), n=3, gliosarcoma (GS), n=1, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), n=3, anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA), n=1, and anaplastic ependymoma (AE), n=2].
  • As second- or third-line chemotherapy, patients received TMZ for recurrence or tumor progression.
  • As combination therapy, the local administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the addition of carboplatin and etoposide were included for three patients during the course of oral TMZ treatment.
  • One of the patients receiving combination therapy has continued to show shrinkage of the relapsed tumor.
  • Despite prior radio- and chemotherapy, most patients experienced only grade 1-2 hematotoxicity that was well-controlled by conservative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19414327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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58. Schittenhelm J, Trautmann K, Tabatabai G, Hermann C, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Comparative analysis of annexin-1 in neuroepithelial tumors shows altered expression with the grade of malignancy but is not associated with survival. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1600-11
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  • It is unclear how annexin-1 is expressed in various neuroepithelial tumors, and whether there is any association with tumor malignancy or survival.
  • We studied annexin-1 expression in 394 glial neoplasms of all grades of malignancy and 81 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays.
  • In the normal human brain, the expression of annexin-1 is limited to ependymal cells and subependymal astrocytes, but is also upregulated in reactive astrocytes.
  • In addition, nuclear staining of annexin-1 in oligodendroglial tumor cells was significantly reduced (P=0.0002), which may be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Although annexin-1 expression in ependymomas decreased with the grade of malignancy, diffuse astrocytomas showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic annexin-1-positive tumor cells.
  • Thus, annexin-1 upregulation in astrocytomas may contribute to tumor progression and its expression profile is similar to its substrate, EGFR, suggesting a possible regulation thereof.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A1 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Glioma / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Blotting, Western. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / chemistry. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult


59. Gilbert MR, Ruda R, Soffietti R: Ependymomas in adults. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2010 May;10(3):240-7
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  • Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors in adults.
  • They occur most commonly in the spinal cord, where histopathologic evaluation is critical to differentiate the grade I myxopapillary ependymoma from the grade II ependymoma or grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Brain ependymomas are either grade II or III.
  • For myxopapillary ependymoma, complete removal while maintaining capsule integrity may be curative.
  • Radiation commonly is given to the region of tumor, except in cases in which there is imaging or cerebrospinal fluid evidence of tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Ependymoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Epigenesis, Genetic. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20425040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6293
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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60. Rajaram V, Gutmann DH, Prasad SK, Mansur DB, Perry A: Alterations of protein 4.1 family members in ependymomas: a study of 84 cases. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jul;18(7):991-7
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  • Ependymomas are common pediatric and adult CNS malignancies with a wide biologic spectrum that is often hard to predict using classic prognostic variables.
  • The majority of cases harbored one or more detectable genetic alterations, but we found that 4.1B gene deletions and 4.1R loss of expression were statistically more common in the pediatric vs adult, intracranial vs spinal, and grade III vs grade I/II subsets (P-values of 0.038 to <0.001).
  • Also, 4.1G deletions were seen in 11/27 (41%) patients who either died of disease or had residual/recurrent tumor vs 5/41 patients with no evidence of disease at last follow-up (P=0.009).
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Proteins / analysis. Blood Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cytoskeletal Proteins / analysis. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Microfilament Proteins. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Neurofibromin 2 / analysis. Neurofibromin 2 / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15731777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / EPB41L3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neurofibromin 2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / erythrocyte membrane band 4.1 protein
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61. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Severson RK, Stanton B, Hamre M, Sloan AE: Pediatric brain tumors in non-Hispanics, Hispanics, African Americans and Asians: differences in survival after diagnosis. Cancer Causes Control; 2005 Jun;16(5):587-92
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  • [Title] Pediatric brain tumors in non-Hispanics, Hispanics, African Americans and Asians: differences in survival after diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Racial differences in survival for children with brain tumors have not been well studied, particularly in Hispanics and Asians.
  • The objective of this study was to assess racial differences in survival of children with brain tumors, focusing on Hispanics, African Americans and Asians compared to Non-Hispanics.
  • METHODS: Subjects identified through the SEER Program were 2799 children, < or =19 years old at diagnosis, newly diagnosed between 1973 and 1996 with primary, malignant brain tumors.
  • Kaplan-Meier models and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess racial differences in overall survival and in survival by histological type of tumor.
  • RESULTS: The distribution histological type of tumor varied significantly by race.
  • Overall survival was similar for Hispanics, African Americans, Asians compared to Non-Hispanics, although trends of increased risk of death for the minority groups were noted when stratifying by histological type of tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in survival could exist by histological type of tumor, but further work is necessary for a more complete understanding of these differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Continental Population Groups / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / ethnology. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / ethnology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / ethnology. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. SEER Program. Survival Analysis. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15986114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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62. Akimoto J, Murakami M, Fukami S, Ikeda Y, Haraoka J: Primary medulla oblongata germinoma--an unusual posterior fossa tumors in young adults. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):705-8
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  • In both patients, there was a midline tumor that extended from the lower part of the fourth ventricle to the C1 lamina level.
  • It was well-demarcated and homogeneously enhanced tumor with a slightly high density on plain CT scan.
  • The preoperative diagnosis for both patients was ependymoma.
  • The former patient had persistent lower cranial nerve palsies due to brain stem injury after tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19282178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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63. Schneider D, Monoranu CM, Huang B, Rutkowski S, Gerber NU, Krauss J, Puppe B, Roggendorf W: Pediatric supratentorial ependymomas show more frequent deletions on chromosome 9 than infratentorial ependymomas: a microsatellite analysis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Jun;191(2):90-6
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  • Numerous human malignancies, including brain tumors, have been reported to show aberrations on chromosome 9.
  • A total of 48 pairs of matched normal and tumor specimens from patients with ependymoma, including 28 children (mean age, 4.4 years) and 20 adults (mean age, 44.9 years), were genotyped.
  • Pediatric tumors, which were predominantly anaplastic, showed fewer aberrations (57.1%) than adult tumors (70%), and two common regions of deletions were identified (9p21.1 approximately p22.3 and 9q31.3 approximately q33.2).
  • [MeSH-major] Allelic Imbalance / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9. Ependymoma / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19446744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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64. Wöhrer A, Waldhör T, Heinzl H, Hackl M, Feichtinger J, Gruber-Mösenbacher U, Kiefer A, Maier H, Motz R, Reiner-Concin A, Richling B, Idriceanu C, Scarpatetti M, Sedivy R, Bankl HC, Stiglbauer W, Preusser M, Rössler K, Hainfellner JA: The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):401-411
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  • [Title] The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry.
  • In Austria, registration of malignant brain tumours is legally mandatory, whereas benign and borderline tumours are not reported.
  • The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry (ABTR) was initiated under the auspices of the Austrian Society of Neuropathology for the registration of malignant and non-malignant brain tumours.
  • All Austrian neuropathology units involved in brain tumour diagnostics contribute data on primary brain tumours.
  • In 2005, we registered a total of 1,688 newly diagnosed primary brain tumours in a population of 8.2 million inhabitants with an overall age-adjusted incidence rate of 18.1/100,000 person-years.
  • Comparison with the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database showed high congruency of findings.
  • The ABTR model led by neuropathologists in collaboration with epidemiologists and the Austrian National Cancer Registry presents a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry with high quality data.
  • The continued operation of ABTR will aid in monitoring changes in incidence and in identifying regional disease clusters or geographic variations in brain tumour morbidity/mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Registries / standards. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Austria / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Geographic Information Systems. Humans. Incidence. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19562257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Souweidane MM, Morgenstern PF, Christos PJ, Edgar MA, Khakoo Y, Rutka JT, Dunkel IJ: Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2009 Jul;65(1):72-8; discussion 78
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  • [Title] Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether arachnoid tissue or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is valuable for risk stratification in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • METHODS: Arachnoid tissue and CSF from the cisterna magna (CSFCM) was sampled at the time of primary tumor resection.
  • Arachnoid infiltration and CSF cytology were found in 20.0% and 44.8%, respectively, for medulloblastoma/pineoblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor), 6.9% and 3.6% for pilocytic astrocytoma, and 0.0% and 33.3% for ependymoma.
  • The 3-year EFS for patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor who had positive arachnoid sampling was 33.3%, compared with 67.3% in patients who had no evidence of arachnoid infiltration (P = 0.26).
  • The 3-year EFS for patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor who had positive CSFCM was 50.0% compared with 67.5% in patients who had negative cytological analysis of CSFCM (P = 0.07).
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative evidence of arachnoid infiltration or CSFCM dissemination in patients with posterior fossa brain tumors occurs at a variable frequency that is dependent on tumor type, correlates with conventional M stage, and may be predictive of outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19574827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2):279-87; discussion 287-8
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  • [Title] Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop outcome predictors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with intracranial ependymomas who had received previous fractionated radiation therapy, we compared tumor control, survival, and complications with tumor grade, volume, age of patients, and imaging characteristics.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 39 consecutive ependymoma patients who underwent SRS for 56 tumors.
  • Lower histological tumor grade was not significantly associated with better progression-free survival (P = 0.725).
  • Factors associated with an improved progression-free survival included smaller tumor volume and homogeneous tumor contrast enhancement in low-grade ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Pennsylvania / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


67. Hamilton DW, Lusher ME, Lindsey JC, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A tumour suppressor gene in ependymoma. Cancer Lett; 2005 Sep 8;227(1):75-81
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A tumour suppressor gene in ependymoma.
  • To investigate the role of aberrant epigenetic events in ependymoma and identify critical genes in its pathogenesis, the methylation status of nine tumour suppressor genes (TSGs: p14(ARF), p15(INK4B), p16(INK4A), CASP8, MGMT, TIMP3, TP73, RB1 and RASSF1A) was assessed.
  • Extensive hypermethylation across the RASSF1A CpG island was detected frequently in ependymomas of all clinical and pathological disease subtypes (86% of cases, n=35), but not in non-neoplastic brain tissues (n=6).
  • RASSF1A hypermethylation represents the most common gene-specific defect identified in ependymoma highlighting the importance of its further investigation in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Humans. Male


68. Terasaki M, Uchikado H, Takeuchi Y, Shigemori M: Minimally invasive management of ependymoma of the aqueduct of Sylvius: therapeutic considerations and management. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2005 Dec;48(6):322-4
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive management of ependymoma of the aqueduct of Sylvius: therapeutic considerations and management.
  • A major concern in the neuroendoscopic approach to an intraventricular tumor is the histological confirmation from a limited biopsy.
  • However, the effort to excise the whole bulk of the tumor should be made for the minimally invasive management of selected intraventricular tumors.
  • The case of an adult male with focal aqueductal ependymoma who presented with the clinical syndrome of hydrocephalus is reported.
  • This may be of particular interest because it represents the first case of aqueductal ependymoma that has been successfully treated with endoscopic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Aqueduct / pathology. Cerebral Aqueduct / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neuroendoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16432779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Combs SE, Kelter V, Welzel T, Behnisch W, Kulozik AE, Bischof M, Hof H, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Influence of radiotherapy treatment concept on the outcome of patients with localized ependymomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):972-8
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  • Histology was myxopapillary ependymoma (n = 4), ependymoma (n = 23), and anaplastic ependymoma (n = 30).
  • Forty-one patients were treated with local RT, with a local dose of 45 Gy to the posterior fossa, including a boost to the tumor bed of 9 Gy.
  • In 19 patients, the tumor bed was irradiated with a median dose of 54 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18337022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Mogler C, Kohlhof P, Penzel R, Grenacher L, Haag GM, Schirmacher P, Mueller W: A primary malignant ependymoma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature. Virchows Arch; 2009 Apr;454(4):475-8
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  • [Title] A primary malignant ependymoma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Ependymomas generally arise in the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Here, we describe the first case of an overt malignant primary extraneural ependymoma in a young female patient.
  • Careful reevaluation together with extensive review of the literature and comparison of related cases established the diagnosis after treatment failure and tumor progression.
  • The tumor was large and firm with some small cysts and showed pseudorosettes with strong glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Cavity / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Ependymoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Autonomic Pathways / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1979 Jul;44(1):326-33 [378364.001]
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  • (PMID = 19238432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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71. Kurt E, Zheng PP, Hop WC, van der Weiden M, Bol M, van den Bent MJ, Avezaat CJ, Kros JM: Identification of relevant prognostic histopathologic features in 69 intracranial ependymomas, excluding myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas. Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;106(2):388-95
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  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, the influence of the histologic subtype of ependymoma and of individual histologic features on the outcome of 69 patients with ependymomas was investigated.
  • Neither tumor localization (either infratentorial or supratentorial), patient age, nor gender affected survival.
  • The survival of patients who underwent complete tumor resection differed significantly from that of patients who underwent partial resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the univariate analysis indicated that, for patients with intracranial ependymoma, nuclear atypia, the mitotic index, and the MIB-1 LI significantly influenced survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / mortality. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16342252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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72. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH: Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapy is lacking for most types of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children.
  • Temozolomide, an agent with activity against adult brain tumors, was investigated in children and adolescents with recurrent CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: The cohort comprised 122 patients, including 113 with CNS tumors.
  • Among 104 evaluable patients with CNS tumors, 5 PRs and 1 CR were observed.
  • PRs occurred in 1 of 23 evaluable patients with high-grade astrocytoma, 1 of 21 with low-grade astrocytoma, and 3 of 25 with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • No responses were observed in patients with ependymoma, brain-stem glioma, or other CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


73. Gururangan S, Petros WP, Poussaint TY, Hancock ML, Phillips PC, Friedman HS, Bomgaars L, Blaney SM, Kun LE, Boyett JM: Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004). Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1540-6
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004).
  • PURPOSE: A phase I trial of intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan (SuperGen, Inc., San Ramon, CA) was conducted in children with neoplastic meningitis following recurrent primary brain tumors to describe toxicities, estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and document evidence of responses to this agent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan was well tolerated in children with neoplastic meningitis from brain tumors, and the recommended dose for future phase II studies is 13 mg.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / blood. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Ependymoma / blood. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Glioma / blood. Glioma / cerebrospinal fluid. Glioma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / blood. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16533779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA081457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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74. Armstrong TS, Vera-Bolanos E, Bekele BN, Aldape K, Gilbert MR: Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):862-70
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  • [Title] Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience.
  • This study reports on a series of adult patients with confirmed ependymoma treated at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Patients aged >17 and with ependymoma were identified, and clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review.
  • This series included 123 adult patients [51% male; median age 39 years (18-72)].
  • Forty had tumors in the brain, 80 in the spine, and 3 had both.
  • Median time to recurrence was 21 months (Grade II) brain and 18 months (Grade III).
  • Worse outcome measured by overall and progression-free survival were associated with brain location (P = .01, P = .04) and tumor anaplasia (P = .0025, P = .001).
  • Tumor grade and brain location are associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Reclassification of ependymoma by neuropathologists is common.
  • Results of this study have lead to a multicenter study to further define important diagnostic and prognostic variables for adults with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20511182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940672
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75. Mehrazin M, Rahmat H, Yavari P: Epidemiology of primary intracranial tumors in Iran, 1978-2003. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Apr-Jun;7(2):283-8
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  • The pattern of primary brain tumors have not been reported in Iran and the etiology remains largely unknown.
  • The purpose of this study was to review cases of brain tumors treated in Shariatti hospital, a neurosurgical center, over the twenty five years from 1978 to 2003.
  • A descriptive, retrospective study was made of 3,437 cases who were hospitalized with brain tumors.
  • Data abstracted from the patients' clinical records included age at the time of admission , sex, histological diagnosis and tumor location.
  • The frequency distribution of brain tumors by age and sex, and histology was calculated for comparison with the literature.
  • Of recorded series cases, 20.1% brain tumors occurred in children 15 years and younger, with a mean + sd of 8.7 + 3.9 years, and 79.9 % of cases in adults with the mean + sd of 40.2 + 14.4.
  • The five most common histological types in both sexes were meningioma in 892 cases (26%) followed by astrocytoma in 805 cases (23.4%), pituitary adenoma in 488 cases (14.2%), glioblasomaoma in 278 cases (5.1%) and ependymoma in 166 cases (4.8%).
  • These accounted for 84 % of all brain tumors.
  • The 10 most frequent brain tumors were ranked separately by sex and age groups.
  • In conclusion, the results present an important epidemiological basis for understanding of the brain tumor burden in Iran.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16839224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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76. Lobna A, Abdelmajid K, Najib BY, Saloua M, Ahmed S, Abdelfattah Z, Ben Mansour H, Rachid J, Tahya B: [Central neurocytoma: a study of five cases]. Tunis Med; 2005 Aug;83(8):484-7
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  • [Title] [Central neurocytoma: a study of five cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Neurocytome central: étude de cinq observations.
  • Central neurocytoma is a very rare brain tumour recently described.
  • It was about three women and two men with an average age of 29 years (17 to 49 years) The tumor was located in the side ventricles in three cases.
  • Two differential diagnoses were often discussed: oligodendroglioma and ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Neurocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16238277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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77. Hu WW, Zheng XJ, Shen G, Liu WG, Shen H, Fu WM, Zhou JY: [Diagnosis and micro-neurosurgery for the fourth cerebral ventricle tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;29(2):144-6
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  • METHODS: Tumor of the fourth ventricle was clinically diagnosed in 86 patients basing on the preliminary assessment of symptom and CT or MRI findings.
  • The pathology included 32 medulloblastomas, 23 ependymoma, 15 astrocytoma, 10 hemangiblastomas, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 4 epidermoid cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: Medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and hemangiblastoma are suggested to be removed totally whenever technically possible according to the site, character and volume of the tumor.
  • For ependymoma, if close to the brain stem, is recommended to be subtotally removed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / radiography. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / radiography. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17645855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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78. Hoffman S, Schellinger KA, Propp JM, McCarthy BJ, Campbell RT, Davis FG: Seasonal variation in incidence of pediatric medulloblastoma in the United States, 1995-2001. Neuroepidemiology; 2007;29(1-2):89-95
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain tumors are the second most common pediatric malignancy.
  • The literature suggests that one of the most common subtypes of malignant childhood brain tumor, medulloblastoma, has some seasonal variation in incidence by month of birth.
  • METHODS: Data from cases in the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, including primary brain tumor cases diagnosed in children (0-19 years) between the years 1995 and 2001 from 13 state cancer registries, were analyzed to determine whether there was seasonal variation.
  • There were no significant results for brain tumors overall, or for the other most common pediatric tumor subtypes (pilocytic astrocytoma, other astrocytoma, and ependymoma).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Birth Rate. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Registries. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17925600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0208
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroepidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroepidemiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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79. Nicolis SK: Cancer stem cells and "stemness" genes in neuro-oncology. Neurobiol Dis; 2007 Feb;25(2):217-29
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  • The main properties of stem cells include long-term self-renewal and the capacity to give rise to one or more types of differentiated progeny.
  • Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties.
  • In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.
  • These observations imply that normal stem cells could be the origin of cancer stem cells; alternatively, a more differentiated progeny may revert to a "stem-like" status, and give rise to cancer stem cells.
  • In adult brain residual stem cells are located in the hippocampus, the subventricular zone and possibly the cerebellum.
  • However, evidence for the ability of more differentiated progeny (astroglia, oligodendroglia) to convert into "stem cells" in vitro has also been provided, thus greatly expanding the potential target of oncogenic mutations.
  • In the framework of the cancer stem cell hypothesis, genes originally identified as important for normal neural stem cells may be essential to support cancer stem cells as well.
  • Mutations in man and mouse, in spontaneous or experimental brain tumors, often target stem cell genes or genes lying in their functional pathway, the main examples being the Sonic hedgehog and the Wnt pathways.
  • Interestingly, several stem cell genes are often overexpressed in brain tumors, even if they are not mutated.
  • This suggests that these genes may be important for the generation of cancer stem cells from more differentiated precursors, or for cancer stem cell maintenance.
  • Cancer stem cells partially differentiate in vivo, and in vitro they also give rise to seemingly normal differentiated progeny, like normal stem cells: thus, their main defect, leading to cancer, may lie in the unbalance between self-replication and terminal differentiation of this minority cell population.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Division / genetics. Cell Lineage / genetics. Humans. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17141509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-9961
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurobiology of disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurobiol. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / GGP05122
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 133
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80. Capper D, Weissert S, Balss J, Habel A, Meyer J, Jäger D, Ackermann U, Tessmer C, Korshunov A, Zentgraf H, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):245-54
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  • [Title] Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors.
  • Here we investigate the capability of this antibody to differentiate wild type and mutated IDH1 protein in central nervous system (CNS) tumors by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
  • Immunohistochemistry of 345 primary brain tumors demonstrated a strong cytoplasmic and weaker nuclear staining in 122 cases.
  • Intriguing is the ability of mIDH1R132H to detect single infiltrating tumor cells.
  • The very high frequency and the distribution of this mutation among specific brain tumor entities allow the highly sensitive and specific discrimination of various tumors by immunohistochemistry, such as anaplastic astrocytoma from primary glioblastoma or diffuse astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II from pilocytic astrocytoma or ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Protein Biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19903171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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81. Mansur DB, Perry A, Rajaram V, Michalski JM, Park TS, Leonard JR, Luchtman-Jones L, Rich KM, Grigsby PW, Lockett MA, Wahab SH, Simpson JR: Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):387-91
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the long-term outcome of intracranial ependymoma patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • Forty patients had World Health Organization Grade II ependymoma, and 20 patients had Grade III ependymoma.
  • Supratentorial tumor location was independently associated with a worse disease-free survival.
  • No statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with tumor grade, patient age, or radiation dose or volume.
  • CONCLUSION: Our long-term follow-up indicates that half of ependymoma patients will have disease recurrences, indicating the need for more effective treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15667957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Majós C, Aguilera C, Cos M, Camins A, Candiota AP, Delgado-Goñi T, Samitier A, Castañer S, Sánchez JJ, Mato D, Acebes JJ, Arús C: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain. Eur Radiol; 2009 Aug;19(8):2049-59
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  • [Title] In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain.
  • Characteristic trends were found for some groups: high Glx and Ala in meningiomas (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively), high mobile lipids in metastasis (p < 0.001), high Cho in PNET (p < 0.001), high mI + Gly in ependymoma (p < 0.001), high NAC (p < 0.01) in the absence of the normal brain parenchyma pattern in colloid cysts, and high mI/Gly and Ala in central neurocytoma.
  • Proton MR spectroscopy provides additional metabolic information that could be useful in the diagnosis of intraventricular brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protons. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19277673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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83. Michalowski MB, de Fraipont F, Michelland S, Entz-Werle N, Grill J, Pasquier B, Favrot MC, Plantaz D: Methylation of RASSF1A and TRAIL pathway-related genes is frequent in childhood intracranial ependymomas and benign choroid plexus papilloma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 1;166(1):74-81
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  • Ependymomas (EP) represent the third most frequent type of central nervous system (CNS) tumor of childhood, after astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Three adult corteses were used as a control.
  • Although we did not observe a statistical relationship between methylation and clinical outcome, the methylation pattern does not appear to be randomly distributed in ependymoma and may represent a mechanism of tumor development and evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Ependymoma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


84. Lasky JL 3rd, Choe M, Nakano I: Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther; 2009 Dec;4(4):298-305
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  • [Title] Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) tumors remain the leading cause of death among pediatric neoplasms.
  • Although standard therapies cure many pediatric CNS tumors, the long-term cognitive and physical consequences of these therapies are devastating.
  • Although recent studies have focused on molecular mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), these tumors differ phenotypically and at a molecular level from pediatric brain tumors.
  • Recent investigations have identified a stem cell population, termed "brain tumor stem cells" (BTSC) within the heterogeneous cell populations that comprise malignant brain tumors which may be partly responsible for the resistance to current therapies.
  • By exploiting molecular differences present within these heterogeneous populations of brain tumor cells, we may be able to achieve specific eradication of BTSC and long-lasting remissions, while causing less toxicity to normal tissues.
  • In this review, we describe the issues surrounding the identification and characterization of BTSC, the molecular biology of BTSC for different pediatric brain tumors, and suggest future avenues for the development of treatments for this devastating disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Optic Nerve Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult Stem Cells / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Humans. Surgical Procedures, Operative


85. Yi W, Haapasalo H, Holmlund C, Järvelä S, Raheem O, Bergenheim AT, Hedman H, Henriksson R: Expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins in human ependymoma relates to tumor location, WHO grade, and patient age. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Jan-Feb;28(1):21-7
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  • [Title] Expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins in human ependymoma relates to tumor location, WHO grade, and patient age.
  • LRIG1 has been shown to be a suppressor of tumor growth by counteracting the signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including EGFR (ERBB1).
  • The indications that expression and subcellular localization of LRIG proteins could be pathogenetically associated with specific clinicopathological features of ependymoma tumors might be of importance in the carcinogeneses and tumor progression of human ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis. World Health Organization


86. Tang J, Flomenberg P, Harshyne L, Kenyon L, Andrews DW: Glioblastoma patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 15;11(14):5292-9
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  • [Title] Glioblastoma patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells.
  • PURPOSE: There is growing interest in developing cellular immune therapies for glioblastoma multiforme, but little is known about tumor-specific T-cell responses.
  • A glioblastoma multiforme-specific T-cell assay was developed using monocyte-derived dendritic cells to present tumor antigens from the established glioblastoma multiforme cell line U118.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor cells were obtained from nine patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: five glioblastoma multiforme, two oligodendroglioma, one ependymoma, and one astrocytoma.
  • PBMCs were incubated overnight with autologous tumor cells or autologous dendritic cells loaded with a U118 cell lysate, and responses were detected by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and cytokine flow cytometry assays.
  • RESULTS: PBMCs from all glioblastoma multiforme patients exhibited IFN-gamma responses to autologous tumor but not to HLA-mismatched U118 cells.
  • PBMCs from four patients with other brain tumor types and one normal donor failed to respond to U118 lysate-loaded autologous dendritic cells.
  • Moreover, PBMCs stimulated 1 to 2 weeks with U118 lysate-loaded dendritic cells exhibited MHC class I-restricted cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Glioblastoma multiforme patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells that recognize shared tumor antigens from the glioblastoma multiforme cell line U118.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Immunotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigen Presentation. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. HLA Antigens. Humans. Immunoassay. Interferon-gamma / immunology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16033848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HLA Antigens; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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87. Cui Y, Zhao JZ: [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ki-67 antigen in brain ependymoma and the correlation between them]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 23;88(47):3356-8
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  • [Title] [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ki-67 antigen in brain ependymoma and the correlation between them].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ki-67 antigen in human brain ependymoma and the correlation between them.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of EGFR and Ki-67 antigen in 40 specimens of brain ependymoma, 8 specimens of normal brain tissues, and 8 specimens of glioblastoma, all obtained during operation.
  • RESULTS: The EGFR positive rate of the III - IV grade ependymoma tissues was 75%, significantly higher than that of the grade I - II grade ependymoma tissues (25%, P < 0.05).
  • The EGFR positive rate of the recurrent ependymoma tissues (5/6) was significantly higher than that of the primary ependymoma tissues (9/34, P < 0.05).
  • The positive rate of Ki-67 L1 in the III - IV grade ependymoma tissues was (9.5 +/- 5.6)%, significantly higher than that in the grade I - II grade ependymoma tissues [(2.2 +/- 1.4)%, P < 0.05)].
  • The positivity of EGFR was positively correlated with the grade level of ependymoma and Ki-67 L1 positivity (both P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR expression positive rate increases with tumor grading.
  • The positive rate of recurrent ependymoma is higher than that of the primary ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging


88. McGuire CS, Sainani KL, Fisher PG: Incidence patterns for ependymoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results study. J Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;110(4):725-9
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  • [Title] Incidence patterns for ependymoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results study.
  • OBJECT: Previous small studies disagree about which clinical risk factors influence ependymoma incidence.
  • The authors analyzed a large, population-based cancer registry to examine the relationship of incidence to patient age, sex, race, and tumor location, and to determine incidence trends over the past 3 decades.
  • For children, the age at diagnosis differed significantly by tumor location, with the mean age for patients with infratentorial tumors calculated as 5 +/- 0.4 years; for supratentorial tumors it was 7.77 +/- 0.6 years, and for spinal lesions it was 12.16 +/- 0.8 years. (Values are expressed as the mean +/- standard error [SE].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Males have a higher incidence of ependymoma than do females.
  • Ependymoma occurs within the CNS at distinct locations at different ages, consistent with hypotheses postulating distinct populations of radial glial stem cells within the CNS.
  • Ependymoma incidence appears to have increased over the past 3 decades, but only in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Spinal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. SEER Program. Sex Factors. United States / epidemiology


89. Hwang HJ, Sohn JH, Han SJ, Kim TS, Lee YS, Kim JH: Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Aug 31;48(4):719-22
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  • [Title] Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma.
  • Here, we present an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • Histologically, the tumor was characterized by compact columnar neoplastic cells divided by fibrovascular septae.
  • The tumor was thus diagnosed as an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • This is a rare case of extraneural ependymoma for which an in vitro chemosensitivity test was critical in determining the multidisciplinary approach for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17722249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628065
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90. Merchant TE, Kiehna EN, Li C, Xiong X, Mulhern RK: Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Dec 01;63(5):1546-54
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  • [Title] Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years +/- 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed.
  • Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes.
  • For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma.
  • The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Intelligence / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Intelligence Tests. Male. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16115736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Sarikaya S, Acikgöz B, Tekkök IH, Güngen YY: Conus ependymoma with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Sep;14(9):901-4
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  • [Title] Conus ependymoma with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia.
  • We report a 24-year-old woman with an intramedullary conus ependymoma associated with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia.
  • The tumor was removed and surgery for decompression of the syringohydromyelia was not considered at the first operation.
  • The cause of syringohydromyelia accompanying intradural spinal cord tumors appears to be either direct blockade of the central canal or secondary interruption of the central canal flow by compression of the perimedullary cerebrospinal fluid flow.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Syringomyelia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17660060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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92. Tseng HM, Kuo LT, Lien HC, Liu KL, Liu MT, Huang CY: Prolonged survival of a patient with cervical intramedullary glioblastoma multiforme treated with total resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide. Anticancer Drugs; 2010 Nov;21(10):963-7
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  • MRI showed an intramedullary mass lesion in the C2-C6 level, which was considered to be an ependymoma or astrocytoma.
  • Total resection of the tumor was performed at the C2-C6 level by laminoplasty with miniplate, followed by chemoradiotherapy (focal irradiation dose of 5000, at 200 cGy per fraction for over a period of 5 weeks) with concomitant temozolomide (75 mg/m2).
  • Histologic examination of the resected tumor confirmed GBM.
  • The tumor consisted of a markedly pleomorphic neoplasm measuring 4.6 cm×2.6 cm×1.7 cm and characterized by necrosis, atypical mitotic figures, and endothelial proliferation.
  • Recurrence in the cervical spine without brain GBM metastasis was identified 25 months after operation, and temozolomide chemotherapy was reinitiated; however, the tumor progressed, and the patient died 33 months after operation.
  • We suggest that, in addition to potential factors of tumor biology, multimodal treatment consisting of total resection of intramedullary GBM coupled with radiation therapy and temozolomide may have prolonged the survival of this patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


93. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Strathdee G, Brown R, Gilbertson RJ, Bailey S, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;118(2):346-52
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours.
  • We examined the status of MCJ in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumours [PNETs, comprising cerebellar PNETs (medulloblastomas) and supratentorial PNETs (stPNETs)] and ependymomas, together representing the most common malignant brain tumours of childhood.
  • Evidence of MCJ hypermethylation was found in all 3 tumour types [medulloblastomas, 3/9 (33%) cell lines, 2/28 (7%) primary tumours; stPNETs, 2/2 (100%) cell lines, 3/10 (30%) primary tumours; and ependymomas, 2/20 (10%) primary tumours] but not in nonneoplastic brain tissues (n = 11), indicating that MCJ methylation is a tumour-specific event.
  • These data indicate that epigenetic inactivation of MCJ may play a role in the development of a range of paediatric brain tumour types, and its role in disease pathogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance should now be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16049974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNAJC1 protein, human; 0 / HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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94. De Sio L, Milano GM, Castellano A, Jenkner A, Fidani P, Dominici C, Donfrancesco A: Temozolomide in resistant or relapsed pediatric solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):30-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumor types were: neuroblastoma (NB; n = 17), medulloblastoma (MB; 8), brain stem glioma (BSG; 8), extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (EOES; 4), Ewing's sarcoma (ES; 4), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS; 2), ependymoma (EP; 2), cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (cPNET; 2), hepatocarcinoma (HC; 1), and osteosarcoma (OS; 1).
  • CONCLUSION: Oral TMZ was well tolerated in children with resistant or relapsed solid tumors and showed activity in NB and CNS tumours refractory to standard chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Oct 15;47(5):647-8
  • (PMID = 16047361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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95. Metellus P, Guyotat J, Chinot O, Durand A, Barrie M, Giorgi R, Jouvet A, Figarella-Branger D: Adult intracranial WHO grade II ependymomas: long-term outcome and prognostic factor analysis in a series of 114 patients. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):976-84
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  • [Title] Adult intracranial WHO grade II ependymomas: long-term outcome and prognostic factor analysis in a series of 114 patients.
  • The authors report a retrospective study of a homogenous population of 114 adult patients harboring WHO grade II intracranial ependymomas from 32 French Neurosurgical Centers between 1990 and 2004.
  • All clinico-radiological and follow-up data were analyzed, and a central pathologic review was performed by two confirmed neuropathologists.
  • On multivariate analysis, the OS rates were associated with preoperative KPS score (P = .027), extent of surgery (P = .008), and tumor location (supratentorial vs infratentorial, P = .012).
  • Interestingly, tumor location also seems to have an actual impact on both OS and PFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20484442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940702
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96. Pal P, Fernandes H, Ellison DW: Woman aged 24 years with fourth ventricular mass. Brain Pathol; 2005 Oct;15(4):367-8, 373
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  • April 2005. A woman aged 24 years presented with symptoms related to a tumor in the fourth ventricle.
  • Cytologically, the tumor was biphasic with areas typical of a classic ependymoma, including rosettes, and other areas containing grossly atypical giant cells.
  • Many tumor cells were GFAP-positive and ultrastructural examination revealed microvilli and cilia.
  • The histopathologic abnormalities place this tumor among the ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 16389948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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97. Schittenhelm J, Becker R, Capper D, Meyermann R, Iglesias-Rozas JR, Kaminsky J, Mittelbronn M: The clinico-surgico-pathological spectrum of myxopapillary ependymomas--report of four unusal cases and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):21-8
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  • According to the WHO grading system, myxopapillary ependymomas are assigned to WHO Grade I.
  • Herein, we report 4 cases exhibiting lumbar tumor masses, 1 causing muscular atrophy over a 30-year period, 3 displaying clinical history of persisting lumbar pain for only several weeks.
  • On histological examination, two tumors were almost acellular and showed polycyclic hyaline and fibrotic extracellular matrix leading to differential diagnoses of chordoma, meningioma, fibrolipoma and ependymoma.
  • Finally, together with the immunohistochemical investigations, electron microscopy led to the diagnosis of myxopapillary ependymoma, WHO Grade I, with massive degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lumbosacral Region. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18257471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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98. Wentworth S, Pinn M, Bourland JD, Deguzman AF, Ekstrand K, Ellis TL, Glazier SS, McMullen KP, Munley M, Stieber VW, Tatter SB, Shaw EG: Clinical experience with radiation therapy in the management of neurofibromatosis-associated central nervous system tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jan 1;73(1):208-13
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with radiation therapy in the management of neurofibromatosis-associated central nervous system tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) develop tumors of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighteen patients with NF with CNS tumors were treated from 1986 to 2007.
  • Progression was defined as growth or recurrence of an irradiated tumor on serial imaging.
  • Tumor types included acoustic neuroma (16%), ependymoma (6%), low-grade glioma (11%), meningioma (60%), and schwanomma/neurofibroma (7%).
  • Five-year PFS rates were 75% (acoustic neuroma), 100% (ependymoma), 75% (low-grade glioma), 86% (meningioma), and 100% (schwanomma/neurofibroma).
  • Radiation therapy should be considered in NF patients with imaging progression of CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neurofibromatoses / mortality. Neurofibromatoses / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Middle Aged. North Carolina / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


99. Jalali R, Dutta D, Kamble R, Gupta T, Munshi A, Sarin R, Dinshaw K: Prospective assessment of activities of daily living using modified Barthel's Index in children and young adults with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):321-8
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  • RESULT: The patient population consisted of 38 patients (male 29, female 9) with a diagnosis of residual or progressive low-grade glioma (pilocytic astrocytoma in 27, fibrillary astrocytoma in 5, ependymoma in 4, and oligodendroglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in 1 each).
  • The mean pre-radiotherapy baseline BI of three patients, who eventually developed local recurrence, was only 64 (SD 32.1) as compared with a baseline score of 97.18 seen in patients whose tumor remained controlled at follow-up (P <or= 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with low-grade gliomas after surgical intervention had a lower than normal BI before starting radiotherapy, suggesting a decrease in ADL possibly due to tumor- and surgery-related factors.
  • Patients who developed tumor recurrence at follow-up had a significantly lower BI at baseline than patients with controlled disease (P <or= 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living. Brain Neoplasms / psychology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / psychology. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Stereotaxic Techniques. Surveys and Questionnaires
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18704269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Mühlisch J, Bajanowski T, Rickert CH, Roggendorf W, Würthwein G, Jürgens H, Frühwald MC: Frequent but borderline methylation of p16 (INK4a) and TIMP3 in medulloblastoma and sPNET revealed by quantitative analyses. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):17-29
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  • Certain risk groups among tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in children take an almost inevitably fatal course.
  • Aberrant methylation is common in malignant brain tumors of childhood and may have implications for stratification and therapy.
  • Methylation of p16 (INK4A), p14 (ARF), TIMP3, CDH1, p15 (INK4B )and DAPK1 in medulloblastoma (MB) and ependymoma has been discussed controversially in the literature.
  • We examined methylation in MB, sPNET and ependymoma using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), quantitative Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) and direct and clone sequencing of bisulfite PCR products.
  • Therapeutic and diagnostic implications urge into depth analyses of methylation as a mechanism, which might fill some of the gaps of our understanding of brain tumor origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Genes, p16. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Death-Associated Protein Kinases. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17206475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / TIMP3 protein, human; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / DAPK1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Death-Associated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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