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1. Kaptigau WM, Ke L: Space-occupying lesions in Papua New Guinea--the CT era. P N G Med J; 2007 Mar-Jun;50(1-2):33-43
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  • 39 cases originated in the brain and its coverings and 3 in the spinal cord.
  • Out of the 39 brain SOL, 26 (67%) were due to tumours and 13 (33%) were due to infection, of which tuberculosis was responsible for 6 (46%).
  • There were 6 astrocytomas and 3 meningiomas followed by secondaries, pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma with 2 cases each.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Spinal Cord Diseases / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Astrocytoma / radiography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Meningioma / radiography. Middle Aged. Papua New Guinea. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult


2. Bobola MS, Finn LS, Ellenbogen RG, Geyer JR, Berger MS, Braga JM, Meade EH, Gross ME, Silber JR: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is associated with response to radiation and chemotherapy in medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 15;11(20):7405-14
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  • [Title] Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is associated with response to radiation and chemotherapy in medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
  • Suppressing Ap endo activity in a human medulloblastoma cell line significantly increased sensitivity to 1,3-bis(2-chlororethyl)-1-nitrosourea and temozolomide, suggesting that the association of tumor activity with TTP reflected, at least in part, abasic site repair.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / enzymology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Brain / drug effects. Brain / enzymology. Brain / radiation effects. Carmustine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Time Factors. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16243814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104593; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA70790; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA82622
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 4.2.99.18 / DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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3. Gibson P, Tong Y, Robinson G, Thompson MC, Currle DS, Eden C, Kranenburg TA, Hogg T, Poppleton H, Martin J, Finkelstein D, Pounds S, Weiss A, Patay Z, Scoggins M, Ogg R, Pei Y, Yang ZJ, Brun S, Lee Y, Zindy F, Lindsey JC, Taketo MM, Boop FA, Sanford RA, Gajjar A, Clifford SC, Roussel MF, McKinnon PJ, Gutmann DH, Ellison DW, Wechsler-Reya R, Gilbertson RJ: Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins. Nature; 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1095-9
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  • [Title] Subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct developmental origins.
  • Medulloblastoma encompasses a collection of clinically and molecularly diverse tumour subtypes that together comprise the most common malignant childhood brain tumour.
  • The pathological processes that drive heterogeneity among the other medulloblastoma subtypes are not known, hindering the development of much needed new therapies.
  • Here we provide evidence that a discrete subtype of medulloblastoma that contains activating mutations in the WNT pathway effector CTNNB1 (hereafter, WNT subtype) arises outside the cerebellum from cells of the dorsal brainstem.
  • These lesions persisted in all mutant adult mice; moreover, in 15% of cases in which Tp53 was concurrently deleted, they progressed to form medulloblastomas that recapitulated the anatomy and gene expression profiles of human WNT-subtype medulloblastoma.
  • We provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that subtypes of medulloblastoma have distinct cellular origins.

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  • (PMID = 21150899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4687
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nature
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE24628
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA129541; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 01CA96832; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-06A18120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-078120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037956-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-06A18120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-078120
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245937; NLM/ PMC3059767
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4. Das P, Puri T, Suri V, Sharma MC, Sharma BS, Sarkar C: Medulloblastomas: a correlative study of MIB-1 proliferation index along with expression of c-Myc, ERBB2, and anti-apoptotic proteins along with histological typing and clinical outcome. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):825-35
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  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common pediatric brain tumor.
  • The genetic and protein expression profile of medulloblastoma is complex, which is worthwhile in terms of prognostication and development or selection of targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Proliferation. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Young Adult. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19444455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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5. South M, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Bloch C, Schroeder TM, Paulino AC: Supine craniospinal irradiation using intrafractional junction shifts and field-in-field dose shaping: early experience at Methodist Hospital. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jun 1;71(2):477-83
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  • No failures occurred in the junctions of the spine-spine or brain-spine fields.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Supine Position
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Atlanto-Occipital Joint. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Mechanics. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy. Particle Accelerators / instrumentation. Pineal Gland. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Spine. Teratoma / radiotherapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18164864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Curran EK, Le GM, Sainani KL, Propp JM, Fisher PG: Do children and adults differ in survival from medulloblastoma? A study from the SEER registry. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):81-85
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  • [Title] Do children and adults differ in survival from medulloblastoma? A study from the SEER registry.
  • Studies investigating whether adults have diminished survival from medulloblastoma (MB) compared with children have yielded conflicting results.
  • Similar outcomes between adult and childhood MB may justify inclusion of adults in pediatric cooperative trials for MB.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms. Community Health Planning. Medulloblastoma / classification. Medulloblastoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. San Francisco / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19396401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Bomgaars LR, Bernstein M, Krailo M, Kadota R, Das S, Chen Z, Adamson PC, Blaney SM: Phase II trial of irinotecan in children with refractory solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct 10;25(29):4622-7
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  • RESULTS: Of 161 patients assessable for response, one patient with hepatoblastoma had a complete response, with partial responses observed in patients with medulloblastoma (n = 4), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 1), neuroblastoma (n = 1), and germinoma (n = 1), for an overall response rate of 5%.
  • CONCLUSION: IRN 50 mg/m2/d for 5 days every 21 days is well tolerated, but was not effective as a single agent in a spectrum of solid tumors, with the possible exception of patients with medulloblastoma (16% response rate).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glucuronosyltransferase / genetics. Hepatoblastoma / drug therapy. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17925558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 2.4.1.- / UGT1A1 enzyme; EC 2.4.1.17 / Glucuronosyltransferase; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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8. Raabe EH, Eberhart CG: High-risk medulloblastoma: does c-myc amplification overrule histopathology? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Mar;54(3):344-5
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  • [Title] High-risk medulloblastoma: does c-myc amplification overrule histopathology?
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, myc. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Gene Amplification. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Mar;54(3):369-76 [19908297.001]
  • (PMID = 20063409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055089
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS376308; NLM/ PMC4517433
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9. McCabe MG, Ichimura K, Liu L, Plant K, Bäcklund LM, Pearson DM, Collins VP: High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization of medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Jun;65(6):549-61
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  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Infant. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 16783165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816352; NLM/ UKMS2695
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10. Oba-Shinjo SM, Caballero OL, Jungbluth AA, Rosemberg S, Old LJ, Simpson AJ, Marie SK: Cancer-testis (CT) antigen expression in medulloblastoma. Cancer Immun; 2008;8:7
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  • [Title] Cancer-testis (CT) antigen expression in medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood malignant tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Treatment of medulloblastoma requires harmful therapy and nevertheless carries a poor prognosis.
  • CT antigens, such as MAGE and NY-ESO-1, have been employed in clinical trials in various malignancies but little is known about their presence in medulloblastoma.
  • The absence of correlation between mRNA and protein expression in medulloblastoma has not been observed in other tumors and further studies addressing the biology of CT antigens are necessary to investigate the present discrepant results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / immunology. Medulloblastoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cancer Vaccines. Child. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Testis / metabolism. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18426187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-9634
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / MAGEC1 protein, human; 0 / MAGEC2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2935780
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11. Lasky JL 3rd, Choe M, Nakano I: Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther; 2009 Dec;4(4):298-305
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  • [Title] Cancer stem cells in pediatric brain tumors.
  • Although recent studies have focused on molecular mechanisms that underlie the initiation and progression of adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), these tumors differ phenotypically and at a molecular level from pediatric brain tumors.
  • Recent investigations have identified a stem cell population, termed "brain tumor stem cells" (BTSC) within the heterogeneous cell populations that comprise malignant brain tumors which may be partly responsible for the resistance to current therapies.
  • These have been identified in several pediatric tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymomas, and malignant gliomas.
  • By exploiting molecular differences present within these heterogeneous populations of brain tumor cells, we may be able to achieve specific eradication of BTSC and long-lasting remissions, while causing less toxicity to normal tissues.
  • In this review, we describe the issues surrounding the identification and characterization of BTSC, the molecular biology of BTSC for different pediatric brain tumors, and suggest future avenues for the development of treatments for this devastating disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Optic Nerve Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult Stem Cells / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Humans. Surgical Procedures, Operative


12. Wendland MM, Shrieve DC, Watson GA, Chin SS, Blumenthal DT: Extraneural metastatic medulloblastoma in an adult. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jun;78(2):191-6
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  • [Title] Extraneural metastatic medulloblastoma in an adult.
  • Medulloblastoma is a rare malignancy in adults, accounting for approximately 1% of all primary brain tumors.
  • We report here our experience with a 26 year-old woman with medulloblastoma treated with gross total resection followed by radiation therapy to her craniospinal axis.
  • The treatment of medulloblastoma, particularly salvage therapy following disease recurrence, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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13. Bonneville F, Savatovsky J, Chiras J: Imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions: an update. Part 2: intra-axial lesions, skull base lesions that may invade the CPA region, and non-enhancing extra-axial lesions. Eur Radiol; 2007 Nov;17(11):2908-20
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  • Finally, brain stem or ventricular tumours can present with a significant exophytic component in the CPA that may be difficult to differentiate from an extra-axial lesion (lymphoma, hemangioblastoma, choroid plexus papilloma, ependymoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Female. Gadolinium / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis

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  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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14. Tanaka S, Shaikh IM, Chiocca EA, Saeki Y: The Gs-linked receptor GPR3 inhibits the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells during postnatal development. PLoS One; 2009;4(6):e5922
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  • GPR3 belongs to a family of Gs-linked receptors that activate cyclic AMP and are abundantly expressed in the adult brain.
  • Cell cycle kinetics of GPR3-transfected medulloblastoma cells revealed a G0/G1 block, consistent with cell cycle exit.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Neurons / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19526062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPR3 protein, mouse; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2691605
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15. Eberhart CG, Chaudhry A, Daniel RW, Khaki L, Shah KV, Gravitt PE: Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus. BMC Cancer; 2005 Feb 17;5:19
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  • [Title] Increased p53 immunopositivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma and supratentorial PNET is not caused by JC virus.
  • BACKGROUND: p53 mutations are relatively uncommon in medulloblastoma, but abnormalities in this cell cycle pathway have been associated with anaplasia and worse clinical outcomes.
  • We correlated p53 protein expression with pathological subtype and clinical outcome in 75 embryonal brain tumors.
  • JC viral sequences were analyzed in DNA extracted from 33 frozen medulloblastoma and PNET samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
  • The increased p53 immunoreactivity in anaplastic medulloblastoma, ATRT, and sPNET was statistically significant.
  • No JC virus was identified in the embryonal brain tumor samples, while an endogenous human retrovirus (ERV-3) was readily detected.

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  • (PMID = 15717928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS043279; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08NS43279
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC554768
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16. Strenger V, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Dornbusch HJ, Lingitz H, Eder HG, Moser A, Urban C: Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 May;184(5):276-80
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology.
  • RESULTS: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / radiation effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / radiation effects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18427759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Kao CL, Chiou SH, Ho DM, Chen YJ, Liu RS, Lo CW, Tsai FT, Lin CH, Ku HH, Yu SM, Wong TT: Elevation of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin levels in patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;123(2):297-304
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  • We obtained plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue specimens from lobectomy or hemispherectomy samples from 39 patients (medulloblastoma, 16; AT/RT, 8; epilepsy, 6; hydrocephalus, 9).
  • By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the median osteopontin levels in plasma and CSF in AT/RT (852.0 and 1,175.0 ng/mL, respectively) were significantly higher than in medulloblastoma (492.5 and 524.5 ng/mL, respectively) and hydrocephalus and epilepsy (208.0 and 168.0 ng/mL, respectively) (P < .05).
  • The results of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that osteopontin expression in AT/RT (n = 5) was significantly higher than in medulloblastoma (n = 8) samples.
  • The differences in osteopontin expression in plasma, CSF, and tumor samples in AT/RT and medulloblastoma correlated with survival differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Sialoglycoproteins. Teratoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Osteopontin. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15842057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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18. Jea A, Coscarella E, Chintagumpala M, Bhattacharjee M, Whitehead WE, Curry DJ, Luerssen TG: Medulloblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as synchronous primary brain tumors in a child: case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Feb;5(2):149-54
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as synchronous primary brain tumors in a child: case report.
  • Multiple metastatic brain tumors and multifocal primary brain tumors of a single histological type have been published in the adult and pediatric literature.
  • However, the simultaneous occurrence of multiple primary brain tumors with different cell types is rare.
  • Even more rare is the pediatric presentation of multiple primary brain tumors with different cell types.
  • Brain MR imaging demonstrated a heterogeneously enhancing mixed solid/cystic mass of the left cerebellar hemisphere and a larger, midline, more homogeneously enhancing lesion of the superior vermis.
  • Pathological examination revealed the left cerebellar and superior vermian lesions to be a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma and a medulloblastoma, respectively.
  • To the best of the authors' knowledge, they describe the first known pediatric case in which a medulloblastoma and a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma presented as synchronous primary brain tumors.
  • They review the literature on multiple primary brain tumors with different histological characteristics and rehash potential mechanisms for their development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology


19. Yang LS, Wang YQ, Huang FP: [Correlation between the prognosis of medulloblastoma and relevant clinical factors: analysis of 73 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 May 22;87(19):1322-5
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  • [Title] [Correlation between the prognosis of medulloblastoma and relevant clinical factors: analysis of 73 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between the prognosis of medulloblastoma (MB) and relevant clinical factors.
  • Those undergoing whole brain/posterior fossa plus spinal axis radiotherapy showed a better prognosis than those undergoing whole brain/posterior fossa radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17727776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Karkouri M, Zafad S, Khattab M, Benjaafar N, El Kacemi H, Sefiani S, Kettani F, Dey S, Soliman AS: Epidemiologic profile of pediatric brain tumors in Morocco. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Aug;26(8):1021-7
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  • [Title] Epidemiologic profile of pediatric brain tumors in Morocco.
  • INTRODUCTION: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors diagnosed among children below 15 years worldwide.
  • However, little is known about the profile of pediatric brain tumors in Africa.
  • The purpose of this study was to further elaborate the epidemiological profile of pediatric brain tumors in Africa, specifically Morocco.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients with primary brain tumors in the age group 0-19 years, from 2003 to 2007, from multiple centers in two cities of Rabat and Casablanca, Morocco.
  • Descriptive epidemiologic profiles were created for the patients by age, sex, and histological subtypes of brain tumors.
  • RESULTS: Overall medulloblastoma was the most common brain tumor (34.5%), followed by pilocytic astrocytoma (17.3%) and diffuse astrocytoma grade 2 (12.5%).
  • Brain tumors occurred most commonly in 5-9-year age group followed by 10-14-year age group with the former being more common among males and the latter being more common among females.
  • We also found medulloblastoma to be the most common brain tumor in the 0-14-year-olds.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this rare study focused on pediatric brain tumors in Morocco, most of the findings were consistent with past studies from other parts of the world.
  • However, we found medulloblastoma to be the most common pediatric brain tumor followed by astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Morocco / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20179946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA112383; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA112383
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS649757; NLM/ PMC4276037
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21. Spiller SE, Ravanpay AC, Hahn AW, Olson JM: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is effective in preclinical studies of medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(3):259-70
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  • [Title] Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid is effective in preclinical studies of medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been studied in adult solid and hematologic malignancies.
  • However, little information has been reported on the effects of SAHA on central nervous system (CNS) tumors including medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • We investigated SAHA in preclinical medulloblastoma models to determine its anti-cancer efficacy as well as its ability to affect intracranial lesions when administered systemically.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: Tissue culture studies were performed treating primary human fibroblasts, established medulloblastoma cell lines, and primary human medulloblastoma tumors with SAHA.
  • At 10 microM concentration, SAHA had little effect on normal fibroblasts but caused >90% apoptosis in cultured medulloblastoma cells.
  • In athymic mice with medulloblastoma xenograft tumors, oral SAHA resulted in apoptosis of tumor tissue and significantly slowed tumor growth.
  • In the ND2:Smo transgenic mouse medulloblastoma model, SAHA treatment caused significant apoptosis in these cerebellar tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SAHA effectively induces cell death in established medulloblastoma cell lines, human patient primary tumor cultures, medulloblastoma xenografts and intracranial spontaneous medulloblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16645722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112350-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat
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22. Hargrave DR, Hargrave UA, Bouffet E: Quality of health information on the Internet in pediatric neuro-oncology. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Apr;8(2):175-82
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  • The Internet is now the single largest source of health information and is used by many patients and their families who are affected by childhood brain tumors.
  • To assess the quality of pediatric neuro-oncology information on the Internet, we used search engines to look for information on five common tumor types (brain stem glioma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, low-grade glioma, and medulloblastoma).
  • Few sites offered information in languages other than English, and readability statistics showed an average required reading level of U.S. grade 12+ (the suggested level being grades 6-8 for an adult audience).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Internet / standards. Medical Informatics / standards. Medical Oncology. Neurology


23. Zitterbart K, Zavrelova I, Kadlecova J, Spesna R, Kratochvilova A, Pavelka Z, Sterba J: p73 expression in medulloblastoma: TAp73/DeltaNp73 transcript detection and possible association of p73alpha/DeltaNp73 immunoreactivity with survival. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Dec;114(6):641-50
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  • [Title] p73 expression in medulloblastoma: TAp73/DeltaNp73 transcript detection and possible association of p73alpha/DeltaNp73 immunoreactivity with survival.
  • Recently, several TP73 transcripts have been revealed in medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • In normal cerebellum, positive staining for p73alpha and DeltaNp73 was observed in the Purkinje cells of newborns, not adult samples, which supports the developmental role of TP73 during organogenesis of the human cerebellum.
  • Our results indicate the involvement of p73 protein in MB tumorigenesis and define TP73 as a potential prognostic and therapeutic target for medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / isolation & purification. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Neuropathol. 2008 Nov;116(5):579-80
  • (PMID = 17912537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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24. Attard TM, Giglio P, Koppula S, Snyder C, Lynch HT: Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis. Cancer; 2007 Feb 15;109(4):761-6
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  • [Title] Brain tumors in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis: a cancer registry experience and pooled case report analysis.
  • They are at an increased risk of brain tumors, including cerebellar medulloblastoma, when compared with the general population (Brain Tumor Polyposis-BTP Type 2).
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their established hereditary CRC Registry for brain tumors in FAP pedigrees (56 families, 213 individuals), pooled their patients with BTP and known APC mutations with those reported thus far elsewhere, and compared the resulting mutation distribution of FAP-BTP with the mutation distribution for APC mutations in the US.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients from 24 families were accrued, the most common brain tumor in BTP was medulloblastoma (60%) predominantly in females (12:5) under the age of 20 (mean age 14.7 SD 9.2).
  • Analysis of the pooled APC mutation data by Chi-square test of association shows an odds ratio of 3.7 (P < .005) for all brain tumor subtypes and 13.1 (P < .001) for medulloblastoma in patients harboring segment 2 APC mutation (codons 679-1224) compared to nonsegment 2 mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FAP and identifiable APC gene mutation, CNS tumors, especially medulloblastoma which developed in most cases during childhood, are more common in females with FAP and APC gene mutation in codons 686-1217.
  • Further studies are necessary to determine if this observation and the natural history of medulloblastoma in children justifies novel, aggressive, targeted screening of at-risk individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Codon. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Registries


25. Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):940-6
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  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADC and tumor cellularity in medulloblastoma and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • RESULTS: The mean minADC value of the medulloblastoma was significantly lower than those of ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma without overlap in the range of minADC values.
  • AT/RT and glioblastoma had similar minADC values to medulloblastoma.
  • Analysis of ADC values has high predictive value for the differentiation of medulloblastoma from other posterior fossa tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Body Water / physiology. Cell Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Extracellular Space / metabolism. Female. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19138469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Pierson J, Hostager B, Fan R, Vibhakar R: Regulation of cyclin dependent kinase 6 by microRNA 124 in medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2008 Oct;90(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Regulation of cyclin dependent kinase 6 by microRNA 124 in medulloblastoma.
  • Despite recent advances in treatment medulloblastoma continues to remain a vexing problem.
  • Recently increased expression of cyclin dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) was identified as an adverse prognostic marker in medulloblastoma.
  • We hypothesized that CDK6 expression is also regulated by microRNAs in medulloblastoma.
  • We identified putative miR sites in the CDK6 including microRNA 124a, a brain enriched microRNA.
  • Expression of miR 124a was significantly decreased in medulloblastoma cells compared to normal adult cerebellum.
  • Functional association between miR 124a and CDK6 in medulloblastoma was established using luciferase assays.
  • Additionally, re-expression of miR 124a in medulloblastoma cells decreased expression of CDK6 protein.
  • Transfection of miR 124 significantly decreases medulloblastoma cell growth but does not alter apoptosis.
  • Our data strongly indicate that CDK6 is regulated by microRNA 124 in medulloblastoma and that miR 124 modulates medulloblastoma cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Medulloblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18607543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Strathdee G, Brown R, Gilbertson RJ, Bailey S, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;118(2):346-52
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  • [Title] Epigenetic inactivation of MCJ (DNAJD1) in malignant paediatric brain tumours.
  • We examined the status of MCJ in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumours [PNETs, comprising cerebellar PNETs (medulloblastomas) and supratentorial PNETs (stPNETs)] and ependymomas, together representing the most common malignant brain tumours of childhood.
  • Evidence of MCJ hypermethylation was found in all 3 tumour types [medulloblastomas, 3/9 (33%) cell lines, 2/28 (7%) primary tumours; stPNETs, 2/2 (100%) cell lines, 3/10 (30%) primary tumours; and ependymomas, 2/20 (10%) primary tumours] but not in nonneoplastic brain tissues (n = 11), indicating that MCJ methylation is a tumour-specific event.
  • Extensive methylation patterns were associated with the methylation-dependent transcriptional silencing of MCJ in medulloblastoma and stPNET cell lines.
  • These data indicate that epigenetic inactivation of MCJ may play a role in the development of a range of paediatric brain tumour types, and its role in disease pathogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance should now be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Silencing. Humans. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16049974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNAJC1 protein, human; 0 / HSP40 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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28. Bai R, Siu IM, Tyler BM, Staedtke V, Gallia GL, Riggins GJ: Evaluation of retinoic acid therapy for OTX2-positive medulloblastomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Jul;12(7):655-63
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  • The homeobox transcription factor OTX2 plays an essential role during embryonic brain development.
  • It is normally silenced in the adult brain, but is overexpressed by genomic amplification or other mechanisms in the majority of medulloblastomas (MBs).

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  • (PMID = 20511190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052507
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Otx Transcription Factors; 0 / Otx2 protein, mouse; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940451
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29. Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Anderton JA, Gilbertson RJ, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jul 16;97(2):267-74
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  • [Title] Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma.
  • Using a pharmacological expression reactivation approach, we screened 16 S100 genes for evidence of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood.
  • Four family members (S100A2, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A10) demonstrated evidence of upregulated expression in multiple medulloblastoma cell lines, following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.
  • Assessed against these normal tissue-specific methylation states, S100A6 and S100A10 demonstrated tumour-specific hypermethylation in medulloblastoma primary tumours (5 out of 40 and 4 out of 35, respectively, both 12%) and cell lines (both 7 out of 9, 78%), which was associated with their transcriptional silencing.
  • In summary, these data characterise complex patterns of somatic methylation affecting S100 genes in the normal cerebellum and demonstrate their disruption causing epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 family members in medulloblastoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Medulloblastoma / genetics. S100 Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cerebellum / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 17579622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360310
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30. Hamasaki K, Nakamura H, Ueda Y, Makino K, Kuratsu J: Radiation-induced glioblastoma occurring 35 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma: case report. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Apr;27(1):39-43
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  • [Title] Radiation-induced glioblastoma occurring 35 years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma: case report.
  • Histological diagnosis was medulloblastoma (MB).
  • Postoperatively he received a total of 40 Gy radiation to the whole brain and 30.5 Gy to the spine without chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Glioblastoma / etiology. Glioblastoma / therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20425047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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31. Shu XH, Li H, Sun Z, Wu ML, Ma JX, Wang JM, Wang Q, Sun Y, Fu YS, Chen XY, Kong QY, Liu J: Identification of metabolic pattern and bioactive form of resveratrol in human medulloblastoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 May 15;79(10):1516-25
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  • [Title] Identification of metabolic pattern and bioactive form of resveratrol in human medulloblastoma cells.
  • This issue was addressed here by identifying the metabolic pattern and the bioactive form of resveratrol in a resveratrol-sensitive human medulloblastoma cell line, UW228-3.
  • The cell lysates and condition media of UW228-3 cells with or without 100 microM resveratrol treatment were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS which revealed (1) that resveratrol was chemically unstable and the spontaneous generation of cis-resveratrol reduced resveratrol's anti-medulloblastoma efficacy and (2) that resveratrol monosulfate was the major metabolite of the cells.
  • To identify the bioactive form of resveratrol, a mixture-containing approximately half fraction of resveratrol monosulfate was prepared by incubating trans-resveratrol with freshly prepared rat brain lysates.
  • Medulloblastoma cells treated by 100 microM of this mixture showed attenuated cell crisis.
  • The overall levels of the three brain-associated sulfotransferases (SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1) were low in medulloblastoma cells in vivo and in vitro in comparison with that in human noncancerous and rat normal cerebella; resveratrol could more or less up-regulate the production of these enzymes in UW228-3 cells but their overall level was still lower than that in normal cerebellum tissue.
  • Our study thus demonstrated for the first time that trans-resveratrol is the bioactive form in medulloblastoma cells in which the expression of brain-associated SULTs was down-regulated, resulting in the increased intracellular bioavailability and anti-medulloblastoma efficacy of trans-resveratrol.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Stilbenes / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Animals. Biotransformation. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Humans. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sulfotransferases / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20105429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Stilbenes; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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32. Kremer P, Fardanesh M, Ding R, Pritsch M, Zoubaa S, Frei E: Intraoperative fluorescence staining of malignant brain tumors using 5-aminofluorescein-labeled albumin. Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):ons53-60; discussion ons60-1
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  • [Title] Intraoperative fluorescence staining of malignant brain tumors using 5-aminofluorescein-labeled albumin.
  • OBJECTIVE: The newly developed conjugate 5-aminofluorescein (AFL)-human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated in a clinical trial for fluorescence-guided surgery of malignant brain tumors to assess its efficacy and tolerability.
  • Neither bleaching nor penetration of AFL-HSA into the surrounding brain edema or into necrotic tissue was seen.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor fluorescence using AFL-HSA made fluorescence-guided brain tumor resection possible, demonstrating that albumin is a suitable carrier system for selective targeting of aminofluorescein into malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Fluoresceins. Glioma / pathology. Serum Albumin
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Female. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Logistic Models. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Paraffin Embedding. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 19240573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluoresceins; 0 / Serum Albumin; 3326-34-9 / 5-aminofluorescein
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33. Souweidane MM, Morgenstern PF, Christos PJ, Edgar MA, Khakoo Y, Rutka JT, Dunkel IJ: Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2009 Jul;65(1):72-8; discussion 78
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  • [Title] Intraoperative arachnoid and cerebrospinal fluid sampling in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine whether arachnoid tissue or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is valuable for risk stratification in children with posterior fossa brain tumors.
  • Arachnoid infiltration and CSF cytology were found in 20.0% and 44.8%, respectively, for medulloblastoma/pineoblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor), 6.9% and 3.6% for pilocytic astrocytoma, and 0.0% and 33.3% for ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative evidence of arachnoid infiltration or CSFCM dissemination in patients with posterior fossa brain tumors occurs at a variable frequency that is dependent on tumor type, correlates with conventional M stage, and may be predictive of outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19574827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Lueth M, von Deimling A, Pietsch T, Wong LJ, Kurtz A, Henze G, Driever PH: Medulloblastoma harbor somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in the D-loop region. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Mar;32(2):156-9
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma harbor somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in the D-loop region.
  • Despite the growing knowledge on molecular risk factors of the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood, medulloblastoma, its biology remains only partially understood.
  • A previous study investigating the entire mitochondrial genome of medulloblastoma revealed a number of somatic mutations in tumor and corresponding cerebrospinal fluid samples.
  • In our present study we sought to corroborate these results on somatic and germ line mutations by comparing the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of medulloblastoma tissue in a further cohort of patients.
  • Analysis of the entire mitochondrial genome by temporal temperature gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing revealed 6 somatic mutations in 6 of 15 medulloblastoma.
  • These results are in support of our previous findings on frequency of somatic mitochondrial mutations in medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genome, Mitochondrial. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 20147852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
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35. Bosco JL, Tseng M, Spector LG, Olshan AF, Bunin GR: Reproducibility of reported nutrient intake and supplement use during a past pregnancy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol; 2010 Jan;24(1):93-101
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  • We determined the reproducibility of reported diet and supplement use during a past pregnancy in a subset of mothers interviewed for a case-control study of maternal diet in relation to the risk of childhood brain tumours.
  • Cases were Children's Oncology Group patients, diagnosed at age <6 with medulloblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumour from 1991 to 1997.
  • Overall, the reproducibility of nutrient estimates and supplement use in pregnancy was good and similar to that reported for adult diet.

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  • (PMID = 20078835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA060951-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES010126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098543-04S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES010126-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA 98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA060951; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA060951-04; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R24 HD050924; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60951; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30ES10126
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS271140; NLM/ PMC3050886
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36. Tabori U, Sung L, Hukin J, Laperriere N, Crooks B, Carret AS, Silva M, Odame I, Mpofu C, Strother D, Wilson B, Samson Y, Bouffet E, Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium: Distinctive clinical course and pattern of relapse in adolescents with medulloblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Feb 1;64(2):402-7
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  • [Title] Distinctive clinical course and pattern of relapse in adolescents with medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical course of adolescents with medulloblastoma, with specific emphasis on prognosis and pattern of relapse.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively studied the clinical course and outcomes of children aged 10-20 years with medulloblastoma, treated at centers throughout Canada between 1986 and 2003.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that adolescents with medulloblastoma might have a unique prognosis and pattern of relapse, dissimilar to those in younger children.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 16198067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Lo Muzio L: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2008;3:32
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  • About 5-10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone and Bones / abnormalities. Bone and Bones / radiography. Cerebellar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Odontogenic Cysts / epidemiology. Odontogenic Cysts / genetics. Odontogenic Cysts / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19032739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 164
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2607262
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38. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • If the degree of malignancy of brain tumors can be evaluated by MET-PET, the usefulness of MET-PET as a means of diagnosing brain tumors will increase.
  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Methionine / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic. Tissue Distribution


39. Herrlinger U, Steinbrecher A, Rieger J, Hau P, Kortmann RD, Meyermann R, Schabet M, Bamberg M, Dichgans J, Bogdahn U, Weller M: Adult medulloblastoma: prognostic factors and response to therapy at diagnosis and at relapse. J Neurol; 2005 Mar;252(3):291-9
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  • [Title] Adult medulloblastoma: prognostic factors and response to therapy at diagnosis and at relapse.
  • Adult medulloblastoma is a rare tumor with few retrospective studies published so far.
  • This study reports therapy and outcome in all adult (>or=16 years old) medulloblastoma (n=34) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) patients (n=2) treated in 2 neuro-oncological centers between 1976 and 2002.
  • In conclusion, adjuvant chemotherapy may prolong survival in adult medulloblastoma patients.
  • As in pediatric medulloblastoma patients, primary infiltration of the floor of the 4(th) ventricle indicates a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy. Demography. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / methods. Recurrence. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16189725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Publication-country] Germany
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40. Hänninen MM, Haapasalo J, Haapasalo H, Fleming RE, Britton RS, Bacon BR, Parkkila S: Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors. BMC Neurosci; 2009;10:36
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  • [Title] Expression of iron-related genes in human brain and brain tumors.
  • Although the expression of genes involved in normal iron balance has been intensively studied in other tissues, little is known about their expression in the brain.
  • We investigated the mRNA levels of hepcidin (HAMP), HFE, neogenin (NEO1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFRC), transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), and hemojuvelin (HFE2) in normal human brain, brain tumors, and astrocytoma cell lines.
  • The specimens included 5 normal brain tissue samples, 4 meningiomas, one medulloblastoma, 3 oligodendrocytic gliomas, 2 oligoastrocytic gliomas, 8 astrocytic gliomas, and 3 astrocytoma cell lines.
  • Notable findings include high expression of transferrin receptor 1 in the hippocampus and medulla oblongata compared to other brain regions, low expression of HFE in normal brain with elevated HFE expression in meningiomas, and absence of hepcidin mRNA in astrocytoma cell lines despite expression in normal brain and tumor specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: These results indicate that several iron-related genes are expressed in normal brain, and that their expression may be dysregulated in brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / genetics. Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / metabolism. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Hepcidins. Humans. Male. Meningioma / genetics. Meningioma / metabolism. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Transferrin / genetics. Receptors, Transferrin / metabolism. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19386095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2202
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / CD71 antigen; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / HAMP protein, human; 0 / HFE protein, human; 0 / HFE2 protein, human; 0 / Hepcidins; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Transferrin; 0 / TFR2 protein, human; 0 / neogenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2679039
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41. Patru C, Romao L, Varlet P, Coulombel L, Raponi E, Cadusseau J, Renault-Mihara F, Thirant C, Leonard N, Berhneim A, Mihalescu-Maingot M, Haiech J, Bièche I, Moura-Neto V, Daumas-Duport C, Junier MP, Chneiweiss H: CD133, CD15/SSEA-1, CD34 or side populations do not resume tumor-initiating properties of long-term cultured cancer stem cells from human malignant glio-neuronal tumors. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:66
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  • METHODS: We screened for TICs in 47 human adult brain malignant tumors.
  • Cells forming floating spheres in culture, and endowed with all of the features expected from tumor cells with stem-like properties were obtained from glioblastomas, medulloblastoma but not oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD15 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / metabolism. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20181261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841664
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42. Kadota RP, Mahoney DH, Doyle J, Duerst R, Friedman H, Holmes E, Kun L, Zhou T, Pollack IF: Dose intensive melphalan and cyclophosphamide with autologous hematopoietic stem cells for recurrent medulloblastoma or germinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):675-8
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  • [Title] Dose intensive melphalan and cyclophosphamide with autologous hematopoietic stem cells for recurrent medulloblastoma or germinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the response, toxicity, and survival for children with progressive or recurrent medulloblastoma and germinoma using a single myeloablative course of chemotherapy supported by autologous hematopoietic stem cells.
  • There were 6 medulloblastoma and 3 germinoma survivors with a median follow-up of 7.5 years (range = 2.8-10).
  • CONCLUSION: Myeloablative chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide and melphalan was tolerable in the relapsed brain tumor setting with 19/29 cases achieving CR or CCR status and 9/29 becoming long-term survivors.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 18623206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; None / None / / U10 CA098413-06; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS123029; NLM/ PMC2900925
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43. Keita AD, Kane M, Guinto CO, Landoure G, Traore S, Karembe M, Toure M, Diallo AK, Fongoro S, Sidibe S, Traore M, Traore I: [Using CT to diagnose brain tumors at the Point G Hospital in Mali]. Mali Med; 2007;22(2):14-8
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  • [Title] [Using CT to diagnose brain tumors at the Point G Hospital in Mali].
  • The main tumors detected with CT scan include glyoma (.5 cases), craniopharyngioma (3 cases), adenoma (3 cases), medulloblastoma (3 cases), and metastasis (3 cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Mali. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19437825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0464-7874
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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44. Christ G, Denninger D, Dohm OS, Weigel B, Hönes A, Paulsen F: Craniospinal radiotherapy in an advanced technique. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 Oct;184(10):530-5
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  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Computer Simulation. Ependymoma / radiography. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Female. Germinoma / radiography. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Lasers. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiography. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Pineal Gland / radiography. Pinealoma / radiography. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19016043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Bowers DC, Adhikari S, El-Khashab YM, Gargan L, Oeffinger KC: Survey of long-term follow-up programs in the United States for survivors of childhood brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1295-301
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  • [Title] Survey of long-term follow-up programs in the United States for survivors of childhood brain tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Despite recognition that childhood brain tumor survivors often suffer multiple late effects following therapy, little is known regarding the long-term follow-up (LTFU) programs for these patients.
  • Institutions were asked about the size of their brain tumor program, activities of the LTFU programs and perceived barriers to follow-up.
  • Institutions with a neuro-oncology LTFU clinic were more likely to use neuro-psychological testing following radiation therapy (P = 0.001), have longer duration of continued surveillance imaging (P = 0.02), use growth hormone replacement for medulloblastoma survivors (P < 0.001) and continue the use of growth hormone into adulthood (P = 0.05) than those with a general pediatric oncology program.
  • Perceived barriers to care of brain tumor survivors included limited access and lack of insurance (32.1%), lack of funding or dedicated time for providers (22.9%), patients' uncertainty about need to follow-up (20.6%), and patients' desire to not be followed in a pediatric cancer program (12.2%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation exists across institutions in the United States in the delivery of follow-up care for survivors of childhood brain tumors.
  • We encourage additional investigation to better define and implement optimal follow-up care for childhood brain tumor survivors.
  • [MeSH-major] Aftercare / organization & administration. Ambulatory Care / organization & administration. Brain Neoplasms. Oncology Service, Hospital / organization & administration. Outpatient Clinics, Hospital / organization & administration. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Diseases / etiology. Child. Chronic Disease. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Data Collection. Dwarfism, Pituitary / etiology. Dwarfism, Pituitary / prevention & control. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Human Growth Hormone / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Insurance Benefits. Male. Medulloblastoma / complications. Neuropsychological Tests. Patient Participation. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Societies, Medical. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19688835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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46. Malakootian M, Mowla SJ, Saberi H, Asadi MH, Atlasi Y, Shafaroudi AM: Differential expression of nucleostemin, a stem cell marker, and its variants in different types of brain tumors. Mol Carcinog; 2010 Sep;49(9):818-25
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  • [Title] Differential expression of nucleostemin, a stem cell marker, and its variants in different types of brain tumors.
  • In the present study, we have examined the expression of NS and its spliced variants in various brain tumors.
  • Total RNA was extracted from 59 brain tumor samples, and the expression of different NS spliced variants was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.
  • The subcellular distribution of NS protein in brain tumors was further examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • Furthermore, to decipher the potential involvement of NS in brain tumorogenesis, its expression was knocked-down by means of RNA interference (RNAi) in two malignant glioma (U-87MG and A172), one astrocytoma (1321N1) and one medulloblastoma (DAOY) cell lines.
  • Our data revealed that NS and its variants are widely expressed in different types of brain tumors.
  • All in all, our data suggest a potential role for NS in tumorogenesis of brain cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / metabolism. Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Proteins / genetics. Proteins / metabolism. RNA Interference. RNA Splicing. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stem Cells / metabolism. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20572164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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47. Abe M, Tokumaru S, Tabuchi K, Kida Y, Takagi M, Imamura J: Stereotactic radiation therapy with chemotherapy in the management of recurrent medulloblastomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(2):81-8
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  • In contrast, all 8 patients with metastasis had new lesions either in the spinal canal or on the surface of the brain outside the target area of SRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16465076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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48. Figols-Ladrón de Guevara J, Lafuente-Sánchez JV: [The medulloblastoma]. Rev Neurol; 2006 Aug 16-31;43(4):213-7
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  • [Title] [The medulloblastoma].
  • INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT: Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar small cell tumor, whose ancestor cell has not been yet identified in the human normal embriology: its exact origin is, in fact, still unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellum / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Isochromosomes. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16883510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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49. Gupta A, Kasliwal MK: Unusual MR features of adult cerebellar medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;78(1):47-8
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  • [Title] Unusual MR features of adult cerebellar medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16554967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Brassesco MS, Valera ET, Neder L, Castro-Gamero AM, de Oliveira FM, Santos AC, Scrideli CA, Oliveira RS, Machado HR, Tone LG: Childhood radiation-associated atypical meningioma with novel complex rearrangements involving chromosomes 1 and 12. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):585-90
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  • Previous cytogenetic studies on adult spontaneous and radiation-associated meningiomas showed loss of chromosome 22 as the most frequent change, followed by loss of the short arm of chromosome 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Meningioma / genetics. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Combined Modality Therapy. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19077038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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51. Gilheeney SW, Khakoo Y, Souweidane M, Wolden S, Boulad F, Dunkel IJ: Thiotepa/topotecan/carboplatin with autologous stem cell rescue in recurrent/refractory/poor prognosis pediatric malignancies of the central nervous system. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):591-5
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  • Topotecan potentiates the anti-cancer effects of alkylators and crosses the blood-brain barrier.
  • Five had medulloblastoma (MB), four had high grade glioma (HGG), and one had trilateral retinoblastoma/pineoblastoma (tRB/PB).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prognosis. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Thiotepa / adverse effects. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Topotecan / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19998470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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52. Ratilal BO, Galo SM, Luiz CA: Intrinsic hematoma of the oculomotor nerve: case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery; 2005 Aug;57(2):E370; discussion E370
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  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old woman with a 12-year history of gross total resection of cerebellar medulloblastoma and posterior whole-brain radiotherapy presented with complete left oculomotor palsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Craniotomy / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16094140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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53. Rudin CM, Hann CL, Laterra J, Yauch RL, Callahan CA, Fu L, Holcomb T, Stinson J, Gould SE, Coleman B, LoRusso PM, Von Hoff DD, de Sauvage FJ, Low JA: Treatment of medulloblastoma with hedgehog pathway inhibitor GDC-0449. N Engl J Med; 2009 Sep 17;361(12):1173-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of medulloblastoma with hedgehog pathway inhibitor GDC-0449.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • Aberrant activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway is strongly implicated in the development of some cases of medulloblastoma.
  • A 26-year-old man with metastatic medulloblastoma that was refractory to multiple therapies was treated with a novel hedgehog pathway inhibitor, GDC-0449; treatment resulted in rapid (although transient) regression of the tumor and reduction of symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hedgehog Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anilides. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Patched Receptors. Patched-1 Receptor. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Pyridines. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Zinc Finger Protein GLI1


54. Hambardzumyan D, Becher OJ, Holland EC: Cancer stem cells and survival pathways. Cell Cycle; 2008 May 15;7(10):1371-8
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  • Gliomas and medulloblastomas are the most frequent malignant brain tumors in adult and children respectively.
  • During the last decade several reports have demonstrated the existence of cancer stem cells in brain tumors, their location and their response to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplastic Stem Cells / radiation effects. Signal Transduction / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 18421251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 5R01CA100688-2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA 5R01CA099489-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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55. Mondin V, Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Woolgar JA, Rinaldo A: A survey of metastatic central nervous system tumors to cervical lymph nodes. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2010 Nov;267(11):1657-66
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  • The present review examines the published experience with 128 tumors that gave rise to cervical node metastases in both adult and in pediatric patients.
  • While it is presumed that the blood-brain barrier blocks the spread of most tumors beyond the intracranial locale, this is speculative.
  • Although many of the cervical node metastases reported here arose after craniotomy (and, presumably, after breaching of the blood-brain barrier), some arose in the absence of any preceding surgical procedure.
  • Cervical node metastases may arise from glial tumors (including glioblastoma multiforme, in both adult and pediatric patients) and non-glial tumors (such as medulloblastoma in pediatric patients).
  • The history of a previous intracranial lesion is often the key to correct diagnosis, since, without prompting, neither the pathologist nor the radiologist is likely to think of a cervical node metastasis from a brain tumor when assessing a cervical mass of unknown etiology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood-Brain Barrier. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20694730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Jouanneau E, Guzman Tovar RA, Desuzinges C, Frappaz D, Louis-Tisserand G, Sunyach MP, Jouvet A, Sindou M: Very late frontal relapse of medulloblastoma mimicking a meningioma in an adult: usefulness of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-perfusion magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative diagnosis: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Apr;58(4):E789; discussion E789
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  • [Title] Very late frontal relapse of medulloblastoma mimicking a meningioma in an adult: usefulness of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-perfusion magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative diagnosis: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We present a rare case of very long-term medulloblastoma relapse in an adult patient and discuss the pattern of recurrence and metabolic imaging of the tumor.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old man was referred for evaluation of a frontobasal midline tumor 21 years after treatment of a cerebellar medulloblastoma by surgery followed by chemotherapy and craniospinal radiotherapy.
  • Several hypotheses were discussed, such as other radio-induced tumors, sarcomas, high-grade gliomas, or lymphomas (previous chemotherapy) and even recurrence of medulloblastoma.
  • Metabolic imaging favored the diagnosis of medulloblastoma over the initially suspected diagnosis of meningioma.
  • The patient underwent complete removal of the tumor that was confirmed to be a metastasis of his primary medulloblastoma.
  • Our observation validates the clinical interest of preoperative metabolic imaging for brain tumors with distinctive pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16575298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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57. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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58. Pizer BL, Clifford SC: The potential impact of tumour biology on improved clinical practice for medulloblastoma: progress towards biologically driven clinical trials. Br J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;23(4):364-75
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  • [Title] The potential impact of tumour biology on improved clinical practice for medulloblastoma: progress towards biologically driven clinical trials.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood and accounts for around 10% of all childhood cancer deaths.
  • Pan-European clinical trials being planned for medulloblastoma by the SIOP Brain tumour group will assess the stratification of patients using molecular and histological biomarkers, alongside clinical indices, to select favourable, standard and high-risk treatment groups.
  • Their success will require a coordinated approach by the entire multidisciplinary team, including neurosurgeons, oncologists and neuropathologists, with the common aim of facilitating targeted delivery of individualised risk-adapted therapies for children with medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms. Clinical Trials as Topic. Medulloblastoma. Patient Selection
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Europe / epidemiology. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology. Male. Mutation. Prognosis. Signal Transduction. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19637007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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59. Rushing EJ, Smith AB, Smirniotopoulos JG, Douglas AF, Zeng W, Azumi N: Occult leptomeningeal large cell medulloblastoma in an adult. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 May-Jun;28(3):188-92
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  • [Title] Occult leptomeningeal large cell medulloblastoma in an adult.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Large cell medulloblastoma is an uncommon malignancy of childhood that often pursues an aggressive clinical course.
  • We report the first case of this entity in an adult that proved to be an unsuspected primary leptomeningeal tumor.
  • Postmortem examination of the brain was notable for necrotic cerebellar tonsils, but demonstrated no evidence of an intraparenchymal mass lesion.
  • Microscopic examination of the cerebellum revealed discohesive neoplastic cells, which showed characteristic dot-like immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, diagnostic of large cell medulloblastoma within the subarachnoid space.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arnold-Chiari Malformation / complications. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Intervertebral Disc Displacement / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 19537136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Campbell RM, Mader RD, Dufresne RG Jr: Meningiomas after medulloblastoma irradiation treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Nov;53(5 Suppl 1):S256-9
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  • [Title] Meningiomas after medulloblastoma irradiation treatment in a patient with basal cell nevus syndrome.
  • A 23-year-old woman with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or Gorlin's syndrome, was given the diagnosis at age 2 years of a medulloblastoma that was resected and treated postoperatively with craniospinal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / epidemiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Meningioma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Parietal Lobe. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16227103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Li XN, Shu Q, Su JM, Adesina AM, Wong KK, Perlaky L, Antalffy BA, Blaney SM, Lau CC: Differential expression of survivin splice isoforms in medulloblastomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Feb;33(1):67-76
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  • The current study was undertaken to examine the mRNA expression of survivin isoforms and their correlation with clinical staging and outcome in 20 medulloblastoma (MB) tumours, three MB cell lines and normal brain tissues (a foetal and an adult cerebellum) by densitometry scanning of 32p-dCTP incorporated reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products and quantitative real-time PCR.
  • Our results showed that the normal adult brain only expressed low levels of survivin-deltaEx3 mRNA, while the foetal brain expressed all three isoforms, with wild-type survivin as the dominant transcript.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17239009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
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62. Terterov S, Krieger MD, Bowen I, McComb JG: Evaluation of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid cytology in staging pediatric medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):131-6
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  • Cerebrospinal fluid dissemination is an ominous feature of pediatric brain tumors, occurring in as many as 30% of medulloblastomas, 25% of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs), and 5% of ependymomas at diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol, medical records, pathology reports, and radiology reports for 150 patients who had undergone resection of brain tumors (88 with medulloblastomas, 21 with supratentorial PNETs, and 41 with ependymomas) and who had been evaluated using neuraxis MR imaging studies in the last 15 years were retrospectively reviewed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discordance exists between the results of neuraxis MR imaging and lumbar and intracranial CSF cytology in perioperative detection of tumor dissemination for pediatric medulloblastoma, supratentorial PNETs, and ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Ependymoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20672933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Bal MM, Das Radotra B, Srinivasan R, Sharma SC: Expression of c-erbB-4 in medulloblastoma and its correlation with prognosis. Histopathology; 2006 Jul;49(1):92-3
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  • [Title] Expression of c-erbB-4 in medulloblastoma and its correlation with prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-4

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  • [ErratumIn] Histopathology. 2006 Sep;49(3):329. Rodotra, B Das [corrected to Das Radotra, B]
  • (PMID = 16842254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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64. Hu WW, Zheng XJ, Shen G, Liu WG, Shen H, Fu WM, Zhou JY: [Diagnosis and micro-neurosurgery for the fourth cerebral ventricle tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;29(2):144-6
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  • CONCLUSION: Medulloblastoma, astrocytoma and hemangiblastoma are suggested to be removed totally whenever technically possible according to the site, character and volume of the tumor.
  • For ependymoma, if close to the brain stem, is recommended to be subtotally removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / radiography. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / radiography. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17645855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Kool M, Koster J, Bunt J, Hasselt NE, Lakeman A, van Sluis P, Troost D, Meeteren NS, Caron HN, Cloos J, Mrsić A, Ylstra B, Grajkowska W, Hartmann W, Pietsch T, Ellison D, Clifford SC, Versteeg R: Integrated genomics identifies five medulloblastoma subtypes with distinct genetic profiles, pathway signatures and clinicopathological features. PLoS One; 2008;3(8):e3088
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  • [Title] Integrated genomics identifies five medulloblastoma subtypes with distinct genetic profiles, pathway signatures and clinicopathological features.
  • BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children.
  • This illustrates the potential benefits of a robust classification of medulloblastoma patients and a detailed knowledge of associated biological mechanisms.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: To get a better insight into the molecular biology of medulloblastoma we established mRNA expression profiles of 62 medulloblastomas and analyzed 52 of them also by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays.
  • Monosomy of chromosome 6 occurred only in type A tumors, loss of 9q mostly occurred in type B tumors, whereas chromosome 17 aberrations, most common in medulloblastoma, were strongly associated with type C or D tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The new medulloblastoma classification presented in this study will greatly enhance the understanding of this heterogeneous disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomics. Medulloblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18769486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2518524
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66. de Haas T, Oussoren E, Grajkowska W, Perek-Polnik M, Popovic M, Zadravec-Zaletel L, Perera M, Corte G, Wirths O, van Sluis P, Pietsch T, Troost D, Baas F, Versteeg R, Kool M: OTX1 and OTX2 expression correlates with the clinicopathologic classification of medulloblastomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Feb;65(2):176-86
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  • We previously described a high OTX2 expression in medulloblastoma.
  • The OTX2 gene was amplified in the medulloblastoma cell line D425 and mRNA and protein data showed expression in 114 of 152 medulloblastomas (75%), but not in postnatal cerebellum.
  • OTX2 mRNA expression correlated with a classic medulloblastoma histology (29 of 34 cases), whereas expression of OTX1 mRNA only was correlated with a nodular/desmoplastic histology (9 of 11 cases).
  • Analysis of human fetal brain showed OTX2 protein expression in a small number of presumptive neuronal precursor cells of the EGL, but not in precursor cells of the ventricular matrix.
  • [MeSH-major] Medulloblastoma. Otx Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cerebellum / growth & development. Cerebellum / metabolism. Cerebellum / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fetus / anatomy & histology. Fetus / physiology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16462208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / OTX1 protein, human; 0 / OTX2 protein, human; 0 / Otx Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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67. Gonçalves MI, Radzinsky TC, da Silva NS, Chiari BM, Consonni D: Speech-language and hearing complaints of children and adolescents with brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):706-8
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  • [Title] Speech-language and hearing complaints of children and adolescents with brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Hearing Loss / etiology. Language Disorders / etiology. Speech Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / drug therapy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Ependymoma / complications. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / complications. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy


68. Goldhoff P, Warrington NM, Limbrick DD Jr, Hope A, Woerner BM, Jackson E, Perry A, Piwnica-Worms D, Rubin JB: Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7717-25
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  • [Title] Targeted inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase-4 promotes brain tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: As favorable outcomes from malignant brain tumors remain limited by poor survival and treatment-related toxicity, novel approaches to cure are essential.
  • Here, we investigate the role of PDE4 in brain tumors and examine the utility of PDE4 as a therapeutic target.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression pattern of a subfamily of PDE4, PDE4A, in multiple brain tumor types.
  • To evaluate the effect of PDE4A on growth, a brain-specific isoform, PDE4A1 was overexpressed in xenografts of Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells.
  • RESULTS: We found that PDE4A is expressed in medulloblastoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, and meningioma.
  • Moreover, when PDE4A1 was overexpressed in Daoy medulloblastoma and U87 glioblastoma cells, in vivo doubling times were significantly shorter for PDE4A1-overexpressing xenografts compared with controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that PDE4 is widely expressed in brain tumors and promotes their growth and that inhibition with Rolipram overcomes tumor resistance and mediates tumor regression.

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  • (PMID = 19047098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS057105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA108677; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA94056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA094056-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4; K676NL63N7 / Rolipram
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82831; NLM/ PMC2615415
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69. Brandes AA, Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Reni M, Gatta G, Vecht C, Kortmann RD: Adult neuroectodermal tumors of posterior fossa (medulloblastoma) and of supratentorial sites (stPNET). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2009 Aug;71(2):165-79
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  • [Title] Adult neuroectodermal tumors of posterior fossa (medulloblastoma) and of supratentorial sites (stPNET).
  • Medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare diseases in adults.
  • Due to this rarity, few prospective clinical trials have been conducted on medulloblastoma in adults, investigations being based exclusively on retrospective studies; the populations considered in literature are small, and the different treatments given span decades, during which diagnostic procedures, neurosurgical skills and radiotherapy techniques have changed.
  • Unlike pediatric patients, adult medulloblastoma patients have been treated according to risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in only a few series and despite risk-tailored treatments, 20-30% of patients experience recurrence.
  • An important challenge for the future will be the biological characterization of medulloblastoma, with the identification of specific genetic patterns of patients with a better or a worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19303318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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70. Hoffman S, Schellinger KA, Propp JM, McCarthy BJ, Campbell RT, Davis FG: Seasonal variation in incidence of pediatric medulloblastoma in the United States, 1995-2001. Neuroepidemiology; 2007;29(1-2):89-95
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  • [Title] Seasonal variation in incidence of pediatric medulloblastoma in the United States, 1995-2001.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain tumors are the second most common pediatric malignancy.
  • The literature suggests that one of the most common subtypes of malignant childhood brain tumor, medulloblastoma, has some seasonal variation in incidence by month of birth.
  • METHODS: Data from cases in the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, including primary brain tumor cases diagnosed in children (0-19 years) between the years 1995 and 2001 from 13 state cancer registries, were analyzed to determine whether there was seasonal variation.
  • RESULTS: Seasonal variation in incidence by month of birth was highly statistically significant for medulloblastoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) (p = 0.016), with the peak occurring in October.
  • Medulloblastoma, NOS also demonstrated seasonal variation in incidence by month of birth in children aged 5-19 (p = 0.041), especially females aged 5-19 (p = 0.034), with the peak in October.
  • There were no significant results for brain tumors overall, or for the other most common pediatric tumor subtypes (pilocytic astrocytoma, other astrocytoma, and ependymoma).
  • CONCLUSION: These preliminary results indicate seasonal variation unique to medulloblastoma incidence by month of birth and may provide evidence for an environmental exposure etiology, though further studies are needed to explore specific hypotheses.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Parturition. Seasons
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Birth Rate. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Registries. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17925600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0208
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroepidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroepidemiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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71. Maddrey AM, Bergeron JA, Lombardo ER, McDonald NK, Mulne AF, Barenberg PD, Bowers DC: Neuropsychological performance and quality of life of 10 year survivors of childhood medulloblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;72(3):245-53
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  • [Title] Neuropsychological performance and quality of life of 10 year survivors of childhood medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Survivors of medulloblastoma, the most frequently occurring malignant brain tumor of childhood, suffer neuropsychological damage in the first decade after diagnosis.
  • Cognitive performance, psychosocial functioning and quality of life were assessed in medulloblastoma survivors in the second decade after diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen medulloblastoma survivors [mean age at diagnosis: 7.2 years, range: 1-15 years; 6 males] were tested at a mean age of 22.2 years [range: 13.6-27.9 years].
  • CONCLUSION: Survivors of childhood medulloblastoma frequently suffer severe persistent deficits in a wide-range of neuropsychological functional domains.
  • These severe neuropsychological and psychosocial deficiencies justify further attempts to reduce or delay the use of craniospinal radiation therapy for childhood medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / psychology. Medulloblastoma / psychology. Quality of Life. Survivors / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adult. Child. Cognition / physiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Cognition Disorders / psychology. Education. Employment. Female. Humans. Intelligence Tests. Interpersonal Relations. Male. Neuropsychological Tests. Psychomotor Performance / physiology. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
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72. Han YG, Alvarez-Buylla A: Role of primary cilia in brain development and cancer. Curr Opin Neurobiol; 2010 Feb;20(1):58-67
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  • [Title] Role of primary cilia in brain development and cancer.
  • Recent studies show that this tiny projection plays important roles in brain development and diseases.
  • Ciliary mutant mice show defects in brain patterning, progenitor proliferation, and specification of adult neural stem cells.
  • Primary cilia also have dual opposing functions in the development of brain tumors.
  • Understanding the multifaceted roles that primary cilia have in brain development will provide important insights into the mechanism of brain development and diseases.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20080044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028478; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS28478; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028478-17; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD32116; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R37 HD032116-15; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R37 HD032116; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS028478; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD032116
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 77
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS164482; NLM/ PMC2829308
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73. Smith D, MacDougall N, Monk J, Sibtain A, Powell ME, Plowman PN: First quinquennial review of intensity-modulated radiotherapy at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Oct;22(8):666-74
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  • The potential for concomitant boost therapy is exemplified in the treatment of brain metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hospitals. Humans. London. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Quality Control. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20674299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Marie SK, Okamoto OK, Uno M, Hasegawa AP, Oba-Shinjo SM, Cohen T, Camargo AA, Kosoy A, Carlotti CG Jr, Toledo S, Moreira-Filho CA, Zago MA, Simpson AJ, Caballero OL: Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas. Int J Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;122(4):807-15
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  • Similar level of overexpression was also observed in medulloblastoma.
  • Among them, MELK correlated with malignancy grade in astrocytomas and represents a therapeutic target for the management of the most frequent brain tumors in adult and children.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis. Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Child. DNA Methylation. Gene Dosage. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17960622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.1.- / MELK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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75. Yüksel M, Lutterbey G, Biersack HJ, Elke U, Hasan C, Gao Z, Bode U, Ezziddin S: 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy in medulloblastoma: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(1):111-7
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  • [Title] 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy in medulloblastoma: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is a primitive neuroectodermal tumour constituting a grade IV brain malignancy.
  • MRI remains the first step imaging technique in medulloblastoma patients before and after surgery and during the follow-up providing the highest sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptors, Somatostatin. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17438713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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76. Korshunov A, Remke M, Werft W, Benner A, Ryzhova M, Witt H, Sturm D, Wittmann A, Schöttler A, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Rutkowski S, Scheurlen W, Kulozik AE, von Deimling A, Lichter P, Pfister SM: Adult and pediatric medulloblastomas are genetically distinct and require different algorithms for molecular risk stratification. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun 20;28(18):3054-60
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  • [Title] Adult and pediatric medulloblastomas are genetically distinct and require different algorithms for molecular risk stratification.
  • PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, whereas it rarely presents in adults.
  • We aimed to identify genetic aberrations in 146 adult MBs to evaluate age-dependent differences in tumor biology and adapt age-specific risk stratification models.
  • METHODS: As a screening set, we studied a cohort of 34 adult MBs by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization comparing molecular results with clinical data.
  • DNA copy number aberrations identified as possible prognostic markers were validated in an independent cohort of 112 adult patients with MB by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis.
  • RESULTS: CDK6 amplification, 10q loss, and 17q gain are the most powerful prognostic markers in adult MB.
  • Whereas MYC/MYCN oncogene amplifications had a high prognostic value in pediatric MB, these aberrations were rarely observed in adult tumors.
  • Surprisingly, adult MBs with 6q deletion and nuclear beta-catenin activation did not share the excellent prognosis with their pediatric counterparts.
  • CONCLUSION: Adult MB is distinct from pediatric MB in terms of genomic aberrations and their impact on clinical outcomes.
  • Therefore, adult MBs require age-specific risk stratification models.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6 / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20479417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MYC protein, human; 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / beta Catenin
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77. Eskandary H, Sabba M, Khajehpour F, Eskandari M: Incidental findings in brain computed tomography scans of 3000 head trauma patients. Surg Neurol; 2005 Jun;63(6):550-3; discussion 553
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental findings in brain computed tomography scans of 3000 head trauma patients.
  • We studied the frequency of incidental findings on 3000 brain CT scans of trauma patients.
  • METHODS: Three thousands standard brain CT scans of trauma patients were evaluated for some incidental findings.
  • RESULTS: In this study we found 30 incidental abnormalities that include 8 cases of tumor: 3 meningioma, 2 craniopharyngioma, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 low-grade astrocytoma, and 1 medulloblastoma.
  • Three suspect lipomas were found in midline and near midline of the brain.
  • CONCLUSION: Cisterna magna enlargement was the most common incidental finding and brain tumor and arachnoid cyst were next in frequency.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiography. Brain Diseases / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Craniocerebral Trauma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Arachnoid Cysts / pathology. Arachnoid Cysts / radiography. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / radiography. Child. Child, Preschool. Comorbidity. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / pathology. Hydrocephalus / radiography. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence


78. Howes TL, Buatti JM, Kirby PA, Carlisle TL, Ryken TC: Radiation induced adult medulloblastoma: a case report. J Neurooncol; 2006 Nov;80(2):191-4
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  • [Title] Radiation induced adult medulloblastoma: a case report.
  • Adult medulloblastoma is a rare intracranial tumor.
  • Our patient is a 61 year old woman treated with cranial irradiation 15 years previously for a low grade astrocytoma in the left posterior temporal lobe that was recently diagnosed with medulloblastoma in the right cerebellum.
  • This is the first reported case of radiation induced adult medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / etiology. Medulloblastoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Temporal Lobe / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16710747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Gururangan S, Krauser J, Watral MA, Driscoll T, Larrier N, Reardon DA, Rich JN, Quinn JA, Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, McLendon RE, Fuchs H, Kurtzberg J, Friedman HS: Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy or standard salvage therapy in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Oct;10(5):745-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy or standard salvage therapy in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma.
  • The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) or standard salvage therapy was evaluated in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma (MBL) using retrospective chart review of all patients with recurrent MBL treated at Duke University Medical Center between 1995 and 2005 and who had undergone HDC with or without radiotherapy (RT) or standard salvage therapy after relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Retrospective Studies


80. Bonner MJ, Hardy KK, Willard VW, Anthony KK, Hood M, Gururangan S: Social functioning and facial expression recognition in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. J Pediatr Psychol; 2008 Nov-Dec;33(10):1142-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Social functioning and facial expression recognition in survivors of pediatric brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess social functioning and facial expression recognition skill in survivors of pediatric brain tumors (BT) as compared to children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).
  • RESULTS: After controlling for estimated IQ, survivors of BT made significantly more errors interpreting adult facial expressions as compared to children with JRA.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Damage, Chronic / psychology. Brain Neoplasms / psychology. Cognition Disorders / psychology. Emotions. Facial Expression. Pattern Recognition, Visu