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1. Kurwale NS, Ahmad FU, Satyarthi G, Suri A, Mahapatra AK: Can radiation induce pituitary tumors? Giant prolactinoma after radiation exposure. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Nov;15(11):1287-8
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  • Radiation is a well-known etiology for many CNS tumors, including meningiomas, sarcomas and gliomas.
  • We report a 21-year-old man with a pituitary adenoma, who was treated with post-operative radiotherapy for pontine glioma at 6 years of age.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18829328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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2. Liu Q, Liu R, Kashyap MV, Agarwal R, Shi X, Wang CC, Yang SH: Brainstem glioma progression in juvenile and adult rats. J Neurosurg; 2008 Nov;109(5):849-55
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  • [Title] Brainstem glioma progression in juvenile and adult rats.
  • OBJECT: Brainstem gliomas are common in children and have the worst prognosis of any brain tumor in this age group.
  • On the other hand, brainstem gliomas are rare in adults, and the authors of some clinical studies have suggested that this lesion behaves differently in adults than in children.
  • In the present study, the authors test an orthotopic C6 brainstem glioma model in juvenile and adult rats, and investigate the biological behavior of this lesion in the 2 age groups.
  • METHODS: The C6 glioma cells were stereotactically implanted into the pons of juvenile or adult male rats.
  • Tumor proliferation and the number of apoptotic cells in brainstem gliomas of young and adult rats were determined by immunohistochemical staining with Ki 67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate-mediated nick-end labeling assay.
  • RESULTS: Striking differences in the onset of neurological signs, duration of symptoms, survival time, tumor growth pattern, tumor proliferation, and number of apoptotic cells were found between the gliomas in the 2 groups of rats.
  • The lesions were relatively focal in adult rats but more diffuse in young rats.
  • Furthermore, brainstem gliomas in adult rats were less proliferative and had more apoptotic cells than those in young rats.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that the C6 brainstem glioma model in young and adult rats closely imitates the course of brainstem glioma in humans both in neurological findings and histopathological characteristics.
  • Their findings also suggest that the different growth pattern and invasiveness of these lesions in children compared with that in adults could be due to different cellular environments in the 2 age groups, and warrants further investigation into the difference in the host response to brainstem gliomas in children and adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Transplantation / pathology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 18976074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054651; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054651-01A2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054687; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054687-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75237; NLM/ PMC2693119
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3. Wagner S, Benesch M, Berthold F, Gnekow AK, Rutkowski S, Sträter R, Warmuth-Metz M, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, Wolff JE: Secondary dissemination in children with high-grade malignant gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Br J Cancer; 2006 Oct 23;95(8):991-7
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  • The SDD was located parenchymal in the supratentorial (34.8%), infratentorial (6.5%), supratentorial and infratentorial (19.6%), spinal (10.9%), spinal and cerebral (6.5%) regions of the CNS, or leptomeningeal (21.7%).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Pons
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / secondary. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17047647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; H64JRU6GJ0 / trofosfamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360717
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4. Marin-Sanabria EA, Kobayashi N, Miyake S, Kohmura E: Snoring associated with Ondine's curse in a patient with brainstem glioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2006 Apr;13(3):370-3
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  • [Title] Snoring associated with Ondine's curse in a patient with brainstem glioma.
  • We present an adult patient with brainstem glioma who presented with snoring and Ondine's curse as the only symptoms.
  • MRI and MR spectroscopy revealed a brainstem glioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Exceptionally loud snoring in non-obese adult patients with sleep apnea may be an early feature of a brainstem space-occupying lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Glioma / complications. Sleep Apnea Syndromes / etiology. Snoring / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16546390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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5. Zeppernick F, Ahmadi R, Campos B, Dictus C, Helmke BM, Becker N, Lichter P, Unterberg A, Radlwimmer B, Herold-Mende CC: Stem cell marker CD133 affects clinical outcome in glioma patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):123-9
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  • [Title] Stem cell marker CD133 affects clinical outcome in glioma patients.
  • PURPOSE: The CD133 antigen has been identified as a putative stem cell marker in normal and malignant brain tissues.
  • According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, CD133-positive cells determine long-term tumor growth and, therefore, are suspected to influence clinical outcome.
  • To date, a correlation between CD133 expression in primary tumor tissues and patients' prognosis has not been reported.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To address this question, we analyzed the expression of the CD133 stem cell antigen in a series of 95 gliomas of various grade and histology by immunohistochemistry on cryostat sections.
  • RESULTS: By multivariate survival analysis, we found that both the proportion of CD133-positive cells and their topological organization in clusters were significant (P < 0.001) prognostic factors for adverse progression-free survival and overall survival independent of tumor grade, extent of resection, or patient age.
  • Furthermore, proportion of CD133-positive cells was an independent risk factor for tumor regrowth and time to malignant progression in WHO grade 2 and 3 tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings constitute the first conclusive evidence that CD133 stem cell antigen expression correlates with patient survival in gliomas, lending support to the current cancer stem cell hypothesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Peptides. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18172261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
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6. Tuettenberg J, Grobholz R, Seiz M, Brockmann MA, Lohr F, Wenz F, Vajkoczy P: Recurrence pattern in glioblastoma multiforme patients treated with anti-angiogenic chemotherapy. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep;135(9):1239-44
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  • This may reflect an anti-angiogenic therapy-induced activation of glioma invasion confirming similar recently published experimental results.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19277712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
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7. Tabatabai G, Bähr O, Möhle R, Eyüpoglu IY, Boehmler AM, Wischhusen J, Rieger J, Blümcke I, Weller M, Wick W: Lessons from the bone marrow: how malignant glioma cells attract adult haematopoietic progenitor cells. Brain; 2005 Sep;128(Pt 9):2200-11
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  • [Title] Lessons from the bone marrow: how malignant glioma cells attract adult haematopoietic progenitor cells.
  • Stem and progenitor cells (PCs) of various lineages have become attractive vehicles to improve therapeutic gene delivery to cancers, notably glioblastoma.
  • Here we report that adult human and murine haematopoietic PCs display a tropism for intracerebral gliomas but not for normal brain tissue in mice.
  • Organotypic hippocampal slice culture and spheroid confrontation assays confirm a directed PC migration towards glioma cells ex vivo and in vitro.
  • RNA interference-mediated disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) synthesis by the glioma cells strongly inhibits PC migration.
  • We delineate a CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-dependent pathway of TGF-beta-induced PC migration that is facilitated by MMP-9-mediated stem cell factor cleavage in vitro.
  • Thus, we define here the molecular mechanism underlying the glioma tropism of the probably most easily accessible PC population suitable for cancer therapy, that is, adult haematopoietic PC.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Chemotaxis. Glioma / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Chemokine CXCL12. Chemokines, CXC / physiology. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / physiology. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Stem Cell Factor / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15947066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Cxcl12 protein, mouse; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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8. Günther HS, Schmidt NO, Phillips HS, Kemming D, Kharbanda S, Soriano R, Modrusan Z, Meissner H, Westphal M, Lamszus K: Glioblastoma-derived stem cell-enriched cultures form distinct subgroups according to molecular and phenotypic criteria. Oncogene; 2008 May 1;27(20):2897-909
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  • [Title] Glioblastoma-derived stem cell-enriched cultures form distinct subgroups according to molecular and phenotypic criteria.
  • Tumor cells with stem cell-like properties can be cultured from human glioblastomas by using conditions that select for the expansion of neural stem cells.
  • We generated cell lines from glioblastoma specimens with the goal to obtain model systems for glioma stem cell biology.
  • Unsupervised analysis of the expression profiles of nine cell lines established under neural stem cell conditions yielded two distinct clusters.
  • Our findings show that stable, multipotent glioblastoma cell lines with a full stem-like phenotype express neurodevelopmental genes as a distinctive feature, which may offer therapeutic targeting opportunities.
  • The generation of another distinct cluster of cell lines showing similarly homogeneous profiling but restricted stem cell properties suggests that different phenotypes exist, each of which may lead to the typical appearance of glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / classification. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Phenotype
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Tumor Cells, Cultured


9. Tanaka S, Kobayashi I, Utsuki S, Iwamoto K, Takanashi J: Biopsy of brain stem glioma using motor-evoked potential mapping by direct peduncular stimulation and individual adjuvant therapy. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Jan;45(1):49-55
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  • [Title] Biopsy of brain stem glioma using motor-evoked potential mapping by direct peduncular stimulation and individual adjuvant therapy. Case report.
  • A 23-year-old man presented with a brain stem glioma manifesting as a 6-month history of right hemiparesis and diplopia.
  • Serial magnetic resonance imaging showed an intrinsic diffuse brain stem glioma that gradually localized to the left cerebral peduncle after initial adjuvant therapy.
  • Partial resection of the tumor was safely performed, with slight temporary neurological worsening.
  • Individual adjuvant therapy based on the results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of O6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase achieved an almost complete tumor response.
  • Surgery under pyramidal tract mapping and intensive postoperative adjuvant therapy resulted in a good outcome despite the presence of a generally intractable intrinsic brain stem glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Mapping. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Evoked Potentials, Motor. Mesencephalon / physiopathology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy / methods. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15699622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Zhu Y, Harada T, Liu L, Lush ME, Guignard F, Harada C, Burns DK, Bajenaru ML, Gutmann DH, Parada LF: Inactivation of NF1 in CNS causes increased glial progenitor proliferation and optic glioma formation. Development; 2005 Dec;132(24):5577-88
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  • [Title] Inactivation of NF1 in CNS causes increased glial progenitor proliferation and optic glioma formation.
  • The gene responsible for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) encodes a tumor suppressor that functions as a negative regulator of the Ras proto-oncogene.
  • Individuals with germline mutations in NF1 are predisposed to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS).
  • Children with this disease suffer a high incidence of optic gliomas, a benign but potentially debilitating tumor of the optic nerve; and an increased incidence of malignant astrocytoma, reactive astrogliosis and intellectual deficits.
  • In the present study, we have sought insight into the molecular and cellular basis of NF1-associated CNS pathologies.
  • We show that mice genetically engineered to lack NF1 in CNS exhibit a variety of defects in glial cells.
  • Primary among these is a developmental defect resulting in global reactive astrogliosis in the adult brain and increased proliferation of glial progenitor cells leading to enlarged optic nerves.
  • These data point to hyperproliferative glial progenitors as the source of the optic tumors and provide a genetic model for NF1-associated astrogliosis and optic glioma.

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  • (PMID = 16314489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052606-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS052606; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS052606-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofibromin 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149022; NLM/ PMC2760350
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11. Moviglia GA, Carrizo AG, Varela G, Gaeta CA, Paes de Lima A, Farina P, Molina H: Preliminary report on tumor stem cell/B cell hybridoma vaccine for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther; 2008 Jan-Mar;1(1):3-13
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  • [Title] Preliminary report on tumor stem cell/B cell hybridoma vaccine for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
  • BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive glioma, presents with a rapid evolution and relapse within the first year, which is attributed to the persistence of tumor stem cells (TSC) and the escape of immune surveillance.
  • Tumor B-cell hybridoma (TBH) vaccines have been shown to function as antigen-presenting cells.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with MLC had strong and rapid therapeutic effects, but was limited in duration and induced various degrees of brain inflammation.
  • Treatment with MLC+TBH acted synergistically, provoking a rapid, strong and lasting therapeutic response but also generating different degrees of brain inflammation.
  • A lasting therapeutic effect without generating high degrees of brain inflammation occurred in patients treated with TBH vaccine alone.
  • CONCLUSION: TSC vaccine consisting of TBH alone seems to have potent adjuvant reactions overcoming both persistence of tumor stem cells and immune escape of GBM without provoking an encephalitic reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / transplantation. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / therapy. Hybridomas / transplantation. Neoplastic Stem Cells / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / transplantation. Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20063522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1658-3876
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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12. Hall WA, Doolittle ND, Daman M, Bruns PK, Muldoon L, Fortin D, Neuwelt EA: Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption chemotherapy for diffuse pontine gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):279-84
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  • [Title] Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption chemotherapy for diffuse pontine gliomas.
  • From 1984 to 1998, eight patients (4M/4F), median age 11 years, with DPG were treated with monthly osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) chemotherapy using intraarterial carboplatin or methotrexate and intravenous cytoxan and etoposide.
  • The median time to tumor progression was 15 months with the range from <1 to 40 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacokinetics. Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Osmosis / drug effects. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16314949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS34608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS44687
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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13. Fangusaro J: Pediatric high-grade gliomas and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. J Child Neurol; 2009 Nov;24(11):1409-17
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  • Pediatric high-grade gliomas represent approximately 10% of all pediatric brain tumors.
  • Similar to adult high-grade gliomas, they behave very aggressively, and these children have a very poor prognosis despite a variety of therapies that include chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Brain Stem Neoplasms. Glioma
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Models, Neurological. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19638636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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14. Geoerger B, Vassal G, Doz F, O'Quigley J, Wartelle M, Watson AJ, Raquin MA, Frappaz D, Chastagner P, Gentet JC, Rubie H, Couanet D, Geoffray A, Djafari L, Margison GP, Pein F: Dose finding and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase study of cisplatin combined with temozolomide in paediatric solid malignancies. Br J Cancer; 2005 Sep 5;93(5):529-37
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  • Hearing loss was experienced in five patients with prior irradiation to the brain stem or posterior fossa.
  • Partial responses were observed in two malignant glioma, one brain stem glioma, and two neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16136028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361608
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15. Rhee W, Ray S, Yokoo H, Hoane ME, Lee CC, Mikheev AM, Horner PJ, Rostomily RC: Quantitative analysis of mitotic Olig2 cells in adult human brain and gliomas: implications for glioma histogenesis and biology. Glia; 2009 Apr 1;57(5):510-23
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of mitotic Olig2 cells in adult human brain and gliomas: implications for glioma histogenesis and biology.
  • The capacity of adult human glial progenitor cells (AGPs), to proliferate and undergo multipotent differentiation, positions them as ideal candidate cells of origin for human gliomas.
  • To investigate this potential role we identified AGPs as mitotically active Olig2 cells in nonneoplastic adult human brain and gliomas.
  • Extrapolating from a mean Olig2/Mib-1 labeling index (LI) of 52% and total cell number of 100 billion, we estimated the overall prevalence of mitotic Olig2 AGPs in nonneoplastic human brain parenchyma at 10 million.
  • In the most malignant Grade IV glioma, or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the prevalence of Olig2/Mib-1 cells was significantly decreased (24.5%).
  • The novel framework provided by this quantitative and comparative analysis supports future studies to examine the histogenetic role of Olig2 AGPs in adult gliomas, their potential contribution to the tumor stroma and the molecular role of Olig2 in glioma pathogenesis.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18837053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1136
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007144; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007144-25; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007144-28; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS 0007144
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100B protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS77469; NLM/ PMC4415884
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16. Ehtesham M, Stevenson CB, Thompson RC: Stem cell therapies for malignant glioma. Neurosurg Focus; 2005 Sep 15;19(3):E5
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  • [Title] Stem cell therapies for malignant glioma.
  • The prognosis for patients with malignant glioma, which is the most common primary intracranial neoplasm, remains dismal despite significant progress in neurooncological therapies and technology.
  • Malignant glial cells often disseminate throughout the brain, making it exceedingly difficult to target and treat all intracranial neoplastic foci, with the result that tumor recurrence is inevitable despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • The use of neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles for tumor-toxic molecules represents the first experimental strategy aimed specifically at targeting disseminated tumor pockets.
  • Investigators have demonstrated that NSCs possess robust tropism for infiltrating tumor cells, and that they can be used to deliver therapeutic agents directly to tumor satellites, with significant therapeutic benefit.
  • With the aim of developing these findings into a clinically viable technology that would not be hindered by ethical and tissue rejection-related concerns, the use of adult tissue-derived stem cells has recently been explored.
  • These technologies represent important progress in the development of a treatment strategy that can specifically target disseminated neoplastic pockets within the brain.
  • Key among these are an inadequate understanding of the specific tropic mechanisms that govern NSC migration toward invasive tumor, and the need to refine the processes used to generate tumor-tropic stem cells from adult tissues so that this can be accomplished in a clinically practicable fashion.
  • Despite these limitations, the use of stem cell therapies for brain tumors holds significant promise and may emerge as an important therapeutic modality for patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16190604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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17. Santra M, Liu XS, Santra S, Zhang J, Zhang RL, Zhang ZG, Chopp M: Ectopic expression of doublecortin protects adult rat progenitor cells and human glioma cells from severe oxygen and glucose deprivation. Neuroscience; 2006 Oct 27;142(3):739-52
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  • [Title] Ectopic expression of doublecortin protects adult rat progenitor cells and human glioma cells from severe oxygen and glucose deprivation.
  • DCX expression is increased in subventricular zone (SVZ) cells migrating to the boundary of an ischemic lesion after induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats and mice.
  • Using gene transfer technology, we overexpressed DCX in rat SVZ and U-87 human glioma cells.
  • In NIH3T3 cells, DCX overexpression had no effect on cell survival against OGD, and indicating that the protective effects of DCX was restricted to brain cells e.g.
  • Our data suggest a novel and an important role for DCX as a protective agent for migrating neuroblasts and tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Glioma / metabolism. Glucose / deficiency. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / physiology. Neuropeptides / physiology. Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Brain / cytology. Cadherins / classification. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Movement / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling / methods. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Male. Mice. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Time Factors. Transfection / methods. beta-Galactosidase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16962712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS23393
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / MAP2 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / doublecortin protein; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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18. Nohroudi K, Arnhold S, Berhorn T, Addicks K, Hoehn M, Himmelreich U: In vivo MRI stem cell tracking requires balancing of detection limit and cell viability. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(4):431-41
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  • [Title] In vivo MRI stem cell tracking requires balancing of detection limit and cell viability.
  • Cell-based therapy using adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has already been the subject of clinical trials, but for further development and optimization the distribution and integration of the engrafted cells into host tissues have to be monitored.
  • Nevertheless, labeling of BMSCs with low amounts of MPIOs results in maintained cellular function and sufficient contrast for in vivo observation of single cells by MRI in a rat glioma model.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement. Contrast Media / analysis. Ferric Compounds / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation. Metal Nanoparticles / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cell Survival. Glioma / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 20149297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Ferric Compounds; 1K09F3G675 / ferric oxide
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19. Bradley KA, Pollack IF, Reid JM, Adamson PC, Ames MM, Vezina G, Blaney S, Ivy P, Zhou T, Krailo M, Reaman G, Mehta MP, Children's Oncology Group: Motexafin gadolinium and involved field radiation therapy for intrinsic pontine glioma of childhood: a Children's Oncology Group phase I study. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Oct;10(5):752-8
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  • [Title] Motexafin gadolinium and involved field radiation therapy for intrinsic pontine glioma of childhood: a Children's Oncology Group phase I study.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the dose-limiting toxicities, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and intratumor and brain distribution of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) with involved field radiation therapy in children with newly diagnosed intrinsic pontine gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 18715950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 97452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UM1 CA097452
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metalloporphyrins; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 6433A42F4F / motexafin gadolinium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666252
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20. Yuan X, Hu J, Belladonna ML, Black KL, Yu JS: Interleukin-23-expressing bone marrow-derived neural stem-like cells exhibit antitumor activity against intracranial glioma. Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;66(5):2630-8
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  • [Title] Interleukin-23-expressing bone marrow-derived neural stem-like cells exhibit antitumor activity against intracranial glioma.
  • Neural progenitor-like cells have been isolated from bone marrow and the cells have the ability of tracking intracranial tumor.
  • However, the capacity of the cells to deliver molecules for activating immune response against intracranial tumor and the identity of cellular and molecular factors that are involved in such immune responses have yet to be elucidated.
  • Here, we isolated neural stem-like cells from the bone marrow of adult mice.
  • The isolated cells were capable of producing progenies of three lineages, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, in vitro and tracking glioma in vivo.
  • By genetically manipulating bone marrow-derived neural stem-like cells (BM-NSC) to express a recently discovered cytokine, interleukin (IL)-23, the cells showed protective effects in intracranial tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice.
  • Furthermore, the IL-23-expressing BM-NSC-treated survivors were resistant to the same tumor rechallenge associated with enhanced IFN-gamma, but not IL-17, expression in the brain tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Interleukins / biosynthesis. Neurons / immunology. Stem Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16510582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1K23 NS02232; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R01 NS048959; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R21 NS048879
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Il23a protein, mouse; 0 / Interleukin-23; 0 / Interleukin-23 Subunit p19; 0 / Interleukins
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21. Niranjan A, Fellows W, Stauffer W, Burton EA, Hong CS, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Glorioso JC, Gobbel GT: Survival of transplanted neural progenitor cells enhanced by brain irradiation. J Neurosurg; 2007 Aug;107(2):383-91
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  • [Title] Survival of transplanted neural progenitor cells enhanced by brain irradiation.
  • OBJECT: Authors of previous studies have reported that adult transplanted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are suitable for brain cell replacement or gene delivery.
  • In this study, the authors evaluated survival and integration of adult rat-derived NPCs after transplantation and explored the potential impact on transplant survival of various mechanical and biological factors of clinical importance.
  • METHODS: Adult female Fischer 344 rats were used both as a source and recipient of transplanted NPCs.
  • Both 9L and RG2 rat glioma cells were used to generate in vivo brain tumor models.
  • On the 5th day after tumor implantation, NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were administered either intravenously (3.5 x 10(7) cells) or by stereotactic injection (1 x 10(4)-1 x 10(6) cells) into normal or tumor-bearing brain.
  • The authors evaluated the effect of delivery method (sharp compared with blunt needles, normal compared with zero-volume needles, phosphate-buffered saline compared with medium as vehicle), delivery sites (intravenous compared with intratumoral compared with intraparenchymal), and pretreatment with an immunosuppressive agent (cyclosporin) or brain irradiation (20-40 Gy) on survival and integration of transplanted NPCs.
  • When 10(5) cells or more were transplanted, only previously administered brain irradiation significantly affected survival and integration of NPCs.
  • Although GFP-containing NPCs could be readily detected 1 day after injection, few cells survived 4 days to 1 week unless preceded by whole-brain radiation (20 or 40 Gy in a single fraction), which increased the number of GFP-containing NPCs within the tissue more than fivefold.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors' findings indicate that most NPCs, including those from a syngeneic autologous source, do not survive at the site of implantation, but that brain irradiation can facilitate subsequent survival in both normal and tumor-bearing brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Multipotent Stem Cells / radiation effects. Multipotent Stem Cells / transplantation. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Immunology / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17695394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Jiang ZL, Wang ZC, Jiang T: [Surgical outcomes of different approaches for mesial temporal lobe gliomas]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Sep 7;85(34):2428-32
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  • METHODS: Microsurgery was performed via trans-sylvian, trans-temporal, or subtemporal approaches on 62 patients with mesial temporal lobe gliomas, 33 with localized tumors within the mesial temporal structures (type A), 19 in anterior portion (type A1), and 14 extending to posterior portion (type A2); 19 patients with multicompartmental tumors involving the mesial temporal lobe, insular lobe, and posterior frontorbital gurus (type B); 14 patients with tumors involving the temporal pole and lateral areas of the temporal horn (type C); and 6 patients with tumors infiltrating the brain stem, basal nuclei and thalamus (type D).
  • RESULTS: Trans-sylvian approach was performed in 25 cases of which total tumor removal was achieved in 14 cases, subtotal removal in 6 cases, and gross removal in 5 cases.
  • Trans-temporal approach was used in 23 cases of which total tumor resection was achieved in 15 cases, subtotal resection in 5 cases, and gross resection in 3 cases.
  • Subtemporal approach was used in 14 cases of which total tumor removal was achieved in 10 cases, and subtotal removal in 4 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 16321253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Chu L, Huang Q, Zhai DZ, Zhu Q, Huo HM, Dong J, Qian ZY, Wang AD, Lan Q, Gao YL: [Expression and significance of ABCG2 in human malignant glioma]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1090-4
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  • [Title] [Expression and significance of ABCG2 in human malignant glioma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCG2 is a marker derived from hematopoietic stem cells.
  • However, its role in tumorigenesis and malignant progression of glioma is unclear.
  • METHODS: A microarray chip containing glioma tissues of different malignant grades, implanted glioma xenografts in nude mice, spheroids of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells was prepared and examined for the expression of ABCG2 with immunohistochemical staining.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of ABCG2 was 26.8% in the 71 specimens of human glioma tissues, with 11.1% in grade I gliomas, 8% in grade II gliomas, 43.5% in grade III gliomas, and 42.9% in grade IV gliomas; it was significantly higher in grade III-IV gliomas than in grade I-II gliomas (chi2=10.710, P=0.001).
  • The positive rate of ABCG2 was 100% in implanted glioma xenografts in nude mice, gliomas stem cells, and neural stem cells.
  • The positive cells surrounded and invaded into vessels in glioma tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ABCG2 is overexpressed in glioma stem cells, glioma tissues of higher grades, and implanted glioma xenografts.
  • The positive cells distribute around vessels in glioma tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Stem Cells / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17927879.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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24. Amano S, Li S, Gu C, Gao Y, Koizumi S, Yamamoto S, Terakawa S, Namba H: Use of genetically engineered bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for glioma gene therapy. Int J Oncol; 2009 Dec;35(6):1265-70
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  • [Title] Use of genetically engineered bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for glioma gene therapy.
  • In our previous study, we successfully treated an established C6 brain tumor using neural stem cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene (HSVtk) and ganciclovir in the rat.
  • In the present study, we investigated the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), obtained from adult rats and transduced with HSVtk (MSCtk cells), instead of neural stem cells because MSCs are much easier to obtain from the adult subjects.
  • Those cells were used for in vitro co-culture study and in vivo co-implantation study with C6 rat glioma cells to examine bystander tumoricidal effect, which revealed a sufficient bystander effect and only 1/32 MSCtk cells were needed for complete tumor eradication.
  • In vitro bystander effect was also observed in a real-time fashion using a culture microscope and it was shown that only tumor cells that had contact with MSCtk cells died.
  • In vivo treatment study of an established C6 brain tumor with an intratumoral injection of MSCtk cells followed by systemic ganciclovir administration demonstrated a significant reduction of the tumor size and a significant survival prolongation.
  • The treatment strategy using MSCtk and ganciclovir (MSCtk therapy) is more feasible and practical for clinical application than the method using neural stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy / methods. Glioma / therapy. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19885548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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25. Greenfield JP, Jin DK, Young LM, Christos PJ, Abrey L, Rafii S, Gutin PH: Surrogate markers predict angiogenic potential and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurgery; 2009 May;64(5):819-26; discussion 826-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: The neovascularization of malignant brain tumors is a poorly understood phenomenon.
  • However, a quantitative noninvasive assay to assess glioma vascularity and associated clinical aggressiveness has not been developed.
  • Circulating endothelial progenitor cells are unique vascular precursors recruited from the bone marrow through the circulation to form new tumor blood vessels.
  • We hypothesized that this might reflect the extent of tumor vascularity, predict prognosis, or be useful as an assay to assess response to antiangiogenesis therapies.
  • In addition, we report on a novel in vitro assay to assess the proangiogenic activity within the plasma samples obtained from glioma patients.
  • In addition, all patients with GBM had measurable numbers of bone marrow-derived endothelial precursor cells coexpressing CD133 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in their peripheral circulation at the time of tumor resection.
  • CONCLUSION: These studies suggest that plasma and circulating CD133+ vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2+ proangiogenic cells are present in the peripheral blood of patients with glioma and can be used as a surrogate biomarker to measure tumor angiogenicity.
  • These assays can be used to predict tumor aggressiveness.
  • Also promising is their potential to identify patients with increased angiogenic activity who might respond maximally to antiangiogenesis therapies or to assess tumor response in patients using those therapies as the use of these adjuvant molecular modalities becomes more prevalent in neuro-oncology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Glioblastoma / blood. Neovascularization, Pathologic / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Biological Assay / methods. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Female. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptides / metabolism. Stem Cells / metabolism. Stem Cells / pathology. Umbilical Veins / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism


26. Ueoka DI, Nogueira J, Campos JC, Maranhão Filho P, Ferman S, Lima MA: Brainstem gliomas--retrospective analysis of 86 patients. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;281(1-2):20-3
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  • [Title] Brainstem gliomas--retrospective analysis of 86 patients.
  • Brainstem gliomas constitute 10% of brain tumors in children and less than 2% in adults.
  • Since therapeutic options are limited and brainstem gliomas are associated with a high morbidity and mortality, we sought to analyze the prognostic factors associated with a better outcome.
  • We reviewed the records of 86 patients with brainstem gliomas treated between 1996 and 2006.
  • Of 86 patients with brainstem gliomas, 55.8% were females.
  • A short duration of symptoms, which may imply a more aggressive tumor, was associated with a worst prognosis in patients with brainstem gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Brain Stem / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19345380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5883
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Rath GP, Bithal PK, Chaturvedi A, Dash HH: Complications related to positioning in posterior fossa craniectomy. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Jun;14(6):520-5
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  • Brainstem handling was the most common cause of prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation and was seen more in the sitting position.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Arnold-Chiari Malformation / surgery. Brain Diseases / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroma, Acoustic / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17430775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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28. Hargrave DR, Hargrave UA, Bouffet E: Quality of health information on the Internet in pediatric neuro-oncology. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Apr;8(2):175-82
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  • The Internet is now the single largest source of health information and is used by many patients and their families who are affected by childhood brain tumors.
  • To assess the quality of pediatric neuro-oncology information on the Internet, we used search engines to look for information on five common tumor types (brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, low-grade glioma, and medulloblastoma).
  • Few sites offered information in languages other than English, and readability statistics showed an average required reading level of U.S. grade 12+ (the suggested level being grades 6-8 for an adult audience).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Internet / standards. Medical Informatics / standards. Medical Oncology. Neurology


29. Gilheeney SW, Khakoo Y, Souweidane M, Wolden S, Boulad F, Dunkel IJ: Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):591-5
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  • [Title] Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system.
  • BACKGROUND: Thiotepa and carboplatin are known to be active in central nervous system tumors.
  • Topotecan potentiates the anti-cancer effects of alkylators and crosses the blood-brain barrier.
  • We present ten patients with recurrent or progressive central nervous system malignancies treated on a myeloablative regimen using these drugs.
  • Stem cell rescue was on day 0.
  • Five had medulloblastoma (MB), four had high grade glioma (HGG), and one had trilateral retinoblastoma/pineoblastoma (tRB/PB).
  • Four of the seven patients with no evidence of disease/minimal residual disease status at the time of stem cell rescue are long-term survivors versus 1/3 with measurable disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin may help consolidate remission of poor prognosis pediatric central nervous system tumors.
  • Diagnosis and extent of disease prior to stem cell rescue may have an impact on outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prognosis. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19998470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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30. Spreafico F, Gandola L, Marchianò A, Simonetti F, Poggi G, Adduci A, Clerici CA, Luksch R, Biassoni V, Meazza C, Catania S, Terenziani M, Musumeci R, Fossati-Bellani F, Massimino M: Brain magnetic resonance imaging after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood brain tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 15;70(4):1011-9
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  • [Title] Brain magnetic resonance imaging after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood brain tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT.
  • RESULTS: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset.
  • Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-à-vis recurrent tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Brain. Brain Neoplasms. Glioma. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive. Thiotepa / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cognition / drug effects. Cognition / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Intelligence / drug effects. Intelligence / radiation effects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17904307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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31. Suzuki T, Izumoto S, Wada K, Fujimoto Y, Maruno M, Yamasaki M, Kanemura Y, Shimazaki T, Okano H, Yoshimine T: Inhibition of glioma cell proliferation by neural stem cell factor. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(3):233-9
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  • [Title] Inhibition of glioma cell proliferation by neural stem cell factor.
  • Neural stem cells (NSC) have unique differentiation-, proliferation-, and motility properties.
  • To investigate whether they secrete factors that interfere with the proliferation of glioma cells, we grew glioma cells in conditioned medium (CM) obtained from cultures of neurospheres including neural stem / progenitor cells (NSPC) isolated from embryonic (E14)- or adult mouse brain or fetal human brain.
  • 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and BrdU-labeling assays showed that CM from NSPC (NSPC/CM) contained factor(s) that inhibited the proliferation of glioma cells by 28-87%.
  • On the basis of these observations we transplanted 203G glioma cells and/or NSPC into the intrathecal space of the cisterna magna of mice to investigate whether NSPC interfere with the proliferation of glioma cells in vivo.
  • We concluded that NSPC secrete factor(s) that may control glioma cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology. Glioma / pathology. Stem Cells / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Corpus Striatum / cytology. Embryo, Mammalian. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Neurons / cytology. Rats. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16187020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned
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32. Colin C, Baeza N, Tong S, Bouvier C, Quilichini B, Durbec P, Figarella-Branger D: In vitro identification and functional characterization of glial precursor cells in human gliomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Apr;32(2):189-202
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  • All tumoral explants contain A2B5+ cells and can generate migrating cells with distinctive functional properties according to glioma subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioma / pathology. Neuroglia / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Cell Lineage. Cell Movement. Child. Child, Preschool. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Middle Aged


33. Majchrzak H, Krawczyk L, Majchrzak K, Bierzyńska-Macyszyn G: [Surgical treatment of brainstem gliomas and other tumors in adults]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;39(1):27-32
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of brainstem gliomas and other tumors in adults].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: After the introduction of MR imaging to the diagnostics of brainstem tumors and after the introduction of microsurgical procedures to their treatment, the successful treatment, particularly of focal and exophytic forms of these tumors has begun all over the world.
  • The objective of this paper is to establish indications for surgical treatment of gliomas and other tumors of brainstem, to determine surgical approaches and to establish the outcome.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Within the last 6 years, 12 patients with focal and exophytic tumors of the brainstem in adults were operated on.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with focal and exophytic forms of the brainstem tumors in MR imaging are qualified for surgical treatment.
  • Immediate results of the treatment depend on the localization and size of the neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15735987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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34. Gao F, Wang X, Zhu F, Wang Q, Zhang X, Guo C, Zhou C, Ma C, Sun W, Zhang Y, Chen YH, Zhang L: PDCD4 gene silencing in gliomas is associated with 5'CpG island methylation and unfavourable prognosis. J Cell Mol Med; 2009 Oct;13(10):4257-67
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  • Loss of PDCD4 expression has been found in several types of human cancers including the most common cancer of the brain, the gliomas.
  • The methylation of the PDCD4 5'CpG island was found in 47% (14/30) of glioma tissues, which was significantly associated with the loss of PDCD4 mRNA expression (gamma=-1.000, P < 0.0001).
  • Blocking methylation in glioma cells using a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, restored the PDCD4 gene expression, inhibited their proliferation and reduced their colony formation capacity.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation / genetics. Gene Silencing. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / genetics. RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Survival Analysis. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 18793349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-4934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / PDCD4 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4496131
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35. Magrassi L, Conti L, Lanterna A, Zuccato C, Marchionni M, Cassini P, Arienta C, Cattaneo E: Shc3 affects human high-grade astrocytomas survival. Oncogene; 2005 Aug 4;24(33):5198-206
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  • Previous studies showed that in the embryo, Shc1 is maximally expressed in dividing CNS stem cells while it is silenced in mature neurons, where it is replaced by Shc3.
  • Our data indicate that Shc3 is maximally expressed, together with Shc1, in glioblastoma, a highly proliferative tumor with little, if any, indication of neuronal differentiation.
  • In primary cultures of glioblastoma, tumor cells maintain Shc1 expression but downregulate Shc3.
  • Analysis of the phosphorylation status of Shc3 in human glioblastoma tumor samples in vivo indicates that it is tyrosine phosphorylated.
  • Finally, we found that the expression of truncated variants of Shc3 with dominant-negative effects in human high-grade glioma cells that maintain Shc3 expression in vitro leads to a decreased Akt posphorylation and increased apoptosis, thus resulting in impaired survival of the transfected cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neuropeptides / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / physiology. Adult. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Phosphorylation. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15870690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / SHC3 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins
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36. Weddell RA: The effects of a midbrain glioma on memory and other functions: a longitudinal single case study. Neuropsychologia; 2008 Mar 7;46(4):1135-50
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  • [Title] The effects of a midbrain glioma on memory and other functions: a longitudinal single case study.
  • This investigation of a rare case of a glioma initially confined to the dorsal midbrain explores the effects of disease progression on IQ, memory, and choice reaction time.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioma / physiopathology. Memory / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neuropsychological Tests. Reaction Time. Retrospective Studies. Space Perception. Verbal Behavior

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  • (PMID = 18054969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3932
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Shah GD, Silver JS, Rosenfeld SS, Gavrilovic IT, Abrey LE, Lassman AB: Myelosuppression in patients benefiting from imatinib with hydroxyurea for recurrent malignant gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Nov;85(2):217-22
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  • Reports suggest reasonable efficacy and minimal myelosuppression from combination imatinib and hydroxyurea for recurrent malignant glioma.
  • Combining imatinib with hydroxyurea is effective in some patients with malignant glioma.
  • Disease control may also correlate with hematologic toxicity (p = 0.08), suggesting that glioma and marrow stem cells may share a common sensitivity to this chemotherapy regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Benzamides. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Humans. Hydroxyurea / administration & dosage. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17594055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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38. Huse JT, Holland EC: Targeting brain cancer: advances in the molecular pathology of malignant glioma and medulloblastoma. Nat Rev Cancer; 2010 May;10(5):319-31
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  • [Title] Targeting brain cancer: advances in the molecular pathology of malignant glioma and medulloblastoma.
  • Malignant brain tumours continue to be the cause of a disproportionate level of morbidity and mortality across a wide range of individuals.
  • The most common variants in the adult and paediatric populations - malignant glioma and medulloblastoma, respectively - have been the subject of increasingly intensive research over the past two decades that has led to considerable advances in the understanding of their basic biology and pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Pathology, Molecular / trends


39. Ogden AT, Waziri AE, Lochhead RA, Fusco D, Lopez K, Ellis JA, Kang J, Assanah M, McKhann GM, Sisti MB, McCormick PC, Canoll P, Bruce JN: Identification of A2B5+CD133- tumor-initiating cells in adult human gliomas. Neurosurgery; 2008 Feb;62(2):505-14; discussion 514-5
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  • [Title] Identification of A2B5+CD133- tumor-initiating cells in adult human gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that human gliomas contain a small population of cells with stem cell-like features.
  • It has been proposed that these "cancer stem cells" may be uniquely responsible for glioma formation and recurrence.
  • METHODS: To investigate the contributions of stem-like and progenitor-like cells in human gliomas, we used flow cytometry to characterize the expression of a cancer stem cell marker (CD133) and a glial progenitor marker (A2B5) in 25 tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found that the capacity for these different populations to form tumors varied depending on the human tumor specimen from which they were isolated.
  • Of the six human gliomas tested, four contained A2B5+/CD133- cells that formed tumors when transplanted into nude rats, three contained A2B5+/CD133+ cells that formed tumors, and only one glioma contained A2B5-/CD133- cells with the capacity to form tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gangliosides / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Peptides / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Nude


41. Park HJ, Kim JK, Jeon HM, Oh SY, Kim SH, Nam DH, Kim H: The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX promotes tumorigenesis and genesis of cells resembling glioma stem cells. Mol Cells; 2010 Nov;30(5):403-8
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  • [Title] The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX promotes tumorigenesis and genesis of cells resembling glioma stem cells.
  • A growing body of evidence indicates that deregulation of stem cell fate determinants is a hallmark of many types of malignancies.
  • The neural stem cell fate determinant TLX plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis in the adult brain by maintaining neural stem cells.
  • Here, we report a tumorigenic role of TLX in brain tumor initiation and progression.
  • Increased TLX expression was observed in a number of glioma cells and glioma stem cells, and correlated with poor survival of patients with gliomas.
  • Ectopic expression of TLX in the U87MG glioma cell line and Ink4a/Arf-deficient mouse astrocytes (Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes) induced cell proliferation with a concomitant increase in cyclin D expression, and accelerated foci formation in soft agar and tumor formation in in vivo transplantation assays.
  • Furthermore, overexpression of TLX in Ink4a/Arf(-/-) astrocytes inhibited cell migration and invasion and promoted neurosphere formation and Nestin expression, which are hallmark characteristics of glioma stem cells, under stem cell culture conditions.
  • Our results indicate that TLX is involved in glioma stem cell genesis and represents a potential therapeutic target for this type of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neural Stem Cells / pathology. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytes / pathology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Cyclin D / genetics. Humans. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nestin. Neurogenesis. Prognosis. Up-Regulation

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  • [ErratumIn] Mol Cells. 2011 Feb ;31(2):199. Park, Myung-Jin [removed]; Soeda, Akio [removed]
  • (PMID = 20814749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-1032
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecules and cells
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cells
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / NR2E1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
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42. Salmaggi A, Fariselli L, Milanesi I, Lamperti E, Silvani A, Bizzi A, Maccagnano E, Trevisan E, Laguzzi E, Rudà R, Boiardi A, Soffietti R, Associazione Italiana di Neuro-oncologia: Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study. J Neurol; 2008 Feb;255(2):171-7
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  • [Title] Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study.
  • Brainstem gliomas in adults are rare tumors, with heterogeneous clinical course; only a few studies in the MRI era describe the features in consistent groups of patients.
  • In this retrospective study, we report clinical features at onset, imaging characteristics and subsequent course in a group of 34 adult patients with either histologically proven or clinico-radiologically diagnosed brainstem gliomas followed at two centers in Northern Italy.
  • Compared with literature data, our study confirms the clinical and radiological heterogeneity of adult brainstem gliomas and underscores the need for multicenter trials in order to assess the efficacy of treatments in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Italy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18293027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Kawabori M, Murata J, Abe S, Saito H: [A case of brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome]. No Shinkei Geka; 2009 Nov;37(11):1105-9
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  • [Title] [A case of brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome].
  • A rare case of a brainstem variant of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is reported.
  • Computed tomography imaging (CT) showed his brain stem with a low attenuation.
  • Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) was normal at the brainstem, but apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were slightly elevated at the left midbrain.
  • RPLS associated with predominant involvement of the brainstem and sparing of the supratentorial region is rare, but it should be differentiated from brain stem infarction, pontine glioma, central pontine myelinolysis and infective encephalitis, since the neulological consequences are potentially fully reversible after adequate and prompt treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem. Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 19938667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Häyry V, Tanner M, Blom T, Tynninen O, Roselli A, Ollikainen M, Sariola H, Wartiovaara K, Nupponen NN: Copy number alterations of the polycomb gene BMI1 in gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Jul;116(1):97-102
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  • Gliomas are heterogeneous tumours that grow in an uninhibited fashion, and these brain tumour cells share numerous characteristics with neural stem cells.
  • It functions for instance during the development of the central nervous system and maturation of neural cells.
  • Since BMI1 is located at chromosome 10p, a region implicated frequently in brain tumourigenesis, we investigated the genetic status and the corresponding expression patterns of BMI1 in a series of 100 low- and high-grade primary and recurrent gliomas.
  • This data suggests that BMI1 gene is aberrant at the chromosomal level in a subset of gliomas, and possibly contributes to brain tumour pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Dosage. Glioma / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18427816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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45. Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B: Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther; 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Brainstem glioma carries the worst prognosis of all malignancies of the brain.
  • Most patients with brainstem glioma fail standard radiation therapy and chemotherapy and do not survive longer than 2 years.
  • Treatment is even more challenging when an inoperable tumor is of high-grade pathology (HBSG).
  • CONCLUSION: Antineoplastons contributed to more than a 5-year survival in recurrent diffuse intrinsic glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas of the brainstem in a small group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzeneacetamides / administration & dosage. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glutamine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Phenylacetates / administration & dosage. Piperidones / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16484713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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46. Abel TW, Clark C, Bierie B, Chytil A, Aakre M, Gorska A, Moses HL: GFAP-Cre-mediated activation of oncogenic K-ras results in expansion of the subventricular zone and infiltrating glioma. Mol Cancer Res; 2009 May;7(5):645-53
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  • [Title] GFAP-Cre-mediated activation of oncogenic K-ras results in expansion of the subventricular zone and infiltrating glioma.
  • A subset of neoplastic cells within human high-grade gliomas has features associated with stem cells.
  • These cells may sustain glioma growth, and their stem-like properties may confer resistance to standard glioma treatments.
  • Whether glioma stem cells derive from indigenous neural stem cells (NSC), or from tumor cells that have reacquired stem cell-like properties, is unknown.
  • However, signaling pathways that are tightly regulated and central to NSC biology, including the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, are hyperactive and pathogenic in gliomagenesis.
  • Furthermore, data in animal models suggests that, in some cases, tumors are initiated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a stem/progenitor cell niche in the mature brain.
  • We activated oncogenic K-ras in mouse glioneuronal precursor cells and adult SVZ cells using GFAP-Cre.
  • In addition, mice developed intermediate grade, infiltrating glioma with 100% penetrance.
  • Tumor cells expressed markers associated with neural progenitor cells, including Olig2, Bmi-1, and PDGFR-alpha.
  • These data suggest that infiltrating tumor cells may arise from NSC transformed by activation of oncogenic K-ras in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 19435821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS062107; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS062107-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS062107-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS126139; NLM/ PMC3406747
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47. Laks DR, Masterman-Smith M, Visnyei K, Angenieux B, Orozco NM, Foran I, Yong WH, Vinters HV, Liau LM, Lazareff JA, Mischel PS, Cloughesy TF, Horvath S, Kornblum HI: Neurosphere formation is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in malignant glioma. Stem Cells; 2009 Apr;27(4):980-7
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  • [Title] Neurosphere formation is an independent predictor of clinical outcome in malignant glioma.
  • Renewable neurosphere formation in culture is a defining characteristic of certain brain tumor initiating cells.
  • This retrospective study was designed to assess the relationship among neurosphere formation in cultured human glioma, tumorigenic capacity, and patient clinical outcome.
  • Tumor samples were cultured in neurosphere conditions from 32 patients with glioma, including a subpopulation of 15 patients with primary glioblastoma.
  • A subsample of renewable neurosphere cultures was xenografted into mouse brain to determine if they were tumorigenic.
  • Renewable neurosphere formation in cultured human glioma significantly predicted an increased hazard of patient death and more rapid tumor progression.
  • These results pertained to both the full population of glioma and the subpopulation of primary glioblastoma.
  • Similarly, there was a significant hazard of progression for patients whose glioma had tumorigenic capacity.
  • In addition, multivariate analysis of neurosphere formation, tumor grade and patient age, demonstrated that neurosphere formation was a robust, independent predictor of glioma tumor progression.
  • Although the lengthy duration of this assay may preclude direct clinical application, these results exemplify how neurosphere culture serves as a clinically relevant model for the study of malignant glioma.
  • Furthermore, this study suggests that the ability to propagate brain tumor stem cells in vitro is associated with clinical outcome.


48. Combs SE, Steck I, Schulz-Ertner D, Welzel T, Kulozik AE, Behnisch W, Huber PE, Debus J: Long-term outcome of high-precision radiotherapy in patients with brain stem gliomas: results from a difficult-to-treat patient population using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Apr;91(1):60-6
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of high-precision radiotherapy in patients with brain stem gliomas: results from a difficult-to-treat patient population using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: To assess long-term outcome in 85 patients with brain stem gliomas treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT).
  • Histopathological examination confirmed a low-grade glioma in 57 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term outcome of FSRT in patients with brain stem gliomas is acceptable with low rates of side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Stereotaxic Techniques. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19285356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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49. Lasky JL 3rd, Choe M, Nakano I: Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther; 2009 Dec;4(4):298-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) tumors remain the leading cause of death among pediatric neoplasms.
  • Although standard therapies cure many pediatric CNS tumors, the long-term cognitive and physical consequences of these therapies are devastating.
  • Although recent studies have focused on molecular mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), these tumors differ phenotypically and at a molecular level from pediatric brain tumors.
  • Recent investigations have identified a stem cell population, termed "brain tumor stem cells" (BTSC) within the heterogeneous cell populations that comprise malignant brain tumors which may be partly responsible for the resistance to current therapies.
  • By exploiting molecular differences present within these heterogeneous populations of brain tumor cells, we may be able to achieve specific eradication of BTSC and long-lasting remissions, while causing less toxicity to normal tissues.
  • In this review, we describe the issues surrounding the identification and characterization of BTSC, the molecular biology of BTSC for different pediatric brain tumors, and suggest future avenues for the development of treatments for this devastating disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Optic Nerve Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult Stem Cells / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Humans. Surgical Procedures, Operative


50. Xu Q, Yuan X, Xu M, McLafferty F, Hu J, Lee BS, Liu G, Zeng Z, Black KL, Yu JS: Chemokine CXC receptor 4--mediated glioma tumor tracking by bone marrow--derived neural progenitor/stem cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 2009 Sep;8(9):2746-53
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  • [Title] Chemokine CXC receptor 4--mediated glioma tumor tracking by bone marrow--derived neural progenitor/stem cells.
  • Malignant gliomas manifest frequent tumor recurrence after surgical resection and/or other treatment because of their nature of invasiveness and dissemination.
  • The recognized brain tumor-tracking property of neural progenitor/stem cells opened the possibility of targeting malignant brain tumors using neural progenitor/stem cells.
  • We and others have previously shown that fetal neural progenitor/stem cells can be used to deliver therapeutic molecules to brain tumors.
  • Our recent work has further shown that gene delivery by bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells achieves therapeutic effects in a glioma model.
  • In this study, we isolate and characterize bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells, which also express the chemokine receptor chemokine CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4).
  • We show that CXCR4 is required for their chemotaxis and extracellular matrix invasion against a gradient of glioma soluble factors.
  • Furthermore, beta-galactosidase-labeled bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells implanted in the contralateral side of the brain were shown to track gliomas as early as day 1 and increased through days 3 and 7.
  • Intracranial glioma tracking by bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells is significantly inhibited by preincubation of bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells with a blocking anti-CXCR4 antibody, suggesting a CXCR4-dependent tracking mechanism.
  • Glioma tracking bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells were found to express progenitor/stem cell markers, as well as CXCR4.
  • Although bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays and proliferating antigen staining indicated that tumor tracking bone marrow-derived neural progenitor/stem cells were mostly nonproliferating, these cells survive in the local tumor environment with little apoptosis.
  • Elucidating the molecular mechanism of brain tumor tracking by adult source stem cells may provide basis for the development of future targeted therapy for malignant brain tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19723878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048959; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048959-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS048879-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048879-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS048879; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS048879; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS048959-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cxcr4 protein, rat; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140357; NLM/ PMC2760002
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51. Synowitz M, Kiwit J, Kettenmann H, Glass R: Tumor Young Investigator Award: tropism and antitumorigenic effect of endogenous neural precursors for gliomas. Clin Neurosurg; 2006;53:336-44
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  • [Title] Tumor Young Investigator Award: tropism and antitumorigenic effect of endogenous neural precursors for gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / physiology. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / prevention & control. Glioma / prevention & control. Multipotent Stem Cells / physiology. Tropism / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17380772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0069-4827
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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52. Josiah DT, Zhu D, Dreher F, Olson J, McFadden G, Caldas H: Adipose-derived stem cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles of an oncolytic virus for glioblastoma. Mol Ther; 2010 Feb;18(2):377-85
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  • [Title] Adipose-derived stem cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles of an oncolytic virus for glioblastoma.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for the majority of primary malignant brain tumors and remains virtually incurable despite extensive surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Treatment difficulty is due to its exceptional infiltrative nature and proclivity to integrate into normal brain tissue.
  • Use of adult stem cells as cellular delivery vehicles for anticancer agents is a novel attractive therapeutic strategy.
  • We hypothesized that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) possess the ability to home and deliver myxoma virus to glioma cells and experimental gliomas.
  • In vivo orthotopic studies injected with vMyxgfp-ADSCs intracranially away from the tumor demonstrated that myxoma virus was delivered by ADSCs resulting in significant survival increase.
  • Our data suggest that ADSCs are promising new carriers of oncolytic viruses, specifically myxoma virus, to brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / cytology. Glioblastoma / therapy. Oncolytic Viruses / physiology. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fluorometry. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mice. Mice, Nude. Myxoma virus / genetics. Myxoma virus / physiology. Oncolytic Virotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19904233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA012197; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-12197
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2839314
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53. Seymour ZA, Panigrahy A, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Blüml S: Citrate in pediatric CNS tumors? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 May;29(5):1006-11
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  • [Title] Citrate in pediatric CNS tumors?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In a subset of in vivo MR spectra acquired from pediatric brain tumors, we have observed an unassigned peak.
  • The goal of this study was to determine the molecule of origin, and the prevalence and concentration of this chemical in various pediatric brain tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-voxel point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spectra from 85 patients with brain tumors and 469 control subjects were analyzed.
  • Diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma (DIBSG) had the highest mean concentration (4.0 +/- 1.1 mmol/kg in all subjects), and 8 of 12 patients had CRLB less than 25%.
  • CONCLUSION: MR signal consistent with citrate was observed in pediatric brain tumors and in the developing brain of infants younger than 6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Citric Acid / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 18272551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 2968PHW8QP / Citric Acid
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54. Sharma MK, Mansur DB, Reifenberger G, Perry A, Leonard JR, Aldape KD, Albin MG, Emnett RJ, Loeser S, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):890-900
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  • [Title] Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common glioma in children.
  • Whereas many PAs are slow-growing or clinically indolent, others exhibit more aggressive features with tumor recurrence and death.
  • Lastly, we also identified a gene expression pattern common to PAs and normal mouse astrocytes and neural stem cells from these distinct brain regions as well as a gene expression pattern shared between PAs and another human glial tumor (ependymoma) arising supratentorially compared with those originating in the posterior fossa.
  • These results suggest that glial tumors share an intrinsic, lineage-specific molecular signature that reflects the brain region in which their nonmalignant predecessors originated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / metabolism. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17283119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5582/ GSE5675
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 91842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Pollack IF, Jakacki RI, Blaney SM, Hancock ML, Kieran MW, Phillips P, Kun LE, Friedman H, Packer R, Banerjee A, Geyer JR, Goldman S, Poussaint TY, Krasin MJ, Wang Y, Hayes M, Murgo A, Weiner S, Boyett JM: Phase I trial of imatinib in children with newly diagnosed brainstem and recurrent malignant gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium report. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):145-60
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of imatinib in children with newly diagnosed brainstem and recurrent malignant gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium report.
  • This study estimated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of imatinib with irradiation in children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas, and those with recurrent malignant intracranial gliomas, stratified according to use of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs (EIACDs).
  • In the brainstem glioma stratum, imatinib was initially administered twice daily during irradiation, but because of possible association with intratumoral hemorrhage (ITH) was subsequently started two weeks after irradiation.
  • Twenty-four evaluable patients received therapy before the amendment, and three of six with a brainstem tumor experienced dose-limiting toxicity (DLT): one had asymptomatic ITH, one had grade 4 neutropenia and, one had renal insufficiency.
  • None of 18 patients with recurrent glioma experienced DLT.
  • After protocol amendment, 3 of 16 patients with brainstem glioma and 2 of 11 patients with recurrent glioma who were not receiving EIACDs experienced ITH DLTs, with three patients being symptomatic.
  • The recommended phase II dose for brainstem gliomas was 265 mg/m(2).
  • Three of 27 patients with brainstem gliomas with imaging before and after irradiation, prior to receiving imatinib, had new hemorrhage, excluding their receiving imatinib.
  • In summary, recommended phase II imatinib doses were determined for children with newly diagnosed brainstem glioma and recurrent high-grade glioma who were not receiving EIACDs.
  • Imatinib may increase the risk of ITH, although the incidence of spontaneous hemorrhages in brainstem glioma is sufficiently high that this should be considered in studies of agents in which hemorrhage is a concern.

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  • (PMID = 17293590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000188; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00188-37; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871662
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56. Ricci-Vitiani L, Pallini R, Larocca LM, Lombardi DG, Signore M, Pierconti F, Petrucci G, Montano N, Maira G, De Maria R: Mesenchymal differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells. Cell Death Differ; 2008 Sep;15(9):1491-8
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  • [Title] Mesenchymal differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme is a severe form of cancer most likely arising from the transformation of stem or progenitor cells resident in the brain.
  • Although the tumorigenic population in glioblastoma is defined as composed by cancer stem cells (CSCs), the cellular target of the transformation hit remains to be identified.
  • Glioma stem cells (SCs) are thought to have a differentiation potential restricted to the neural lineage.
  • Subcutaneous injection of CSCs or single CSC clones from two of seven patients produced tumor xenografts containing osteo-chondrogenic areas in the context of glioblastoma-like tumor lesions.
  • Interestingly, mesenchymal differentiation of the tumor xenografts was associated with reduction of both growth rate and mitotic index.
  • These findings suggest that in a subclass of glioblastomas the tumorigenic hit occurs on a multipotent stem cell, which may reveal its plasticity under specific environmental stimuli.
  • The discovery of such biological properties might provide considerable information to the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at forcing glioblastoma stem cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Mesoderm / cytology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Clone Cells. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neurons / cytology. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18497759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-9047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell death and differentiation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Death Differ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Beaty O 3rd, Berg S, Blaney S, Malogolowkin M, Krailo M, Knight R, Schaiquevich P, Stewart C, Chen Z, Nelson M, Voss S, Ivy SP, Adamson PC: A phase II trial and pharmacokinetic study of oxaliplatin in children with refractory solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):440-5
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  • Histologies included: Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, high and low grade astrocytoma, brain stem glioma, ependymoma, hepatoblastoma and selected rare tumors.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20658614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA98413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413-08
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218622; NLM/ PMC4665115
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58. Stockhausen MT, Kristoffersen K, Poulsen HS: The functional role of Notch signaling in human gliomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Feb;12(2):199-211
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  • Gliomas are among the most devastating adult tumors for which there is currently no cure.
  • The tumors are derived from brain glial tissue and comprise several diverse tumor forms and grades.
  • These cells have been referred to as brain cancer stem cells (bCSC), as they share similarities to normal neural stem cells in the brain.
  • The Notch signaling pathway is involved in cell fate decisions throughout normal development and in stem cell proliferation and maintenance.
  • In this review, we explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in gliomas with emphasis on its role in normal brain development and its interplay with pathways and processes that are characteristic of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Receptors, Notch / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [CommentIn] Neuro Oncol. 2010 Feb;12(2):115 [20150377.001]
  • (PMID = 20150387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Notch
  • [Number-of-references] 109
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940575
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59. Tabatabai G, Herrmann C, von Kürthy G, Mittelbronn M, Grau S, Frank B, Möhle R, Weller M, Wick W: VEGF-dependent induction of CD62E on endothelial cells mediates glioma tropism of adult haematopoietic progenitor cells. Brain; 2008 Oct;131(Pt 10):2579-95
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  • [Title] VEGF-dependent induction of CD62E on endothelial cells mediates glioma tropism of adult haematopoietic progenitor cells.
  • This attraction is further enhanced by irradiation or hypoxic preconditioning of the glioma cells.
  • Adhesive interactions might be critical to the preferential accumulation of HPC within the glioma tissue.
  • Exposure of human cerebral endothelial cells (SV-HCEC), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) and brain tumour endothelial cells derived from human glioblastomas (BTEC) to supernatants of glioma cells and primary glioma cells (SN-G) induced the expression of E-selectin (CD62E).
  • CD62E expression was further enhanced when the glioma cells had been exposed to irradiation or hypoxia prior to the collection of supernatants, as well as by irradiation or exposure to hypoxia of the endothelial cells.
  • Tissue microarray sampling normal brain tissue and astrocytomas of WHO grades II-IV revealed a selective expression of CD62E on endothelial cells of tumour vessels.
  • SN-G-induced CD62E expression on endothelial cells in vitro required transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling in glioma cells and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) signalling in endothelial cells.
  • Further, we observed a nuclear factor kappa B-dependent activation of the CD62E promoter peaking at 12 h after VEGF-R2 activation by glioma-derived VEGF.
  • Taken together, we identify glioma cell-induced CD62E expression on endothelial cells as one mediator of the glioma tropism of HPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / metabolism. E-Selectin / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Autoantibodies / pharmacology. Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Migration Inhibition. Cell Movement. Coculture Techniques. Gene Expression. Humans. Mice. Mice, Mutant Strains. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Transplantation. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18689869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / E-Selectin; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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60. Zagzag D, Esencay M, Mendez O, Yee H, Smirnova I, Huang Y, Chiriboga L, Lukyanov E, Liu M, Newcomb EW: Hypoxia- and vascular endothelial growth factor-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha/CXCR4 expression in glioblastomas: one plausible explanation of Scherer's structures. Am J Pathol; 2008 Aug;173(2):545-60
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  • The morphological patterns of glioma cell invasion are known as the secondary structures of Scherer.
  • In contrast, the SDF-1alpha receptor, CXCR4, was highly expressed in invading glioma cells organized around neurons and blood vessels, in subpial regions, and along white matter tracts.
  • CXCR4-positive tumor cells migrated toward a SDF-1alpha gradient in vitro, whereas inhibition of CXCR4 expression decreased their migration.
  • Similarly, inhibition of CXCR4 decreased levels of SDF-1alpha-induced phosphorylation of FAK, AKT, and ERK1/2, suggesting CXCR4 involvement in glioma invasion signaling.
  • These studies offer one plausible molecular basis and explanation of the formation of Scherer's structures in glioma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line, Tumor. Chemotaxis. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Endothelium, Vascular / cytology. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Neurons / metabolism. Signal Transduction


61. Das S, Srikanth M, Kessler JA: Cancer stem cells and glioma. Nat Clin Pract Neurol; 2008 Aug;4(8):427-35
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  • [Title] Cancer stem cells and glioma.
  • Recent data suggest that progression of these brain tumors is driven by a small subpopulation of tumor cells, which are termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) because of their capability to self-renew, proliferate and give rise to progeny of multiple neuroepithelial lineages.
  • According to the CSC hypothesis, current therapies that are extremely cytotoxic to the bulk of highly proliferative tumor cells fail to obliterate the relatively quiescent and resistant CSC compartment, thereby allowing these cells to survive and drive tumor recurrence.
  • This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding neural stem cells in the normal adult brain and CSCs in glial tumors and discusses the implications of the CSC hypothesis for the development of future therapies for brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18628751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8358
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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62. Christensen K, Aaberg-Jessen C, Andersen C, Goplen D, Bjerkvig R, Kristensen BW: Immunohistochemical expression of stem cell, endothelial cell, and chemosensitivity markers in primary glioma spheroids cultured in serum-containing and serum-free medium. Neurosurgery; 2010 May;66(5):933-47
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of stem cell, endothelial cell, and chemosensitivity markers in primary glioma spheroids cultured in serum-containing and serum-free medium.
  • METHODS: Paraffin sections of the original surgical specimens, primary glioma spheroids, and U87 derived spheroids were stained immunohistochemically with the stem cell markers CD133, podoplanin, Sox2, Bmi-1, and nestin; the endothelial cell markers CD31, CD34, and Von Willebrand Factor (VWF); the chemosensitivity markers P-glycoprotein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1); and glial fibrillary acidic protein, neural cell adhesion molecule CD56, and the proliferation marker Ki67.
  • CONCLUSION: In this first study of the influence of SFM on primary glioma spheroids, the conditions favored an in vivo-like phenotype with increased expression of CD133.
  • More vascular structures were found in SFM, suggesting that the close relationship between blood vessels and tumor stem-like cells was better preserved in this medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Culture Media, Serum-Free / pharmacology. Glioma / metabolism. Spheroids, Cellular / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Culture Media. Endothelial Cells / cytology. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / drug effects. Stem Cells / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20404698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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63. Squatrito M, Brennan CW, Helmy K, Huse JT, Petrini JH, Holland EC: Loss of ATM/Chk2/p53 pathway components accelerates tumor development and contributes to radiation resistance in gliomas. Cancer Cell; 2010 Dec 14;18(6):619-29
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  • [Title] Loss of ATM/Chk2/p53 pathway components accelerates tumor development and contributes to radiation resistance in gliomas.
  • Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for adult tissue homeostasis and defects in the DNA-damage response (DDR) machinery are linked to numerous pathologies including cancer.
  • Here, we present evidence that the DDR exerts tumor suppressor activity in gliomas.
  • We show that genes encoding components of the DDR pathway are frequently altered in human gliomas and that loss of elements of the ATM/Chk2/p53 cascade accelerates tumor formation in a glioma mouse model.
  • We demonstrate that Chk2 is required for glioma response to ionizing radiation in vivo and is necessary for DNA-damage checkpoints in the neuronal stem cell compartment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 21156285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3686
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141502; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R37 GM059413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105492; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163167; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.11 / Checkpoint Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATM protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Atm protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / CHEK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Chek2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS250143; NLM/ PMC3818087
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64. Maderna E, Salmaggi A, Calatozzolo C, Limido L, Pollo B: Nestin, PDGFRbeta, CXCL12 and VEGF in glioma patients: different profiles of (pro-angiogenic) molecule expression are related with tumor grade and may provide prognostic information. Cancer Biol Ther; 2007 Jul;6(7):1018-24
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  • [Title] Nestin, PDGFRbeta, CXCL12 and VEGF in glioma patients: different profiles of (pro-angiogenic) molecule expression are related with tumor grade and may provide prognostic information.
  • Nestin, a marker for multipotential neuroepithelial stem cells, is detected in neuroepithelial tumors and in proliferating endothelial cells (ECs) and is involved in the early stages of lineage commitment, proliferation and differentiation.
  • We performed a retrospective study on the presence and role of nestin-expressing cells in 102 patients with glioma, relating the findings to VEGF, CXCL12, PDGFRbeta expression and to clinical outcome (time to tumor progression-TTP and survival time-ST).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Chemokine CXCL12 / analysis. Glioma / blood supply. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nestin. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17611402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
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65. Miki T, Nakajima N, Akimoto J, Wada J, Haraoka J: Neuroendoscopic trans-third ventricle approach for lesions of the ventral brainstem surface. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2008 Dec;51(6):313-8
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  • [Title] Neuroendoscopic trans-third ventricle approach for lesions of the ventral brainstem surface.
  • Due to the establishment in recent years of neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), it has become possible during ETV to observe the ventral brainstem surface--particularly the prepontine cistern--in a minimally invasive manner via the third ventricular base with a neuroendoscope.
  • As an adaptation of that technique in this study, we investigated a neuroendoscopic trans-third ventricle approach (ETTVA), which accesses lesions of the ventral brainstem surface with a neuroendoscope inserted via the stoma of the third ventricular floor.
  • Our study included 6 cases, including one case each of neurenteric cyst, chordoma, pontine glioma (astrocytoma), ecchordosis physaliphora, endodermal cyst, and cystic schwannoma.
  • Surgical operations performed by ETTVA included 3 cases of tumor resection, 2 cases of tumor biopsy, and 1 case of cyst puncture and aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neuroendoscopy / methods. Third Ventricle / surgery. Ventriculostomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19061139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Malakootian M, Mowla SJ, Saberi H, Asadi MH, Atlasi Y, Shafaroudi AM: Differential expression of nucleostemin, a stem cell marker, and its variants in different types of brain tumors. Mol Carcinog; 2010 Sep;49(9):818-25
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  • [Title] Differential expression of nucleostemin, a stem cell marker, and its variants in different types of brain tumors.
  • Nucleostemin (NS) is implicated in the control of stem and cancer cell proliferation.
  • In the present study, we have examined the expression of NS and its spliced variants in various brain tumors.
  • Total RNA was extracted from 59 brain tumor samples, and the expression of different NS spliced variants was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.
  • The subcellular distribution of NS protein in brain tumors was further examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • Furthermore, to decipher the potential involvement of NS in brain tumorogenesis, its expression was knocked-down by means of RNA interference (RNAi) in two malignant glioma (U-87MG and A172), one astrocytoma (1321N1) and one medulloblastoma (DAOY) cell lines.
  • Our data revealed that NS and its variants are widely expressed in different types of brain tumors.
  • Among the NS spliced variants, variant "1" and variant "3" were detected in the majority of tumor samples, whereas variant "2" was only detectable in few samples.
  • As expected, a nucleolar/nucleoplasmic localization of NS protein was observed in the examined tumor samples.
  • All in all, our data suggest a potential role for NS in tumorogenesis of brain cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / metabolism. Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Proteins / genetics. Proteins / metabolism. RNA Interference. RNA Splicing. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stem Cells / metabolism. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20572164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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67. Lau J, Kawahira H, Hebrok M: Hedgehog signaling in pancreas development and disease. Cell Mol Life Sci; 2006 Mar;63(6):642-52
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  • More recently, it has become evident that Hh signaling is not restricted to developmental events, but retains some of its activity during adult life.
  • In mature tissues, Hh signaling has been implicated in the maintenance of stem cell niches in the brain, renewal of the gut epithelium and differentiation of hematopoietic cells.
  • In addition to the basal function in adult tissue, deregulated signaling has been implicated in a variety of cancers, including basal cell carcinoma, glioma and small cell lung cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16465449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112537; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060533; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK60533-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112537-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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68. Walton NM, Snyder GE, Park D, Kobeissy F, Scheffler B, Steindler DA: Gliotypic neural stem cells transiently adopt tumorigenic properties during normal differentiation. Stem Cells; 2009 Feb;27(2):280-9
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  • [Title] Gliotypic neural stem cells transiently adopt tumorigenic properties during normal differentiation.
  • An increasing body of evidence suggests that astrocytic gliomas of the central nervous system may be derived from gliotypic neural stem cells.
  • To date, the study of these tumors, particularly the identification of originating cellular population(s), has been frustrated by technical difficulties in accessing the native niche of stem cells.
  • To identify any hallmark signs of cancer in neural stem cells or their progeny, we cultured subventricular zone-derived tissue in a unique in vitro model that temporally and phenotypically recapitulates adult neurogenesis.
  • Contrary to some reports, we found undifferentiated neural stem cells possess few characteristics, suggesting prototumorigenic potential.
  • However, when induced to differentiate, neural stem cells give rise to intermediate progenitors that transiently exhibit multiple glioma characteristics, including aneuploidy, loss of growth-contact inhibition, alterations in cell cycle, and growth factor insensitivity.
  • Further examination of progenitor populations revealed a subset of cells defined by the aberrant expression of (the pathological glioma marker) class III beta-tubulin that exhibit intrinsic parental properties of gliomas, including multilineage differentiation and continued proliferation in the absence of a complex cellular regulatory environment.
  • As tumorigenic characteristics in progenitor cells normally disappear with the generation of mature progeny, this suggests that developmentally intermediate progenitor cells, rather than neural stem cells, may be the origin of so-called "stem cell-derived" tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18988710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4918
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070143; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD043730; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS055165; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37556; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32HD043730; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL70143; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS46384; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037556; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055165; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS046384
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tubulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS686089; NLM/ PMC4425277
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69. Kang SK, Park JB, Cha SH: Multipotent, dedifferentiated cancer stem-like cells from brain gliomas. Stem Cells Dev; 2006 Jun;15(3):423-35
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  • [Title] Multipotent, dedifferentiated cancer stem-like cells from brain gliomas.
  • In modern cancer biology, external factors and niches can act on differentiated tissue cells to cause cancer by inducing dedifferentiation of mature adult cells.
  • Recently, we discovered that dedifferentiation of glioma cancer cells alters the expression of mature and neural stem cell (NSC)-related genes, in that cancer cells adjust to the serum-deprived environment and cell-to-cell interaction by down-regulating genes associated with neural mature markers and up-regulating genes that are primitive NSC markers.
  • Neurogenesis of dedifferentiated glioma cancer cells also showed a highly increased neuronal marker associated with highly decreased glial and oligodendrocyte cell markers.
  • After grafting to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse brains, dedifferentiated cancer stem cells migrated and continued active proliferation for more than 4 weeks.
  • We also performed microarray analysis and characterized the gene expression patterns in control cancer cells with dedifferentiated cancer stem-like cells.
  • In this report, we propose that the dedifferentiation process of brain tumor and normal tissue may contribute to the malignancy and aggressiveness of the brain cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Glioma / pathology. Multipotent Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Drug Resistance. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes / genetics. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neurons / cytology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [ErratumIn] Stem Cells Dev. 2006 Oct;15(5):749
  • (PMID = 16846378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3287
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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70. Li DM, Wu XH, Zhu XX: [Impact of MRI-CT image registration on target delineation of postoperative radiotherapy for gliomas]. Ai Zheng; 2008 May;27(5):544-8
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  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can well distinguish soft tissue, but its usage in radiotherapy for brain tumors was limited by its image distortion and lack of electron density for dosage calculation.
  • METHODS: Nine glioma patients were examined by MRI and CT after operation.
  • RESULTS: The registration accuracy by the method of artificial landmarks was less than 1.5 mm, which reached the error requirement for brain tumors.
  • The change of central position of CTV was the largest [(8.74+/-6.60) mm], those of 2 eyes were the next [(5.25+/-2.38) mm for the left eyeû (5.65+/-2.56) mm for the right eye], and that of the brain stem was the least [(1.83+/-1.06) mm].
  • MRI-CT registration can reduce the uncertainty of CTV delineation in radiation treatment planning for glioma patients after operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Glioma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18479608.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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71. Wang Y, Yang J, Zheng H, Tomasek GJ, Zhang P, McKeever PE, Lee EY, Zhu Y: Expression of mutant p53 proteins implicates a lineage relationship between neural stem cells and malignant astrocytic glioma in a murine model. Cancer Cell; 2009 Jun 2;15(6):514-26
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  • [Title] Expression of mutant p53 proteins implicates a lineage relationship between neural stem cells and malignant astrocytic glioma in a murine model.
  • However, the mechanisms by which alterations of these glioblastoma genes singly and cooperatively transform brain cells remain poorly understood.
  • By targeting a p53 in-frame deletion mutation to the brain, we show that p53 deficiency provides no significant growth advantage to adult brain cells, but appears to induce pleiotropic accumulation of cooperative oncogenic alterations driving gliomagenesis.
  • Our data show that accumulation of a detectable level of mutant p53 proteins occurs first in neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and that subsequent expansion of mutant p53-expressing Olig2(+) transit-amplifying progenitor-like cells in the SVZ-associated areas initiates glioma formation.

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  • (PMID = 19477430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3686
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053900-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053900; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R01 NS053900; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053900-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053900-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053900-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053900-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS073762; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053900-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS112275; NLM/ PMC2721466
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72. Joshi BH, Puri RA, Leland P, Varricchio F, Gupta G, Kocak M, Gilbertson RJ, Puri RK, US Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium: Identification of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain overexpression in situ in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brainstem glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Jun;10(3):265-74
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  • [Title] Identification of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain overexpression in situ in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brainstem glioma.
  • Human malignant glioma cell lines and adult brain tumors overexpress high levels of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2).
  • Because the IL-13Ralpha2 chain is an important target for cancer therapy and prognosis for patients with brainstem glioma (BSG) remains dismal, we investigated the expression of this receptor in specimens of diffusely infiltrative pediatric BSG relative to normal brain tissue.
  • Twenty-eight BSG specimens and 15 normal brain specimens were investigated for IL-13Ralpha2 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) using two different antibodies in two different laboratories.
  • By Q-dot IHC or a standard IHC assay, 17 of 28 (61%) tumor specimens showed modest to strong staining for IL-13Ralpha2, while 15 normal brain tissue samples showed weak expression for IL-13Ralpha2 protein.
  • High-level IL-13Ralpha2 RNA expression was detected in tumor samples by Q-dot ISH, but only weak RNA expression was observed in normal brain.
  • IL-13Ralpha2 protein and mRNA are expressed to significantly higher levels in BSG than in normal brain tissue.

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  • (PMID = 18430795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA081457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2563049
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73. Lázaro BC, Landeiro JA: Tectal plate tumors. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2006 Jun;64(2B):432-6
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  • Tectal plate is a rare location for a tumor.
  • Open surgery was performed in three cases (due to tumor enlargement or need for the exact diagnosis).
  • In our series, except in the metastatic tumor case and the cavernoma, the other types of lesion consisted of low grade gliomas.
  • These lesions represent a different type of brain stem tumor sharing a common good prognosis, with a benign behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Tectum Mesencephali
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ventriculostomy

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  • (PMID = 16917614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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74. Sanai N, Wachhorst SP, Gupta NM, McDermott MW: Transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy for lesions of the brainstem and peduncles under local anesthesia. Neurosurgery; 2008 Sep;63(3):460-6; discussion 466-8
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  • [Title] Transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy for lesions of the brainstem and peduncles under local anesthesia.
  • OBJECTIVE: For certain brainstem lesions, a diagnostic biopsy is required for treatment planning.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed hospital records for all adult patients with symptomatic lesions of the pons and/or cerebellar peduncle who underwent an awake transcerebellar stereotactic biopsy at our institution over a 7-year period.
  • Diagnoses in the 13 cases included infiltrative glioma (), metastases (), lymphoma (), encephalitis (), and reactive astrogliosis ().
  • CONCLUSION: Tissue diagnosis of lesions in the brainstem and cerebellar peduncles continues to be a significant challenge, with the potential for major morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local / methods. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellum / pathology. Stereotaxic Techniques. Tegmentum Mesencephali / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18812957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Gaviani P, Gonzalez RG, Zhu JJ, Batchelor TT, Henson JW: Central neurogenic hyperventilation and lactate production in brainstem glioma. Neurology; 2005 Jan 11;64(1):166-7
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  • [Title] Central neurogenic hyperventilation and lactate production in brainstem glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / complications. Glioma / metabolism. Hyperventilation / etiology. Lactic Acid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15642931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid
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76. Blom T, Fox H, Angers-Loustau A, Peltonen K, Kerosuo L, Wartiovaara K, Linja M, Jänne OA, Kovanen P, Haapasalo H, Nupponen NN: KIT overexpression induces proliferation in astrocytes in an imatinib-responsive manner and associates with proliferation index in gliomas. Int J Cancer; 2008 Aug 15;123(4):793-800
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  • KIT and its ligand stem cell factor are widely expressed in embryonic and adult mouse brain, and they play a role in many signal transduction pathways involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and cancer cell metastasis.
  • However, the function of KIT in gliomagenesis or disease progression remains unresolved as well as its role in neural and brain tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytes / enzymology. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / pathology. Piperazines / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Pyrimidines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / physiology. Benzamides. Cell Growth Processes. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Mice. Neoplastic Stem Cells. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Transfection

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18506689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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77. Bonneville F, Savatovsky J, Chiras J: Imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions: an update. Part 2: intra-axial lesions, skull base lesions that may invade the CPA region, and non-enhancing extra-axial lesions. Eur Radiol; 2007 Nov;17(11):2908-20
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  • Finally, brain stem or ventricular tumours can present with a significant exophytic component in the CPA that may be difficult to differentiate from an extra-axial lesion (lymphoma, hemangioblastoma, choroid plexus papilloma, ependymoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Female. Gadolinium / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17569053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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78. Nicholson HS, Kretschmar CS, Krailo M, Bernstein M, Kadota R, Fort D, Friedman H, Harris MB, Tedeschi-Blok N, Mazewski C, Sato J, Reaman GH: Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1542-50
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of temozolomide in children and adolescents with recurrent central nervous system tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Effective chemotherapy is lacking for most types of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in children.
  • Temozolomide, an agent with activity against adult brain tumors, was investigated in children and adolescents with recurrent CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: The cohort comprised 122 patients, including 113 with CNS tumors.
  • Among 104 evaluable patients with CNS tumors, 5 PRs and 1 CR were observed.
  • PRs occurred in 1 of 23 evaluable patients with high-grade astrocytoma, 1 of 21 with low-grade astrocytoma, and 3 of 25 with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).
  • No responses were observed in patients with ependymoma, brain-stem glioma, or other CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


79. Pollard S, Conti L, Smith A: Exploitation of adherent neural stem cells in basic and applied neurobiology. Regen Med; 2006 Jan;1(1):111-8
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  • [Title] Exploitation of adherent neural stem cells in basic and applied neurobiology.
  • Evidence for neurogenesis within the adult brain has challenged traditional views that this tissue is devoid of stem cell activity.
  • Fetal and adult neural stem/progenitor cells can be isolated and expanded in vitro and might provide a cell source for such transplantations.
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which can generate any adult tissues, offer an alternative unlimited supply of neural tissue.
  • We recently showed that both mouse and human ES cells can be converted to adherent neural stem (NS) cell lines [1] .
  • [MeSH-major] Neurobiology / methods. Neurons / cytology. Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cells, Cultured. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Glioma / pathology. Models, Biological. Neurodegenerative Diseases / pathology. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17465825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-076X
  • [Journal-full-title] Regenerative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regen Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0100724; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300058; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G19/38; Italy / Telethon / / GGP02457
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Varghese M, Olstorn H, Sandberg C, Vik-Mo EO, Noordhuis P, Nistér M, Berg-Johnsen J, Moe MC, Langmoen IA: A comparison between stem cells from the adult human brain and from brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2008 Dec;63(6):1022-33; discussion 1033-4
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  • [Title] A comparison between stem cells from the adult human brain and from brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To directly compare stem cells from the normal adult human brain (adult human neural stem cells [AHNSC]), Grade II astrocytomas (AC II), and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), with respect to proliferative and tumor-forming capacity and differentiation potential.
  • METHODS: Cells were isolated from tissue obtained during epilepsy surgery (AHNSCs) or tumor surgery (glioma stem cells [GSC]).
  • 1) GBM stem cells formed tumors after orthotopic transplantation; AHNSCs showed no sign of tumor formation;.
  • 5) both AHNSCs and stem cells from AC II and GBM responded to differentiation cues with a dramatic decrease in the proliferation index (Ki-67);.
  • CONCLUSION: AHNSCs and stem cells from AC II and GBM differ with respect to proliferation, tumor-forming capacity, and rate and pattern of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neurons / pathology. Neurons / physiology. Stem Cells / pathology. Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Male


81. Elgamal EA, Coakham HB: Hemifacial spasm caused by pontine glioma: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Oct;28(4):330-2
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  • [Title] Hemifacial spasm caused by pontine glioma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is an involuntary paroxysmal contractions of the facial musculature, caused generally by vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its root exit zone from the brain stem.
  • The case of an adult man harbouring brain stem glioma (BSG) whose only neurological signs were left HFS and mild facial weakness is reported.
  • No responsible vessel could be identified during surgery, but the causative lesion was found to be an astrocytic tumour encasing the facial nerve at its root exit zone from the brain stem.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Hemifacial Spasm / etiology

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82. Ligon KL, Huillard E, Mehta S, Kesari S, Liu H, Alberta JA, Bachoo RM, Kane M, Louis DN, Depinho RA, Anderson DJ, Stiles CD, Rowitch DH: Olig2-regulated lineage-restricted pathway controls replication competence in neural stem cells and malignant glioma. Neuron; 2007 Feb 15;53(4):503-17
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  • [Title] Olig2-regulated lineage-restricted pathway controls replication competence in neural stem cells and malignant glioma.
  • Recent studies have identified stem cells in brain cancer.
  • However, their relationship to normal CNS progenitors, including dependence on common lineage-restricted pathways, is unclear.
  • We observe expression of the CNS-restricted transcription factor, OLIG2, in human glioma stem and progenitor cells reminiscent of type C transit-amplifying cells in germinal zones of the adult brain.
  • Olig2 function is required for proliferation of neural progenitors and for glioma formation in a genetically relevant murine model.
  • Moreover, we show p21(WAF1/CIP1), a tumor suppressor and inhibitor of stem cell proliferation, is directly repressed by OLIG2 in neural progenitors and gliomas.
  • Our findings identify an Olig2-regulated lineage-restricted pathway critical for proliferation of normal and tumorigenic CNS stem cells.

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  • (PMID = 17296553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4199
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuron
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuron
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS040511; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08NS047213; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS05563; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA095616; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F32 NS055631; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA95616; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS047572; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01NS047572; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01NS40511; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS047213
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Olig2 protein, mouse; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS18231; NLM/ PMC1810344
  •  go-up   go-down


83. He S, Iwashita T, Buchstaller J, Molofsky AV, Thomas D, Morrison SJ: Bmi-1 over-expression in neural stem/progenitor cells increases proliferation and neurogenesis in culture but has little effect on these functions in vivo. Dev Biol; 2009 Apr 15;328(2):257-72
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  • [Title] Bmi-1 over-expression in neural stem/progenitor cells increases proliferation and neurogenesis in culture but has little effect on these functions in vivo.
  • The polycomb gene Bmi-1 is required for the self-renewal of stem cells from diverse tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Bmi-1 expression is elevated in most human gliomas, irrespective of grade, raising the question of whether Bmi-1 over-expression is sufficient to promote self-renewal or tumorigenesis by CNS stem/progenitor cells.
  • Analysis of two independent lines with expression in the fetal and adult CNS demonstrated that transgenic neural stem cells formed larger colonies, more self-renewing divisions, and more neurons in culture.
  • However, in vivo, Bmi-1 over-expression had little effect on CNS stem cell frequency, subventricular zone proliferation, olfactory bulb neurogenesis, or neurogenesis/gliogenesis during development.
  • Bmi-1 transgenic mice were born with enlarged lateral ventricles and a minority developed idiopathic hydrocephalus as adults, but none of the transgenic mice formed detectable CNS tumors, even when aged.
  • The more pronounced effects of Bmi-1 over-expression in culture were largely attributable to the attenuated induction of p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) in culture, proteins that are generally not expressed by neural stem/progenitor cells in young mice in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 19389366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-564X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR20557; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46592; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-23; None / None / / P30 CA046592-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / Bmi1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cdkn2a protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS248858; NLM/ PMC2996717
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84. Okada H, Low KL, Kohanbash G, McDonald HA, Hamilton RL, Pollack IF: Expression of glioma-associated antigens in pediatric brain stem and non-brain stem gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jul;88(3):245-50
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  • [Title] Expression of glioma-associated antigens in pediatric brain stem and non-brain stem gliomas.
  • We investigated the protein expression of three glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) in pediatric brain stem glioma (BSG) and non-brain stem glioma (NBSG) cases with a view to their possible use in immunotherapy.
  • Thirteen of 15 BSGs and all 12 NBSGs expressed at least one of GAAs; and 7 BSGs and 9 NBSGs expressed at least two of these GAAs at higher levels than non-neoplastic brain.
  • There was no association between the tumor grade and levels of GAA expression.
  • These results suggest that EphA2, IL-13Ralpha2 and Survivin are suitable targets for developing vaccine strategies for pediatric glioma.

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  • (PMID = 18324354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS 40923; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS040923-06A15462; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS040923; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 100327; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA100327; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS040923-06A15462
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS70086; NLM/ PMC2561297
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85. Patru C, Romao L, Varlet P, Coulombel L, Raponi E, Cadusseau J, Renault-Mihara F, Thirant C, Leonard N, Berhneim A, Mihalescu-Maingot M, Haiech J, Bièche I, Moura-Neto V, Daumas-Duport C, Junier MP, Chneiweiss H: CD133, CD15/SSEA-1, CD34 or side populations do not resume tumor-initiating properties of long-term cultured cancer stem cells from human malignant glio-neuronal tumors. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD133, CD15/SSEA-1, CD34 or side populations do not resume tumor-initiating properties of long-term cultured cancer stem cells from human malignant glio-neuronal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor initiating cells (TICs) provide a new paradigm for developing original therapeutic strategies.
  • METHODS: We screened for TICs in 47 human adult brain malignant tumors.
  • Cells forming floating spheres in culture, and endowed with all of the features expected from tumor cells with stem-like properties were obtained from glioblastomas, medulloblastoma but not oligodendrogliomas.
  • Xenografts of fewer than 500 cells in Nude mouse brains induced a progressively growing tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD15 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / metabolism. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology. Neurons / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Peptides. Proteomics / methods