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1. Katsumata N: [Virilizing adrenocortical tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:705-7
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenocortical tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Virilism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Androgens / biosynthesis. Androgens / secretion. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16776254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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2. Siriwong S, Shuangshoti S, Saritsiri S, Pak-art P, Khovidhunkit W, Snabboon T: Functioning adrenocortical carcinoma with superior vena cava and upper airway obstructions. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Sep;89(9):1511-5
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenocortical carcinoma with superior vena cava and upper airway obstructions.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies with a dismal prognosis.
  • Typically, the tumor is large and has regional invasion or distant metastasis at initial presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Airway Obstruction / pathology. Vena Cava, Superior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17100393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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3. Sanderson T, Renaud M, Scholten D, Nijmeijer S, van den Berg M, Cowell S, Guns E, Nelson C, Mutarapat T, Ruchirawat S: Effects of lactone derivatives on aromatase (CYP19) activity in H295R human adrenocortical and (anti)androgenicity in transfected LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Eur J Pharmacol; 2008 Sep 28;593(1-3):92-8
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  • [Title] Effects of lactone derivatives on aromatase (CYP19) activity in H295R human adrenocortical and (anti)androgenicity in transfected LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.
  • Certain lactone-containing secondary plant metabolites display potent biological effects, including anti-tumor activities.
  • The mechanisms of anti-tumor action of these compounds are largely unknown.
  • Thirteen synthetic lactone derivatives were evaluated for effects on aromatase activity and mRNA expression in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • Over-expression has been associated with increased risk of developing estrogen-dependent mammary tumors, and aromatase inhibitors are effective in their treatment.
  • The androgen receptor is implicated in mediating hormone-dependent prostate tumor growth, and androgen antagonists are effective in the treatment of these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Androgens / biosynthesis. Aromatase Inhibitors. Lactones / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Receptor Antagonists. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Luciferases / genetics. Male. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Tetrazolium Salts. Thiazoles. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18639541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2999
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Lactones; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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4. Hantel C, Beuschlein F: Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):865-75
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  • [Title] Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are heterogeneous tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • The rarity of this disorder causes a lack of treatment experience and material availability which is necessary to optimize existing treatments and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Although surgery is still the treatment of choice, adjuvant therapies are urgently needed as the rate of recurrence for these tumors is high.
  • In recent years molecular characterization of surgical tumor specimen has aided in the understanding of disease mechanisms and definition of therapeutic targets also in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Here we give an overview on rodent models that have been described to either have adrenocortical tumors as part of their phenotype or have been utilized for therapeutic screens as adrenocortical tumor models.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Models, Animal
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Oki K, Yamane K, Sakashita Y, Kamei N, Watanabe H, Toyota N, Shigeta M, Sasano H, Kohno N: Primary aldosteronism and hypercortisolism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2008 Oct;12(5):382-7
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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism and hypercortisolism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • A 50-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of hypertension was referred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Computed tomographic scan showed 10-mm masses in each adrenal gland.
  • The results of a subsequent adrenal venous catheterization study were consistent with the presence of a left cortisol-producing tumor and a right aldosterone-producing tumor.
  • This is an extremely rare case of bilateral adrenal tumors, in which the left adrenocortical tumor produced and secreted cortisol or both cortisol and aldosterone and the right one produced and secreted both aldosterone and cortisol, as confirmed by clinical findings and pathological studies using immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18543063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative diagnosis of an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is difficult, often leaving size as the principal predictor of malignancy.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Follow-up data, including clinical examination, biochemical analysis, and repeat scans, were reviewed for evidence of local or systemic recurrent disease.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • The mean age of the patients was 49.9 years (range 22-77 years), and the mean tumor size was 69.0 mm (range 60-80 mm).
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • Two patients died of systemic recurrent disease (liver metastases) at 10 and 19 months, respectively, following surgery; two other patients died 12 and 21 months, respectively following surgery owing to unrelated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology.
  • One patient underwent surgery for local recurrence 54 months after primary surgery; the remaining 14 patients are well with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • We provide an algorithm for the approach to adrenocortical tumors > or = 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report.
  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a solitary tumor mass, eight cm in size, of the right adrenal gland.
  • Laboratory tests showed it to be a hormonally active, androgen secreting tumor (elevated testosterone level), which was consistent with the clinical picture of the disease.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • The finding was verified by computerized tomography and the patient was reoperated on.
  • Cytologic opinion was recidive of primary malignant disease.
  • ACC is a rare malignant epithelial tumor of adrenal cortical cells, with high malignant potential.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • A combined evaluation of clinical features, size or weight, microscopic appearance, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic data is necessary to ensure a correct diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this case report is to present clinical and cytomorphologic features of our case of adrenocortical carcinoma which is very rare in cytology practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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8. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, Ribeiro RC: Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):265-73
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  • [Title] Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are very aggressive endocrine neoplasms whose incidence is quite low.
  • In recent years, however, new information has been derived from the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry (IPACTR), and new clues to its pathogenesis have emerged.
  • Two-thirds of patients have resectable tumors.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with mitotane is indicated for unresectable or metastatic disease, although its impact on overall outcome is slight.
  • In childhood ACT, age, tumor size, and tumor resectability are the most important prognostic indicators.
  • Outcome is stage-dependent; patients with small, resectable tumors have survival rates in excess of 80%, whereas the outcome for patients with unresectable disease is dismal.
  • Patients with large, resectable tumors have an intermediate outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Infant. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Mutation. Neoplasm Staging. Research. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15747338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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9. Orlando R, Lirussi F: Development of mantle cell lymphoma in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma and an 18-year survival after complete removal of the primary cancer and resection of local recurrences. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2B):1563-5
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  • [Title] Development of mantle cell lymphoma in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma and an 18-year survival after complete removal of the primary cancer and resection of local recurrences.
  • The case of a patient with a non-functional and poorly-differentiated adrenocortical carcinoma, who had an unexpected long-term survival after a right adrenalectomy and subsequent removal of 2 local recurrences, is reported.
  • However, fifteen years after the complete resection of the primary neoplasm, the patient first developed an autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura and later a mantle cell lymphoma located in the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • This case confirms the possible growth of a second tumour in patients with adrenocortical carcinomas, especially if presenting a long survival after resection of the primary malignancy, and emphasises the need for the close follow-up of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16619572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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10. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • In contrast, SF-1 expression was absent in all nonsteroidogenic tumors.
  • Strong SF-1 protein expression significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome: tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-4.64] and for recurrence 3.91 (95% CI = 1.71-8.94).
  • Similar results were obtained in the independent cohort using RNA analysis [tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 4.69 (95% CI = 1.44-15.30)].
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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11. Tissier F: [Sporadic adrenocortical tumors: genetics and perspectives for the pathologist]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Oct;28(5):409-16
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  • [Title] [Sporadic adrenocortical tumors: genetics and perspectives for the pathologist].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes sporadiques de l'adulte : aspects génétiques et perspectives pour le pathologiste.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and few therapeutic options are available.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach provides enough elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • Moreover, morphology is limited for predicting prognosis of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The comprehension of the genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumors led to progress in the identification of genetic abnormalities involved in sporadic adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • Thus, in sporadic adrenocortical tumorigenesis, IGF-II overexpression and cyclin E overproduction have been associated with 11p15 alterations which are observed in Bethwith-Wiedemann syndrome and TP53 inactivating mutations and 17p13 locus abnormalities which are observed in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • Activation of the Wnt/ss-catenin signaling pathway which is observed in familial adenomatous polyposis has been found in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas associated to mutations of CTNNB1, the gene coding ss-catenin, suggesting a central role for this pathway in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • These genetics findings already have had repercussions for patients via the development of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis; in the future they should be helpful in the development of new therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19068395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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12. Albores-Saavedra J, Simpson KW, Bilello SJ: The clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a previously unrecognized pancreatic neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Oct;30(10):1237-42
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  • [Title] The clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a previously unrecognized pancreatic neoplasm.
  • Solid pseudopapillary tumor is a rare but distinctive pancreatic neoplasm whose cell phenotype remains a mystery.
  • We report 3 cases of a previously undescribed variant of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas composed almost entirely of multivacuolated clear cells (>90%).
  • The tumors displayed prominent trabeculae and a solid growth pattern but lacked the characteristic pseudopapillary pattern of the classical solid pseudopapillary tumor.
  • In contrast, the clinical features, gross characteristics, and immunoprofile were similar to those of classical solid pseudopapillary tumor.
  • Two of the patients were young adult females with well-demarcated tumors involving the body and tail of the pancreas.
  • Tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for vimentin, CD10, CD56, synaptophysin, and nuclear accumulation of beta catenin.
  • In 2 patients, 1 male and 1 female, the tumors were discovered incidentally.
  • Despite vascular invasion in one of the tumors all 3 patients are disease free after distal pancreatectomy.
  • Clues to distinguish the clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary tumor from endocrine pancreatic tumor composed of clear cells, clear and foamy cell variants of ductal carcinoma, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, serous cystadenoma and ectopic adrenocortical nodules are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasmic Structures / ultrastructure. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Incidental Findings. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Pancreatectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17001153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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13. Ferruzzi P, Ceni E, Tarocchi M, Grappone C, Milani S, Galli A, Fiorelli G, Serio M, Mannelli M: Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1332-9
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  • [Title] Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R.
  • In the present study, we evaluated PPARgamma mRNA and protein expression in tissue samples of human adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), normal adrenal glands, and the human ACC cell line H295R.
  • PPARgamma mRNA was expressed in six of eight ACC, two of three normal adrenal glands and the H295R cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. PPAR gamma / genetics. PPAR gamma / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15585569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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14. Geller JL, Azer PC, Weiss LM, Mertens RB: Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):297-304
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  • [Title] Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review.
  • Darkly pigmented adrenocortical neoplasms are rare tumors that are often referred to as "black adenomas," indicative of both their pigmented nature and their invariably benign clinical behavior in previously reported cases.
  • We herein describe an exceptional case of a malignant pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm, with late recurrence and metastasis.
  • At age 53, this female patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome and underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, revealing a 3 cm well-circumscribed, darkly pigmented adrenocortical tumor.
  • The tumor exhibited several atypical histologic features and was diagnosed as an atypical pigmented adrenal cortical neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.
  • At subsequent exploratory laparotomy, three separate tumor nodules exhibiting varying degrees of pigmentation and ranging from 2.2 to 3.3 cm maximum dimension were excised.
  • Histologically, the tumor nodules were consistent with local recurrence/metastasis of the patient's previously excised pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Pigmentation. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17308367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Zancanella P, Pianovski MA, Oliveira BH, Ferman S, Piovezan GC, Lichtvan LL, Voss SZ, Stinghen ST, Callefe LG, Parise GA, Santana MH, Figueiredo BC: Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Aug;28(8):513-24
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  • [Title] Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: To define a mitotane dose for pediatric patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC) that maintains therapeutic plasma levels (TL) between 14 and 20 microg/mL and to verify its antitumor efficacy in association with 8 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin (CED).
  • Minor to partial tumor remission was found in 5 patients (<1 y) and complete remission was found in 2 patients.
  • Of the 3 patients who are alive at the time of report, 1 patient has been without disease for 16 months, and 2 patients have progressive disease.
  • All patients had recurrent metastatic disease (2 to 9 times).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Mitotane / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16912591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Barzon L, Masi G, Fincati K, Pacenti M, Pezzi V, Altavilla G, Fallo F, Palù G: Shift from Conn's syndrome to Cushing's syndrome in a recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Nov;153(5):629-36
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  • [Title] Shift from Conn's syndrome to Cushing's syndrome in a recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical tumors may originate from the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, or zona reticularis and be associated with syndromes due to overproduction of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, or androgens respectively.
  • We report an unusual case of recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), which seems to contradict the paradigm of functional adrenal zonation.
  • After removal of the tumor recurrence and eight cycles of chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin, the patient presented again with ACC masses, but in association with overt Cushing's syndrome and normal aldosterone levels.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Extensive pathologic examination showed that this shift in steroid hormone production was paralleled by an attenuation of tumor cell atypia and polymorphism, whereas gene expression profile analysis demonstrated a change in expression of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case of recurrent ACC demonstrates that adrenocortical cells can reverse their differentiation program during neoplastic progression and change their specific hormone synthesis, as a consequence of modifications in the expression profile of steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors.
  • These findings, besides opening new perspectives to study adrenocortical cell plasticity and potential, demonstrate how conventional clinical and pathologic evaluation can be combined with genomic analysis in order to dissect thoroughly the biology of cancer.


17. Kabayegit OY, Soysal D, Oruk G, Ustaoglu B, Kosan U, Solmaz S, Avci A: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:228
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands.
  • Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome.
  • The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 18620603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2481265
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18. Korzeniewska M, Kołomecki K, Stepień H, Naze M, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;56(1):39-44
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  • [Title] [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: The growth and persistence of solid tumors and their metastases is connected with angiogenesis.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the value of serum VEGF and soluble forms of VEGF receptors concentration as a marker of malignancy in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients (18 female, 9 male; mean age 48+/-4.3 years) with adrenocortical carcinoma (N=8), adrenal metastases (N=4) and adrenocortical adenoma (N=15) were included in this study.
  • Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma had the levels of VEGF (1263.8 pg/ml) significantly higher and of sVEGFR-2 (5893.7 pg/ml) significantly lower in comparison to control group (p<0.05).
  • On the other hand the mean VEGF (334.2 pg/ml) concentration in patients with benign adrenocortical adenoma wasn't significant different than in control group (p>0.05) but mean sVEGFR-1 (21.7 pg/ml) and sVEGFR-2 (7106.4 pg/ml) concentrations were significantly lower than in the control (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that determination of VEGF and sVEGFR concentration in the serum of patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors may be applied as an additional marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16335673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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19. Doghman M, Arhatte M, Thibout H, Rodrigues G, De Moura J, Grosso S, West AN, Laurent M, Mas JC, Bongain A, Zambetti GP, Figueiredo BC, Auberger P, Martinerie C, Lalli E: Nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 (NOV/CCN3), a selective adrenocortical cell proapoptotic factor, is down-regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Aug;92(8):3253-60
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  • [Title] Nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 (NOV/CCN3), a selective adrenocortical cell proapoptotic factor, is down-regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) have a fetal adrenal phenotype and overexpress steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1).
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure NOV protein levels in childhood ACTs and characterize NOV expression regulation and biological function in human adrenocortical cells.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Protein extracts from ACT and normal adrenal cortex samples, human adrenocortical carcinoma H295R, primary adrenocortical tumors and fetal adrenal cultures, tissue culture supernatants, and cell lysates from H295R cells overexpressing SF-1 in an inducible fashion were used.
  • RESULTS: NOV mRNA and protein expression is lower in childhood ACTs than in normal adrenal cortex.
  • NOV has a selective proapoptotic activity toward human adrenocortical cells.
  • The C-terminal domain of NOV is responsible for its proapoptotic effect.
  • NOV protein is expressed in DAX-1-positive human fetal adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: NOV is a selective proapoptotic factor for human adrenocortical cells.
  • Reduced expression of NOV in ACTs may play an important role in the process of childhood ACT tumorigenesis, accounting at least in part for the defect of apoptotic regression of the fetal adrenal that has been proposed to be responsible for tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / genetics. Apoptosis / physiology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Connective Tissue Growth Factor. DNA, Complementary / biosynthesis. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Down-Regulation / genetics. Down-Regulation / physiology. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunoblotting. Luciferases / biosynthesis. Luciferases / genetics. Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / biosynthesis. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17566092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTGF protein, human; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / NOV protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nephroblastoma Overexpressed Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 139568-91-5 / Connective Tissue Growth Factor; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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20. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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21. Galac S, Kooistra HS, Voorhout G, van den Ingh TS, Mol JA, van den Berg G, Meij BP: Hyperadrenocorticism in a dog due to ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;28(3):338-48
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  • Spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism in dogs is known to be the result of excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland or excessive autonomous glucocorticoid secretion by an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Here, we report on an 8-year-old German shepherd dog in which ACTH-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was a result of ectopic ACTH secretion and could be related to an abdominal neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Ultrasonography revealed two equivalently enlarged adrenal glands, consistent with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • Histological examination of the pituitary gland revealed no neoplasia.
  • Histological examination revealed a metastasized neuroendocrine tumor.
  • In conclusion, the combination of (1) severe dexamethasone-resistant hyperadrenocorticism with elevated circulating ACTH levels, (2) definitive demonstration of the absence of pituitary neoplasia, and (3) an abdominal neuroendocrine tumor allowed the diagnosis of ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Dog Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Abdominal Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Dogs. Hydrocortisone / blood. Liver / ultrasonography. Male. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secretion. Neuroendocrine Tumors / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary. Ultrasonography / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15760674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0739-7240
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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22. Figueiredo BC, Sandrini R, Zambetti GP, Pereira RM, Cheng C, Liu W, Lacerda L, Pianovski MA, Michalkiewicz E, Jenkins J, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Mastellaro MJ, Vianna S, Watanabe F, Sandrini F, Arram SB, Boffetta P, Ribeiro RC: Penetrance of adrenocortical tumours associated with the germline TP53 R337H mutation. J Med Genet; 2006 Jan;43(1):91-6
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  • [Title] Penetrance of adrenocortical tumours associated with the germline TP53 R337H mutation.
  • BACKGROUND: An inherited germline P53 mutation has been identified in cases of childhood adrenocortical carcinoma (ACT), a neoplasm with a high incidence in southern Brazil.

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  • (PMID = 16033918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-6244
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-71907
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2564508
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23. Ng VW, Ma RC, So WY, Choi KC, Kong AP, Cockram CS, Chow CC: Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Dec 13;170(22):2017-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered inadvertently.
  • We undertook this study to review the clinical characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentalomas who presented to a tertiary endocrine center in Hong Kong.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of all 139 cases of adrenal incidentalomas that were referred to the Endocrine Centre of the Prince of Wales Hospital between June 1, 2000, and May 31, 2007.
  • We reviewed detailed patient history, physical examination findings, and symptoms and signs related to hormonal hypersecretion or malignant neoplasm and recorded clinical indications for performing diagnostic radiological imaging.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (43.9%) had nonfunctional benign adrenal adenomas, 52 (37.4%) had functional lesions, 15 (10.8%) had malignant adrenal lesions, and the remaining 11 (7.9%) had varying adrenal disease.
  • Only 5 of the 27 patients with cortisol-secreting adrenal incidentalomas had symptoms or signs of excess cortisol levels at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentaloma is a commonly encountered clinical problem.
  • Functional or primary malignant adrenal incidentalomas can be detected at an earlier stage during hormonal and radiological evaluations, which provides an opportunity for further management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Catecholamines / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 21149760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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24. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • Orthotopic cell transplantation models are important for a complete understanding of cell-cell interactions as well as tumor biology.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • When 3 x 10(5) cells were implanted orthotopically, by 16 days the cell mass had expanded and had invaded the cortex, whereas when 1 x 10(5) cells were used, tumor masses were much smaller.
  • When mice were sacrificed at different time points, we found that tumor growth resulting was progressive and that by 26 days cells there was extensive invasion into the cortex or almost complete replacement of the cortex with tumor cells.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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25. Benchekroun G, de Fornel-Thibaud P, Rodríguez Piñeiro MI, Rault D, Besso J, Cohen A, Hernandez J, Stambouli F, Gomes E, Garnier F, Begon D, Maurey-Guenec C, Rosenberg D: Ultrasonography criteria for differentiating ACTH dependency from ACTH independency in 47 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and equivocal adrenal asymmetry. J Vet Intern Med; 2010 Sep-Oct;24(5):1077-85
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography criteria for differentiating ACTH dependency from ACTH independency in 47 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and equivocal adrenal asymmetry.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal ultrasonography (US) in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is commonly used to distinguish adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent (AIHAC) and ACTH-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (ADHAC).
  • To date, no cut-off values for defining adrenal atrophy in cases of adrenal asymmetry have been determined.
  • Given that asymmetrical hyperplasia is sometimes observed in ADHAC, adrenal asymmetry without ultrasonographic proof of adrenocortical tumor such as vascular invasion or metastasis can be equivocal.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare adrenal US findings between cases of ADHAC and AIHAC in dogs with equivocal adrenal asymmetry (EAA), and to identify useful criteria for their distinction.
  • METHODS: Ultrasound reports of HAC dogs with adrenal asymmetry without obvious vascular invasion or metastases were reviewed.
  • The thickness, shape, and echogenicity of both adrenal glands and presence of adjacent vascular compression were compared between AIHAC and ADHAC groups.
  • The 95% confidence intervals for estimated sensitivity and specificity of a SDV cut-off set at 5.0 mm in the diagnosis of AIHAC were 82-100 and 82-99%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: In EAA cases, an SDV ≤5.0 mm is an appropriate cut-off for AIHAC ultrasonographic diagnosis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
  • (PMID = 20666982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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26. Siegel C: Adrenal neoplasms: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation--preliminary results. J Urol; 2005 Sep;174(3):867
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal neoplasms: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation--preliminary results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Catheter Ablation. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / radiography. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome


27. Matsumoto K, Egawa S, Satoh T, Okuno N, Kaseda S, Baba S: Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1055-7
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  • [Title] Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma.
  • A 58-year-old man who had undergone left adrenalectomy 2 years previously for adrenocortical carcinoma was diagnosed to have a left suprarenal solid mass.
  • Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic excision of the tumor was conducted under the diagnosis of isolated local recurrence of adrenal carcinoma.
  • There have been no signs of tumor recurrence during 3 years follow up after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thoracoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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28. Tissier F: [Pathology of adrenocortical tumors: review and recent data]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):179-85
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  • [Title] [Pathology of adrenocortical tumors: review and recent data].
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie pathologique des tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes de l'adulte : état des lieux et données récentes.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutic is sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • Moreover, morphology is limited for predicting prognosis of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • These genetics findings already have repercussions for the patients in the development of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis and in the future they could help in the development of new morphological approaches, in particular immunohistochemical approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin E / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Mitosis. Mutation. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19298951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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29. Lapinski JE, Chen L, Zhou M: Distinguishing clear cell renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical lesions on limited biopsy material: utility of immunohistochemical markers. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Oct;18(5):414-21
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  • [Title] Distinguishing clear cell renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical lesions on limited biopsy material: utility of immunohistochemical markers.
  • This study explores the diagnostic utility of a panel of immunohistochemical markers and emphasizes potential pitfalls in dealing with this differential diagnosis.
  • A tissue microarray with 1 mm tissue cores was constructed to include 21 CCRCC, 19 adrenocortical lesions, and 15 retroperitoneal or mediastinal paragangliomas.
  • The tissue microarray was then immunostained with epithelial, RCC, adrenocortical, and neuroendocrine markers.
  • AE1/3 and epithelial membrane antigen were negative in all adrenocortical lesions and paraganglioma cases, whereas CAM5.2 was positive in 78.9% of adrenocortical lesions and 6.7% of paragangliomas.
  • RCC markers, including RCC Ag, CA9, and CD10, were positive in 76.2%, 85.7%, and 100% of CCRCC cases and were negative in all adrenocortical lesions and paragangliomas.
  • Calretinin and Melan-A were positive in 100% and 94.7% of adrenal, 0% and 14.3% of CCRCC, and 26.7% and 26.7% of paragangliomas.
  • Epithelial markers may be entirely negative in CCRCC, whereas pancytokeratin CAM5.2 is often positive in adrenocortical lesions.
  • Furthermore, neuroendocrine markers are frequently positive in adrenocortical lesions.
  • Therefore, a panel of, rather than single, epithelial, "CCRCC-specific," adrenocortical and neuroendocrine markers should be applied in the differential diagnosis of CCRCC, adrenocortical lesions, and paragangliomas.


30. Gur C, Salmon A, Silvetski N, Gross DJ: [Adrenocortical carcinoma]. Harefuah; 2008 Jun;147(6):520-5, 574
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a generally poor prognosis.
  • In approximately 60% of cases the initial clinical manifestations are due to hypersecretion of adrenocortical hormones.
  • In the remainder of the cases the tumor is identified after imaging procedures for nonspecific complaints such as abdominal pain and nausea.
  • Medical therapy is employed in patients with unresectable or partially resected tumor and metastatic disease.
  • The current accepted treatment is a combination of Mitotane with chemotherapy, aimed at controlling hormonal hypersecretion and reduction of tumor mass.
  • In ACC patients there is wide variability in the course of the disease: some with metastatic disease will survive for more than 10 years, others succumb to the disease within months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Humans. Nausea / etiology. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18693629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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31. Leboulleux S, Dromain C, Bonniaud G, Aupérin A, Caillou B, Lumbroso J, Sigal R, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):920-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with adrenocortical cancer are submitted to multiple imaging procedures for diagnosis of recurrence and staging.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with adrenocortical cancer referred from November 2003 to December 2004 to the Institut Gustave Roussy were included.
  • The sensitivities for the detection of distinct lesions and the diagnosis of metastatic organs were 90 and 93% for PET/CT and 88 and 82% for TAP-CT, respectively.
  • Tumor size and mitotic rate were significantly associated with FDG uptake.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We show that FDG-PET/CT is complementary to TAP-CT and of special interest in the diagnosis of local relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16368753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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32. Gross BA, Mindea SA, Pick AJ, Chandler JP, Batjer HH: Medical management of Cushing disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical management of Cushing disease.
  • Although transsphenoidal excision of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing neoplasm is often the treatment of choice in patients with Cushing disease, medical management is itself a useful preoperative temporizing measure, an option for long-term management in nonsurgical candidates, and an option for patients in whom surgery and/or radiotherapy have failed.
  • Three pathophysiologically based approaches exist in the research literature--neuro-modulation to limit ACTH levels, adrenal enzyme inhibition, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonism.
  • Adrenal enzyme inhibitors, however, offer substantial future promise in the management of Cushing disease but are limited by the potential need to use them indefinitely and by dose-tolerance effects.
  • Although etomidate is a potential intravenous alternative for acute cortisol level control, ketoconazole has shown efficacy in the long-term treatment of patients with the disease.
  • If success is still not achieved, the potent adrenolytic agent often used for adrenocortical carcinomas, mitotane, is another alternative.

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  • (PMID = 17961023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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33. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
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  • [Title] Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms.
  • It has the potential to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal tumors.
  • METHODS: Children who underwent PET/CT scan in the workup for abdominal neoplasms between July 2005 and January 2008 were identified.
  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • All neoplasms were fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were avid.
  • These include (1) preoperative staging, (2) selection of appropriate site for biopsy, (3) identification of occult metastatic disease, (4) follow-up for residual or recurrent disease, and (5) assessment of response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / radiography. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Drug Monitoring. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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34. Doghman M, Karpova T, Rodrigues GA, Arhatte M, De Moura J, Cavalli LR, Virolle V, Barbry P, Zambetti GP, Figueiredo BC, Heckert LL, Lalli E: Increased steroidogenic factor-1 dosage triggers adrenocortical cell proliferation and cancer. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Dec;21(12):2968-87
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  • [Title] Increased steroidogenic factor-1 dosage triggers adrenocortical cell proliferation and cancer.
  • Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1/Ad4BP; NR5A1), a nuclear receptor transcription factor, has a pivotal role in adrenal and gonadal development in humans and mice.
  • A frequent feature of childhood adrenocortical tumors is SF-1 amplification and overexpression.
  • Here we show that an increased SF-1 dosage can by itself augment human adrenocortical cell proliferation through concerted actions on the cell cycle and apoptosis.
  • Consistent with these results, increased SF-1 levels selectively modulate the steroid secretion profile of adrenocortical cells, reducing cortisol and aldosterone production and maintaining dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate secretion.
  • On the other hand, sphingosine, which can compete with phospholipids for binding to SF-1, had no effect on the SF-1 dosage-dependent increase of adrenocortical cell proliferation and expression of the FATE1 promoter.
  • In mice, increased Sf-1 dosage produces adrenocortical hyperplasia and formation of tumors expressing gonadal markers (Amh, Gata-4), which originate from the subcapsular region of the adrenal cortex.
  • Our studies reveal a critical role for SF-1 dosage in adrenocortical tumorigenesis and constitute a rationale for the development of drugs targeting SF-1 transcriptional activity for adrenocortical tumor therapy.

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  • (PMID = 17761949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5911/ GSE5912
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD038498; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54-HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Steroids; 4QD397987E / Histidine
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35. Yasumoto T, Hayashi S, Shimizu J, Dono K, Nakata S, Sato M, Kitada M, Shimano T: [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2371-3
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a case of local recurrent tumor after a resection of right adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • In July 2003, a right adrenal tumor 2 cm in diameter was detected by computed tomography (CT), but the value of the adrenocortical hormones were normal on blood examination, and he was observed at regular intervals.
  • In February 2005, the adrenal lesion enlarged to 5 cm in diameter and the value of PIVKA-II became high on blood examination, so April 2005, a surgical resection was performed, and it was diagnosed as the metastasis from HCC.
  • In July 2008, the recurrent tumor 3 cm in diameter was observed in the right retroperitoneum.
  • It was considered inoperable because of the past operation, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of an inferior adrenal artery and a fine branch through a right sub-phrenic artery was performed for the recurrent tumor, and one week after the embolization, radiofrequency ablation was treated by CT fluoroscopy guidance.
  • Ten months after the tumor embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation, there were no local and distant recurrences observed by CT examination.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation is considered as a feasible and effective method for not only HCC but also for a local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20037426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Castellano JJ, Warren MW, Arroyo MR, Cendan JC: Laparoscopic resection of a virilizing adrenocortical tumor. JSLS; 2008 Jul-Sep;12(3):343-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a virilizing adrenocortical tumor.
  • Virilizing adrenocortical tumors are rare.
  • Herein, we describe a case of laparoscopic resection of a testosterone-producing adrenal tumor in a sixteen-year-old female.

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  • (PMID = 18765068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015862
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37. Porpiglia F, Fiori C, Daffara F, Zaggia B, Bollito E, Volante M, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer. Eur Urol; 2010 May;57(5):873-8
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  • [Title] Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there is consensus that laparoscopy is the standard of care for the resection of benign adrenal tumours, there is controversy regarding the role of laparoscopy for the resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the ACC database of the San Luigi Hospital to compare the oncologic effectiveness of open adrenalectomy (OA) versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the treatment of patients with stage I and II ACC.
  • The "open group" consisted of patients treated with OA; the "lap group" consisted of patients treated with LA.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Oncologic effectiveness of the procedures was tested comparing the recurrence-free survival of patients treated with OA versus LA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide interesting evidence that OA and LA may be comparable in terms of recurrence-free survival for patients with stage I and II ACC when the principles of surgical oncology are respected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20137850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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38. Lee SS, Baek KH, Lee YS, Lee JM, Kang MI, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7):675-9
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • Oncocytoma is a neoplasm that can arise in several organs, and it has been more commonly described in the kidney, salivary gland and thyroid.
  • Oncocytoma arising in the adrenal gland is a rare finding.
  • Moreover, functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is exceptionally rare.
  • A 47-yr-old man was incidentally discovered to have a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient had no clinical features suggestive of increased adrenal function.
  • Right adrenalectomy was performed, and this revealed a well-circumscribed dark-brown tumor that measured 2.4x2.2 cm.
  • The tumor consisted almost exclusively of large eosinophilic and epitheloid cells whose cytoplasm was packed with eosinophilic granulations, which corresponded to the numerous mitochondria confirmed on electron microscopy.
  • This is a rare case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome that was caused by adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18787391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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39. Chen TW, Tsai CH, Chou SJ, Yu CY, Shih ML, Yu JC, Hsieh CB: Intrapericardial isolation of the inferior vena cava through a transdiaphragmatic pericardial window for tumor resection without sternotomy or thoracotomy. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Mar;33(2):239-42
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  • [Title] Intrapericardial isolation of the inferior vena cava through a transdiaphragmatic pericardial window for tumor resection without sternotomy or thoracotomy.
  • AIMS: The prognosis for patients with advanced tumors invading the inferior vena cava (IVC) is dismal and surgical treatments for these tumors are challenging.
  • A surgical approach that avoids sternotomy and thoracotomy for tumors invading the IVC even to the level of the hepatocaval junction would be extremely helpful.
  • We removed the primary tumor, the liver portion involved and the tumor thrombi, with segmental resection of the IVC.
  • RESULTS: Four patients with tumors invading the IVC were treated with this method.
  • All underwent gross en-bloc tumor resections and all survived.
  • CONCLUSION: This method for the resection of IVC tumors could avoid emboli dislodging from the tumor thrombi, prevent the complications of sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and shorten operative times.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Pericardium / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hepatectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sternum / surgery. Thoracotomy / contraindications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17174512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Terzolo M, Berruti A: Adjunctive treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Jun;15(3):221-6
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  • [Title] Adjunctive treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Description of the adjunctive treatment strategies in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma after complete surgical resection.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: A retrospective analysis showing that adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in a large cohort of patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma has recently been published.
  • SUMMARY: Radical surgical resection of adrenocortical carcinoma offers the best chance for prolonged recurrence-free survival; however, a significant number of patients without objective and biochemical evidence of residual tumor after surgery are destined to relapse.
  • Mitotane, an analogue of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, has been used for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma since the 1960s, but its use as an adjunctive postoperative measure has remained controversial.
  • The recent demonstration that mitotane treatment following macroscopically complete removal of adrenocortical carcinoma was associated with beneficial effects on outcome in a well designed, multicenter, international study should renew interest in adjuvant mitotane therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitotane / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Humans


41. Lerario AM, Mendonça BB, Lin CJ: [Molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):753-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis].
  • [Transliterated title] Avanços recentes no conhecimento dos mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na tumorigênese adrenocortical.
  • The adrenocortical tumorigenesis is a complex process, which involves multiple genetic changes.
  • A better knowledge on the mechanisms involved in tumor development would enable an early identification of malignant disease and also lead to the development of new treatment strategies.
  • Although in the recent years a large amount of data was produced, the exact mechanisms that lead to adrenocortical tumor development remains poorly understood.
  • A genome-wide approach, such as microarrays, will surely shed some light into the mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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42. Behrend EN, Weigand CM, Whitley EM, Refsal KR, Young DW, Kemppainen RJ: Corticosterone- and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical tumor in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 May 15;226(10):1662-6, 1659
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  • [Title] Corticosterone- and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical tumor in a dog.
  • An adrenal gland tumor was visualized via ultrasonography and computed tomography.
  • Histologic examination confirmed that the mass was an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Excess adrenal secretion of corticosterone was hypothesized to be the cause of the signs of glucocorticoid excess.
  • Treatment with mitotane was instituted and successful for a period of 4-months until the dog was euthanatized for neurologic problems that were most likely unrelated to endocrine disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Aldosterone / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Corticosterone / secretion. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15906564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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43. Barzon L, Masi G, Pacenti M, Trevisan M, Fallo F, Remo A, Martignoni G, Montanaro D, Pezzi V, Palù G: Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2008 Feb;452(2):181-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • We recently demonstrated that adrenocortical carcinoma cells express aromatase and estrogen receptors (ERs) and that 17beta-estradiol enhances adrenocortical cell proliferation.
  • To provide a clue to the role of estrogens in adrenal tumorigenesis, we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in sex steroid hormone production and activity in a large series of normal and neoplastic human adrenocortical tissues.
  • Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry showed that ERalpha and ERbeta, androgen receptor (AR), and aromatase were expressed in the adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Western blot analysis revealed the presence of a truncated form of AR in adrenocortical tissues.
  • With respect to the normal adrenal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas were characterized by significantly lower ERbeta levels, ERalpha upregulation, and aromatase overexpression.
  • In agreement with our in vitro findings, the results of this study suggest that estrogens, locally produced by aromatase, could enhance adrenocortical cell proliferation though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Aromatase / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2008 Aug;453(2):221-2 [18553103.001]
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  • (PMID = 18157729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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44. Park BK, Kim B, Ko K, Jeong SY, Kwon GY: Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation. Eur Radiol; 2006 Mar;16(3):642-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of CT for the diagnosis of histologically confirmed adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma using CT numbers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 91 adrenal masses in 83 patients; histopathological diagnoses were 45 adenomas, 31 pheochromocytomas, 6 hyperplasias, 4 metastasis, and 5 miscellaneous lesions.
  • Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenoma on unenhanced CT included three hyperplasias and one endothelial cyst, and those falsely diagnosed as adenoma on DCE CT were five pheochromocytomas, one oncocytic cortical tumor, and one primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur Radiol. 2006 Mar;16(3):768
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  • (PMID = 16215735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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45. Conte-Devolx B, Niccoli P, Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines: [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2010 Jan;194(1):69-78; discussion 78-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Séance dédiée aux tumeurs endocrines. Néoplasies endocriniennes multiples, aspects cliniques.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 2 (MEN2) are autosomal dominant inherited multiglandular diseases with familial and individual age-related penetrance and variable expression.
  • The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants.
  • Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation.
  • The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment.
  • This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / genetics. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Testing. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20669560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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46. Walz MK, Petersenn S, Koch JA, Mann K, Neumann HP, Schmid KW: Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours. Br J Surg; 2005 Jun;92(6):719-23
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  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic adrenalectomy has become the treatment of choice for small benign adrenal tumours but should not be used for malignant lesions.
  • It is debatable whether large and therefore potentially malignant primary adrenal tumours should be removed by minimally invasive techniques.
  • METHODS: Three hundred and eighty primary adrenal tumours in 368 patients (142 male and 226 female; mean(s.d.) age 48.9(14.4) years) were excised by laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Adrenal neoplasias exceeded 6 cm in diameter (range 6-13 cm) in 33 patients (18 male and 15 female; age 42.6(14.2) years).
  • Patients with large tumours had an increased conversion rate (P = 0.039), longer operating time (P < 0.001) and greater intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.007) than those with smaller lesions, but a similar overall morbidity rate (P = 0.207).
  • Six malignant tumours were identified (diameter 4-10 cm; four phaeochromocytomas and two adrenocortical carcinomas).
  • CONCLUSION: Endocopic adrenalectomy perfomed by an experienced surgeon should be the treatment of choice for tumours exceeding 6 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15856491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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48. Namour F, Ayav A, Lu X, Klein M, Muresan M, Bresler L, Tramoy D, Guéant JL, Brunaud L: Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1240-6
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  • [Title] Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland may give rise to pheochromocytomas, which are catecholamine-producing tumors originating from the adrenal medulla, or to adrenocortical tumors, which derive from the adrenocortical cortex and may be secreting or not.
  • The genetic mechanisms underlying the formation of these tumors include somatic mutations in susceptibility genes, especially in the familial forms, and allelic loss, especially in chromosome 1.
  • Microsatellite loci were analyzed in 32 benign tumors, including 11 pheochromocytomas and 21 adrenocortical tumors, in patients with and without familial syndrome.
  • No microsatellite instability was detected in any tumor.
  • A second patient with a MEN-2A syndrome and a two-sided pheochromocytoma exhibited a loss of heterozygosity for D2S123 in the right tumor only and a retention of heterozygosity for all markers in the left tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microsatellite instability, evaluated by the five reference markers of the National Cancer Institute, is not a feature of benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16715450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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49. Karikari IO, Uschold TD, Selznick LA, Carter JH, Cummings TJ, Friedman AH: Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1144; discussion E1144
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  • [Title] Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors report a primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with spinal dysraphism presenting with bilateral leg pain and urinary frequency.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging, L2 laminectomy with resection of mass, and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of resected mass revealed the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis as a primary intramedullary tumor of adrenal cortical origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of a primary adrenal tumor in the spinal cord is rare and difficult to explain based on our understanding of embryology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Dysraphism / complications

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  • (PMID = 17143207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Abma EM, Kluin PM, Dullaart RP: Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism. Neth J Med; 2008 Jun;66(6):252-5
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  • [Title] Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism.
  • We describe a case of hypokalaemic hypertension due to hyperaldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenocortical tumour with unfavourable histopathology suggestive of malignancy.
  • The patient's clinical course was uneventful, until she presented with extensive metastases of adrenal carcinoma four years later.
  • Although malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumours are very rare, the present case underscores that clinicians should be aware that primary hyperaldosteronism can occur in the context of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperkalemia / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18689909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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51. Wu W, Kamma H, Fujiwara M, Yano Y, Satoh H, Hara H, Yashiro T, Ueno E, Aiyoshi Y: Altered expression patterns of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and B1 in the adrenal cortex. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Apr;53(4):487-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Altered expression patterns of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and B1 in the adrenal cortex.
  • Several proteins implicated in hormonogenesis of the adrenal cortex have alternatively spliced isoforms, which respond differently to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
  • We examined the expression of A2 and B1 in normal adrenal cortex and tumors.
  • In three kinds of cortical adenomas autonomously producing hormones, B1 was generally overexpressed and there were no significant differences among them.
  • In cortisol-producing tumors, non-tumor parts of the cortex, which were generally atrophic due to low ACTH, had less B1 protein than normal adrenals.
  • In vitro ACTH stimulation induced a biphasic expression of B1 in an H295R cortical carcinoma cell line, and it paralleled hormonogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Cell Line, Tumor. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15805423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
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52. Bakshi N, Kunju LP, Giordano T, Shah RB: Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Sep;15(3):310-5
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  • [Title] Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications.
  • Of the nonrenal tumors occasional carcinomas have been reported to express RCC, notably breast carcinoma.
  • Using tissue microarrays, we investigated the use of RCC on a large number of renal epithelial neoplasms (RENs) and nonrenal tumors, especially those potentially confused with REN.
  • Three tissue microarrays containing 241 REN samples, 192 samples of a wide variety of neoplasms and 170 adrenal tumor samples, respectively, were stained with RCC monoclonal antibody.
  • The overall immunostaining intensity was consistently much higher in papillary and clear cell RCC than in other tumors.
  • Seventy-six out of 362 nonrenal tumor samples demonstrated either focal or diffuse expression for RCC (specificity 79%).
  • These included: adrenocortical neoplasms 37/170 (22%), colonic 11/29 (37.5%), breast 9/27 (33%), prostate 5/18 (27.7%), ovary 2/17 (11.7%), melanoma 3/18 (16.6%), lung 3/21 (14.2%), and parathyroid 3/3 (100%).
  • RCC expression was seen equally among adrenal adenoma and carcinoma group.
  • Eight out of 28 (28.5%) normal adrenal cores also stained for RCC.
  • RCC is a relatively useful marker in the differential diagnosis of REN only if used in a panel with other positive and negative markers.
  • RCC does not reliably differentiate REN, especially classic clear cell type, from adrenocortical neoplasms, which are frequently confused due to close anatomic proximity and similar morphology.
  • RCC also does not reliably differentiate subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17721277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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53. Abiven G, Coste J, Groussin L, Anract P, Tissier F, Legmann P, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2650-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: This study is a descriptive and multivariate analysis of a cohort from a single endocrinology center.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 44 +/- 16 yr (range, 11-88 yr).
  • We found that 154 patients (76%) had hypersecreting tumors [mostly cortisol and androgens (47%), cortisol alone (27%), or androgens alone (6%)] and 43 patients (21%) had metastases at diagnosis.
  • Multivariate analysis identified the following independent prognostic factors associated with shorter survival: older age at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; P < 0.0001], initial MacFarlane extension stages 3 (HR, 4.42; P = 0.005) and 4 (HR, 7.93; P < 0.0001), and cortisol hypersecretion (HR, 3.90; P < 0.0001).
  • Treatment with 1,1-dichlorodiphenildichloroethane (o,p'DDD) in the 3 months after surgery increased the survival rate of patients with cortisol-secreting tumors (HR, 0.40; P = 0.04).
  • CONCLUSION: This study highlights the better prognosis of ACC diagnosed at a noninvasive local stage, the particularly poor prognosis of patients with cortisol-secreting tumors, and the beneficial effect of o,p'DDD therapy in this subgroup of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Androgens / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16670169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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54. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • This was characterized by right adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with homolateral ganglioneuroma and controlateral adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The three tumors, incidentally discovered, proved to be non-functioning (normal secretion of catecholamines and of other neuroendocrine peptides, glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids and androgens).
  • Accordingly, the patient showed no sign or symptom of endocrine disease.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a typical adenomatous lesion on the left adrenal gland with precocious uptake of the radiotracer on radioidine (131I)-norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy, while the controlateral gland showed hyperdensity on CT, hyperintensity on MR and no uptake at adrenal scintigraphy.
  • The right adrenal gland was surgically removed and, microscopically, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma areas appeared intermixed without a predominant component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Introns / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radionuclide Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16483185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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55. Mitterhauser M, Dobrozemsky G, Zettinig G, Wadsak W, Vierhapper H, Dudczak R, Kletter K: Imaging of adrenocortical metastases with [11C]metomidate. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Aug;33(8):974
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging of adrenocortical metastases with [11C]metomidate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Radionuclide Imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16721573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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56. Carmona-Bayonas A, Soler IO, Gómez FI, Billalabeitia EG, Saura HP, Tafalla MS, Díaz MP: Tailored hormonal therapy in secretory adrenocortical cancer. Ann Oncol; 2007 Jul;18(7):1281
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tailored hormonal therapy in secretory adrenocortical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17675396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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57. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards


58. Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, Daffara F, Tauchmanova L, Conton PA, Rossetto R, Buci L, Sperone P, Grossrubatscher E, Reimondo G, Bollito E, Papotti M, Saeger W, Hahner S, Koschker AC, Arvat E, Ambrosi B, Loli P, Lombardi G, Mannelli M, Bruzzi P, Mantero F, Allolio B, Dogliotti L, Berruti A: Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis involving 177 patients with adrenocortical cancer who had undergone radical surgery at 8 centers in Italy and 47 centers in Germany between 1985 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Baseline features in the mitotane group and the control group from Italy were similar; the German patients were significantly older (P=0.03) and had more stage I or II adrenocortical carcinomas (P=0.02) than did patients in the mitotane group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


59. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) no prognostic markers have been established beyond stage and resection status.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • GLUT1 and -3 were expressed in 33 and 17% of ACC samples respectively, but in none of the benign tumours or normal adrenals glands.
  • When analysing patients in their early stages and advanced disease separately, similar results were obtained.
  • HR for survival was 5.31 (1.80-15.62) in patients with metastatic ACC and in patients after radical resection the HR for disease-free survival was 6.10 (2.16-16.94).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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60. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, Pani G, Maffione A, Princi P, Traini E, Galeotti T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, Bellantone R: Gene expression profiling of adrenal cortical tumors by cDNA macroarray analysis. Results of a preliminary study. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 May;60(4):186-90
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of adrenal cortical tumors by cDNA macroarray analysis. Results of a preliminary study.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis.
  • To verify if it is possible to assess their differential gene expression by a cDNA macroarray analysis using RNA extracted from paraffin sections, we analyzed two different cohorts of adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC.
  • Heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60) (ratio>2), Ciclin D1 and topoisomerase I (ratio>1.5) were overexpressed in the ACC cohort, while jun proto-oncogene was down-regulated. cDNA macroarray analysis from paraffin sections of adrenal tumors is feasible, despite with a low success rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Down-Regulation. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Up-Regulation


61. Delhanty PJ, van Koetsveld PM, Gauna C, van de Zande B, Vitale G, Hofland LJ, van der Lely AJ: Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;293(1):E302-9
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  • [Title] Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway.
  • Ghrelin is expressed in normal human adrenocortical cells and induces their proliferation through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a).
  • Consequently, it was of interest to us to determine whether acylated ghrelin and its predominant serum isoform, unacylated ghrelin, also act as factors for adrenocortical carcinoma cell growth.
  • To examine a potential ghrelin-regulated system in adrenocortical tumors, we measured proliferative effects of acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines SW-13 and NCI-H295R.
  • Acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the nanomolar range dose-dependently induced adrenocortical cell growth up to 200% of untreated controls, as measured by thymidine uptake and WST1 assay.
  • Acylated and unacylated ghrelin are potential auto/paracrine factors acting through an antiapoptotic pathway to stimulate adrenocortical tumor cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Ghrelin. Humans. Protein Isoforms / pharmacology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17405826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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62. Yavascaoglu I, Yilmaz M, Kordan Y: Cardiac and caval invasion of left adrenocortical carcinoma. Urol Int; 2008;81(2):244-6
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  • [Title] Cardiac and caval invasion of left adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant neoplasm.
  • We present the case of a 51-year-old male patient with a left-sided ACC admitted to hospital with ipsilateral flank pain, weight loss, difficulty in breathing, abdominal discomfort and swelling and bilateral leg edema.
  • Thoracoabdominal computed tomography revealed a huge adrenal mass with obvious tumor thrombus involvement of the inferior vena cava and right atrium.
  • This is the first report describing caval and opposite side renal vein invasion of a left-sided ACC treated with grafting of the vessels.
  • Histopathological examination of the tumors confirmed the diagnosis of ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Heart Atria / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18758230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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63. Tucci S Jr, Martins AC, Suaid HJ, Cologna AJ, Reis RB: The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Urol; 2005 Dec;174(6):2338-42, discussion 2342
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  • [Title] The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated treatment outcomes in children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • In 27 of 28 patients without intracaval extension complete surgical excision was accomplished, while tumor resection combined with thrombectomy was carried out in 5 of 6 children with vascular invasion.
  • Children with incomplete excision of the tumor and/or stage IV disease received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging exhibited specificity of 100% in the diagnosis of vascular invasion, and sensitivity of 50%, 66% and 100%, respectively.
  • Patient age, tumor stage or size and vascular invasion were associated with survival in univariate analysis.
  • Tumor stage was the only independent factor associated with survival in multivariate analysis.
  • The overall 5-year survival rates according to tumor stage were 100% in stage I, 85% in stage II, 40% in stage III and 0% in stage IV.
  • Of 11 children with local recurrence only 2 were alive without disease at 96 and 204 months after reoperation with complete tumor excision.
  • Only 2 of 6 patients with vascular invasion were disease-free at 17 and 50 months.
  • A total of 10 children with stage IV disease treated with chemotherapy died within a median of 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor stage was the most relevant prognostic factor for children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Reoperation for local tumor recurrence and thrombectomy for inferior vena caval tumor invasion should be attempted whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Thrombectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16280838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Shibru D, Khafnashar E, Chung KW, Hwang J, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):873-81
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  • [Title] Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common genetic change observed in adrenocortical carcinoma is loss of heterozygozity on chromosome 11q13.
  • As genes on this chromosome may be important in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma, we compared their expression profile between benign and malignant adrenocortical tissue.
  • METHODS: We used the Affymetrix GeneChip (U133 plus 2.0) array in 54 adrenocortical tumors (11 carcinoma and 43 benign).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determined the diagnostic accuracy of the differently expressed genes for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found 25 of the 314 genes on chromosome 11q13 to be differentially expressed between adrenocortical carcinoma and benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • All 25 were downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma by 2-fold to 4.8-fold; 21 were validated to be differentially expressed by RT-PCR (Pearson's coefficient>0.5).
  • Six genes (SERPING1, MRPL48, TM7SF2, DDB1, NDUSF8, PRDX5) validated by RT-PCR were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (p<0.05) with an overall accuracy of 89% for SERPING1, 91% for MRPL48, 87% for TM7SF2, 88% for DDB1, 91% for NDUFS8, and 89% for PRDX5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 25 genes located on chromosome 11q13 that are downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and may be candidate tumor suppressor genes.
  • Six of these genes were good diagnostic markers for distinguishing adrenocortical carcinoma from adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18324346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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65. Schlamp A, Hallfeldt K, Mueller-Lisse U, Pfluger T, Reincke M: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Feb;3(2):191-5; quiz 1 p following 195
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  • [Title] Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection.
  • A left adrenal mass of 6.5 cm by 7.5 cm was detected by a CT scan.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to remove the tumor mass; histologic work-up revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: In our department, laboratory work-up for endocrine activity was performed, as well as CT scans of the adrenal region, and FDG-PET scans in order to determine the extension of disease.
  • Histologic work-up of the removed tumor tissue was performed.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • MANAGEMENT: In our department, 10 months after initial laparoscopic surgery, local tumor recurrence was treated by repeated extensive surgery, tumor-bed radiation therapy, and mitotane treatment.
  • The patient is now scheduled for polychemotherapy because of progressive metastatic disease revealed by follow-up CT and FDG-PET scanning in June 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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66. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Sperone P, Pia A, Della Casa S, Gross DJ, Carnaghi C, Casali P, Porpiglia F, Mantero F, Reimondo G, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):657-66
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  • [Title] Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial.
  • To investigate the activity of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin plus mitotane in the management of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients, 72 patients with measurable disease not amenable to radical surgery were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter phase II trial.
  • Radical surgical resection of residual disease after chemotherapy was performed in 10 patients.
  • The overall survival of patients attaining a disease free status (clinical complete responders+radically resected) was significantly higher than that of patients with partial response or no response (P<0.002).
  • Surgical resection of residual disease subsequent to chemotherapy leads to a more favourable outcome.
  • The natural history of the disease is significantly influenced by the secretory status of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16172198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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67. De Groot PC, Van Kamp IL, Zweers EJ, De Kroon CD, Van Wijngaarden WJ: Oligohydramnios in a pregnant woman with Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical adenoma. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med; 2007 May;20(5):431-4
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  • [Title] Oligohydramnios in a pregnant woman with Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • A 28-year-old primigravida with severe oligohydramnios and pre-eclamptic symptoms was found to have Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical tumor.
  • As clinical features of pre-eclampsia and Cushing's syndrome may overlap, diagnosis can be delayed or even missed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Oligohydramnios / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fetal Death. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Pre-Eclampsia. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17674251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-7058
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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68. Hanson JM, Teske E, Voorhout G, Galac S, Kooistra HS, Meij BP: Prognostic factors for outcome after transsphenoidal hypophysectomy in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4):830-40
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  • The log-rank test was used to assess disease-free fractions in three groups categorized according to early postoperative urinary corticoid/creatinine (C/C) ratios.
  • In addition, large pituitary size, thick sphenoid bone, high C/C ratio, and high concentration of plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) before surgery were associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence in the dogs that went into remission after hypophysectomy.
  • Disease-free fractions were significantly higher in dogs with postoperative urinary C/C ratios in the lower normal range (< 5 x 10(-6)) than in dogs with postoperative C/C ratios in the upper normal range (5-10 x 10(-6)).
  • Urinary C/C ratios measured 6 to 10 weeks after surgery can be used as a guide for predicting the risk of tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / surgery. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Hypophysectomy / veterinary. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / mortality. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Sphenoid Bone / surgery. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17937231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • [Title] Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival.
  • In this study, we evaluate whether Snail is expressed in adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and if its expression is related to patient outcome.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that EMT plays a pivotal role in tumour progression and metastatic spread.
  • Seventeen of 26 (65%) ACC tumour samples expressed Snail when assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Survival rates were significantly decreased in Snail-positive tumours compared to Snail-negative tumours: 10 out of 16 vs one out of eight patients succumbed to disease after a median follow up of 14.5 and 28.5 months, respectively (P=0.03).
  • Patients with Snail-expressing ACCs presented in advanced disease (11 out of 12 vs 6 out of 14, P=0.01) and tend to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients with negative staining (7 out of 11 vs two out of eight, P=0.19).
  • Furthermore, Snail expression is associated with decreased survival, advanced disease and higher risk of developing distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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70. Mannelli M, Cantini G, Poli G, Mangoni M, Nesi G, Canu L, Rapizzi E, Borgogni E, Ercolino T, Piccini V, Luconi M: Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:23-7
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  • [Title] Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells.
  • In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge on PPAR-γ in normal and tumoral corticotropic pituitary and adrenal cells.
  • The receptor expression has been shown in ACTH-secreting cells in both normal and adenomal pituitary as well as in normal and tumor adrenal cortex.
  • Preclinical studies conducted both in vitro on tumor cells and in vivo on xenograft tumor models obtained by subcutaneous injection of cancer cells have evidenced the anticancer properties of TZD, in particular rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PIO).
  • In both pituitary and adrenocortical cancer, RGZ treatment results in inhibition of cell proliferation, through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis, leading to significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft tumor models.
  • In addition, since RGZ can reduce ACTH and corticosterone secretion in mouse corticotropic pituitary tumors, both RGZ and PIO have been used in the treatment of Cushing's disease with variable but generally unsatisfactory results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Corticotrophs / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20829614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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71. Andía Melero VM, García Centeno R, Fernández JB, Vigovich C, Sánchez García-Cervigón P, Jara Albarrán A: [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Nov;56(9):470-4
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  • [Title] [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores suprarrenales feminizantes en España: aportación de un caso y revisión de los cinco pacientes descritos.
  • Feminizing adrenal tumours are very rare.
  • We report the clinical and hormonal study of a case, a 49 years old male, since his first consultation until his death 6 years after the initial diagnosis, and a review of the other 5 Spanish patients previously published.
  • His initial symptoms were gynecomastia and libido decrease, with increase of plasmatic and urinary oestrogen levels, plasma testosterone near low normal level and a right adrenal gland tumour that, after its removal, showed a benign histology and was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Three years after, initial symptoms returned, with oestrogen, glucocorticoid and androgen hypersecretion, tumour local relapse and peritoneal, liver and lung metastasis.
  • The main special feature of this case is the apparently benign initial adrenal tumour with only oestrogen hypersecretion, and its relapse 3 years later with secretion of several steroid hormones, generalized metastasis and no response to medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Feminization / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20096213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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72. Boudou-Rouquette P, Alexandre J, Soubrane O, Bertagna X, Goldwasser F: Antitumoral effect of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid against visceral metastases in an adrenocortical cancer patient. Ann Oncol; 2009 Oct;20(10):1747
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  • [Title] Antitumoral effect of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid against visceral metastases in an adrenocortical cancer patient.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2009 Dec;20(12):2019; author reply 2019 [19752002.001]
  • (PMID = 19633056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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73. Murao K, Imachi H, Cao W, Yu X, Li J, Yoshida K, Ahmed RA, Matsumoto K, Nishiuchi T, Wong NC, Ishida T: High-density lipoprotein is a potential growth factor for adrenocortical cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 May 26;344(1):226-32
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  • [Title] High-density lipoprotein is a potential growth factor for adrenocortical cells.
  • The entry of cholesterol contained within high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into adrenocortical cells is mediated by a human homologue of SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII Analogous-1 (CLA-1) and thus augmenting their growth.
  • To address the role of CLA-1, we created a mutant mCLA that lacked the C-terminal tail.
  • Expression of mCLA inhibited the proliferation of an adrenocortical cell line and the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine into the cells.
  • These findings raise the possibility that the inhibitors of the effects of HDL may be of therapeutic value for adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Growth Substances / physiology. Lipoproteins, HDL / pharmacology. Scavenger Receptors, Class B / physiology. Transcription Factor AP-1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Androstadienes / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Mice. Mutation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation / drug effects


74. Ito F, Tanaka H, Oi K, Arai H, Sunamori M: [Multiple recurrence of cardiac myxoma in a Carney complex patient 4 years after the first operation]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Dec;59(13):1159-62
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  • Carney complex is a rare syndrome which includes cardiac myxoma, hyperactive endocrine neoplasm, spotty pigmented skin, and extracardiac myxomatous tumors.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with Carney complex in whom recurrent multiple cardiac myxomas were resected 4 years after the first operation for left atrial (LA) myxoma.
  • She had a history of left adrenalectomy in 1997 for Cushing syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
  • In February 2001, she was diagnosed with Carney complex because of evidence of LA myxoma, her spotty pigmented skin lesions, her past history and family history of cardiac myxoma in her mother.
  • Then, LA myxoma was successfully resected through the superior trans-septal approach and has been followed-up by ultrasound cardiography (UCG) every 6-month after discharge.
  • In January 2005, UCG revealed 2 masses in the LA and the right ventricle outflow tract.
  • We found the 3rd myxoma during surgery, resembling a flat polyp in the LA just at the inflow of the right upper pulmonary vein.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Myxoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cardiac Surgical Procedures. Echocardiography, Transesophageal. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Female. Heart Atria. Humans. Pigmentation Disorders. Reoperation. Skin Pigmentation. Syndrome. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17163207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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75. Machens A, Dralle H: Adjuvant mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1258-9; author reply 1259
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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Mitotane / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17891837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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76. Grubbs EG, Callender GG, Xing Y, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Phan AT, Lee JE: Recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma following resection: surgery alone can achieve results equal to surgery plus mitotane. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Jan;17(1):263-70
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  • [Title] Recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma following resection: surgery alone can achieve results equal to surgery plus mitotane.
  • BACKGROUND: A recent nonrandomized interinstitutional study reported that adjuvant mitotane following surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was associated with decreased recurrence.
  • SI patients had a superior disease-free survival compared with SO patients (median 25 versus 12 months, P = 0.003), and SI patients also had a superior overall survival compared with SO patients (median not reached versus 44 months, P = 0.02).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19851811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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77. Horvath A, Giatzakis C, Robinson-White A, Boikos S, Levine E, Griffin K, Stein E, Kamvissi V, Soni P, Bossis I, de Herder W, Carney JA, Bertherat J, Gregersen PK, Remmers EF, Stratakis CA: Adrenal hyperplasia and adenomas are associated with inhibition of phosphodiesterase 11A in carriers of PDE11A sequence variants that are frequent in the population. Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 15;66(24):11571-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal hyperplasia and adenomas are associated with inhibition of phosphodiesterase 11A in carriers of PDE11A sequence variants that are frequent in the population.
  • Several types of adrenocortical tumors that lead to Cushing syndrome may be caused by aberrant cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling.
  • We recently identified patients with micronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia who were carriers of inactivating mutations in the 2q-located phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) gene.
  • R804H and R867G were frequent among patients with adrenocortical tumors; although statistical significance was not reached, these variants affected significantly enzymatic function in vitro with variable increases in cAMP and/or cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels in HeLa and HEK293 cells.
  • Adrenocortical tissues carrying the R804H mutation showed 2q allelic losses and higher cyclic nucleotide levels and cAMP-responsive element binding protein phosphorylation.
  • We conclude that missense mutations of the PDE11A gene that affect enzymatic activity in vitro are present in the general population; protein-truncating PDE11A mutations may also contribute to a predisposition to other tumors, in addition to their association with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • We speculate that PDE11A genetic defects may be associated with adrenal pathology in a wider than previously suspected clinical spectrum that includes asymptomatic individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / enzymology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / genetics. Genetic Variation. Mutation. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Carrier State. Cell Line. Codon, Nonsense. Cushing Syndrome / enzymology. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. DNA / genetics. DNA Primers. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Frequency. Genotype. HeLa Cells. Humans. Kidney. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 17178847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
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78. Harrison BJ: Surgery of adrenocortical cancer. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):195-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery of adrenocortical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19286159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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79. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Similarly to the baseline growth kinetics, no survival benefit was evident in SP cells after treatment with cytotoxic agents commonly used in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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80. Papewalis C, Fassnacht M, Willenberg HS, Domberg J, Fenk R, Rohr UP, Schinner S, Bornstein SR, Scherbaum WA, Schott M: Dendritic cells as potential adjuvant for immunotherapy in adrenocortical carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Aug;65(2):215-22
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  • [Title] Dendritic cells as potential adjuvant for immunotherapy in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy associated with a dismal prognosis.
  • DESIGN/PATIENTS: Autologous DCs were pulsed with autologous tumour lysate (TL).
  • Fusion of DCs with tumour cells was based on a polyethylene glycol method.
  • Clinical response was monitored by CT scan of tumour mass and measurement of angiogenic factors.
  • The DC/tumour cell fusion efficacy was approximately 45% as shown by double positive staining for ACTH receptor and DC-specific CD83.
  • Although angiogenic serum markers could be stabilized, no impact on tumour growth could be observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that autologous dendritic cells induce antigen-specific Th1 immunity in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Dendritic Cells / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Hybridomas. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / immunology. Injections. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16886963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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81. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Dobrosz Z, Heitzman M, Cierpka L: [Analysis of adrenocortical tumors morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):136-42
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  • [Title] [Analysis of adrenocortical tumors morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza morfologii guzów kory nadnerczy pod wzgledem ich struktury i potencjalnej złośliwości.
  • INTRODUCTION: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 +/- 9.7).
  • In 76 patients (71.0%) biochemical tests did not reveal hormonal hyperactivity of the tumour.
  • RESULTS: In routine histopatological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%).
  • Nuclear grade III or IV was observed in 8 tumours (7.3%), mitotic rate > 5/50 high power fields in 6 (5.4%), atypical mitoses in 5 (4.5%), clear cells constituting < 25% of the tumour in 10 (9.1%), diffuse architecture in 8 (7.3%), necrosis in 16 (14.5%), veins infiltration in 4 (3.6%), sinusoids infiltration in 7 (6.3%), and tumour capsule infiltration in 5 (4.5%).
  • Among ACC tumours 4-9 features of malignancy were present, among ACA--0-3 features.
  • Statistical analysis revealed correlation between number of criteria proposed by Weiss and maximal tumour size (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous.
  • Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Adrenocortical Adenoma / ultrastructure. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / ultrastructure. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16773589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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82. Toledo RA, Mendonca BB, Fragoso MC, Soares IC, Almeida MQ, Moraes MB, Lourenço DM Jr, Alves VA, Bronstein MD, Toledo SP: Isolated familial somatotropinoma: 11q13-loh and gene/protein expression analysis suggests a possible involvement of aip also in non-pituitary tumorigenesis. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Apr;65(4):407-15
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  • OBJECTIVE: Non-pituitary tumors have been reported in a subset of patients harboring germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene.
  • However, no detailed investigations of non-pituitary tumors of AIP-mutated patients have been reported so far.
  • Subsequently, the mother developed a large virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma and a grade II B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Analyzing the tumoral DNA revealed that the AIP wild-type allele was lost in the daughter's somatotropinoma and the mother's adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Both tumors displayed low AIP protein expression levels.
  • Low AIP gene expression was confirmed by qPCR in the adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • No evidence of LOH was observed in the DNA sample from the mother's B-cell lymphoma, and this tumor displayed normal AIP immunostaining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents the first molecular analysis of non-pituitary tumors in AIP-mutated patients.
  • The finding of AIP inactivation in the adrenocortical tumor suggests that further investigation of the potential role of this recently identified tumor suppressor gene in non-pituitary tumors, mainly in those tumors in which the cAMP and the 11q13 locus are implicated, is likely to be worthwhile.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Gene Expression. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20454499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2862671
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIP / Acromegaly / Adrenocortical tumor / FIPA / pituitary tumor
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83. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • [Title] 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether dexamethasone suppression treatment can improve (11) C-metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • Small "hot-spot" regions of interest comprising 4 pixels (SUVhs) and 1 pixel (SUVmax) were placed in the tumour area with the highest radioactivity concentration and their respective standardised uptake values (SUV) were recorded.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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84. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Mazzoni G: Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197. Chemotherapy; 2009;55(6):425-32
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  • [Title] Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197.
  • BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effect of CRM197 treatment in human adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) implanted in nude mice.
  • CRM197 is a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin that binds heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) which is implicated in the proliferative activity of several tumor cells.
  • AC tumors were implanted in nude mice and then treated with CRM197.
  • A treatment with CRM197 blocked growth, reduced angiogenesis and induced apoptosis in AC tumors implanted in nude mice.
  • CRM197 also inhibited invasion and migration of these tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data support the evidence for anticancer properties of CRM197 in AC tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bacterial Proteins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19996587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Hbegf protein, mouse; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 92092-36-9 / CRM197 (non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin)
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85. Aubert S: [Adrenal cortex tumors: a lesion continuum?]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Nov;28 Spec No 1(1):S39-41
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cortex tumors: a lesion continuum?].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes : un continuum lésionnel ?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Organ Size. Prevalence. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18984295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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86. Lai P, Bomanji JB, Mahmood S, Nagabhushan N, Syed R, Gacinovic S, Lee SM, Ell PJ: Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2007 Feb;16(1):90-4
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  • [Title] Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging.
  • Tumour thrombus is a rare complication of many solid cancers including renal cell carcinoma, Wilms' tumour, testicular tumour, adrenal cortical carcinoma, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.
  • We describe six patients who harboured occult tumour thrombus detected by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computerized tomography (CT) imaging as part of the staging investigations.
  • Recognition of this rare complication by PET/CT can change the management plan and prevent unnecessary long-term anti-coagulation treatment because of wrong diagnosis of cancer-related venous thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / complications. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17220710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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87. Hanna AM, Pham TH, Askegard-Giesmann JR, Grams JM, Iqbal CW, Stavlo P, Moir CR: Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):843-9
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  • [Title] Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • PURPOSE: This study reviews adrenocortical tumors in children to determine factors that significantly affect outcome.
  • METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review from 1976 to 2005 identified 23 patients younger than 19 years old with histologic confirmation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and adenomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of the 23 children was 9.0 +/- 1.6 years; girls predominated (female-to-male ratio = 1.9:1) as did cancers (ACC 16, adenoma 7); tumor hormone production (74%); and advanced stage for disease (66%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Children, especially females with ACC present with large advanced-staged tumors.
  • The high percentage of children with functioning tumors suggests earlier detection is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18485950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Histopathological prognostic factors of ACC have not been fully established because of the rarity of the disease.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Mathonnet M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jun;130(5):303-8
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  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure].
  • Hypertension (HTA) is a very common disease but its origin is well known only in 1 to 5% of the cases.
  • HTA is present in half of the patients who have an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinical data, hormonal sampling, computed tomography and adrenal scintigraphies are necessary to identify hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenalectomy is indicated in case of potential malignant tumors and hyperfunctioning tumors.
  • If HTA seems to be not in relation with the adrenal mass, it is recommended to recognize a congenital enzymatic block in order to ovoid an unnecessary adrenalectomy and to search for a preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • The removal of the adrenal mass improves the HTA for half of the patients.
  • If the adrenocortical tumor is nonfunctioning, patients have to be followed during a long time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15935786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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90. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex]. Klin Khir; 2005 Jul;(7):42-5
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  • [Title] [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex].
  • Possibilities of computer tomography (CT) application for differential diagnosis of tumors of the adrenal cortex (TAC) were studied.
  • While the trustworthy signs of malignancy are absent, it is necessary to conduct morphological verification of the adrenal tumors nature using puncture biopsy and/or intraoperative express-cytological investigation.

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  • (PMID = 16255222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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91. Assié G: [Gene profiling and classification of adrenocortical tumors]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):186-91
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  • [Title] [Gene profiling and classification of adrenocortical tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Etudes génomiques à haut débit et classification des tumeurs de la corticosurrénale.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19296923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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92. Bauditz J, Quinkler M, Beyersdorff D, Wermke W: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep; 2008 May;19(5):1135-9
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  • [Title] Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and heterogeneous malignancy whose pathogenesis and poor prognosis is poorly understood.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely performed for the imaging of the adrenal mass and for standard staging of the chest and abdomen as the lung and liver are the primary organs for metastasis in ACC.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound has been shown to have a high sensitivity and specifity for the differentiation of hepatic and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18425368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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93. Rodgers SE, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):535-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • ACC is a rare clinical entity that carries a poor prognosis; early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are associated with the improvement in patient survival.
  • Even with appropriated diagnosis and treatment, most patients will develop recurrence and succumb to ACC because of the underlying tumor biology, the difficulty of achieving a complete resection, and the lack of effective systemic therapies.
  • Despite its many drawbacks, mitotane continues to be a mainstay in the treatment of high-risk patients with ACC, especially those with recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16882496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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94. McLaughlin SA, Schmitt TM, Huguet KL, Menke DM, Nguyen JH: Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):191-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal masses have varying presentations.
  • Most commonly, adrenal masses are discovered incidentally on CT or MRI during an evaluation for an unrelated complaint.
  • Although the majority of these are nonfunctional cortical adenomas, hormonally active tumors and adrenocortical carcinoma must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • Rarely, retroperitoneal tumors may mimic an adrenal mass.
  • We report a case of a 49-year-old man with anemia and weight loss who was found to have a large retroperitoneal mass arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Surgical treatment involved en bloc resection of the right kidney, adrenal gland, segments 7 and 8 of the liver, and a portion of the right hemidiaphragm.
  • We believe that this is the first case report of a myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Myofibrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors composed of myofibroblasts that arise from the deep soft tissues.
  • These tumors have a predilection for the head and neck, trunk, or extremities.
  • We will briefly discuss the workup of an adrenal mass and focus on the diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myosarcoma / pathology. Myosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15869129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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95. Tajiri Y, Igarashi T, Li D, Mukai K, Suematsu M, Fukui E, Yoshizawa M, Matsumoto H: Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1 is expressed in the uterus and binds with integrins in decidualized endometrium during postimplantation in mice. Biol Reprod; 2010 Feb;82(2):263-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1 (TINAGL1, also known as adrenocortical zonation factor 1 [AZ-1] or lipocalin 7) is a novel matricellular protein that promotes cell adhesion and spreading.
  • [MeSH-major] Decidua / physiology. Embryonic Development / genetics. Endometrium / chemistry. Integrins / metabolism. Lipocalins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Uterus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19776386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-7268
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alpha Chains; 0 / Integrin alpha5beta1; 0 / Integrin beta Chains; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Lipocalins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tinagl protein, mouse
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96. Müller-Vieira U, Angotti M, Hartmann RW: The adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI-H295R as an in vitro screening system for the evaluation of CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP11B1 (steroid-11beta-hydroxylase) inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Aug;96(3-4):259-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI-H295R as an in vitro screening system for the evaluation of CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP11B1 (steroid-11beta-hydroxylase) inhibitors.
  • For studies of the effects of CYP11B2 inhibitors on the adrenal cortex, we selected the NCI-H295R cell line which expresses most of the key enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Aldosterone / metabolism. Aromatase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Fadrozole / pharmacology. Humans. Steroids / analysis. Steroids / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15985365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; H3988M64PU / Fadrozole
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97. Reyes MA, Ciancio G, Singal R, Manoharan M: Adrenocortical carcinoma with tumor thrombus in the right hepatic vein. Int J Urol; 2006 Sep;13(9):1233-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with tumor thrombus in the right hepatic vein.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm with very poor prognosis.
  • Patients present with an abdominal mass often exceeding 5 cm or as a functional tumor.
  • Computed tomography is effective to demonstrate the neoplasm as an inhomogeneous adrenal lesion with irregular margins, and magnetic resonance imaging is helpful to visualize invasion into large vessels as well.
  • Reported herein is a case of large adrenocortical carcinoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right hepatic vein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Thrombosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16984559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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98. Horvath A, Boikos S, Giatzakis C, Robinson-White A, Groussin L, Griffin KJ, Stein E, Levine E, Delimpasi G, Hsiao HP, Keil M, Heyerdahl S, Matyakhina L, Libè R, Fratticci A, Kirschner LS, Cramer K, Gaillard RC, Bertagna X, Carney JA, Bertherat J, Bossis I, Stratakis CA: A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia. Nat Genet; 2006 Jul;38(7):794-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • Increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling has been associated with PRKAR1A or GNAS mutations and leads to adrenocortical tumors and Cushing syndrome.
  • We investigated the genetic source of Cushing syndrome in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia that was not caused by known defects.
  • We performed genome-wide SNP genotyping, including the adrenocortical tumor DNA.
  • Tumor tissues showed 2q31-2q35 LOH, decreased protein expression and high cyclic nucleotide levels and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation.
  • PDE11A codes for a dual-specificity PDE that is expressed in adrenal cortex and is partially inhibited by tadalafil and other PDE inhibitors; its germline inactivation is associated with adrenocortical hyperplasia, suggesting another means by which dysregulation of cAMP signaling causes endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Mutation. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / genetics


99. Cheng MF, Wu YW, Tzen KY, Yen RF: F-18 FDG PET/CT illustrating tumor invasion in the IVC from adrenocortical carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Nov;32(11):891-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT illustrating tumor invasion in the IVC from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18075433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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100. Hunger-Battefeld W, Gajda M, Hansch A, Mandecka A, Müller UA, Wolf G: [Diagnostic pitfalls with Cushing's syndrome]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Mar;51 Suppl 1:293-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare diagnosis and may present with hormone secretion.
  • A histological differentiation between an adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma can be very difficult.
  • However, a fast diagnosis including staging and complete surgical resection is pivotal for the prognosis of an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma should be treated with a mitotane based chemotherapy, and inclusion in the "firm-act study" is highly recommended.
  • The present case report demonstrates the diagnostic pitfalls in a female patients with Cushing's syndrome who suffered from metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Obesity, Morbid / etiology. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 20012255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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