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1. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino MC, Camera L, Klain M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G, Colao A: Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1779-84
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  • [Title] Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.
  • Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16522701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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2. Müssig K, Wehrmann M, Horger M, Teichmann R, Maser-Gluth C, Häring HU, Overkamp D: Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2005 Apr;113(4):236-40
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  • [Title] Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone.
  • We report a rare case of primary aldosteronism due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypokalemia was referred for evaluation of a 4.2 cm measuring adrenal mass without secondary signs of malignancy.
  • The patient underwent surgical resection of the adrenal mass; histology revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Four months after adrenalectomy, the patient presented again with hypokalemic hypertension and was found to have metastatic disease.
  • Careful hormonal investigation should be obtained in patients with adrenal masses causing excessive aldosterone secretion.
  • In uncertain cases of primary aldosteronism, we would suggest to measure 18-hydroxycortisol levels, as excessive amounts may indicate adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Posture. Supine Position. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15891961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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3. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


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4. Koschker AC, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Weismann D, Allolio B: Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Feb;114(2):45-51
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • DIAGNOSIS: In case of an adrenal mass, hormonal workup before surgery is required for differential diagnosis, perioperative management, and for follow-up.
  • GANIMED, as a Germany-wide network of experts on adrenal diseases, has been founded allowing for improved gathering of data and joint studies.
  • ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours) has been brought to life, aiming at European standards for therapy, diagnosis and tumour banking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16570232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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5. Ragazzon B, Libé R, Gaujoux S, Assié G, Fratticci A, Launay P, Clauser E, Bertagna X, Tissier F, de Reyniès A, Bertherat J: Transcriptome analysis reveals that p53 and {beta}-catenin alterations occur in a group of aggressive adrenocortical cancers. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8276-81
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  • [Title] Transcriptome analysis reveals that p53 and {beta}-catenin alterations occur in a group of aggressive adrenocortical cancers.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with an overall poor but heterogeneous prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Mutation / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics


6. Giordano TJ, Kuick R, Else T, Gauger PG, Vinco M, Bauersfeld J, Sanders D, Thomas DG, Doherty G, Hammer G: Molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors by transcriptome profiling. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 15;15(2):668-76
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  • [Title] Molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors by transcriptome profiling.
  • PURPOSE: Our understanding of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has improved considerably, yet many unanswered questions remain.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We did a whole genome gene expression study of a large cohort of adrenocortical tissues annotated with clinicopathologic data.
  • Using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide arrays, transcriptional profiles were generated for 10 normal adrenal cortices (NC), 22 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and 33 ACCs.
  • RESULTS: The overall classification of adrenocortical tumors was recapitulated using principal component analysis of the entire data set.
  • Cluster analysis of the ACCs revealed two subtypes that reflected tumor proliferation, as measured by mitotic counts and cell cycle genes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study lays the foundation for the molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors and also provides a rich source of potential diagnostic and prognostic markers.

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  • (PMID = 19147773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-209023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-219023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-199023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-219023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-199023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-209023
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS78831; NLM/ PMC2629378
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7. Slater EP, Diehl SM, Langer P, Samans B, Ramaswamy A, Zielke A, Bartsch DK: Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):587-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis.
  • The molecular mechanisms of adrenocortical tumorigenesis are still not well understood.
  • The comparative analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene-expression patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors allows us to identify new tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes underlying adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA from fresh-frozen tissue of 10 ACC and 10 benign adrenocortical adenomas was isolated after histologic confirmation of neoplastic cellularity of at least 85%.
  • The reference consisted of pooled RNA of 10 normal adrenal cortex samples.
  • RESULTS: The comparative analysis of gene expression revealed many genes with more than fourfold expression difference between ACC and normal tissue (42 genes), cortical adenoma and normal tissue (11 genes), and ACC and cortical adenoma (21 genes) respectively.
  • As confirmed by real-time PCR, the IGF2 gene was significantly upregulated in ACCs versus cortical adenomas and normal cortical tissue.
  • Genes that were downregulated in adrenocortical tumors included chromogranin B and early growth response factor 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive expression profiling of adrenocortical tumors by the cDNA microarray technique is a very powerful tool to elucidate the molecular steps associated with the tumorigenesis of these ill-defined neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 16556722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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8. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, Déchaud H, Bonnay M, Baudin E, Pugeat M: Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2165-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DESIGN: Human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2), lacking estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, and Hep89, stably transfected by ERalpha, were used.
  • PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 male patients with recurrent adrenal carcinoma, receiving mitotane (4-6.5 g daily) for more than 6 months.
  • In the HepG2 cell line, 17beta-estradiol (E2) or o,p'-DDD treatment had no effect on mRNA or SHBG/CBG concentrations.
  • In contrast, in the Hep89 cell line, E2 increased concentrations of SHBG (r = 0.44, P < 0.0001) and CBG (r = 0.585, P < 0.0001) secreted into culture media in a dose-dependent manner. o,p'-DDD significantly increased SHBG (150% vs. control, P < 0.05) and CBG (184% vs. control, P < 0.05) production by Hep89 cells, at a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) m.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor alpha / physiology. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Male. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16551731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9010-38-2 / Transcortin
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9. van Hest LP, Ruijs MW, Wagner A, van der Meer CA, Verhoef S, van't Veer LJ, Meijers-Heijboer H: Two TP53 germline mutations in a classical Li-Fraumeni syndrome family. Fam Cancer; 2007;6(3):311-6
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  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by a combination of tumors including sarcoma, breast cancer, brain tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma and leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 17318340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9600
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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10. Lachenmayer A, Lichtenauer UD, Cox T, Schott M, Malendowicz LK, Goretzki PE, Cupisti K, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR, Willenberg HS: Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors. Horm Metab Res; 2009 May;41(5):397-401
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  • [Title] Nestin as a marker in the classification of adrenocortical tumors.
  • Since adrenocortical carcinoma, a tumor entity still very difficult to classify, may gain the ability to aberrantly express neuroectodermal proteins including chromogranin A and synaptophysin, we asked the question whether nestin might also be detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, and if so, whether it might serve as a tool for clinical pathology.
  • Therefore, we studied the expression of nestin in normal adrenal glands, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical cancers using specific immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
  • Immunostaining was nestin-positive in 1 out of 9 normal adrenal glands (11%), 2 out of 20 adrenocortical adenomas (10%), and 13 out of 16 adrenocortical carcinomas (81%).
  • We conclude that our findings provide further evidence that nestin, as a marker, is not restricted to neuronal stem cells and nestin expression is worth to be studied in adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / classification. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin

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  • (PMID = 19294612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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11. Gonzalez RJ, Tamm EP, Ng C, Phan AT, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):867-75; discussion 867-75
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  • [Title] Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease in which recurrence after surgery is common.
  • RESULTS: The median disease-free survival for all 186 patients was 12 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 37 months.
  • For patients with stable or responding disease to mitotane, the median OS from date of recurrence was 18 months, compared with 9 months (P = .01) for those who progressed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent ACC who have stable or responding disease to mitotane have a more favorable prognosis than those who progress.
  • Mitotane should be considered in most patients with recurrent ACC, including as preoperative therapy for those with recurrent disease considered for surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18063070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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12. Volante M, Bollito E, Sperone P, Tavaglione V, Daffara F, Porpiglia F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification. Histopathology; 2009 Nov;55(5):535-43
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification.
  • AIMS: Pathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma relies on several microscopic features commonly used in combination in different scoring systems that are sometimes subjective and/or time consuming.
  • The aim was to investigate the impact of individual pathological parameters in the diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The series included 92 malignant cases and a control series of 47 adenomas, all classified according to Weiss score criteria.
  • The presence of disruption of the reticular network, as highlighted by histochemical staining, was present in all adrenocortical carcinomas and the inclusion of at least one of the three following additional parameters - mitotic index >5/50 high-power fields (HPF), presence of necrosis and presence of vascular invasion - gave an algorithm with 100% sensitivity and specificity to recognize malignant tumours according to the Weiss system, with easier and more practical applicability.
  • Moreover, on multivariate analysis, stage III/IV and mitotic count >9/50 HPF showed a strong adverse impact on disease-free and overall survival, leading to the identification of three risk groups affected by a significantly different prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have defined an easy-to-perform and highly specific and sensitive algorithm for the diagnosis and prognostic categorization of adrenocortical tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Algorithms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19912359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Berruti A, Fassnacht M, Baudin E, Hammer G, Haak H, Leboulleux S, Skogseid B, Allolio B, Terzolo M: Adjuvant therapy in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma: a position of an international panel. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug 10;28(23):e401-2; author reply e403
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma: a position of an international panel.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 Sep 20;27(27):4619-29 [19667279.001]
  • (PMID = 20567001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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14. Grubbs E, Lee JE: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a revised TNM classification. Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848
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  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a revised TNM classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer. 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50 [19025987.001]
  • (PMID = 19827149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • A recently used technique for the isolation of this cell population is through exclusion of the vital dye Hoechst 33342, which defines the so-called side population (SP).
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Furthermore, re-sorting and tracing experiments revealed the capacity for both cell types to give rise to the original SP- and non-SP-containing cell population.
  • Similarly to the baseline growth kinetics, no survival benefit was evident in SP cells after treatment with cytotoxic agents commonly used in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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16. Geiss HK, Feldhues R, Niemann S, Nolte O, Rieker R: Landouzy septicemia (sepsis tuberculosa acutissima) due to Mycobacterium microti in an immunocompetent man. Infection; 2005 Oct;33(5-6):393-6
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  • In the following, we describe the case of a previously healthy man who underwent laparotomy for suspected adrenal carcinoma.
  • No other pathogen could be isolated during the clinical course, which finally led to the diagnosis of Landouzy septicemia (sepsis tuberculosa acutissima).

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  • (PMID = 16258876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8126
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infection
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Remer EM, Motta-Ramirez GA, Shepardson LB, Hamrahian AH, Herts BR: CT histogram analysis in pathologically proven adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Jul;187(1):191-6
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  • [Title] CT histogram analysis in pathologically proven adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to evaluate a histogram analysis method for distinguishing adrenal adenomas from metastases, pheochromocytomas, and adrenocortical carcinomas on CT.
  • CT images were available for retrospective review in 187 patients (93 males, 94 females; age range, 15-84 years; mean age, 55.2 years) with 208 adrenal masses.
  • This included 112 adenomas in 104 patients, 48 metastases in 39 patients, 40 pheochromocytomas in 36 patients, and eight adrenocortical carcinomas in eight patients.
  • Negative pixels were present in unenhanced and enhanced metastases, pheochromocytomas, and carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Although specificity for the diagnosis of adenomas on enhanced CT scans with histogram analysis was high when a 10% negative pixel threshold was used, low sensitivity likely limits clinical usefulness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adolescent. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16794176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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18. Fukuda T, Takahashi K, Suzuki T, Saruta M, Watanabe M, Nakata T, Sasano H: Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4671-8
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  • [Title] Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.
  • Recently, direct involvement of the locally synthesized CRF family in adrenocortical function has been proposed.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands.
  • Ucn1 immunoreactivity was marked in the medulla, whereas Ucn3 was immunostained mostly in the cortex.
  • Both CRF type 1 and CRF2 were expressed in the cortex, particularly in the zonae fasciculata and reticularis but very weakly or undetectably in the medulla.
  • Immunohistochemistry in serial tissue sections with mirror images revealed that both Ucn3 and CRF2 were colocalized in more than 85% of the adrenocortical cells. mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed these findings above.
  • In fetal adrenals, Ucn and CRF receptors were expressed in both fetal and definitive zones of the cortex.
  • Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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19. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • However, some reports indicate synchronous occurrence with other lesions including adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It has very rarely been reported to occur in association with adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Fardella CE, Mosso LM, Carvajal CA: [Primary aldosteronism]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Jul;136(7):905-14
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  • In the cardiovascular system, aldosterone modifies endothelial and smooth muscle cell response, increasing cardiovascular risk in a blood pressure-independent way.
  • This ratio increases along with the severity of the hypertensive disease.
  • The diagnostic work up of PA should confirm the autonomy of aldosterone secretion from the renin-angiotensin system and should differentiate the clinical subtypes of the disease.
  • Other causes are familial hyperaldosteronism (FH) type I (glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), FH-II (non glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), primary adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal carcinoma.
  • This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of PA and also the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of its different subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18949169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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21. Bollag WB, Kent P, White S, Wilson MV, Isales CM, Calle RA: Phorbol ester increases mitochondrial cholesterol content in NCI H295R cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 Dec 16;296(1-2):53-7
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  • Angiotensin II (AngII), the primary agonist of aldosterone secretion from adrenal glomerulosa cells, is known to induce cholesterol mobilization to mitochondria.
  • To determine PKC's involvement, human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were incubated with or without PKC-activating phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and mitochondrial cholesterol content assayed.

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  • (PMID = 18793695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phorbol Esters; 0 / Steroids; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 20839-06-9 / phorbol-12-myristate; 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS81938; NLM/ PMC2645228
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22. Ginat DT, Saad WE, Turba UC: Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):75-88
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  • [Title] Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that is increasingly used for the management of angiomyolipomas and to augment and/or palliate the management of malignant renal and adrenal neoplasms.
  • The most common indications for renal artery embolization include (1) prenephrectomy and preradiofrequency ablation infarction of renal tumors, (2) management of renal angiomyolipomas, (3) palliations of unresectable renal malignancy, and (4) malignant renal hemorrhage (life-threatening or chronic debilitating hematuria).
  • The increasing use of renal artery embolization for these conditions reflects the procedure's effectiveness and safety.
  • Although there is less extensive literature available regarding the use of transcatheter embolization of adrenal tumors, this technique appears to be effective and safe for palliation and preadrenalectomy of adrenal metastatic disease, adrenocortical carcinomas, as well as treatment of symptomatic aldosteronomas.
  • This article reviews the indications and techniques involved in performing transcatheter arterial embolization for renal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Catheterization. Embolization, Therapeutic. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Renal Artery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20540917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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23. Geller JL, Azer PC, Weiss LM, Mertens RB: Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):297-304
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  • [Title] Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review.
  • Darkly pigmented adrenocortical neoplasms are rare tumors that are often referred to as "black adenomas," indicative of both their pigmented nature and their invariably benign clinical behavior in previously reported cases.
  • We herein describe an exceptional case of a malignant pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm, with late recurrence and metastasis.
  • At age 53, this female patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome and underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, revealing a 3 cm well-circumscribed, darkly pigmented adrenocortical tumor.
  • The tumor exhibited several atypical histologic features and was diagnosed as an atypical pigmented adrenal cortical neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Histologically, the tumor nodules were consistent with local recurrence/metastasis of the patient's previously excised pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Pigmentation. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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24. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although she underwent surgical resection of the extensive tumor as the primary treatment, the disease recurred in the lung and liver as multiple metastases shortly after surgery.
  • Finally, she underwent reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA 1-locus-mismatched sibling donor.
  • A prolonged survival of 39 months after the onset of the disease was achieved.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Graft vs Host Disease. Humans


25. Quante S, Sieber-Ruckstuhl N, Wilhelm S, Favrot C, Dennler M, Reusch C: [Hyperprogesteronism due to bilateral adrenal carcinomas in a cat with diabetes mellitus]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd; 2009 Sep;151(9):437-42
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  • [Title] [Hyperprogesteronism due to bilateral adrenal carcinomas in a cat with diabetes mellitus].
  • Further work-up by ultrasonography revealed severe bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands.
  • Histologically, the adrenal masses were characterised as bilateral adrenal carcinomas of the adrenal cortex.
  • The case report demonstrates that adrenal gland tumors are also capable to secrete sex hormones instead of cortisol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Cat Diseases / blood. Progesterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diabetes Complications / blood. Diabetes Complications / veterinary. Male

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  • (PMID = 19722132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-7281
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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26. Fiszer-Maliszewska L, Kazanowska B, Padzik J, Regional Blood Transfusion Center: p53 Tetramerization domain mutations: germline R342X and R342P, and somatic R337G identified in pediatric patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and a child with adrenocortical carcinoma. Fam Cancer; 2009;8(4):541-6
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  • [Title] p53 Tetramerization domain mutations: germline R342X and R342P, and somatic R337G identified in pediatric patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and a child with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Germline p53 mutations are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and other familial cancer phenotypes not fulfilling the definition for LFS.
  • The germline mutation, R342X (16915C>T), and the novel mutation, R342P (16916G>C), were found in a child with adrenocortical carcinoma and in a LFS pediatric patient with multiple primaries.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19714490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Betz MJ, Shapiro I, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Reincke M, Beuschlein F, German and Austrian Adrenal Network: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):3886-96
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  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation.
  • Moreover, recent evidence has suggested that TZDs might have favorable effects in the treatment of a variety of tumors as differentiation-inducing agents.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity with poor prognosis due to its highly malignant phenotype and lack of effective treatment options.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of TZDs on adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: PPARgamma mRNA expression was detectable in all adrenocortical tumors including ACCs at similar levels.
  • Furthermore, incubation of the adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295 with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone led to a decrease in cell viability, a decrease of cellular proliferation, and an increase in apoptosis as well as steroidogenesis.
  • On the molecular level, NCI h295 cells expressed higher levels of ACTH receptor (melanocortin receptor-2) mRNA upon treatment, whereas cyclin E mRNA was reduced, thus reflecting a shift toward an expression pattern found in less aggressive adrenocortical tumors in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anilides / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin E / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15886257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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28. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, endocrinological and histological characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients (41, males; 38, females; age range 17-80 years) who were diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma at Korea University Hospital from 1992 to 2003 were studied retrospectively.
  • Pathologic examination revealed 16 adrenocortical adenomas (20%), five carcinomas (6%), 13 pheochromocytomas (16%), three metastatic cancers (4%), and other tumors (10%).
  • The diameter of the carcinomas (mean: 10.8 cm, range: 5-19 cm) were significantly larger than the diameter of benign adenomas (mean: 2.84 cm, range: 1-6 cm) (p=0.002).
  • According to the receiver operating charactenstic (ROC) curve analysis, the cut-off value of tumor size for discriminate malignant tumor was 4.75 cm (sensitivity 90%, specificity 58%).
  • Changes in mass size and function were observed only between 10 and 26 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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29. Cerquetti L, Sampaoli C, Amendola D, Bucci B, Misiti S, Raza G, De Paula U, Marchese R, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation. Int J Oncol; 2010 Aug;37(2):493-501
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  • [Title] Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation.
  • It also has a cytotoxic effect on the adrenocortical cells and represents a primary drug used in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • H295R and SW13 cell lines were treated with mitotane 10(-5) M and ionizing radiations (IR) in combination therapy, inducing an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • As shown in a previous report, mitotane/IR combination treatment induced a cell accumulation in the G2 phase.
  • Here, we report the radiosensitizing properties of mitotane in two different ACC cell lines.
  • Indeed, treatment with purvalanol, a cdc2-inhibitor prevents cell cycle arrest, triggering the G2/M transition.
  • The observation that mitotane and IR in combination treatment amplifies the activation level of cyclin B/cdc2 complexes contributing to cell cycle arrest, suggests that the MPF could function as a master signal for controlling the temporal order of different mitotic events.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Mitotane / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / drug effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / physiology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / physiology. Humans. Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Purines / pharmacology. Radiation, Ionizing. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20596677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-((3-chloro)anilino)-2-(isopropyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)-9-isopropylpurine; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Purines; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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30. Castinetti F, Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Terzolo M, Bouchard P, Chanson P, Do Cao C, Morange I, Picó A, Ouzounian S, Young J, Hahner S, Brue T, Allolio B, Conte-Devolx B: Merits and pitfalls of mifepristone in Cushing's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;160(6):1003-10
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  • METHODS: Twenty patients with malignant (n=15, 12 with adrenocortical carcinoma, three with ectopic ACTH secretion) or benign (n=5, four with Cushing's disease, one with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia) CS were treated with mifepristone.
  • Median treatment duration was 2 months (0.25-21) for malignant CS, and 6 months (0.5-24) for benign CS.
  • Clinical (signs of hypercortisolism, blood pressure, signs of adrenal insufficiency), and biochemical parameters (serum potassium and glucose) were evaluated.
  • Improvement of clinical signs was observed in 11/15 patients with malignant CS (73%), and 4/5 patients with benign CS (80%).
  • Signs of adrenal insufficiency were observed in 3/20 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Mifepristone is a rapidly effective treatment of hypercortisolism, but requires close monitoring of potentially severe hypokalemia, hypertension, and clinical signs of adrenal insufficiency.

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  • (PMID = 19289534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone
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31. Hu X, Dietz JD, Xia C, Knight DR, Loging WT, Smith AH, Yuan H, Perry DA, Keiser J: Torcetrapib induces aldosterone and cortisol production by an intracellular calcium-mediated mechanism independently of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition. Endocrinology; 2009 May;150(5):2211-9
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  • The direct effects of torcetrapib and related molecules on adrenal steroid production were assessed in cell culture using the H295R as well as the newly developed HAC15 human adrenal carcinoma cell lines.
  • Torcetrapib induced the synthesis of both aldosterone and cortisol in these two in vitro cell systems.
  • Transcription profiling indicated that torcetrapib and angiotensin II share overlapping pathways in regulating adrenal steroid biosynthesis.
  • Consistent with intracellular calcium being the key mediator of torcetrapib's effect in adrenal cells, calcium channel blockers completely blocked torcetrapib-induced corticoid release and calcium increase.
  • The results indicate that the pressor and adrenal effects observed with torcetrapib and related molecules are independent of CETP inhibition.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticholesteremic Agents / adverse effects. Anticholesteremic Agents / chemistry. Anticholesteremic Agents / pharmacology. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Intracellular Fluid / drug effects. Intracellular Fluid / metabolism. Models, Biological. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Structure-Activity Relationship


32. Brau-Javier CN, Sánchez JL: Cutaneous adrenal cortical carcinoma metastasis in a 6 year-old boy. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Sep;29(3):330-1
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  • [Title] Cutaneous adrenal cortical carcinoma metastasis in a 6 year-old boy.
  • We report the case of a six year-old boy with a history of adrenal cortical carcinoma presenting with cutaneous metastasis.
  • Due to the low incidence of cutaneous metastasis arising from adrenal cortical carcinoma, its diagnosis can be challenging based solely on histological analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20799523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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33. Hantel C, Beuschlein F: Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):865-75
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  • [Title] Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are heterogeneous tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • The rarity of this disorder causes a lack of treatment experience and material availability which is necessary to optimize existing treatments and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
  • In recent years molecular characterization of surgical tumor specimen has aided in the understanding of disease mechanisms and definition of therapeutic targets also in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Here we give an overview on rodent models that have been described to either have adrenocortical tumors as part of their phenotype or have been utilized for therapeutic screens as adrenocortical tumor models.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Models, Animal

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. Schittenhelm J, Ebner FH, Harter P, Bornemann A: Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):73-7
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  • [Title] Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Most intraspinal neoplasms of epithelial origin are metastases from primary carcinomas.
  • We here present the case of a 44-year-old woman with a lesion in the cauda equina that fulfilled the radiologic criteria of schwannoma and caused clinical symptoms for 3 years.
  • This immunoprofile indicated adrenocortical origin.
  • The diagnosis of an oncocytic adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • These extraadrenal tumors are thought to arise from heterotopic adrenocortical tissue in the spinal cavity.
  • Oncocytic tumors are rare neoplasms and they comprise non-functioning variants of adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry excluded oncocytic paraganglioma, oncocytic meningioma, renal cell carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and granular cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Clin Radiol. 2005 Sep;60(9):953-9 [16124976.001]
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  • (PMID = 19039533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
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35. Kvacheniuk AN: [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection]. Klin Khir; 2008 Mar;(3):34-7
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection].
  • Comparative efficacy of radical methods of surgical intervention for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) with lymphodissection (LD) and without it was studied.

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  • (PMID = 18680995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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36. Padberg BC, Rordorf T, Suter SL, Pfeiffer D, Wild D, Schröder S: [123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- (MIBG-) scintigraphy: paradoxical positivity in an oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2007 Jul;28(4):281-4
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  • [Title] [123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- (MIBG-) scintigraphy: paradoxical positivity in an oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • In contrast, the false-positive uptake of MIBG by adrenal cortical carcinoma is rare.
  • Here, we report a metastatic oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma with MIBG uptake used for therapeutic purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Radioisotopes. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16673076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Brauckhoff M, Dralle H: [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands]. Chirurg; 2005 Mar;76(3):227-37
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  • [Title] [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands].
  • Repeat adrenalectomy may be required due to ipsilateral recurrence of benign or malignant adrenal tumors after previous total or subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • Even for multivisceral resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, complete resection of local recurrent tumor offers results similar to those of primary resection (5-year survival 40-60%).
  • In any case, during open or endoscopic approach, tumor spillage must be avoided to prevent local tumor cell implantation.
  • Following subtotal adrenalectomy, the risk of ipsilateral recurrence correlates with disease, follow-up, localization, size of the adrenal remnant, and, in case of familial pheochromocytoma, probably with genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / mortality. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15739057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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38. Sane T: [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(17):2040-6
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  • [Title] [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma].
  • Mitotane has been used for 50 years as the first-line drug in the treatment of disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It reduces local recurrence of the disease and development of metastases even after a seemingly total surgical removal of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21053521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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39. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • One patient was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma during follow-up.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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40. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60
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  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Significant modifications concern carcinomas of the oesophagus, oesophagogastric junction, stomach, appendix, biliary tract, lung, skin, prostate and ophthalmic tumours, which will be not addressed in this article.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • Four patients had adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Parnaby CN, Galbraith N, O'Dwyer PJ: Experience in identifying the venous drainage of the adrenal gland during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Clin Anat; 2008 Oct;21(7):660-5
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  • [Title] Experience in identifying the venous drainage of the adrenal gland during laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for most adrenal tumors.
  • An important part of LA is the early identification and ligation of the adrenal veins.
  • The venous drainage from each adrenal gland is usually via a single vein: the right vein draining into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left vein into the left renal vein.
  • The aim of the study was to clarify if LA identified venous drainage and its variants.
  • Between January 1999 and January 2008, 142 consecutive patients underwent LA.
  • Adrenal vein anatomy was documented on a prospective database.
  • In total, 142 patients underwent 162 LA (right = 62, left = 66, bilateral = 17).
  • All adrenal veins were identified at the time of laparoscopy.
  • For 157 LA, the adrenal venous drainage was constant: right vein drained into the IVC and left vein drained into left renal vein.
  • Five patients had adrenal vein variants: two right veins draining separately into IVC (n = 1), two right veins draining into the IVC and right renal vein (n = 1), and two left veins draining separately into the left renal vein (n = 3).
  • Adrenal vein variants were present in patients with phaeochromocytomas (n = 4) or adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1).
  • The laparoscopic approach allowed an excellent view of the main adrenal venous anatomy.
  • This has helped confirm the constant nature of the venous drainage and successfully identify variant adrenal veins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Veins / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Renal Veins / anatomy & histology. Vena Cava, Inferior / anatomy & histology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18816449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Sugawara T, Nomura E, Hoshi N: Cholesterol sulphate affects production of steroid hormones by reducing steroidogenic acute regulatory protein level in adrenocortical cells. J Endocrinol; 2007 Dec;195(3):451-8
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  • [Title] Cholesterol sulphate affects production of steroid hormones by reducing steroidogenic acute regulatory protein level in adrenocortical cells.
  • Cholesterol sulphate (CS), which is present ubiquitously in mammalian tissues, is not only a precursor of sulphated adrenal steroids but also an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis.
  • This study was designed to examine the biological roles of CS in steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells.
  • Human adrenocortical carcinoma H295R cells were cultured with various amounts of CS.
  • Western blot analysis was performed to determine StAR protein level using whole cell extracts from cells.
  • In conclusion, CS affects the production of steroid hormones by reducing StAR protein level in adrenocortical cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cholesterol Esters / metabolism. Hormones / biosynthesis. Phosphoproteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Culture Media / chemistry. Gene Expression / drug effects. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Pregnenolone / analysis. Pregnenolone / biosynthesis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18000307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol Esters; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 73R90F7MQ8 / Pregnenolone; KU576NT9O9 / cholesteryl sulfate
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44. Locali RF, Matsuoka PK, Cherbo T, Gabriel EA, Buffolo E: Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2009 Mar;92(3):168-76
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The resection of tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium (RA) increases the survival rate of patients with renal/adrenal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical procedure in cases of IVC and RA in the treatment of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical intervention (during the period) between January 1997 and June 2007, for resection of IVC and/or RA thrombus due to renal or adrenal tumors, were retrospectively evaluated.
  • The patients (64.2% male) presented with Wilms' tumor, clear cell carcinoma and adrenal adenocarcinoma, and had mean age of 4.5, 60.5 and 2.5 years, respectively.
  • Two deaths, due to intraoperative cardiorespiratory arrest, were seen among patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma.
  • More postoperative complications are seen in patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma, and the postoperative prognosis is better for patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombectomy / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior. Venous Thrombosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced / methods. Extracorporeal Circulation / methods. Female. Heart Atria / surgery. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery. Young Adult


45. Sigruener A, Buechler C, Orsó E, Hartmann A, Wild PJ, Terracciano L, Roncalli M, Bornstein SR, Schmitz G: Human aldehyde oxidase 1 interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and modulates its activity in hepatocytes. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Nov;39(11):781-9
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  • ABCA1 and AOX1 are coexpressed in human hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, Leydig, and adrenocortical cells.
  • In contrast, hepatocellular carcinomas showed either a complete loss or reduced expression of AOX1.
  • Our findings show that the interaction of ABCA1 with AOX1 modulates ABCA1-linked cellular functions such as lipid efflux and phagocytosis in hepatocytes, and the reduced expression of AOX1 in malignant transformed hepatocytes supports the differentiation dependent upregulation of AOX1.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Hepatocytes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Fatty Acids / metabolism. Gene Library. Gene Silencing / physiology. Humans. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Small Interfering / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Statistics, Nonparametric. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17992631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCA1 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 1.2.3.1 / AOX1 protein, human; EC 1.2.3.1 / Aldehyde Oxidase
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46. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Diwan BA: Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2007 Aug 1;222(3):271-80
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  • In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood.
  • Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct.
  • Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct.
  • Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAMOXIFEN .
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  • Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .
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  • (PMID = 17306315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-21; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28781; NLM/ PMC1995036
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47. Pusantisampan T, Sangkhathat S, Kayasut K, Kanngurn S, Jaruratanasirikul S, Chotsampancharoen T, Kritsaneepaiboon S: Cushing's syndrome in an infant secondary to malignant adrenocortical tumors with somatic mutation of beta-catenin. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2010 May-Jun;13(3):238-42
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome in an infant secondary to malignant adrenocortical tumors with somatic mutation of beta-catenin.
  • A role of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) in the molecular pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has been suspected in adult ACC and pediatric pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, but it has never been reported in pediatric ACC.
  • We present the case of a 4-month-old Thai infant who had Cushing's syndrome secondary to bilateral adrenal tumors with hepatic metastasis.
  • Histopathology revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumors with different histologic grades; the right tumor had a higher score, according to modified Weiss criteria.
  • On molecular study, a deletion mutation of beta-catenin involving codons 44 to 45 was detected in the right adrenal tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin on the right adrenal tumor and the metastatic nodule.
  • In summary, we present evidence that supports the role of the Wnt-signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Gene Deletion. Liver Neoplasms / complications. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19863445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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48. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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49. Szajerka A, Dziegiel P, Szajerka T, Zabel M, Winowski J, Grzebieniak Z: Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2959-65
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the metallothionein (MT), maintenance protein 2 (Mcm-2) and Ki-67 expressions in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in comparison to normal tissue and evaluate the correlations between these markers of proliferation and between these markers and tumor diameter.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 was assessed by immunochemistry in forty-eight adrenocortical adenomas, six adrenocortical carcinomas and eleven normal adrenal cortex tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: The expressions of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 in the adrenocortical carcinomas were significantly higher than in the adenomas and normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The levels of Mcm-2 were also higher in the adrenocortical adenomas compared to the normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The Mcm-2 expression showed a positive correlation to the expression of MT in the adrenocortical carcinomas (r=0.773; p<0.05) and to the expression of Ki-67 in the adrenocortical adenomas (r=0.432; p<0.05).
  • The malignant tumor diameter was positively correlated with the MT and Mcm-2 expressions (r=0.766, p<0.05 and r=0.620, p<0.05, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The assessment of Mcm-2 expression seems to be of special importance as a marker of adrenocortical dysplasia and a reliable indicator of malignancy in suspicious masses of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Metallothionein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19031940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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50. Djajadiningrat-Laanen SC, Galac S, Cammelbeeck SE, van Laar KJ, Boer P, Kooistra HS: Urinary aldosterone to creatinine ratio in cats before and after suppression with salt or fludrocortisone acetate. J Vet Intern Med; 2008 Nov-Dec;22(6):1283-8
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  • BACKGROUND: The endocrine diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats currently is based on an increased plasma aldosterone to renin ratio, which has several disadvantages for use in veterinary practice.
  • In the cat with an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma, the basal UACR and the UACR after fludrocortisone administration were 32 x 10(-9) and 36 x 10(-9), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Using the UACR for an oral fludrocortisone suppression test may be useful for the diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism in cats.

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  • (PMID = 18775055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone
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51. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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52. Lahera Vargas M, da Costa CV: [Prevalence, etiology and clinical findings of Cushing's syndrome]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Jan;56(1):32-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Prevalencia, etiología y cuadro clínico del síndrome de Cushing.
  • Cushing's disease is the most frequent cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome, which is 5 or 6 times more frequent than adrenal Cushing's syndrome, with an incidence of between 1.2 and 2.4 cases per million inhabitants per year.
  • Cushing's disease is 3-8 times higher in women than in men.
  • The frequency of adrenal tumors is 3 times higher in women, while that of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumors is 3-5 times higher.
  • Age at diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome varies according to the etiology.
  • Most cases of Cushing's disease are due to a pituitary adenoma, although the tumor may not be visible on the available imaging techniques.
  • ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome is found in 20% of cases and is most frequently due to adenomas (10%) or adrenal carcinomas (8).
  • Both familial and sporadic forms exist: the familial form, or Carney complex, and ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular hyperplasia, in which the size of the adrenal glands is considerably enlarged.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / secretion. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Female. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperplasia. Incidence. Male. Phenotype. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prevalence. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19627706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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53. Gasilionis V, Ersahin C, Gabram S, Bova D, Branch J, Rajan P: Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;59(5):546-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • A 56 year old woman was diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma in May 2003, for which she underwent left radical adrenalectomy.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was made on core biopsy.
  • Subsequently, the patient underwent a lumpectomy of the mass, which confirmed the diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16644887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860300
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54. Nishikawa T, Saito J, Omura M: [Medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho; 2008 Jan;66(1):186-91
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  • It is well known that the development of the microvascular disease of various organs such as the heart and kidney, in patients with diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension of which disorders are frequently associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Thus, we should treat Cushing's syndrome as soon as possible, since many complications, including cardiovascular diseases and infections, will soon occur when the definite diagnosis is delayed.
  • Medical adrenalectomy is achieved by using with mitotane which is usually used for adrenocortical cancer.
  • We commonly treat the patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumor and pituitary or ectopic ACTH producing tumor by using metyrapone which mainly inhibits 11-hydroxylase.
  • Metyrapone is also recommended to treat the patients who are not well differentiated Cushing's disease from ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Replacement therapy with hydrocortisone should be considered if adrenal failure will occur during treatment with those drugs.

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  • (PMID = 18186263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0O54ZQ14I9 / Aminoglutethimide; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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55. Turbendian HK, Strong VE, Hsu M, Ghossein RA, Fahey TJ 3rd: Adrenocortical carcinoma: the influence of large vessel extension. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1057-64; discussion 1064
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: the influence of large vessel extension.
  • BACKGROUND: The impact of large vessel extension (LVE) as a prognostic factor for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is not fully understood.
  • LVE was defined as vascular wall invasion or intraluminal extension of the neoplasm into the inferior vena cava or renal vein.
  • RESULTS: Multivariable regression analysis showed a significant association for decreased survival with Stage III and IV disease and LVE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21134533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Goldschneider KR, Racadio JM, Weidner NJ: Celiac plexus blockade in children using a three-dimensional fluoroscopic reconstruction technique: case reports. Reg Anesth Pain Med; 2007 Nov-Dec;32(6):510-5
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  • One carried the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, one abdominal pain and gastrointestinal dysmotility, the other adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Carcinoma / complications. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystic Fibrosis / complications. Fatal Outcome. Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mitochondrial Diseases / complications. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care. Pancreatitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18035298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reg Anesth Pain Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
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  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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58. Lacroix A: Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4812-22
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  • [Title] Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare and often aggressive malignancy that requires multidisciplinary expertise for optimal management.
  • Thorough imaging and endocrine evaluations can identify the majority of ACCs amongst adrenal tumors; however, some smaller ACCs are better identified using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.
  • Histopathology is important for diagnosis, but immunohistochemistry markers and gene profiling of the resected tumor may become superior to current staging systems to stratify prognosis.
  • Some retrospective studies indicate that adjuvant mitotane therapy prolongs disease-free survival, leading several centers to recommend its administration; prospective studies are under way to provide future evidence-based recommendations.
  • For metastatic disease, combination chemotherapy should be administered, if possible, in the context of multicenter collaborative research protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21051577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Histopathological prognostic factors of ACC have not been fully established because of the rarity of the disease.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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60. Breen MS, Breen M, Terasaki N, Yamazaki M, Conolly RB: Computational model of steroidogenesis in human H295R cells to predict biochemical response to endocrine-active chemicals: model development for metyrapone. Environ Health Perspect; 2010 Feb;118(2):265-72
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  • BACKGROUND: An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R is being evaluated as a possible screening assay to detect and assess the impact of endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop a mechanistic computational model of the metabolic network of adrenal steroidogenesis to estimate the synthesis and secretion of adrenal steroids in human H295R cells and their biochemical response to steroidogenesis-disrupting EAC.
  • METHODS: We developed a deterministic model that describes the biosynthetic pathways for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal steroids and the kinetics for enzyme inhibition by metryrapone (MET), a model EAC.
  • A sensitivity analysis indicated the parameter uncertainties and identified transport and metabolic processes that most influenced the concentrations of primary adrenal steroids, aldosterone and cortisol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology. Metyrapone / pharmacology. Steroids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Computational Biology / methods. Humans. Models, Theoretical

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  • [ErratumIn] Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jan;119(1):A11
  • (PMID = 20123619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Steroids; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831928
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61. Oskarsson A, Ullerås E, Plant KE, Hinson JP, Goldfarb PS: Steroidogenic gene expression in H295R cells and the human adrenal gland: adrenotoxic effects of lindane in vitro. J Appl Toxicol; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):484-92
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  • [Title] Steroidogenic gene expression in H295R cells and the human adrenal gland: adrenotoxic effects of lindane in vitro.
  • The focus on the refinement, reduction and replacement of animal use in toxicity testing requires the development of cell-based systems that mimic the effects of xenobiotics in human tissues.
  • The human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, H295R, has been proposed as a model for studies on adrenal steroidogenesis and its disruption.
  • In this study, expression profiles for nine adrenal steroidogenic genes were characterized in H295R cells using real-time RT-PCR.
  • The transcript profile from H295R cells in the presence and absence of forskolin was compared with the transcript profile from human adrenal glands.
  • The gene expression pattern observed in the forskolin-treated H295R cells was more similar to that in the human adrenal gland, than the expression pattern in untreated cells.
  • To examine H295R cells as a possible in vitro system for the assessment of adrenal disruption using molecular endpoints, the insecticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) was used.
  • In vivo, lindane has been shown to inhibit testicular, ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • It was demonstrated that lindane reduced cortisol secretion, downregulated the expression of a subset of the genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes and repressed transcriptional activation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene promoter.
  • Thus the H295R cell line provides a good in vitro system for the analysis of the human adrenal steroidogenic pathway at the level of hormone production and gene expression.
  • This in vitro test can be used for the rapid detection of adrenal endocrine disruption and as a tool for mechanistic studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Insecticides / toxicity. Lindane / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Sulfotransferases / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17080404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0260-437X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 59NEE7PCAB / Lindane; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.2 / alcohol sulfotransferase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histology revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • Histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


63. Osman Y, El-Mekresh M, Gomha AM, Mohsen T, Taha N, Hussein N, Eraky I: Percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesion: complications and diagnostic accuracy. Urol Int; 2010;84(3):315-8
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  • [Title] Percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesion: complications and diagnostic accuracy.
  • PURPOSE: To critically analyze the role, accuracy and safety of percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adrenal biopsies were performed in 15 among 214 patients (7%) diagnosed with adrenal masses being indeterminate on preoperative imaging.
  • There were 2 nonrepresentative biopsies that were proved to be adrenocortical carcinoma and myelolipoma after adrenalectomy.
  • Results of biopsy in the remaining 13 patients provided accurate diagnosis as proved by definitive histopathology in all but 2 in whom the final diagnosis was established as adrenocortical carcinoma while biopsy was paraganglioma in one and cortical adenoma in the other.
  • Overall sensitivity and negative predictive value of adrenal biopsy was 73.3 and 60%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous biopsy is a safe procedure for the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the adrenal gland with a reasonable diagnostic aid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20389162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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64. Orlando R, Lirussi F: Development of mantle cell lymphoma in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma and an 18-year survival after complete removal of the primary cancer and resection of local recurrences. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2B):1563-5
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  • [Title] Development of mantle cell lymphoma in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma and an 18-year survival after complete removal of the primary cancer and resection of local recurrences.
  • The case of a patient with a non-functional and poorly-differentiated adrenocortical carcinoma, who had an unexpected long-term survival after a right adrenalectomy and subsequent removal of 2 local recurrences, is reported.
  • However, fifteen years after the complete resection of the primary neoplasm, the patient first developed an autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura and later a mantle cell lymphoma located in the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • This case confirms the possible growth of a second tumour in patients with adrenocortical carcinomas, especially if presenting a long survival after resection of the primary malignancy, and emphasises the need for the close follow-up of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16619572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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65. Bertherat J, Coste J, Bertagna X: Adjuvant mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1256-7; author reply 1259
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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Patient Selection

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17881760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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66. Chalasani S, Vats HS, Banerjee TK, McKenzie AK: Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy. Clin Med Res; 2009 Jun;7(1-2):48-51
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  • [Title] Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy.
  • A 57-year-old white woman with metastases to lungs and liver from virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was treated with radical nephroadrenalectomy followed by oral mitotane 3 to 6 g/day for 5 months.
  • She developed complete response and remained free of disease for more than 25 years.
  • Stage I and II disease is curable with surgery.
  • Stage III and IV disease may benefit from mitotane orally with gradual adjustment of the dosage to a tolerable level.
  • An international study has been started by randomizing between two of the above combinations by the Collaborative Group for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19574489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6179
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Dehner LP, Hill DA: Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors? Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):284-91
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors?
  • Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children are represented by a disproportionate number of cases that have been diagnosed pathologically as adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs)-as many as 90% of all cortical tumors in some pediatric series.
  • A risk assessment system is proposed that incorporates tumor weight, localization of tumor to the gland without invasion into the surrounding tissues or organs, and absence of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19326954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T: Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):345-54
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  • [Title] Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Discerning malignancy in resected adrenocortical neoplasms can pose diagnostic difficulty.
  • Macroscopic examination is the first important step toward diagnosis and should include accurate measurement of weight and dimension of the specimens and description of the cut surface of the tumors.
  • It is also important to sample the specimens for histological diagnosis near foci of hemorrhage and/or necrosis.
  • Histological scoring systems evaluating multiple parameters, especially the criteria of Weiss, have been shown to be reliable in differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma.
  • A tumor is defined as adrenocortical carcinoma when three or more of the following criteria are met;.
  • The criteria are relatively straightforward and considered the most effective standard for diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy.
  • However, great care should be taken in applying the criteria to histological evaluation of two relatively rare and peculiar adrenocortical tumors, adrenocortical oncocytoma and pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • At this juncture, ancillary biological or molecular markers are of little practical value in terms of differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma but tumors with MIB1 or Ki-67 labeling index more than 2.5 may be considered malignant.
  • Prognostic markers of adrenocortical carcinoma have not been established other than complete respectability of the tumor.
  • It sometimes is important for surgical pathologists to differentiate adrenocortical carcinoma from metastatic malignancies of other sites.
  • An immunohistochemical evaluation of adrenal 4 binding protein (Ad4BP) or SF-1, a transcription factor of all steroidogenesis, can aid in this differential diagnosis because nuclear immunoreactivity for this transcription factor is relatively specific to steroid producing cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Count. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitotic Index. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.3.2.27 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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69. Gomez-Rivera F, Medina-Franco H, Arch-Ferrer JE, Heslin MJ: Adrenocortical carcinoma: a single institution experience. Am Surg; 2005 Jan;71(1):90-4
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: a single institution experience.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ADCC) ranks among the least common malignant endocrine tumors.
  • Medical records of patients with the diagnosis of ADCC between 1990 and 2000 were reviewed.
  • Factors associated with a worse prognosis were stage of disease, nonoperative management, positive surgical margins, vascular invasion, and older age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15757066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. de Moura Gallo CV, Azevedo E Silva Mendonça G, de Moraes E, Olivier M, Hainaut P: TP53 mutations as biomarkers for cancer epidemiology in Latin America: current knowledge and perspectives. Mutat Res; 2005 May;589(3):192-207
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  • [Title] TP53 mutations as biomarkers for cancer epidemiology in Latin America: current knowledge and perspectives.
  • Due to particular social and economical development, and to the impact of globalization of lifestyles, Latin America shows a superposition of cancers that are frequent in low resource countries (gastric, oesophageal squamous cell and cervical cancers) and high resource countries (cancers of breast, colon and rectum, lung and prostate).
  • Latin America thus offers opportunities for investigating the impact on changing lifestyle patterns on the occurrence of cancer.
  • At the molecular level, mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 are common in many cancers and their distribution can be informative of the nature of the mutagenic mechanisms, thus giving clues to cancer etiology and molecular pathogenesis.
  • In this review, we discuss current trends on cancer occurrence in Latin American countries, and we review the literature available on TP53 mutations and polymorphisms in patients from Latin America.
  • Recently, a characteristic TP53 mutation at codon 337 (R337H) has been identified in the germline of children with adrenocortical carcinoma in Southern Brazil.
  • Further and better focused analyses of TP53 mutation patterns in the context of epidemiological studies, should help to improve our understanding of cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health policies and public health programs in Latin America.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Genetic Markers. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Life Style. Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15878142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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71. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • RESULTS: There was a bimodal age distribution of carcinomas and adenomas, with a first peak occurring before age 5 years.
  • The proportion of carcinomas in children (18 of 29) was higher than in adults (6 of 21).
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • Children and adults with carcinoma had similar curves of survival (p = 0.76).
  • Carcinoma stage and PCNA immunoexpression displayed an association with outcome.
  • The role of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in discrimination of adenomas from carcinomas is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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72. Achatz MI, Hainaut P, Ashton-Prolla P: Highly prevalent TP53 mutation predisposing to many cancers in the Brazilian population: a case for newborn screening? Lancet Oncol; 2009 Sep;10(9):920-5
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  • The unusually high population frequency of a germline TP53 mutation (R337H) predisposing to early cancer has led to mass newborn testing for this mutation in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.
  • Newborn screening for inherited cancer risk is complex and controversial.
  • R337H has been identified in Brazilian families with Li-Fraumeni or related syndromes predisposing to cancers in childhood (ie, brain, renal, and adrenocortical carcinomas), adolescence (ie, soft tissue and bone sarcomas), and young adulthood (ie, breast cancer).
  • R337H has also been detected in children with adrenocortical carcinoma without a documented family history of cancer.
  • The mutation is estimated to occur in about 0.3% of the population in southern Brazil and is associated with increased cancer risk throughout life.
  • Cancer patterns in families positive for R337H suggest strong genetic modifying effects, making it difficult to predict individual risk.
  • Because protocols for cancer-risk management in Li-Fraumeni or related syndromes are debatable, extreme care should prevail in predictive testing of children for R337H.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brazil / epidemiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Prevalence


73. Barlaskar FM, Hammer GD: The molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2007 Dec;8(4):343-8
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  • [Title] The molecular genetics of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17934868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9155
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1C protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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74. Kayton ML: Pulmonary metastasectomy in pediatric patients. Thorac Surg Clin; 2006 May;16(2):167-83, vi
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  • By examining tumor types individually, however, it is seen that certain histologies (adrenocortical carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteosarcoma) mandate surgical metastasectomy for patient survival.
  • In the case of still other types of tumor (neuroblastoma, differentiated thyroid cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma), metastasectomy is seldom performed except in highly unusual situations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Humans. Infant. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / secondary. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / surgery. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / secondary. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Pulmonary Surgical Procedures. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / secondary. Sarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16805206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-4127
  • [Journal-full-title] Thoracic surgery clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Surg Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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75. Matsumoto K, Egawa S, Satoh T, Okuno N, Kaseda S, Baba S: Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1055-7
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  • [Title] Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma.
  • A 58-year-old man who had undergone left adrenalectomy 2 years previously for adrenocortical carcinoma was diagnosed to have a left suprarenal solid mass.
  • Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic excision of the tumor was conducted under the diagnosis of isolated local recurrence of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thoracoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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76. Ash RA, Harvey AM, Tasker S: Primary hyperaldosteronism in the cat: a series of 13 cases. J Feline Med Surg; 2005 Jun;7(3):173-82
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  • Thirteen cases of feline primary hyperaldosteronism were diagnosed based on clinical signs, serum biochemistry, plasma aldosterone concentration, adrenal imaging and histopathology of adrenal tissue.
  • Elevated concentrations of plasma aldosterone and adrenocortical neoplasia were documented in all cases.
  • Seven cases had adrenal adenomas (unilateral in five and bilateral in two) and six had unilateral adrenal carcinomas.
  • Three cases underwent medical treatment only with amlodipine, spironolactone and potassium gluconate; two cases survived for 304 and 984 days until they were euthanased because of chronic renal failure, whilst the third case was euthanased at 50 days following failure of the owner to medicate the cat.
  • One cat was euthanased 14 days after surgery because of generalised sepsis, whilst the remaining cat was euthanased 1045 days after surgery because of anorexia and the development of a cranial abdominal mass.
  • It is recommended that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a differential diagnosis in middle-aged and older cats with hypokalaemic polymyopathy and/or systemic hypertension and should no longer be considered a rare condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary. Hypertension / veterinary. Hypokalemia / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Male. Survival Analysis. Time Factors


77. Asp V, Ullerås E, Lindström V, Bergström U, Oskarsson A, Brandt I: Biphasic hormonal responses to the adrenocorticolytic DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in human cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2010 Feb 1;242(3):281-9
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  • The DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO(2)-DDE) has been proposed as a lead compound for an improved adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) treatment.
  • ACC is a rare malignant disorder with poor prognosis, and the current pharmacological therapy o,p'-DDD (mitotane) has limited efficacy and causes severe adverse effects.
  • 3-MeSO(2)-DDE is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 11B1 in mice and causes formation of irreversibly bound protein adducts, reduced glucocorticoid secretion, and cell death in the adrenal cortex of several animal species.
  • The results support previous indications that humans are sensitive to the adrenocorticolytic actions of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE by demonstrating protein adduct formation and cytotoxicity in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. DDT / metabolism. Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Aldosterone / secretion. Animals. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Design. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Mice. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19900470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 4M7FS82U08 / Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene; 62938-14-1 / 1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)benzene; CIW5S16655 / DDT; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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78. Cawood TJ, Hunt PJ, O'Shea D, Cole D, Soule S: Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink? Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):513-27
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  • [Title] Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of current clinical recommendations for the evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Eligible studies were those deemed most applicable to the clinical scenario of a patient referred to an endocrinologist for assessment of an incidentally detected adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of functional and malignant lesions presenting as adrenal incidentaloma was similar to that quoted in most reviews, other than a lower incidence of adrenal carcinoma (1.9 vs 4.7%) and metastases (0.7 vs 2.3%).
  • The development of functionality or malignancy during follow-up was rare (<1% becoming functional and 0.2% becoming malignant).
  • The average recommended computed tomography (CT) scan follow-up exposes each patient to 23 mSv of ionising radiation, equating to a 1 in 430 to 2170 chance of causing fatal cancer.
  • This is similar to the chance of developing adrenal malignancy during 3-year follow-up of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSION: Current recommendations for evaluation of adrenal incidentaloma are likely to result in significant costs, both financial and emotional, due to high false-positive rates.
  • The dose of radiation involved in currently recommended CT scan follow-up confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal becoming malignant.


79. Di Carlo I, Toro A, Sparatore F, Cordio S: Liver resection for hepatic metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(2):106-9
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  • [Title] Liver resection for hepatic metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma are very rare and no clear indications for surgery exist.
  • All the patients submitted to hepatic resection for liver metastases from adrenal carcinoma reported in the literature (PubMed source) from 1978 to 2005 were considered for the present study.

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  • (PMID = 18333256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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80. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • The literature is reviewed for the management of adrenocortical carcinoma in conjunction with inferior vena cava invasion.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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81. Bussey KJ, Demeure MJ: Genomic and expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma: application to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Future Oncol; 2009 Jun;5(5):641-55
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  • [Title] Genomic and expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma: application to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive endocrine tumor with a poor 5-year survival rate of 10-20%.
  • Although ACC is extremely rare, recent advances in genomic and expression profiling, coupled with knowledge gained from the study of the inherited syndromes that increase ACC risk, are beginning to bring together a picture of a tumor type dependent on p53, the G2/M cell cycle transition and IGF2 stimulation.
  • Nevertheless, ACC remains a heterogeneous disease.
  • Advances in treatment will depend on exploiting those pathways already implicated in ACC, along with those yet to be identified, and testing those treatments in better models of the disease than the three cell lines that currently exist and are widely available to the community.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19519204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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82. Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Giordano TJ, Doherty GM: Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):955-61
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  • [Title] Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade.
  • PURPOSE: Various staging systems for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) have been proposed.
  • We hypothesized that incorporating tumor grade into the current European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) staging system would improve the ability to more accurately predict time to recurrence and death.
  • High-grade tumors are associated with shorter disease-free intervals and shorter overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging / trends

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  • (PMID = 20694732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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83. Balasubramaniam S, Fojo T: Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):619-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, challenging disease with a broad range of clinical presentations.
  • Biopsies should be performed only when metastatic disease is present and a primary tumor has not been clearly established.
  • The use of mitotane in patients without evidence of disease remains controversial.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is effective in patients with widely metastatic disease or as an adjunct to a surgical intervention and should focus on regimens that have been shown to effect responses; "novel targeted therapies" should not be employed as first-line treatment.
  • Finally, physicians caring for these patients need to recognize that Cushing's disease is a debilitating problem that should be managed aggressively; expecting chemotherapy to solve this complication is not appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 21167380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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84. Candela G, Varriale S, Manetta F, Di Libero L, Giordano M, Santini L: Cushing syndrome and adrenal carcinoma: a clinical case. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Jan-Feb;80(1):75-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing syndrome and adrenal carcinoma: a clinical case.
  • The echogram of the complete abdomen reveals, near the superior pole of the left kidney, the presence of a solid mass, not independent from the pole itself about 9.5 centimetres long, diagnosis confirmed to the TC abdomen and pelvis too, with or without mdc.
  • This removed mass resulted, from the histological exam, in an adrenal carcinoma with a general and trabecular structure.
  • Primal adrenal tumours are responsible for about 10% of Cushing syndrome cases.
  • The prognosis of adrenal ca remains low, with 5 year survival rate for 38% of diagnosed patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19537129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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85. Soon PS, Sidhu SB: Molecular basis of adrenocortical carcinomas. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):137-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular basis of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors associated with poor prognosis.
  • Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment for this cancer, most patients will experience a recurrence of their tumor.
  • A better understanding of the molecular basis of this cancer is crucial to the development of newer and better treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Mutation. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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86. White MA, Shockley K: Adrenocortical carcinoma with renal vein invasion in a woman with a horseshoe kidney. Urology; 2006 Nov;68(5):1119-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with renal vein invasion in a woman with a horseshoe kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Kidney / abnormalities. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Renal Veins

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  • (PMID = 17113906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Shaikh AH, Khalid SE, Junejo NN: Adrenocortical carcinoma with endocrine syndromes. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Nov;17(11):694-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with endocrine syndromes.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease.
  • She was found to have a large adrenocortical carcinoma with associated Cushing's and virilization syndromes.

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  • (PMID = 18070581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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88. Advani A, Vaikkakara S, Gill MS, Arun CS, Pearce SH, Ball SG, James RA, Lennard TW, Bliss RD, Quinton R, Johnson SJ: Impact of standardised reporting in adrenocortical carcinoma: a single centre clinicopathological review. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Aug;61(8):939-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of standardised reporting in adrenocortical carcinoma: a single centre clinicopathological review.
  • AIMS: Structured multicentre efforts are needed if the prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is to be improved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Standardised criteria for histopathological reporting of ACC will improve the accuracy of data for cancer registration and may also assist in individual patient stratification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Medical Records / standards

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  • (PMID = 18515402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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89. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • No MHC class II antigen expression was detected in carcinomas.
  • The DRB1*01 genotype was found in 54.5% of patients with carcinoma (P = 0.046).
  • Fas receptor expression was 75.0% in adenomas compared with 20.0% in carcinomas (P = 0.0196), whereas ligand expression was 37.7% in adenomas and reached almost 100% in the carcinomas investigated in this study (P = 0.0033).
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Genotype. HLA-DRB1 Chains. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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90. Masi G, Lavezzo E, Iacobone M, Favia G, Palù G, Barzon L: Investigation of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in adrenocortical tumors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Jul;32(7):597-600
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Investigation of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in adrenocortical tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Activating mutations of the BRAF oncogene play a central role in the development of various cancer types, but their role in human adrenocortical tumors is unknown.
  • At variance, activating mutations of another oncogene, CTNNB1, which encodes beta-catenin, have been shown to be common events in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • AIM: To investigate the prevalence of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in sporadic adrenocortical tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples from 15 adrenocortical carcinomas and 41 adrenocortical adenomas were investigated for the presence of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations by PCR amplification and direct sequencing.
  • RESULTS: An advanced invasive non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma carried a somatic heterozygous BRAF V600E mutation, while 4 functioning and 4 non-functioning adenomas and 3 functioning carcinomas carried different CTNNB1 activating mutations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating BRAF somatic mutations may be occasionally found in advanced adrenocortical carcinomas, while CTNNB1 activating mutations are early and common events in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19498322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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91. Gustavsen MW, von Krogh K, Taubøll E, Zimmer KE, Dahl E, Olsaker I, Ropstad E, Verhaegen S: Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on steroidogenesis in a human in vitro cell model. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl; 2009;(189):14-21
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  • [Title] Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on steroidogenesis in a human in vitro cell model.
  • OBJECTIVES: To better understand the interaction of antiepileptic drugs and production of sex hormones, possible effects of valproate (VPA), levetiracetam (LEV) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on steroidogenesis were investigated in the human adrenal carcinoma cell line H295R.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbamazepine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation. Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology. Estradiol / metabolism. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / genetics. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Piracetam / analogs & derivatives. Piracetam / pharmacology. Progesterone / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroid Hydroxylases / genetics. Testosterone / metabolism. Valproic Acid / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19566492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-5449
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 230447L0GL / etiracetam; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.14.- / Steroid Hydroxylases; ZH516LNZ10 / Piracetam
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92. Wen MJ, Lin YF, Chen JS: Newly developed hypertension as an early marker of recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma with high renin expression. Int J Urol; 2008 Jun;15(6):540-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Newly developed hypertension as an early marker of recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma with high renin expression.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma can recur frequently after successful surgery but no adequate markers can detect this recurrence.
  • Here, we present a recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma with a high renin expression, after successful surgery, where hypertension has developed again.
  • Based on our findings, follow-up blood pressure assessment may effectively predict the recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Renin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18489644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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93. Zhang L, Liu M, Merling R, Giam CZ: Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1. J Virol; 2006 Aug;80(15):7459-68
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  • [Title] Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1.
  • Potent activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is mediated by the virus-encoded transactivator protein Tax and three imperfect 21-bp repeats in the viral long terminal repeats.
  • Using an easily transduced and chromosomally integrated reporter system derived from a self-inactivating lentivirus vector, we showed in a BRG1- and BRM1-deficient adrenal carcinoma cell line, SW-13, that Tax- and 21-bp repeat-mediated transactivation does not require BRG1 or BRM1 and is not enhanced by BRG1.

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  • (PMID = 16840326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / F32 GM075688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 48709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA/GM 75688
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factors; 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Gene Products, tax; 0 / Histones; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SMARCA2 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / SMARCA4 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563696
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94. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


95. Asp V, Cantillana T, Bergman A, Brandt I: Chiral effects in adrenocorticolytic action of o,p'-DDD (mitotane) in human adrenal cells. Xenobiotica; 2010 Mar;40(3):177-83
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  • [Title] Chiral effects in adrenocorticolytic action of o,p'-DDD (mitotane) in human adrenal cells.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant disease with poor prognosis.
  • The effects of each enantiomer on cell viability and on cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R were assessed.
  • We also assayed the o,p'-DDD racemate and the m,p'- and p,p'-isomers.
  • The three DDD isomers were equally potent in decreasing cell viability, but p,p'-DDD affected hormone secretion slightly less than the o,p'- and m,p'-isomers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Mitotane / chemistry. Mitotane / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dehydroepiandrosterone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 20044879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1366-5928
  • [Journal-full-title] Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Xenobiotica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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96. Lin MT, Shieh JJ, Chang JH, Chang SW, Chen TC, Hsu WH: Early detection of adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Apr;52(4):541-4
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  • [Title] Early detection of adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • We report an early detection of cancer in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • The younger sister at risk was followed, and an asymptomatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was detected 3 years later.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Early Detection of Cancer. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19101993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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97. Adam P, Hahner S, Hartmann M, Heinrich B, Quinkler M, Willenberg HS, Saeger W, Sbiera S, Schmull S, Voelker HU, Ströbel P, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome. Mod Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(12):1596-604
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but highly malignant neoplasm with still limited treatment options.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be overexpressed in many solid tumors, but its expression in adrenocortical carcinoma has been studied only in a limited number of cases.
  • Therefore, we analyzed the expression of EGFR in 169 adrenocortical carcinoma samples and compared it with 31 adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Additionally, in 30 cases of adrenocortical carcinoma, exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene were cloned and sequenced.
  • EGFR expression was found in 128 of 169 adrenocortical carcinoma samples (76%), and in 60 of these samples (=36%) strong membrane staining was detected.
  • In contrast, only 1 out of 31 adrenocortical adenomas weakly expressed the EGFR (3%).
  • In summary, EGFR was overexpressed in more than three-quarters of adrenocortical carcinoma cases of this series.
  • As EGFR is hardly expressed in adrenocortical adenomas, our results suggest that its expression in adrenocortical tumors indicates a malignant phenotype, which may be used in the differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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98. Sawhney S, Burney I, Jain R: Pulmonary Infarction: A rare case of adrenal carcinoma. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J; 2007 Apr;7(1):55-7
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  • [Title] Pulmonary Infarction: A rare case of adrenal carcinoma.
  • A case report of unsuspected adrenal carcinoma with pulmonary artery obstruction in a young girl who was admitted with recurrent episodes of hypotension is presented.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a large right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium, right ventricle and right pulmonary artery.
  • There are many case reports in literature documenting IVC and right atrial thrombus in patients with adrenal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21654947.001).
  • [ISSN] 2075-051X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sultan Qaboos University medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3086421
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal carcinoma / Case report / Computed Tomography / Oman / Pulmonary infarction
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99. Wang Y, Nicholls PK, Stanton PG, Harrison CA, Sarraj M, Gilchrist RB, Findlay JK, Farnworth PG: Extra-ovarian expression and activity of growth differentiation factor 9. J Endocrinol; 2009 Sep;202(3):419-30
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  • The present studies confirm GDF9 expression in the mouse testis, pituitary gland and adrenocortical cancer (AC) cells, and establish its expression in L beta T2 gonadotrophs, and in mouse adrenal glands, particularly foetal and neonatal cortical cells.
  • We therefore compared GDF9 activation of these potential extra-ovarian target cell types with its activation of granulosa cells.
  • Recombinant mouse GDF9 stimulated expression of activin/transforming growth factor-beta-responsive reporters, pGRAS-luc or pAR3-lux, in TM4 and AC cells (IC50=145 ng/ml in the latter case), and two granulosa cell lines, KGN and COV434.
  • Our findings show that GDF9 regulates the expression of R-SMAD2/3-responsive reporter genes through ALK4, 5 or 7 in extra-ovarian (adrenocortical and Sertoli) cells with similar potency and signalling pathway to its actions on granulosa cells, but suggest that expression of BMPRII, ALK5 (TGFBR1) and R-SMADs 2 and 3 may not be sufficient for a cell to respond to GDF9.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Growth Differentiation Factor 9 / genetics. Leydig Cells / physiology. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Sertoli Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19505950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(5-benzo(1,3)dioxol-5-yl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzamide; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / GDF9 protein, human; 0 / Gdf9 protein, mouse; 0 / Gdf9 protein, rat; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 9; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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100. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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