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1. Barton VN, Donson AM, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Birks DK, Handler MH, Foreman NK: Unique molecular characteristics of pediatric myxopapillary ependymoma. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):560-70
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  • [Title] Unique molecular characteristics of pediatric myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • Myxopapillary ependymoma (MEPN) generally can be cured by gross total surgical resection and usually manifest a favorable prognosis.
  • Clinical trial design requires a better understanding of tumor biology.
  • Unique molecular features of MEPN were investigated by using microarray technology to compare the gene expression of five pediatric MEPN to 24 pediatric intracranial ependymoma (EPN).
  • The upregulation of three genes of interest, homeobox B13 (HOXB13), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and PDGFR alpha, was further studied by immunohistochemistry in a larger cohort that included adult MEPN and EPN specimens.
  • Protein expression in MEPN was compared to subependymoma, spinal EPN, intracranial EPN and normal fetal and adult ependyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19793339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871180
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2. Morris EB, Li C, Khan RB, Sanford RA, Boop F, Pinlac R, Xiong X, Merchant TE: Evolution of neurological impairment in pediatric infratentorial ependymoma patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Sep;94(3):391-8
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  • [Title] Evolution of neurological impairment in pediatric infratentorial ependymoma patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Infratentorial ependymoma is a common central nervous system tumor of childhood and in patients >1 year of age is treated with maximally feasible surgical resection and radiotherapy.
  • Because of this tumor typically arises within the 4th ventricle and can invade the brainstem, patients are at risk for significant neurological impairment.
  • PURPOSE: To characterize the incidence, evolution, and persistence of neurologic impairment in children with infratentorial ependymoma following maximal safe surgery and conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (CRT/IMRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: After surgical resection, 96 children with non-metastatic infratentorial ependymoma were enrolled on a phase II study of image-guided radiation therapy and were prospectively followed with interval comprehensive neurological examinations.

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  • (PMID = 19330288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-30
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS105709; NLM/ PMC2731005
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3. Andrade FG, de Aguiar PH, Matushita H, Taricco MA, Oba-Shinjo SM, Marie SK, Teixeira MJ: Intracranial and spinal ependymoma: series at Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2009 Sep;67(3A):626-32
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  • [Title] Intracranial and spinal ependymoma: series at Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo.
  • METHOD: Data of clinical presentation, tumor location, duration of symptoms, degree of resection and complementary treatment of 34 patients with intracranial ependymoma and 31 with intramedullary ependymoma who underwent surgery in the last ten years were collected and correlated with the recurrence time and overall survival.
  • RESULTS: There was statistically significant correlation between the degree of resection and intracranial tumor location, although it is not a hallmark of recurrence.
  • Data analyses of intramedullary ependymoma did not show correlation with overall survival and likelihood of recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: The location of the intracranial tumor is connected with the degree of resection; however it is not a predictive factor to overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19722039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4227
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Shu HK, Sall WF, Maity A, Tochner ZA, Janss AJ, Belasco JB, Rorke-Adams LB, Phillips PC, Sutton LN, Fisher MJ: Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution. Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;110(2):432-41
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  • [Title] Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Because few large studies of pediatric ependymoma treatment are available, the authors believed that a retrospective review of treatment outcomes from a single institution would yield potentially valuable information regarding potential prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviews of patients with intracranial ependymoma who received their initial treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)/Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) between January 1980 and December 2000.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients with pediatric intracranial ependymoma, OS and PFS rates were concordant with the rates published in other modern series.
  • Tumor extension to the cervical spine was identified as a predictor for failure outside of the primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


5. Hwang HJ, Sohn JH, Han SJ, Kim TS, Lee YS, Kim JH: Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma. Yonsei Med J; 2007 Aug 31;48(4):719-22
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  • [Title] Multi-disciplinary treatment of a rare pelvic cavity ependymoma.
  • Here, we present an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • Histologically, the tumor was characterized by compact columnar neoplastic cells divided by fibrovascular septae.
  • The tumor was thus diagnosed as an ependymoma arising from the pelvic cavity.
  • This is a rare case of extraneural ependymoma for which an in vitro chemosensitivity test was critical in determining the multidisciplinary approach for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17722249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628065
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6. Qian X, Goumnerova LC, De Girolami U, Cibas ES: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study. Cancer; 2008 Oct 25;114(5):307-14
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma cells are known to occasionally exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells have not been described in detail to date.
  • In this study, the CSF findings in patients with ependymal neoplasms are summarized and the cytomorphologic features of ependymoma, including its variants, are illustrated.
  • METHODS: A search of the pathology databases of 2 medical centers was performed to identify all patients with a histologic diagnosis of ependymoma in whom CSF samples were examined.
  • RESULTS: In all, 177 patients with a diagnosis of ependymoma were identified.
  • The detection rate of tumor cells in CSF was 6.7% in 15 adults and 21.2% in 33 children, with an overall rate of 16.7%.
  • Of the 8 patients with positive and/or suspicious diagnoses, 5 ependymomas exhibited anaplastic features and 1 tumor was a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • The positive samples were usually hypercellular, with cohesive epithelioid cells; long cytoplasmic processes resembling bipolar tanycytes were observed in the tanycytic variant of ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies


7. Kawabata Y, Takahashi JA, Arakawa Y, Hashimoto N: Long-term outcome in patients harboring intracranial ependymoma. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jul;103(1):31-7
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome in patients harboring intracranial ependymoma.
  • OBJECT: The prognostic significance of tumor grade and resection and the efficacy of prophylactic radiation remain controversial in the management of intracranial ependymoma.
  • The outcomes in patients with intracranial ependymoma treated at the Kyoto University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively, and prognostic significance was analyzed.
  • Eighteen cases involved a Grade II lesion according to the World Health Organization classification of ependymoma and 11 involved a Grade III lesion.
  • Overall survival and progression-free survival rates were significantly higher in patients with Grade II ependymoma (p = 0.006 and 0.004, respectively) and in patients who had undergone gross-total resection of the tumor (p = 0.002 and 0.04, respectively).
  • In nine patients the ependymoma recurred only at the original tumor site.
  • All relapses of the Grade II ependymoma initially occurred at the primary tumor site.
  • Histological grade and extent of resection were significantly associated with tumor dissemination (p = 0.0034 and 0.0011, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor grade and resection are the two important prognostic factors with respect to patient survival, tumor recurrence, and tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2006 Sep;105(3):503; author reply 503-4 [16961153.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2005 Jul;103(1):4; discussion 4-5 [16121965.001]
  • (PMID = 16121970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Sarikaya S, Acikgöz B, Tekkök IH, Güngen YY: Conus ependymoma with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Sep;14(9):901-4
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  • [Title] Conus ependymoma with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia.
  • We report a 24-year-old woman with an intramedullary conus ependymoma associated with holocord syringohydromyelia and syringobulbia.
  • The tumor was removed and surgery for decompression of the syringohydromyelia was not considered at the first operation.
  • The cause of syringohydromyelia accompanying intradural spinal cord tumors appears to be either direct blockade of the central canal or secondary interruption of the central canal flow by compression of the perimedullary cerebrospinal fluid flow.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Syringomyelia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17660060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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9. Miyazawa T, Hirose T, Nakanishi K, Uozumi Y, Tsuzuki N, Shima K: Supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma occurring with intratumoral hemorrhage. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2007;24(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma occurring with intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • We report here a rare case of supratentorial ectopic cortical ependymoma.
  • This tumor was localized in the left angular gyrus, occurred with intratumoral hemorrhage, was attached to the dura mater, exhibited no continuity with the ventricular system, showed distinctive pathological features (perivascular pseudo-rosette formations and firework-like giant rosette formations), and finally transformed to a glioblastoma-like high-grade lesion.
  • A cortical ependymoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of supratentorial cortical tumors with intraparenchymal hemorrhage and high vascularity, even if not in contact with the ventricular system.
  • Although malignant transformation is unusual in cortical ependymoma, close observation and adjunctive radiotherapy are strongly recommended after the excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Massimino M, Buttarelli FR, Antonelli M, Gandola L, Modena P, Giangaspero F: Intracranial ependymoma: factors affecting outcome. Future Oncol; 2009 Mar;5(2):207-16
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  • [Title] Intracranial ependymoma: factors affecting outcome.
  • The management of intracranial ependymoma is still not optimal.
  • The 5-year progression-free survival for children with ependymoma ranges between 30 and 50% with a worse prognosis for patients with residual disease after surgery.
  • For high-risk patients, with residual tumor, an interesting, although experimental, approach could be chemotherapy followed by secondary surgery and postoperative conformal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / analysis. Child. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19284379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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11. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2):279-87; discussion 287-8
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  • [Title] Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop outcome predictors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with intracranial ependymomas who had received previous fractionated radiation therapy, we compared tumor control, survival, and complications with tumor grade, volume, age of patients, and imaging characteristics.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 39 consecutive ependymoma patients who underwent SRS for 56 tumors.
  • Lower histological tumor grade was not significantly associated with better progression-free survival (P = 0.725).
  • Factors associated with an improved progression-free survival included smaller tumor volume and homogeneous tumor contrast enhancement in low-grade ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Pennsylvania / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19190457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Modena P, Lualdi E, Facchinetti F, Veltman J, Reid JF, Minardi S, Janssen I, Giangaspero F, Forni M, Finocchiaro G, Genitori L, Giordano F, Riccardi R, Schoenmakers EF, Massimino M, Sozzi G: Identification of tumor-specific molecular signatures in intracranial ependymoma and association with clinical characteristics. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Nov 20;24(33):5223-33
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  • [Title] Identification of tumor-specific molecular signatures in intracranial ependymoma and association with clinical characteristics.
  • PURPOSE: To delineate clinically relevant molecular signatures of intracranial ependymoma.
  • An ependymoma-specific gene expression signature was characterized by the concurrent abnormal expression of developmental and differentiation pathways, including NOTCH and sonic hedgehog signaling.
  • We identified specific differentially imbalanced genomic clones and gene expression signatures significantly associated with tumor location, patient age at disease onset, and retrospective risk for relapse.
  • Integrated genomic and expression profiling allowed us to identify genes of which the expression is deregulated in intracranial ependymoma, such as overexpression of the putative proto-oncogene YAP1 (located at 11q22) and downregulation of the SULT4A1 gene (at 22q13.3).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sulfotransferases / genetics. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17114655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / YAP1 (Yes-associated) protein, human; EC 2.8.2 / SULT4A1 protein, human; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases
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13. Hamilton DW, Lusher ME, Lindsey JC, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A tumour suppressor gene in ependymoma. Cancer Lett; 2005 Sep 8;227(1):75-81
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of the RASSF1A tumour suppressor gene in ependymoma.
  • To investigate the role of aberrant epigenetic events in ependymoma and identify critical genes in its pathogenesis, the methylation status of nine tumour suppressor genes (TSGs: p14(ARF), p15(INK4B), p16(INK4A), CASP8, MGMT, TIMP3, TP73, RB1 and RASSF1A) was assessed.
  • Extensive hypermethylation across the RASSF1A CpG island was detected frequently in ependymomas of all clinical and pathological disease subtypes (86% of cases, n=35), but not in non-neoplastic brain tissues (n=6).
  • RASSF1A hypermethylation represents the most common gene-specific defect identified in ependymoma highlighting the importance of its further investigation in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. CpG Islands. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16051033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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14. Arsene D, Gherghiceanu M, Ardeleanu C, Danaila L: Highly cystic brain tumor: rare histological features in an ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2007 Aug;27(4):378-82
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  • [Title] Highly cystic brain tumor: rare histological features in an ependymoma.
  • Ependymoma is a slowly growing tumor appearing mostly in children and young adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cysts / ultrastructure. Ependymoma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fourth Ventricle / ultrastructure. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17899693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Spengos K, Vassilopoulou S, Tsivgoulis G, Karachalios G, Vassilopoulos D: Superficial siderosis due to a lumbar ependymoma mimicking adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;109(8):705-7
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  • [Title] Superficial siderosis due to a lumbar ependymoma mimicking adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia.
  • Superficial siderosis (SS), as a result of chronic subarachnoid haemorrhage and haemosiderin deposition on the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, can cause ataxia, pyramidal tract lesions and hearing deficits.
  • In cases with not pronounced hearing impairment adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia can be considered as a differential diagnostic alternative.
  • A bleeding lumbar ependymoma was identified as a source of haemorrhage.
  • Surgical tumor resection stopped any further disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / complications. Siderosis / diagnosis. Siderosis / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Spinocerebellar Ataxias / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17555872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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16. Cui Y, Zhao JZ: [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ki-67 antigen in brain ependymoma and the correlation between them]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 23;88(47):3356-8
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  • [Title] [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ki-67 antigen in brain ependymoma and the correlation between them].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ki-67 antigen in human brain ependymoma and the correlation between them.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of EGFR and Ki-67 antigen in 40 specimens of brain ependymoma, 8 specimens of normal brain tissues, and 8 specimens of glioblastoma, all obtained during operation.
  • RESULTS: The EGFR positive rate of the III - IV grade ependymoma tissues was 75%, significantly higher than that of the grade I - II grade ependymoma tissues (25%, P < 0.05).
  • The EGFR positive rate of the recurrent ependymoma tissues (5/6) was significantly higher than that of the primary ependymoma tissues (9/34, P < 0.05).
  • The positive rate of Ki-67 L1 in the III - IV grade ependymoma tissues was (9.5 +/- 5.6)%, significantly higher than that in the grade I - II grade ependymoma tissues [(2.2 +/- 1.4)%, P < 0.05)].
  • The positivity of EGFR was positively correlated with the grade level of ependymoma and Ki-67 L1 positivity (both P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR expression positive rate increases with tumor grading.
  • The positive rate of recurrent ependymoma is higher than that of the primary ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19257969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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17. Ertan Y, Sarsik B, Ozgiray E, Kitis O, Dalbasti T, Akalin T: Pigmented ependymoma with signet-ring cells and Rosenthal fibers: a rare variant of ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2010 Feb 1;30(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Pigmented ependymoma with signet-ring cells and Rosenthal fibers: a rare variant of ependymoma.
  • We report a rare case of ependymoma with vacuolar features, signet cells, pigmentation and numerous Rosenthal fibers arising in the fourth ventricle of a 35-year-old woman.
  • The tumor was composed of cells with cytoplasmic vacuoles, signet cells and clear cells.
  • Additionally, some tumor cells contained brown cytoplasmic pigment, which was histochemically compatible with lipofuscin and neuromelanin.
  • On immunohistochemical examination, the tumor cells were positive for S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, and negative for synaptophysin, cytokeratin, neurofilament and HMB45.
  • The case is presented to increase familiarity with these extraordinary variants of ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Pigmentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19508348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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18. Preusser M, Heinzl H, Gelpi E, Höftberger R, Fischer I, Pipp I, Milenkovic I, Wöhrer A, Popovici F, Wolfsberger S, Hainfellner JA: Ki67 index in intracranial ependymoma: a promising histopathological candidate biomarker. Histopathology; 2008 Jul;53(1):39-47
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  • [Title] Ki67 index in intracranial ependymoma: a promising histopathological candidate biomarker.
  • AIMS: The Ki67 tumour cell proliferation index is an independent prognostic factor in ependymoma patients.
  • To this end, the aim was to analyse systematically inter- and intraobserver agreement and reproducibility of the prognostic impact of the Ki67 index in intracranial ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The study cohort contained 78 cases of intracranial ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that the Ki67 index in intracranial ependymoma is a reproducible and robust prognostic factor and can be considered a promising histopathological candidate biomarker.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / chemistry. Ependymoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Count. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18613924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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19. Schroeder TM, Chintagumpala M, Okcu MF, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Woo SY, Paulino AC: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):987-93
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized intracranial ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1994 to 2005, 22 children with pathologically proven, localized, intracranial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant IMRT.
  • Of the patients, 12 (55%) had an infratentorial tumor and 14 (64%) had anaplastic histology.
  • The clinical target volume encompassed the tumor bed and any residual disease plus margin (median dose 54 Gy).
  • At last follow-up, no patient had developed visual loss, brain necrosis, myelitis, or a second malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18258381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Kurimoto M, Nagai S, Hamada H, Tsuboi Y, Hayashi N, Kubota T, Endo S: Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Jun;29(3):299-302
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma.
  • Recurrence of clear cell ependymoma is not a rare condition, but malignant transformation of clear cell ependymoma has not yet been well presented.
  • A brain tumor in the left frontal premotor area was removed and an initial pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • The tumor recurred 4 months later, and reoperation of the tumor and adjuvant local radiotherapy were performed.
  • At this time, the tumor had an ultrastructural appearance compatible with ependymoma.
  • The autopsy specimens resembled a feature of glioblastoma but the tumor was sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18647267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. Shintaku M, Nagata N, Itoh H: Tanycytic ependymoma of the spinal cord with anaplastic cytological features. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):7-10
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  • [Title] Tanycytic ependymoma of the spinal cord with anaplastic cytological features.
  • In a 43-year-old man, an intramedullary spinal cord tumor spreading from the level of the T2 to T5 vertebrae was subtotally resected.
  • The tumor predominantly consisted of a fascicular proliferation of spindle cells having bland nuclei and bipolar, long cytoplasmic processes, and a few perivascular pseudo-rosettes were found.
  • This is the first documentation of tanycytic ependymoma in which tumor cells showed anaplastic cytological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anaplasia / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / immunology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 19408091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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22. Terasaki M, Uchikado H, Takeuchi Y, Shigemori M: Minimally invasive management of ependymoma of the aqueduct of Sylvius: therapeutic considerations and management. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2005 Dec;48(6):322-4
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  • [Title] Minimally invasive management of ependymoma of the aqueduct of Sylvius: therapeutic considerations and management.
  • A major concern in the neuroendoscopic approach to an intraventricular tumor is the histological confirmation from a limited biopsy.
  • However, the effort to excise the whole bulk of the tumor should be made for the minimally invasive management of selected intraventricular tumors.
  • The case of an adult male with focal aqueductal ependymoma who presented with the clinical syndrome of hydrocephalus is reported.
  • This may be of particular interest because it represents the first case of aqueductal ependymoma that has been successfully treated with endoscopic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Aqueduct / pathology. Cerebral Aqueduct / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neuroendoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16432779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Arai T, Tani S, Isoshima A, Nagashima H, Joki T, Takahashi-Fujigasaki J, Abe T: [Intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis for spinal ependymoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid: technical note]. No Shinkei Geka; 2006 Aug;34(8):811-7
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  • [Title] [Intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis for spinal ependymoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid: technical note].
  • OBJECTIVE: The fluorescence-guided resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a well established method for the treatment of brain tumor, especially malignant glioma.
  • However, there is no report on photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) for spinal tumor.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of PDD for spinal ependymoma using 5-ALA.
  • METHODS: Three patients with spinal ependymoma received oral doses of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg body weight) 2 hours before anesthesia induction.
  • Residual fluorescent samples taken from the tumor cavity were examined histologically RESULTS: Fluorescence peaked at 636nm in the removed tumors in all cases.
  • Fluorescent tissue tended to exist at the cranial and caudal portion in the tumor cavity or around the anterior median fissure.
  • The residual fluorescent tissue was not detected after removal of the tumor in case 1.
  • The residual fluorescent tissue was composed of tumor cells and ependymal lining in case 2 or the infiltrated inflammatory cells and vascular endothelial cells in case 3.
  • Postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed no residual tumor in any of the cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate the usefulness of 5-ALA-induced tumor fluorescence in guiding resection of spinal ependymoma.
  • 5-ALA-induced porphyrin fluorescence may label spinal ependymomas easily and clearly enough to enhance the completeness of tumor removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Photosensitizing Agents. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lighting. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Porphyrins. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16910494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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24. Kano T, Ikota H, Wada H, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S: A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):11-7
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  • [Title] A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components.
  • The tumor was removed, and pathological studies revealed a cerebellar astrocytoma corresponding to World Health Organization grade II.
  • When she was 35 years old, or 6 years after the surgery, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a recurrence of the tumor in the right cerebellum, and subtotal removal of the recurrent tumor was performed.
  • Pathological studies revealed a mixed glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Thereafter, at 39 years of age, or 4 years after radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging again revealed a recurrence of the tumor, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadoliniumdiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in the right cerebellum.
  • Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed; pathological studies revealed an anaplastic ependymoma with sarcomatous components.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraffin Embedding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19408092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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25. Merchant TE, Kiehna EN, Li C, Xiong X, Mulhern RK: Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Dec 01;63(5):1546-54
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  • [Title] Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years +/- 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed.
  • Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes.
  • For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma.
  • The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Intelligence / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Intelligence Tests. Male. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16115736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Schuurmans M, Vanneste JA, Verstegen MJ, van Furth WR: Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):57-9
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  • [Title] Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed an extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression.
  • During surgery an intradural extramedullary tumor was found.
  • Further imaging showed a second lumbar spinal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16614942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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27. Zhang S, Wang X, Zhang Z, Chen Y: Tanycytic ependymoma arising from the right lateral ventricle: a case report and review of the literature. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):427-32
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  • [Title] Tanycytic ependymoma arising from the right lateral ventricle: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Histologically, the tumor composed of nuclear dense zones consisting of a cluster of spindle cells and fibrillary zones consisting of streaming of cell processes.
  • The tumor cells showed the characteristics of monopolar or bipolar processes.
  • Some tumor cell processes extended to the vessel wall and formed ill-defined perivascular rosettes.
  • Four cases of tanycytic ependymoma arising from the lateral ventricle have been reported in literature.
  • Tanycytic ependymoma has slightly better prognosis than other ependymoma subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 18312548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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28. Yi W, Haapasalo H, Holmlund C, Järvelä S, Raheem O, Bergenheim AT, Hedman H, Henriksson R: Expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins in human ependymoma relates to tumor location, WHO grade, and patient age. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Jan-Feb;28(1):21-7
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  • [Title] Expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins in human ependymoma relates to tumor location, WHO grade, and patient age.
  • LRIG1 has been shown to be a suppressor of tumor growth by counteracting the signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members, including EGFR (ERBB1).
  • The indications that expression and subcellular localization of LRIG proteins could be pathogenetically associated with specific clinicopathological features of ependymoma tumors might be of importance in the carcinogeneses and tumor progression of human ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Tissue Array Analysis. World Health Organization


29. Zhang JG, Kruse CA, Driggers L, Hoa N, Wisoff J, Allen JC, Zagzag D, Newcomb EW, Jadus MR: Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):65-76
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  • [Title] Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the relative expression of 31 TAPP mRNAs.
  • RESULTS: The adult gliomas expressed 94% (29 of 31) of the TAPP mRNAs evaluated compared with pediatric brain tumors that expressed 55-74% of the TAPP mRNAs, dependent on tumor histological subtype.
  • (1) equal expression among adult and pediatric cases, (2) greater expression in adult than pediatric cases, (3) expression restricted to adult GBM and (4) a random distribution.
  • The pediatric brain tumors lacked expression of some genes associated with engendering tumor survival, such as hTert and Survivin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The potential TAA targets identified from the TAPP profiles of 31 genes associated with adult and pediatric brain tumors may help investigators select specific target antigens for developing dendritic cell- or peptide-based vaccines or T cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches against brain tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18259692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 046463; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS057829; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 054093; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS046463; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 057829
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS572988; NLM/ PMC4005736
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30. McGuire CS, Sainani KL, Fisher PG: Incidence patterns for ependymoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results study. J Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;110(4):725-9
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  • [Title] Incidence patterns for ependymoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results study.
  • OBJECT: Previous small studies disagree about which clinical risk factors influence ependymoma incidence.
  • The authors analyzed a large, population-based cancer registry to examine the relationship of incidence to patient age, sex, race, and tumor location, and to determine incidence trends over the past 3 decades.
  • For children, the age at diagnosis differed significantly by tumor location, with the mean age for patients with infratentorial tumors calculated as 5 +/- 0.4 years; for supratentorial tumors it was 7.77 +/- 0.6 years, and for spinal lesions it was 12.16 +/- 0.8 years. (Values are expressed as the mean +/- standard error [SE].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Males have a higher incidence of ependymoma than do females.
  • Ependymoma occurs within the CNS at distinct locations at different ages, consistent with hypotheses postulating distinct populations of radial glial stem cells within the CNS.
  • Ependymoma incidence appears to have increased over the past 3 decades, but only in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Spinal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. SEER Program. Sex Factors. United States / epidemiology


31. Mansur DB, Perry A, Rajaram V, Michalski JM, Park TS, Leonard JR, Luchtman-Jones L, Rich KM, Grigsby PW, Lockett MA, Wahab SH, Simpson JR: Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):387-91
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiation therapy for grade II and III intracranial ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the long-term outcome of intracranial ependymoma patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • Forty patients had World Health Organization Grade II ependymoma, and 20 patients had Grade III ependymoma.
  • Supratentorial tumor location was independently associated with a worse disease-free survival.
  • No statistically significant effect on prognosis was observed with tumor grade, patient age, or radiation dose or volume.
  • CONCLUSION: Our long-term follow-up indicates that half of ependymoma patients will have disease recurrences, indicating the need for more effective treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15667957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Preusser M, Wolfsberger S, Haberler C, Breitschopf H, Czech T, Slavc I, Harris AL, Acker T, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Vascularization and expression of hypoxia-related tissue factors in intracranial ependymoma and their impact on patient survival. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Feb;109(2):211-6
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  • [Title] Vascularization and expression of hypoxia-related tissue factors in intracranial ependymoma and their impact on patient survival.
  • We investigated angiogenic patterns and expression of hypoxia-related tissue factors and their prognostic impact in 100 cases of intracranial ependymoma.
  • HIF-1alpha expression occurs in a significantly smaller fraction of cases and only in a few tumor cells without clear association with necrosis.
  • We conclude that bizarre vascular pattern, necrosis and high hypoxia score are frequently detectable in intracranial ependymoma, but seem less important for patient outcome than tumor cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15614581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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33. Lo SS, Abdulrahman R, Desrosiers PM, Fakiris AJ, Witt TC, Worth RM, Dittmer PH, Desrosiers CM, Frost S, Timmerman RD: The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):51-6
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  • [Title] The role of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the management of unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery in ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and the toxicity of Gamma Knife (GK)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of gross disease in ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: GK-based SRS appears to be a feasible and safe treatment modality for patients with ependymoma with unresectable gross disease or gross residual disease after surgery.
  • SRS provides reasonable local control but out-of-field tumor progression remains an issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


34. Wu WX, Yu SZ, Sun CY, Wang Q, Jin SM, An TL: [Detection of chromosomal imbalance in ependymoma by comparative genomic hybridization]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Mar;38(3):148-52
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  • [Title] [Detection of chromosomal imbalance in ependymoma by comparative genomic hybridization].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate genomic DNA imbalances in ependymomas (EDMs) and their correlations with the tumor histological types, grades, locations, patients' gender and age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequencies of chromosomal imbalances in EDMs decrease as the tumor grade increases.
  • Characteristic chromosomal imbalances in each subtype may play an important role in determination of histological phenotypes and tumor grades.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Ependymoma / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19575847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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35. Pica A, Miller R, Villà S, Kadish SP, Anacak Y, Abusaris H, Ozyigit G, Baumert BG, Zaucha R, Haller G, Weber DC: The results of surgery, with or without radiotherapy, for primary spinal myxopapillary ependymoma: a retrospective study from the rare cancer network. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jul 15;74(4):1114-20
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  • [Title] The results of surgery, with or without radiotherapy, for primary spinal myxopapillary ependymoma: a retrospective study from the rare cancer network.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of patients with primary spinal myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE).
  • Fifteen patients presented treatment failure at the primary site only, whereas 2 and 1 patients presented with brain and distant spinal failure only.
  • Three and 2 patients with local failure presented with concomitant spinal distant seeding and brain failure, respectively.
  • One patient failed simultaneously in the brain and spine.
  • Age greater than 36 years (p = 0.01), absence of neurologic symptoms at diagnosis (p = 0.01), tumor size >or=25 mm (p = 0.04), and postoperative high-dose RT (p = 0.05) were variables predictive of improved PFS on univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed pattern of failure was mainly local, but one fifth of the patients presented with a concomitant spinal or brain component.
  • Postoperative high-dose RT appears to significantly reduce the rate of tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19250760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Fassett DR, Pingree J, Kestle JR: The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(1 Suppl):59-64
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  • [Title] The high incidence of tumor dissemination in myxopapillary ependymoma in pediatric patients. Report of five cases and review of the literature.
  • Only 8 to 20% of these tumors occur in the first two decades of life, making this tumor a rarity in pediatric neurosurgery.
  • Four (80%) of these five patients suffered from disseminated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) at the time of presentation; this incidence is much higher than that reported in the combined adult and pediatric literature.
  • In nine cases (35%) CNS metastases occurred.
  • In those cases in which patients underwent screening for CNS tumor dissemination, however, the incidence of disseminated disease was 58% (seven of 12 patients).
  • In pediatric patients MPEs may spread throughout the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid pathways; therefore, MR imaging of the entire CNS axis is recommended at both presentation and follow-up review to detect tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology


37. Benesch M, Spiegl K, Winter A, Passini A, Lackner H, Moser A, Sovinz P, Schwinger W, Urban C: A scoring system to quantify late effects in children after treatment for medulloblastoma/ependymoma and its correlation with quality of life and neurocognitive functioning. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Feb;25(2):173-81
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  • [Title] A scoring system to quantify late effects in children after treatment for medulloblastoma/ependymoma and its correlation with quality of life and neurocognitive functioning.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to quantify the severity of late effects by a simple numerical score (late effects severity score, LESS) in patients who received radiochemotherapy for medulloblastoma or ependymoma.
  • Twenty-three patients with medulloblastoma (n = 18) or ependymoma (n = 5) underwent extensive neurocognitive and QoL testing at a median of 56 months (range, 1-174) after the end of treatment.
  • Eight patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) who underwent tumor resection only served as control group.
  • RESULTS: Patients with medulloblastoma/ependymoma had significantly higher LESS and significantly lower Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)/Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC) scores compared to patients with LGG.
  • Comparison of QoL and late effects in patients with medulloblastoma/ependymoma demonstrated a significant negative correlation only for neurological late effects and the KINDL score suggesting that younger patients with more severe late effects reported on a worse QoL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This LESS seems to be a simple and practical tool to quantify late effects in former brain tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Nervous System Diseases / physiopathology. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cognition / drug effects. Cognition / physiology. Cognition / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Endocrine System / drug effects. Endocrine System / physiopathology. Endocrine System / radiation effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hearing / drug effects. Hearing / physiology. Hearing / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Time Factors. Verbal Learning / drug effects. Verbal Learning / physiology. Verbal Learning / radiation effects. Vision, Ocular / drug effects. Vision, Ocular / physiology. Vision, Ocular / radiation effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18974990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Tseng JH, Merchant E, Tseng MY: Effects of socioeconomic and geographic variations on survival for adult glioma in England and Wales. Surg Neurol; 2006 Sep;66(3):258-63; discussion 263
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  • [Title] Effects of socioeconomic and geographic variations on survival for adult glioma in England and Wales.
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of SES and geographic variations on survival for adult patients with glioma, we analyzed data from 30489 patients from the Cancer Registry in England and Wales.
  • METHODS: Median survival and CSRs for 8 variables (age, sex, morphology, World Health Organization [WHO] grade, tumor site, SES, geographic regions, and periods of diagnosis) are calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • Age (HR, 1.04 per year from 15 years, P < .001), WHO grade (1.21 per grade from grade I, P < .001), and morphology (HR from 1.23 to 1.89, compared with ependymoma, P < .05) are the most influential factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although age and tumor characteristics (morphology, WHO grade, tumor site) are well-known prognostic factors, SES and geographic variations also play a slight but significant role, and for more cost-effective allocation of health resources, alleviation on these 2 modifiable factors should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Glioma / epidemiology. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Cost-Benefit Analysis. England / epidemiology. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Female. Geography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Prognosis. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Resource Allocation / trends. Sex Distribution. Socioeconomic Factors. State Medicine. Survival Rate. Wales / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16935629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Ginguené C, Champier J, Maallem S, Strazielle N, Jouvet A, Fèvre-Montange M, Ghersi-Egea JF: P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 Sep;20(5):926-35
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  • [Title] P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) localize in the microvessels forming the blood-tumor barrier in ependymomas.
  • Intracranial ependymoma represents a major encephalic tumor in children, while spinal ependymoma develops more frequently in adults.
  • Real-time-PCR analysis showed that all three genes were expressed in all tumors, with no apparent correlation between the level of expression and either age or tumor grade.
  • These data indicate that a biochemical, transporter-dependent blood-tumor barrier may exist in ependymomas, which may reduce the tumoral bioavailability of lipophilic and amphiphilic anticancer drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Blood-Testis Barrier / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Microvessels / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Laminin / metabolism. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. P-Glycoproteins. Young Adult. von Willebrand Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20406235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / von Willebrand Factor
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40. Capper D, Weissert S, Balss J, Habel A, Meyer J, Jäger D, Ackermann U, Tessmer C, Korshunov A, Zentgraf H, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):245-54
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  • [Title] Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors.
  • Here we investigate the capability of this antibody to differentiate wild type and mutated IDH1 protein in central nervous system (CNS) tumors by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
  • Immunohistochemistry of 345 primary brain tumors demonstrated a strong cytoplasmic and weaker nuclear staining in 122 cases.
  • Intriguing is the ability of mIDH1R132H to detect single infiltrating tumor cells.
  • The very high frequency and the distribution of this mutation among specific brain tumor entities allow the highly sensitive and specific discrimination of various tumors by immunohistochemistry, such as anaplastic astrocytoma from primary glioblastoma or diffuse astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II from pilocytic astrocytoma or ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Protein Biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19903171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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41. Wang CC, Zhang JT, Liu AL: [Surgical management of brain-stem gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 311 cases]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2005 Feb;27(1):7-12

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  • [Title] [Surgical management of brain-stem gliomas: a retrospective analysis of 311 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To further study the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgery outcome of brain-stem gliomas.
  • METHODS: Totally 311 patients with brain-stem gliomas received surgery operations in our hospital from 1980 to the end of 2001.
  • RESULTS: Different brain-stem gliomas showed different growth patterns.
  • In this series, total excision rate of the tumor was 40.5%, subtotal 29.9%, partial 29.6%, and operative mortality 1.3%.
  • Five years survival rate is 67% in ependymoma patients, 42% in astrocytoma patients.
  • None of brain-stem glioblastoma patients survived up to 5 years.
  • The patients with well-differentiated gliomas of brain-stem may be cured by microsurgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Glioblastoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mesencephalon / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Pons / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15782484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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42. Goldhoff P, Warrington NM, Limbrick DD Jr, Hope A, Woerner BM, Jackson E, Perry A, Piwnica-Worms D, Rubin JB: Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7717-25
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  • [Title] Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential.
  • Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types.
  • To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells.
  • RESULTS: We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, and meningioma.
  • Bioluminescence imaging indicated that whereas temozolomide and radiation therapy arrested intracranial tumor growth, the addition of Rolipram to this regimen resulted in tumor regression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression.

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  • (PMID = 19047098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108677; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA94056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4; K676NL63N7 / Rolipram
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82831; NLM/ PMC2615415
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43. Lasky JL 3rd, Choe M, Nakano I: Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther; 2009 Dec;4(4):298-305
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  • [Title] Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) tumors remain the leading cause of death among pediatric neoplasms.
  • Although standard therapies cure many pediatric CNS tumors, the long-term cognitive and physical consequences of these therapies are devastating.
  • Although recent studies have focused on molecular mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), these tumors differ phenotypically and at a molecular level from pediatric brain tumors.
  • Recent investigations have identified a stem cell population, termed "brain tumor stem cells" (BTSC) within the heterogeneous cell populations that comprise malignant brain tumors which may be partly responsible for the resistance to current therapies.
  • By exploiting molecular differences present within these heterogeneous populations of brain tumor cells, we may be able to achieve specific eradication of BTSC and long-lasting remissions, while causing less toxicity to normal tissues.
  • In this review, we describe the issues surrounding the identification and characterization of BTSC, the molecular biology of BTSC for different pediatric brain tumors, and suggest future avenues for the development of treatments for this devastating disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Optic Nerve Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult Stem Cells / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Humans. Surgical Procedures, Operative


44. Preusser M, Wolfsberger S, Czech T, Slavc I, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Survivin expression in intracranial ependymomas and its correlation with tumor cell proliferation and patient outcome. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Oct;124(4):543-9
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  • [Title] Survivin expression in intracranial ependymomas and its correlation with tumor cell proliferation and patient outcome.
  • Survivin expression has been described as prognostic factor in various tumor types and has been shown to correlate with cytologic anaplasia in ependymoma.
  • We immunohistochemically studied survivin expression and its association with Ki-67 and topoisomerase IIalpha (TIIalpha) expression and outcome in 63 patients with intracranial ependymoma.
  • Survivin is expressed in a fraction of nuclei of tumor and endothelial cells including mitotic figures.
  • On average, 62.86% of Ki-67-expressing tumor cell nuclei coexpress survivin, whereas 92.2% of survivin-expressing nuclei coexpress Ki-67.
  • In ependymoma, survivin is expressed in a subset of proliferating cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Austria / epidemiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16146813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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45. Takei H, Bhattacharjee MB, Rivera A, Dancer Y, Powell SZ: New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Feb;131(2):234-41
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  • [Title] New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an important tool in the diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: We review the features of new, useful or potentially applicable marker antibodies as well as the new uses of already established antibodies in the area of diagnostic neuro-oncologic pathology, focusing on the use of IHC for differential diagnosis and prognosis.
  • We discuss (1) placental alkaline phosphatase, c-Kit, and OCT4 for germinoma, (2) alpha-inhibin and D2-40 for capillary hemangioblastoma, (3) phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3), MIB-1/Ki-67, and claudin-1 for meningioma, (4) PHH3, MIB-1/Ki-67, and p53 for astrocytoma, (5) synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurofilament protein, and neuronal nuclei for medulloblastoma, (6) INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and (7) epithelial membrane antigen for ependymoma.
  • All the markers presented here are used mainly for supporting or confirming the diagnosis, with the exception of the proliferation markers (MIB-1/Ki-67 and PHH3), which are primarily used to support grading and are reportedly associated with prognosis in certain categories of brain tumors.
  • In addition, IHC is also of great help in predicting the prognosis for certain brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17284108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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46. Kan P, Couldwell WT: Posterior fossa brain tumors and arterial hypertension. Neurosurg Rev; 2006 Oct;29(4):265-9; discussion 269
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  • [Title] Posterior fossa brain tumors and arterial hypertension.
  • Hypertension caused by arterial compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla is well described.
  • Much less information is available on the association between neurogenic hypertension and posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • To date, multiple reports have supported the impression that a small subpopulation of patients with posterior fossa tumors can present with arterial hypertension, and many of those patients achieved significant improvement of their hypertension after tumor resection and medullary decompression.
  • To review the relationship between posterior fossa brain tumors and hypertension, we detail the history, basic science, and clinical reports along with an illustrative case regarding this topic.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Blood Pressure / physiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16924459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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47. Wöhrer A, Waldhör T, Heinzl H, Hackl M, Feichtinger J, Gruber-Mösenbacher U, Kiefer A, Maier H, Motz R, Reiner-Concin A, Richling B, Idriceanu C, Scarpatetti M, Sedivy R, Bankl HC, Stiglbauer W, Preusser M, Rössler K, Hainfellner JA: The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):401-411
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  • [Title] The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry: a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry.
  • In Austria, registration of malignant brain tumours is legally mandatory, whereas benign and borderline tumours are not reported.
  • The Austrian Brain Tumour Registry (ABTR) was initiated under the auspices of the Austrian Society of Neuropathology for the registration of malignant and non-malignant brain tumours.
  • All Austrian neuropathology units involved in brain tumour diagnostics contribute data on primary brain tumours.
  • In 2005, we registered a total of 1,688 newly diagnosed primary brain tumours in a population of 8.2 million inhabitants with an overall age-adjusted incidence rate of 18.1/100,000 person-years.
  • Comparison with the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database showed high congruency of findings.
  • The ABTR model led by neuropathologists in collaboration with epidemiologists and the Austrian National Cancer Registry presents a cooperative way to establish a population-based brain tumour registry with high quality data.
  • The continued operation of ABTR will aid in monitoring changes in incidence and in identifying regional disease clusters or geographic variations in brain tumour morbidity/mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Registries / standards. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Austria / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Geographic Information Systems. Humans. Incidence. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sex Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19562257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Rousseau A, Idbaih A, Ducray F, Crinière E, Fèvre-Montange M, Jouvet A, Delattre JY: Specific chromosomal imbalances as detected by array CGH in ependymomas in association with tumor location, histological subtype and grade. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;97(3):353-64
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  • [Title] Specific chromosomal imbalances as detected by array CGH in ependymomas in association with tumor location, histological subtype and grade.
  • Moreover, key molecular events in the pathogenesis of ependymoma are yet to be defined.
  • The main objective of the present study was to identify specific patterns of chromosomal aberrations that correlate with tumor location, histological subtype and grade.
  • Forty-five ependymoma samples were analyzed by 1-megabase resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
  • Identification of specific genomic imbalances at a given tumor location suggests that ependymomas from different central nervous system (CNS) regions represent genetically distinct diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes. Ependymoma. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19865800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Strathdee G, Brown R, Gilbertson RJ, Bailey S, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;118(2):346-52
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours.
  • We examined the status of MCJ in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumours [PNETs, comprising cerebellar PNETs (medulloblastomas) and supratentorial PNETs (stPNETs)] and ependymomas, together representing the most common malignant brain tumours of childhood.
  • Evidence of MCJ hypermethylation was found in all 3 tumour types [medulloblastomas, 3/9 (33%) cell lines, 2/28 (7%) primary tumours; stPNETs, 2/2 (100%) cell lines, 3/10 (30%) primary tumours; and ependymomas, 2/20 (10%) primary tumours] but not in nonneoplastic brain tissues (n = 11), indicating that MCJ methylation is a tumour-specific event.
  • These data indicate that epigenetic inactivation of MCJ may play a role in the development of a range of paediatric brain tumour types, and its role in disease pathogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance should now be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16049974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNAJC1 protein, human; 0 / HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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50. Kalapurakal JA, Goldman S, Stellpflug W, Curran J, Sathiaseelan V, Marymont MH, Tomita T: Phase I study of intraoperative radiotherapy with photon radiosurgery system in children with recurrent brain tumors: preliminary report of first dose level (10 Gy). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):800-8
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  • [Title] Phase I study of intraoperative radiotherapy with photon radiosurgery system in children with recurrent brain tumors: preliminary report of first dose level (10 Gy).
  • PURPOSE: To describe the preliminary results after intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with the photon radiosurgery system in children with recurrent brain tumors treated at the first dose level (10 Gy) of a Phase I protocol.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A Phase I IORT dose escalation protocol was initiated at Children's Memorial Hospital to determine the maximal tolerated IORT dose in children with recurrent brain tumors.
  • Thirteen children had ependymoma.
  • Eight patients (57%) had tumor control within the surgical bed after IORT.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of IORT to a dose of 10 Gy to 2 mm in children with previously irradiated brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Photons / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / radiation effects. Child. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fibrosarcoma / radiotherapy. Fibrosarcoma / surgery. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Necrosis / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 16580791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Merchant TE, Pollack IF, Loeffler JS: Brain tumors across the age spectrum: biology, therapy, and late effects. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2010 Jan;20(1):58-66
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  • [Title] Brain tumors across the age spectrum: biology, therapy, and late effects.
  • The clinical difference between brain tumors in adults and children is striking.
  • Compared with adults, pediatric tumor types (mostly glial and neuronal) are more sensitive to adjuvant irradiation and chemotherapy.
  • In this review of glioma, ependymoma, and medulloblastoma, we highlight the differences between adults and children, including the higher incidence of spinal cord ependymoma and supratentorial high-grade glioma in the adult and a higher incidence of medulloblastoma in the child.
  • In some settings, the radiation oncologist should suggest further surgery or additional adjuvant therapy in an effort to optimize local tumor control.
  • An effort is underway to better characterize adult and pediatric brain tumors biologically with an emphasis on improving our understanding of tumor genesis, malignant transformation, and some of the similarities and differences between tumor types and their response to conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / epidemiology. Glioma / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / therapy. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Radiation Injuries. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19959032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-9461
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425593; NLM/ PMC3529408
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52. Palm T, Figarella-Branger D, Chapon F, Lacroix C, Gray F, Scaravilli F, Ellison DW, Salmon I, Vikkula M, Godfraind C: Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis. Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;115(17):3955-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymomas derive from ependymal cells that cover the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord.
  • RESULTS: Class discovery experiments indicated a strong correlation between profiles and tumor localization as well as World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grades.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the tumor localization-related gene sets mainly implicated in stem cell maintenance, renewal, and differentiation suggest the dysregulation of localized cancer stem cells during ependymoma development.
  • On the basis of the current data, the authors suggest a developmental scheme of ependymomas that integrates tumor localization and tumor grades, and that pinpoints new targets for the development of future therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19536879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Souweidane MM, Morgenstern PF, Christos PJ, Edgar MA, Khakoo Y, Rutka JT, Dunkel IJ: Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2009 Jul;65(1):72-8; discussion 78
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  • [Title] Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether arachnoid tissue or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is valuable for risk stratification in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • METHODS: Arachnoid tissue and CSF from the cisterna magna (CSFCM) was sampled at the time of primary tumor resection.
  • Arachnoid infiltration and CSF cytology were found in 20.0% and 44.8%, respectively, for medulloblastoma/pineoblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor), 6.9% and 3.6% for pilocytic astrocytoma, and 0.0% and 33.3% for ependymoma.
  • The 3-year EFS for patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor who had positive arachnoid sampling was 33.3%, compared with 67.3% in patients who had no evidence of arachnoid infiltration (P = 0.26).
  • The 3-year EFS for patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumor who had positive CSFCM was 50.0% compared with 67.5% in patients who had negative cytological analysis of CSFCM (P = 0.07).
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative evidence of arachnoid infiltration or CSFCM dissemination in patients with posterior fossa brain tumors occurs at a variable frequency that is dependent on tumor type, correlates with conventional M stage, and may be predictive of outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19574827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Sharma MK, Mansur DB, Reifenberger G, Perry A, Leonard JR, Aldape KD, Albin MG, Emnett RJ, Loeser S, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):890-900
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  • [Title] Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin.
  • Whereas many PAs are slow-growing or clinically indolent, others exhibit more aggressive features with tumor recurrence and death.
  • Lastly, we also identified a gene expression pattern common to PAs and normal mouse astrocytes and neural stem cells from these distinct brain regions as well as a gene expression pattern shared between PAs and another human glial tumor (ependymoma) arising supratentorially compared with those originating in the posterior fossa.
  • These results suggest that glial tumors share an intrinsic, lineage-specific molecular signature that reflects the brain region in which their nonmalignant predecessors originated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / metabolism. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17283119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5582/ GSE5675
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 91842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Lehman NL: Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Sep;67(9):900-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors.
  • Ependymomas are generally considered to be noninfiltrative tumors that have discrete borders with adjacent brain tissue.
  • Supratentorial ependymal tumors arise near the ventricular system or, more rarely, within the cerebral white matter or cortex.
  • They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds.
  • The 3 cortical ependymal tumors show a spectrum of features ranging from conventional and clear-cell ependymoma-like patterns to more angiocentric glioma-like histology.

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  • (PMID = 18716554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS45077
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131630; NLM/ PMC2805172
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56. Tang J, Flomenberg P, Harshyne L, Kenyon L, Andrews DW: Glioblastoma patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jul 15;11(14):5292-9
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  • [Title] Glioblastoma patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells.
  • PURPOSE: There is growing interest in developing cellular immune therapies for glioblastoma multiforme, but little is known about tumor-specific T-cell responses.
  • A glioblastoma multiforme-specific T-cell assay was developed using monocyte-derived dendritic cells to present tumor antigens from the established glioblastoma multiforme cell line U118.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor cells were obtained from nine patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: five glioblastoma multiforme, two oligodendroglioma, one ependymoma, and one astrocytoma.
  • PBMCs were incubated overnight with autologous tumor cells or autologous dendritic cells loaded with a U118 cell lysate, and responses were detected by IFN-gamma ELISPOT and cytokine flow cytometry assays.
  • RESULTS: PBMCs from all glioblastoma multiforme patients exhibited IFN-gamma responses to autologous tumor but not to HLA-mismatched U118 cells.
  • PBMCs from four patients with other brain tumor types and one normal donor failed to respond to U118 lysate-loaded autologous dendritic cells.
  • Moreover, PBMCs stimulated 1 to 2 weeks with U118 lysate-loaded dendritic cells exhibited MHC class I-restricted cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Glioblastoma multiforme patients exhibit circulating tumor-specific CD8+ T cells that recognize shared tumor antigens from the glioblastoma multiforme cell line U118.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Immunotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigen Presentation. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. HLA Antigens. Humans. Immunoassay. Interferon-gamma / immunology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16033848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HLA Antigens; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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57. Puputti M, Tynninen O, Pernilä P, Salmi M, Jalkanen S, Paetau A, Sihto H, Joensuu H: Expression of KIT receptor tyrosine kinase in endothelial cells of juvenile brain tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jul;20(4):763-70
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  • [Title] Expression of KIT receptor tyrosine kinase in endothelial cells of juvenile brain tumors.
  • KIT receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in tumor endothelial cells of adult glioblastomas, but its expression in pediatric brain tumor endothelial cells is unknown.
  • We assessed expression of KIT, phosphorylated KIT, stem cell factor (SCF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in 35 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and 49 other pediatric brain tumors using immunohistochemistry, and KIT messenger RNA (mRNA) using in situ hybridization.
  • KIT and phospho-KIT were moderately or strongly expressed in tumor endothelia of 37% and 35% of pilocytic astrocytomas, respectively, whereas marked SCF and VEGFR-2 expression was uncommon.
  • KIT mRNA was detected in tumor endothelial cells.
  • Tumor endothelial cell KIT expression was strongly (P < 0.01) associated with endothelial cell phospho-KIT and SCF expression, and with tumor KIT (P = 0.0011) and VEGFR-2 expression (P = 0.022).
  • KIT and phospho-KIT were present in endothelia of other pediatric brain tumors, notably ependymomas.
  • Endothelial cell KIT expression was associated with a young age at diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma or ependymoma, and it was occasionally present in histologically normal tissue of the fetus and children.
  • We conclude that KIT is commonly present in endothelial cells of juvenile brain tumors and thus may play a role in angiogenesis in these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Phosphorylation. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Statistics, Nonparametric. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20030644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2901521
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58. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohnishi H, Ueno Y, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Soma G: Evaluation of intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with malignant glioma. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6A):4027-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with malignant glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: This study assessed safety and efficacy for intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-SAM2) into the post-operative tumor cavity through an Ommaya reservoir for patients with malignant glioma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with malignant glioma, comprising 3 cases with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 3 cases with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 1 case with malignant ependymoma (ME) were included in the study.
  • TNF-SAM2 was administrated into the post-operative tumor cavity through a reservoir at a concentration of 1x10(4) U/body when recurrence was detected, or as initial induction therapy concomitant with radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Partial response to this regional immunotherapy was seen in 4 out of 7 patients, and 1 patient with GBM has remained clinically stable for >184 weeks without tumor progression.
  • With AA, 2 cases appeared to display slowed advance and longer times to tumor recurrence or regrowth.
  • No serious adverse effects, such as brain edema, hemorrhage or seizure were observed, nor systemic toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17195453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TNF-SAM2; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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59. Armstrong TS, Vera-Bolanos E, Bekele BN, Aldape K, Gilbert MR: Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):862-70
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  • [Title] Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience.
  • This study reports on a series of adult patients with confirmed ependymoma treated at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Patients aged >17 and with ependymoma were identified, and clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review.
  • This series included 123 adult patients [51% male; median age 39 years (18-72)].
  • Forty had tumors in the brain, 80 in the spine, and 3 had both.
  • Median time to recurrence was 21 months (Grade II) brain and 18 months (Grade III).
  • Worse outcome measured by overall and progression-free survival were associated with brain location (P = .01, P = .04) and tumor anaplasia (P = .0025, P = .001).
  • Tumor grade and brain location are associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Reclassification of ependymoma by neuropathologists is common.
  • Results of this study have lead to a multicenter study to further define important diagnostic and prognostic variables for adults with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20511182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940672
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60. Roma AA, Prayson RA: Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors. Neuropathology; 2006 Oct;26(5):422-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), a cytokine-induced enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, has been described in some brain tumors, including astrocytomas.
  • At last known follow-up (range, 12-226 months; mean, 74 months), 52 patients were alive with no evidence of tumor, 16 patients were alive with residual tumor, nine patients died with tumor, one patient died with no tumor and three died with tumor status unknown.
  • Increased COX-2 expression in myxopapillary ependymoma as compared to the WHO grade II and II ependymoma was observed.
  • COX-2 staining did not reliably predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17080719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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61. Barresi V, Tuccari G, Barresi G: NGAL immunohistochemical expression in brain primary and metastatic tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Sep-Oct;29(5):317-22
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  • [Title] NGAL immunohistochemical expression in brain primary and metastatic tumors.
  • Thus NGAL urinary detection has been proposed as a method for the early diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • In view of this, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NGAL expression differs according to brain tumor type or in primary vs. metastatic brain neolasias.
  • 42 surgically resected formalin fixed and paraffin embedded neoplasias, including 15 cases of brain metastasis and 27 cases of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11 meningiomas; 1 pilocytic astrocytoma, 2 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 oligoastrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 1 anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, 7 glioblastomas, 1 ependymoma) were submitted to the immunohistochemical procedure.
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest that NGAL expression is restricted to high grade gliomas among primary brain tumors, and that brain metastases do not express this protein.
  • Considering the correlation between NGAL expression in tumors and its urinary levels, if our observations will be further validated, NGAL urinary detection might be used as an additional tool in the pre-surgical definition of brain lesions involving difficult differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute-Phase Proteins / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lipocalins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20860895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acute-Phase Proteins; 0 / LCN2 protein, human; 0 / Lipocalins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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62. Metellus P, Barrie M, Figarella-Branger D, Chinot O, Giorgi R, Jouvet A, Guyotat J: [Intracranial ependymomas in adult patients. Retrospective analysis of 121 cases from the multicentric French study]. Neurochirurgie; 2007 Jun;53(2-3 Pt 1):66-75
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  • [Title] [Intracranial ependymomas in adult patients. Retrospective analysis of 121 cases from the multicentric French study].
  • Prognostic factors as well as proper therapeutic management remain controversial.
  • We report a retrospective study of 121 cases intracranial ependymomas diagnosed between 1990 and 2004 in adult patients.
  • This study demonstrated that extent of surgery and tumor grade are the two main prognostic factors in adult intracranial ependymomas with respect to overall and progression-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 17475290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] France
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63. Tseng MY, Tseng JH: Survival analysis for adult glioma in England and Wales. J Formos Med Assoc; 2005 May;104(5):341-8
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  • [Title] Survival analysis for adult glioma in England and Wales.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate factors influencing survival for adult glioma at the national population level, data from the Cancer Registry in England and Wales were analyzed.
  • METHODS: Median survival and crude survival rates (CSR) for 8 variables (age, gender, International Classification of Diseases for Oncology [ICD-O] morphology, World Health Organization [WHO] grade, tumor site, deprivation, geographical region, and period of diagnosis) were calculated and tested using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.
  • Patients with unspecified gliomas had the worst survival, while those with ependymoma had the best survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Survival in adult glioma is influenced by multiple factors, including socioeconomic background.
  • However, age at diagnosis and tumor characteristics are the most influential factors.

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  • (PMID = 15959601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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64. Monoranu CM, Huang B, Zangen IL, Rutkowski S, Vince GH, Gerber NU, Puppe B, Roggendorf W: Correlation between 6q25.3 deletion status and survival in pediatric intracranial ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Apr 1;182(1):18-26
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  • Losses and rearrangements of genetic material on chromosome 6q are frequently found in several human malignancies, including primary central nervous system tumors.
  • To refine our preliminary analysis of potential prognostic regions, we used a panel of 25 microsatellite markers located between 6q15 and 6qter in 49 pairs of matched normal and tumor specimens from 28 children and 21 adults with ependymoma.
  • Pediatric tumors showed slightly fewer aberrations (64%) than adult tumors (76%) and also predominantly exhibited small interstitial deletions, in contrast to the extensive losses of genetic material in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Ependymoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18328946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Pal P, Fernandes H, Ellison DW: Woman aged 24 years with fourth ventricular mass. Brain Pathol; 2005 Oct;15(4):367-8, 373

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • April 2005. A woman aged 24 years presented with symptoms related to a tumor in the fourth ventricle.
  • Cytologically, the tumor was biphasic with areas typical of a classic ependymoma, including rosettes, and other areas containing grossly atypical giant cells.
  • Many tumor cells were GFAP-positive and ultrastructural examination revealed microvilli and cilia.
  • The histopathologic abnormalities place this tumor among the ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 16389948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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66. Ishizawa K, Komori T, Shimada S, Hirose T: Olig2 and CD99 are useful negative markers for the diagnosis of brain tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 May-Jun;27(3):118-28
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  • [Title] Olig2 and CD99 are useful negative markers for the diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • A total of 59 brain tumors including 16 ependymomas, 32 astrocytomas, and 11 oligodendrogliomas were immunohistochemically studied for the expression of Olig2 as well as other markers including epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and CD99.
  • Particularly in cases of glioblastoma or pilocytic astrocytoma that histologically mimicked ependymoma, the Olig2-positive nuclei were numerous as in conventional astrocytomas, which helped to differentiate them from ependymomas.
  • The EMA-positive structures were helpful for the diagnosis of ependymoma, however, they were occasionally very modest and sparse on immunostained sections.
  • In our preliminary experiment, we noted the absence of CD99-immunoreactivity in a fraction of brain tumors with clear cell morphology, including oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, and pilocytic astrocytoma (the oligodendroglioma-like component).
  • Thus, we investigated the expression of CD99 in an additional series of brain tumors with clear cell morphology, including oligoastrocytoma (7 cases), central neurocytoma (6), and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (9).
  • We found that the absence of CD99-immunoreactivity was dependent on clear cell morphology rather than on tumor entities.
  • The CD99-immunohistochemistry is unique in that it is helpful for the diagnosis of clear cell brain tumors through the visualization of CD99-negative clear cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / genetics. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain / pathology. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 18552083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human
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67. Majós C, Aguilera C, Cos M, Camins A, Candiota AP, Delgado-Goñi T, Samitier A, Castañer S, Sánchez JJ, Mato D, Acebes JJ, Arús C: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain. Eur Radiol; 2009 Aug;19(8):2049-59

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  • [Title] In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain.
  • Characteristic trends were found for some groups: high Glx and Ala in meningiomas (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively), high mobile lipids in metastasis (p < 0.001), high Cho in PNET (p < 0.001), high mI + Gly in ependymoma (p < 0.001), high NAC (p < 0.01) in the absence of the normal brain parenchyma pattern in colloid cysts, and high mI/Gly and Ala in central neurocytoma.
  • Proton MR spectroscopy provides additional metabolic information that could be useful in the diagnosis of intraventricular brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protons. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19277673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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68. Song JH, Kong DS, Shin HJ: Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Nov;26(11):1593-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility of neuroendoscopic biopsy of pediatric brain tumors.
  • RESULTS: In 45 of 49 patients (91.8%) neuroendoscopic biopsy specimens were appropriate for diagnosis and revealed 27 germinomas, 11 astrocytomas, and one ependymoma, etc.
  • The tumor location included the pineal gland (n = 28), thalamus (n = 7), intraventricle (n = 3), hypothalamus (n = 3), suprasellar area (n = 2), and diffuse multifocal area (n = 3).
  • Tumor tissue specimens were undiagnostic in two patients (4.1%).
  • There were eight transient morbidities, including four EOM limitations, two central DI, one EVD infection, and one CSF leakage.
  • One patient experienced postoperative tumor bleeding requiring emergent operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Pinealoma / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Male. Pineal Gland / pathology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Thalamus / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20390421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Kurt E, Zheng PP, Hop WC, van der Weiden M, Bol M, van den Bent MJ, Avezaat CJ, Kros JM: Identification of relevant prognostic histopathologic features in 69 intracranial ependymomas, excluding myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas. Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;106(2):388-95
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  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, the influence of the histologic subtype of ependymoma and of individual histologic features on the outcome of 69 patients with ependymomas was investigated.
  • Neither tumor localization (either infratentorial or supratentorial), patient age, nor gender affected survival.
  • The survival of patients who underwent complete tumor resection differed significantly from that of patients who underwent partial resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the univariate analysis indicated that, for patients with intracranial ependymoma, nuclear atypia, the mitotic index, and the MIB-1 LI significantly influenced survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / mortality. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, CD30 / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16342252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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70. Singh NG, Sarkar C, Sharma MC, Garg A, Gaikwad SB, Kale SS, Mehta VS: Paraganglioma of cauda equina: report of seven cases. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2005;22(1):15-20
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  • One patient presented with ataxia and superficial sidrosis of the brain.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed well-circumscribed lesions that were isointense on T1- and T2-weighted images with flow voids.
  • All the tumors were well circumscribed and could be excised completely; however, one recurred.
  • Two mimicked ependymoma but were confirmed as paraganglioma by immunohistochemistry.
  • Thus, there were no identifying clinical or radiological features that helped in differentiating paraganglioma from other common tumors, such as ependymoma or neurinoma, in this region, and preoperative diagnosis was not possible in any of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina / pathology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / pathology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Low Back Pain / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18095099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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71. Gururangan S, Petros WP, Poussaint TY, Hancock ML, Phillips PC, Friedman HS, Bomgaars L, Blaney SM, Kun LE, Boyett JM: Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004). Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1540-6
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of intrathecal spartaject busulfan in children with neoplastic meningitis: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-004).
  • PURPOSE: A phase I trial of intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan (SuperGen, Inc., San Ramon, CA) was conducted in children with neoplastic meningitis following recurrent primary brain tumors to describe toxicities, estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and document evidence of responses to this agent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal Spartaject Busulfan was well tolerated in children with neoplastic meningitis from brain tumors, and the recommended dose for future phase II studies is 13 mg.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / blood. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Ependymoma / blood. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Glioma / blood. Glioma / cerebrospinal fluid. Glioma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / blood. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / cerebrospinal fluid. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16533779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA081457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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72. Kawashima M, Matsushima T, Nakahara Y, Takase Y, Masuoka J, Ohata K: Trans-cerebellomedullary fissure approach with special reference to lateral route. Neurosurg Rev; 2009 Oct;32(4):457-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Based on the anatomic findings, we adopted the lateral route of the trans-CMF approach for four patients, each with a tumor near the jugular tubercle extending into the fourth ventricle through the CMF.
  • A tumor is safely removed by this approach with easy feeder or tumor bed controls, especially if it is anchored at the lateral part of the CMF as is the jugular tubercle meningioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19609581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-2320
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Badruddoja MA, Keir ST, King I, Zeidner J, Vredenburgh JJ, Muhlbaier LH, Bigner DD, Friedman HS: Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Jul;9(3):240-4
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  • [Title] Activity of VNP40101M (Cloretazine) in the treatment of CNS tumor xenografts in athymic mice.
  • The current study was designed to assess the activity of VNP40101M administered at a dose of 18 mg/kg daily for five days against a panel of human adult and pediatric CNS tumors growing subcutaneously or intracranially in athymic nude mice.
  • The results demonstrated statistically significant (p < 0.05) growth delays of 15.0, 8.3, 51.0, 60+, 60+, and 60+ days in subcutaneous xenografts derived from childhood glioblastoma multiforme (D-456 MG), childhood ependymoma (D-528 EP and D-612 EP), childhood medulloblastoma (D-425 MED), and adult malignant glioma (D-245 MG and D-54 MG), respectively, with corresponding tumor regressions in 10 of 10, 4 of 10, 8 of 10, 9 of 10, 9 of 10, and 10 of 10 treated mice, respectively.
  • Additional experiments conducted against subcutaneous D-245 MG xenografts by using reduced doses of 13.5 or 9.0 mg/kg daily for five days demonstrated tumor growth delays of 82.2 and 53.5 days, with corresponding tumor regressions in 8 of 9 and 9 of 10 treated mice, respectively (all values, p < 0.001), with one toxic death.
  • These findings suggest that VNP40101M is active in the treatment of a wide range of human central nervous system tumors and warrants translation to the clinic.

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  • (PMID = 17522334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS20023-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Sulfonamides; 14J2G0U3NQ / laromustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1907418
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74. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Severson RK, Stanton B, Hamre M, Sloan AE: Pediatric brain tumors in non-Hispanics, Hispanics, African Americans and Asians: differences in survival after diagnosis. Cancer Causes Control; 2005 Jun;16(5):587-92
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  • [Title] Pediatric brain tumors in non-Hispanics, Hispanics, African Americans and Asians: differences in survival after diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Racial differences in survival for children with brain tumors have not been well studied, particularly in Hispanics and Asians.
  • The objective of this study was to assess racial differences in survival of children with brain tumors, focusing on Hispanics, African Americans and Asians compared to Non-Hispanics.
  • METHODS: Subjects identified through the SEER Program were 2799 children, < or =19 years old at diagnosis, newly diagnosed between 1973 and 1996 with primary, malignant brain tumors.
  • Kaplan-Meier models and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess racial differences in overall survival and in survival by histological type of tumor.
  • RESULTS: The distribution histological type of tumor varied significantly by race.
  • Overall survival was similar for Hispanics, African Americans, Asians compared to Non-Hispanics, although trends of increased risk of death for the minority groups were noted when stratifying by histological type of tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Racial differences in survival could exist by histological type of tumor, but further work is necessary for a more complete understanding of these differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Continental Population Groups / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / ethnology. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / ethnology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / ethnology. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. SEER Program. Survival Analysis. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15986114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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75. Hu WW, Zheng XJ, Shen G, Liu WG, Shen H, Fu WM, Zhou JY: [Diagnosis and micro-neurosurgery for the fourth cerebral ventricle tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;29(2):144-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Tumor of the fourth ventricle was clinically diagnosed in 86 patients basing on the preliminary assessment of symptom and CT or MRI findings.
  • The pathology included 32 medulloblastomas, 23 ependymoma, 15 astrocytoma, 10 hemangiblastomas, 2 choroid plexus papillomas, and 4 epidermoid cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: Medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and hemangiblastoma are suggested to be removed totally whenever technically possible according to the site, character and volume of the tumor.
  • For ependymoma, if close to the brain stem, is recommended to be subtotally removed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / radiography. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / radiography. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17645855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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76. Onguru O, Kurt B, Gunhan O, Soylemezoglu F: Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) expression and angiogenesis in intracranial ependymomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):216-20
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  • We studied Cox-2 expression, Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and microvessel density (MVD) in 30 intracranial ependymomas and analyzed the relationship among these parameters to evaluate their importance in the tumor biology of ependymomas.
  • Statistically significant difference was present for Ki-67 LI between ependymomas (grade II, WHO) and anaplastic ependymomas (grade III, WHO) (p < 0.001) (mean Ki-67 LI for ependymoma, 2.8%, for anaplastic ependymomas, 15.6%).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / blood supply. Ependymoma / enzymology. Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male

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  • (PMID = 17007443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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77. Kieran MW, Packer RJ, Onar A, Blaney SM, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Geyer JR, Gururangan S, Banerjee A, Goldman S, Turner CD, Belasco JB, Broniscer A, Zhu Y, Frank E, Kirschmeier P, Statkevich P, Yver A, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3137-43
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study.
  • PURPOSE: A dose-escalation phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib (SCH66336) was conducted in children with recurrent or progressive CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three children with progressive or recurrent brain tumors were enrolled, with a median age of 12.2 years (range, 3.9 to 19.5 years).
  • Both radiographic response (one anaplastic astrocytoma) and stable disease (one medulloblastoma, two high-grade and four low-grade gliomas, one ependymoma, and one sarcoma) were noted, and seven patients remained on treatment for 1 year or longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Piperidines / pharmacokinetics. Pyridines / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17634493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 193275-84-2 / lonafarnib; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase
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78. Kawasaki K, Kohno M, Inenaga C, Sato A, Hondo H, Miwa A, Fujii Y, Takahashi H: Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle: a report of two cases, one with ultrastructural findings. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):85-90
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  • Chordoid glioma, which generally occurs in adults, is a rare CNS tumor arising in the anterior part of the third ventricle.
  • Both tumors showed essentially the same histological and immunohistochemical features; the tumors were composed of cords and nests of epithelioid, GFAP-immunoreactive cells in a mucinous stroma with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates at the tumor periphery.
  • Ultrastructural examination in one case revealed that the tumor cells were characterized by the presence of hemidesmosomes and associated focal basal lamina formation, intermediate junctions, microvilli and cilia, and intercellular microrosettes with microvilli.
  • In the brain, the presence of fenestrated endothelial cells is a feature of the circumventricular organs (except the subcommissural organ), among which the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis is located in the anterior part of the third ventricular floor that is lined by specialized ependymal cells known as tanycytes.
  • These findings further strengthen the hypothesis that chordoid glioma may represent a peculiar clinicopathological subtype of ependymoma (chordoid ependymoma) originating from the lamina terminalis area.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Basement Membrane / pathology. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cilia / pathology. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Hemidesmosomes / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathology. 2009 Apr;29(2):208
  • (PMID = 18498285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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79. Metellus P, Guyotat J, Chinot O, Durand A, Barrie M, Giorgi R, Jouvet A, Figarella-Branger D: Adult intracranial WHO grade II ependymomas: long-term outcome and prognostic factor analysis in a series of 114 patients. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):976-84
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  • [Title] Adult intracranial WHO grade II ependymomas: long-term outcome and prognostic factor analysis in a series of 114 patients.
  • The authors report a retrospective study of a homogenous population of 114 adult patients harboring WHO grade II intracranial ependymomas from 32 French Neurosurgical Centers between 1990 and 2004.
  • All clinico-radiological and follow-up data were analyzed, and a central pathologic review was performed by two confirmed neuropathologists.
  • On multivariate analysis, the OS rates were associated with preoperative KPS score (P = .027), extent of surgery (P = .008), and tumor location (supratentorial vs infratentorial, P = .012).
  • Interestingly, tumor location also seems to have an actual impact on both OS and PFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20484442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940702
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80. Akimoto J, Murakami M, Fukami S, Ikeda Y, Haraoka J: Primary medulla oblongata germinoma--an unusual posterior fossa tumors in young adults. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):705-8
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  • In both patients, there was a midline tumor that extended from the lower part of the fourth ventricle to the C1 lamina level.
  • It was well-demarcated and homogeneously enhanced tumor with a slightly high density on plain CT scan.
  • The preoperative diagnosis for both patients was ependymoma.
  • The former patient had persistent lower cranial nerve palsies due to brain stem injury after tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19282178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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81. Mangels KJ, Johnson MD, Weil RJ: 35-year-old woman with progressive bilateral leg weakness. Brain Pathol; 2006 Apr;16(2):183-4, 187

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Serial sections revealed a homogeneous black tumor without necrosis.
  • H&E stained sections showed an occasionally fascicular tumor of melanocytes and small round blue tumor spindle cells with melanin pigmentation and 1-2 mitotic figures per 10 high-powered fields.
  • A diagnosis of primary meningeal melanocytic tumor was made.
  • PMMTs of the CNS consist of a spectrum of tumors ranging from well-differentiated melanocytoma to its overtly malignant counterpart, melanoma.
  • IGMs are more cellular than the well-differentiated variant, with 1-3 mitotic figures per 10 HPFs and MIB-1 labeling of <6%.
  • Once metastasis, including drop metastasis from pigmented medulloblastomas, have been excluded, the differential includes pigmented meningiomas and schwannomas (solitary or as part of Carney complex), as well as other pigmented CNS tumors such as ependymoma and pineoblastoma and systemic diseases such as lymphoma . . .
  • For primary CNS melanocytic neoplasms, complete tumor resection is preferred, as it leads to cure of well-differentiated and intermediate-grade melanocytomas and most melanomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Functional Laterality. Humans. Thoracic Vertebrae. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16768759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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82. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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83. Tekkök IH, Sav A: Aggressive spinal germinoma with ascending metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):135-41
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  • At surgery, an encapsulated intradural extramedullary tumor was removed en bloc.
  • The initial histopathological diagnosis was ependymoma.
  • The tumor recurred locally to double its original size only 4 months later.
  • After second surgery, 5,100 cGy of local spinal radiation was given since the pathologist believed that the new tumor exhibited anaplastic features.
  • Subsequently tumor recurred at T6-10 levels and later in the right parasellar region.
  • Surgery was undertaken for both recurrences and radiation to whole spine and to whole brain respectively followed surgery.
  • At 11 months after the initial presentation, a new tumor was diagnosed at T11-T12 levels.
  • Our case is clearly unique in aggressivity of the tumor, a feature often unexpected for germinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Sacrum / anatomy & histology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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84. Terterov S, Krieger MD, Bowen I, McComb JG: Evaluation of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid cytology in staging pediatric medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):131-6
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  • OBJECT: The objective of this study was to determine the role of intracranial CSF examination in detecting true cases of early tumor dissemination.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid dissemination is an ominous feature of pediatric brain tumors, occurring in as many as 30% of medulloblastomas, 25% of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and 5% of ependymomas at diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol, medical records, pathology reports, and radiology reports for 150 patients who had undergone resection of brain tumors (88 with medulloblastomas, 21 with supratentorial PNETs, and 41 with ependymomas) and who had been evaluated using neuraxis MR imaging studies in the last 15 years were retrospectively reviewed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discordance exists between the results of neuraxis MR imaging and lumbar and intracranial CSF cytology in perioperative detection of tumor dissemination for pediatric medulloblastoma, supratentorial PNETs, and ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20672933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Gilbert MR, Ruda R, Soffietti R: Ependymomas in adults. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2010 May;10(3):240-7
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  • Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors in adults.
  • They occur most commonly in the spinal cord, where histopathologic evaluation is critical to differentiate the grade I myxopapillary ependymoma from the grade II ependymoma or grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Brain ependymomas are either grade II or III.
  • For myxopapillary ependymoma, complete removal while maintaining capsule integrity may be curative.
  • Radiation commonly is given to the region of tumor, except in cases in which there is imaging or cerebrospinal fluid evidence of tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Ependymoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Epigenesis, Genetic. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20425040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6293
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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86. Stark AM, Maslehaty H, Hugo HH, Mahvash M, Mehdorn HM: Glioblastoma of the cerebellum and brainstem. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Oct;17(10):1248-51
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  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GB) is the most common and most malignant primary intracranial tumor.
  • Patients younger than 21years of age, as well as patients with gliomatosis cerebri, were excluded from the analysis.
  • Because of its rarity and the non-specific radiological features of iGB, it can easily be misdiagnosed as a brain metastasis, ependymoma or even as a benign lesion such as vestibular schwannoma or meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20619657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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87. Mehrazin M, Rahmat H, Yavari P: Epidemiology of primary intracranial tumors in Iran, 1978-2003. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Apr-Jun;7(2):283-8
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  • The pattern of primary brain tumors have not been reported in Iran and the etiology remains largely unknown.
  • The purpose of this study was to review cases of brain tumors treated in Shariatti hospital, a neurosurgical center, over the twenty five years from 1978 to 2003.
  • A descriptive, retrospective study was made of 3,437 cases who were hospitalized with brain tumors.
  • Data abstracted from the patients' clinical records included age at the time of admission , sex, histological diagnosis and tumor location.
  • The frequency distribution of brain tumors by age and sex, and histology was calculated for comparison with the literature.
  • Of recorded series cases, 20.1% brain tumors occurred in children 15 years and younger, with a mean + sd of 8.7 + 3.9 years, and 79.9 % of cases in adults with the mean + sd of 40.2 + 14.4.
  • The five most common histological types in both sexes were meningioma in 892 cases (26%) followed by astrocytoma in 805 cases (23.4%), pituitary adenoma in 488 cases (14.2%), glioblasomaoma in 278 cases (5.1%) and ependymoma in 166 cases (4.8%).
  • These accounted for 84 % of all brain tumors.
  • The 10 most frequent brain tumors were ranked separately by sex and age groups.
  • In conclusion, the results present an important epidemiological basis for understanding of the brain tumor burden in Iran.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16839224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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88. Onilude OE, Lusher ME, Lindsey JC, Pearson AD, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: APC and CTNNB1 mutations are rare in sporadic ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jul 15;168(2):158-61
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  • The ependymoma is the second most common malignant brain tumor of childhood; however, its molecular basis is poorly understood.
  • The formation of multiple ependymomas has been reported as an occasional feature of Turcot syndrome type 2 (TS2), a familial cancer syndrome caused by inherited mutations of the APC tumor suppressor gene, and characterised by the concurrence of a primary CNS tumor (predominantly medulloblastoma) and multiple colorectal adenomas.
  • In summary, although inherited APC mutations may be associated with ependymoma development in certain TS2 cases, these data indicate that somatic mutations affecting APC and CTNNB1 do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of sporadic ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16843107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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89. Neuwelt EA, Gilmer-Knight K, Lacy C, Nicholson HS, Kraemer DF, Doolittle ND, Hornig GW, Muldoon LL: Toxicity profile of delayed high dose sodium thiosulfate in children treated with carboplatin in conjunction with blood-brain-barrier disruption. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Aug;47(2):174-82
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  • [Title] Toxicity profile of delayed high dose sodium thiosulfate in children treated with carboplatin in conjunction with blood-brain-barrier disruption.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the safety of delayed high dose intravenous (i.v.) sodium thiosulfate (STS) in a case series of 12 children with malignant brain tumors who were treated with intraarterial (i.a.) carboplatin in conjunction with blood-brain-barrier disruption (BBBD).
  • RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting were well controlled with anti-emetics administered approximately 30 min prior to STS infusion.
  • Analogous to results in adult patients, there was mild transient hypernatremia and a trend for improved protection from ototoxicity in children who received STS delayed to 4 hr post-treatment versus 2 hr.
  • Tumor responses were seen in heavily pre-treated patients with relatively chemo-resistant tumors, suggesting that STS did not protect the tumor from platinum cytotoxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: High dose STS is well tolerated in children under 12 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Chelating Agents / administration & dosage. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / prevention & control. Thiosulfates / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Auditory Threshold. Blood-Brain Barrier. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Aug;47(2):120-2 [16206212.001]
  • (PMID = 16086410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS34608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS44687
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / Thiosulfates; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; HX1032V43M / sodium thiosulfate
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90. Schueller P, Micke O, Palkovic S, Schroeder J, Moustakis C, Bruns F, Schuck A, Wassmann H, Willich N: 12 years' experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) of malignant gliomas. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Aug;181(8):500-6
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  • Total versus subtotal resection had no significant influence on survival (p = 0.0741), nor had age, sex, tumor site, performance status, size, primary versus recurrence, and radiation dose.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / mortality. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / mortality. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16044217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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91. Shuangshoti S, Rushing EJ, Mena H, Olsen C, Sandberg GD: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2598-605
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  • Ki-67 proliferation index paralleled tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that there is no significant relation between histopathology, Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 immunolabeling, tumor ploidy, and biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Prognosis. S Phase. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15861411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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92. Klysik M, Gavito J, Boman D, Miranda RN, Hanbali F, De Las Casas LE: Intraoperative imprint cytology of central neurocytoma: The great oligodendroglioma mimicker. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):202-7
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  • [Title] Intraoperative imprint cytology of central neurocytoma: The great oligodendroglioma mimicker.
  • Intraoperative cytologic evaluation of brain tumors has been used either to render a preliminary interpretation or more often as a complement to frozen section examination.
  • Central neurocytoma is a intraventricular neoplasm, typically located in the region of the foramen of Monro, affecting mostly young to middle age adults.
  • Histologically, central neurocytomas are characterized by monotonous cells with round nuclei and neuronal differentiation within a rich capillary network.
  • Their distinction during intraoperative consultations from oligodendroglioma, ependymoma (mainly clear cell ependymoma), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can be a diagnostic challenge.
  • We report a case of a 19-year-old female with an intraventricular tumor where imprint cytology preparations were crucial for the intraoperative diagnosis of central neurocytoma.
  • Imprint cytology preparations show a round cell neoplasm associated with neuropil clumps and short straight capillaries admixed with tumor cell clusters.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases describing the cytologic findings of central neurocytomas have been reported in the medical literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Neurocytoma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Intraoperative Period. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


93. Stark AM, Fritsch MJ, Claviez A, Dörner L, Mehdorn HM: Management of tectal glioma in childhood. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Jul;33(1):33-8
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  • This report discusses the management of this rare tumor in children.
  • First-line therapy was endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5 cases (42%), ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 6 cases (50%), and combined partial tumor resection and shunting in one case.
  • Histology was obtained in 5 cases (low-grade astrocytoma, n = 4; ependymoma, n = 1).
  • Effective treatment for hydrocephalus is essential; the tumor should be monitored by regular clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Biopsy is warranted in cases with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Superior Colliculi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15876519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Saito R, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: [The safety of combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE): single-institution retrospective review of 108 cases]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Nov;38(11):997-1005
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  • PURPOSE: The adverse effects of combination chemotherapy of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE) were evaluated in the treatment of various intracranial brain tumors.
  • The histological diagnosis was newly diagnosed or recurrent germ cell tumor in 45 cases, medulloblastoma in 19, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 7, anaplastic ependymoma in 6, recurrent glioblastoma in 13, and others in 18 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21081811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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95. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH: Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapy is lacking for most types of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children.
  • Temozolomide, an agent with activity against adult brain tumors, was investigated in children and adolescents with recurrent CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: The cohort comprised 122 patients, including 113 with CNS tumors.
  • Among 104 evaluable patients with CNS tumors, 5 PRs and 1 CR were observed.
  • PRs occurred in 1 of 23 evaluable patients with high-grade astrocytoma, 1 of 21 with low-grade astrocytoma, and 3 of 25 with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • No responses were observed in patients with ependymoma, brain-stem glioma, or other CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


96. Attard TM, Giglio P, Koppula S, Snyder C, Lynch HT: Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis. Cancer; 2007 Feb 15;109(4):761-6
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  • [Title] Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis.
  • They are at an increased risk of brain tumors, including cerebellar medulloblastoma, when compared with the general population (Brain Tumor Polyposis-BTP Type 2).
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations between APC gene mutations and central nervous system (CNS) tumors have, thus far not been successful.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their established hereditary CRC Registry for brain tumors in FAP pedigrees (56 families, 213 individuals), pooled their patients with BTP and known APC mutations with those reported thus far elsewhere, and compared the resulting mutation distribution of FAP-BTP with the mutation distribution for APC mutations in the US.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients from 24 families were accrued, the most common brain tumor in BTP was medulloblastoma (60%) predominantly in females (12:5) under the age of 20 (mean age 14.7 SD 9.2).
  • Other histologic subtypes included astrocytoma and ependymoma.
  • Analysis of the pooled APC mutation data by Chi-square test of association shows an odds ratio of 3.7 (P < .005) for all brain tumor subtypes and 13.1 (P < .001) for medulloblastoma in patients harboring segment 2 APC mutation (codons 679-1224) compared to nonsegment 2 mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FAP and identifiable APC gene mutation, CNS tumors, especially medulloblastoma which developed in most cases during childhood, are more common in females with FAP and APC gene mutation in codons 686-1217.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Codon. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Registries


97. Warren K, Jakacki R, Widemann B, Aikin A, Libucha M, Packer R, Vezina G, Reaman G, Shaw D, Krailo M, Osborne C, Cehelsky J, Caldwell D, Stanwood J, Steinberg SM, Balis FM: Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2006 Sep;58(3):343-7
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: [corrected] Lobradimil is a synthetic bradykinin analog that rapidly and transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
  • The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was studied in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors in a phase II trial, the primary endpoints of which were to estimate the response rate and time to disease progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were stratified by histology into five cohorts: brainstem glioma, high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, medullobastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and ependymoma.
  • The study was closed for commercial reasons prior to achieving the accrual goals for the ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/PNET (n = 6) and low-grade glioma (n = 2) cohorts, although responses were observed in 1 patient with PNET and 2 patients with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bradykinin / administration & dosage. Bradykinin / adverse effects. Bradykinin / analogs & derivatives. Bradykinin / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16408203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 159768-75-9 / RMP 7; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; S8TIM42R2W / Bradykinin
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98. Schittenhelm J, Trautmann K, Tabatabai G, Hermann C, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Comparative analysis of annexin-1 in neuroepithelial tumors shows altered expression with the grade of malignancy but is not associated with survival. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1600-11
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  • It is unclear how annexin-1 is expressed in various neuroepithelial tumors, and whether there is any association with tumor malignancy or survival.
  • We studied annexin-1 expression in 394 glial neoplasms of all grades of malignancy and 81 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays.
  • In the normal human brain, the expression of annexin-1 is limited to ependymal cells and subependymal astrocytes, but is also upregulated in reactive astrocytes.
  • In addition, nuclear staining of annexin-1 in oligodendroglial tumor cells was significantly reduced (P=0.0002), which may be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Although annexin-1 expression in ependymomas decreased with the grade of malignancy, diffuse astrocytomas showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic annexin-1-positive tumor cells.
  • Thus, annexin-1 upregulation in astrocytomas may contribute to tumor progression and its expression profile is similar to its substrate, EGFR, suggesting a possible regulation thereof.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A1 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Glioma / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Blotting, Western. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / chemistry. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19767728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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99. Goutagny S, Bouccara D, Bozorg-Grayeli A, Sterkers O, Kalamarides M: [Neurofibromatosis type 2]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2007 Sep;163(8-9):765-77
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  • STATE OF THE ART: Other features of NF2 include schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, localized along the central nervous system, schwannomas of the peripheral nerves, cutaneous and ophthalmological manifestations.
  • NF2 tumor suppressor gene encodes Merlin/Schwannomin, and is also involved in most sporadic schwannomas and meningiomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / genetics. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17878803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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100. Niazi TN, Jensen EM, Jensen RL: WHO Grade II and III supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas in adults: case series and review of treatment options. J Neurooncol; 2009 Feb;91(3):323-8
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  • Supratentorial ependymomas and their anaplastic variants are relatively uncommon central nervous system neoplasms that afflict both adults and children.
  • Whereas the treatment algorithm in the pediatric population is well established, however, treatment in the adult population is less defined.
  • In our case series of three adult patients with supratentorial ependymomas, two patients had tumors of WHO Grade III (anaplastic variant) and one had tumor of WHO Grade II.
  • Twenty-four-month follow-up in case 1 yielded no tumor recurrence and no requirement of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In case 2, tumor recurred with leptomeningeal gliomatosis by 6 months.
  • Tumor did not recur during the 42-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Functional Laterality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18974933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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