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1. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) no prognostic markers have been established beyond stage and resection status.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • In conclusion, GLUT1 is a highly promising stage-independent, prognostic marker in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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2. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor.
  • In most patients, adrenocortical carcinoma is diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease.
  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.
  • We describe four patients with adrenocortical carcinoma diagnosed during a retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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3. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histology revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • Histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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4. Abiven-Lepage G, Coste J, Tissier F, Groussin L, Billaud L, Dousset B, Goffinet F, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Raffin-Sanson ML: Adrenocortical carcinoma and pregnancy: clinical and biological features and prognosis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):793-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma and pregnancy: clinical and biological features and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, severe disease.
  • For the survival analysis, pregnant patients were compared with a subgroup of nonpregnant women matched for age, stage, and year of diagnosis (1 pregnant patient/2 controls).
  • RESULTS: Adrenocortical tumors diagnosed during pregnancy or in the postpartum period tend to be more often cortisol-secreting tumors (P=0.06) and to be discovered at a more advanced stage than those in nonpregnant women, although the differences were not significant.

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  • (PMID = 20699382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, Daffara F, Tauchmanova L, Conton PA, Rossetto R, Buci L, Sperone P, Grossrubatscher E, Reimondo G, Bollito E, Papotti M, Saeger W, Hahner S, Koschker AC, Arvat E, Ambrosi B, Loli P, Lombardi G, Mannelli M, Bruzzi P, Mantero F, Allolio B, Dogliotti L, Berruti A: Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis involving 177 patients with adrenocortical cancer who had undergone radical surgery at 8 centers in Italy and 47 centers in Germany between 1985 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Baseline features in the mitotane group and the control group from Italy were similar; the German patients were significantly older (P=0.03) and had more stage I or II adrenocortical carcinomas (P=0.02) than did patients in the mitotane group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use


6. Shen XC, Gu CX, Qiu YQ, Du CJ, Fu YB, Wu JJ: Estrogen receptor expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2009 Jan;10(1):1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen receptor expression in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but highly malignant tumor, and its diagnosis is mostly delayed and prognosis is poor.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, 4 tumors were classified as Stage I, 4 as Stage II, 3 as Stage III, and 6 as Stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19198016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613956
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7. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt K, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):625-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors.
  • Most of the adrenal tumors that are incidentally detected are benign adenomas.
  • The incidence of malignant adrenal tumors including adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rather low.
  • As many patients with ACC and PAL are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, the overall survival time of both entities remains poor.
  • Unfortunately hitherto preoperative diagnosis of potentially malignant adrenal masses is still a main problem in the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We propose some guidelines for diagnosis and surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18490838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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8. Roman S: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):36-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported.
  • Given the generally advanced stage at diagnosis, the overall 5-year survival remains poor, varying between 20 and 45%.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies focusing on the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma have focused on onco-developmental genes present in the fetal adrenal cortex, as well as local adrenal paracrine and autocrine effects of cellular peptides.
  • SUMMARY: Pre-operative diagnostic advances in positron emission scanning are emerging as promising modalities for confirmation of malignancy of indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • No significant advances in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma have been developed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16357562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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9. Tucci S Jr, Martins AC, Suaid HJ, Cologna AJ, Reis RB: The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Urol; 2005 Dec;174(6):2338-42, discussion 2342
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated treatment outcomes in children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Children with incomplete excision of the tumor and/or stage IV disease received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Patient age, tumor stage or size and vascular invasion were associated with survival in univariate analysis.
  • Tumor stage was the only independent factor associated with survival in multivariate analysis.
  • The overall 5-year survival rates according to tumor stage were 100% in stage I, 85% in stage II, 40% in stage III and 0% in stage IV.
  • A total of 10 children with stage IV disease treated with chemotherapy died within a median of 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor stage was the most relevant prognostic factor for children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16280838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Ohwada S, Izumi M, Kawate S, Hamada K, Toya H, Togo N, Horiguchi J, Koibuchi Y, Takahashi T, Yamada M: Surgical outcome of stage III and IV adrenocortical carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb;37(2):108-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical outcome of stage III and IV adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor usually diagnosed at an advanced stage on invasion of or adherence to adjacent organs.
  • We report surgical outcome of stage III and IV ACCs.
  • METHODS: ACCs from seven patients at clinical stage II (n = 1), III (n = 4), or IV (n = 2) were resected.
  • RESULTS: The pathological stage was stage III in five patients and stage IV in two patients.
  • The estimated 3-year disease-free and overall survivals for stage III were 20% and 40%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 11-58).
  • The 3-year disease-free and overall survivals for stage III and IV were 14.3% and 28.6%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection for stage III, IV ACCs affords the possibility of negative margins, acceptable peri-operative morbidity and mortality, and prolongs survival in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17277000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Fassnacht M, Wittekind C, Allolio B: [Current TNM classification systems for adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):374-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current TNM classification systems for adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy and often difficult to diagnose.
  • However, an analysis based on data from the German ACC Registry revealed several shortcomings of this classification; in particular, the outcome of patients with UICC stage II and III was not significantly different.
  • Therefore, the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENSAT) developed a revised staging system, the superiority of which was recently confirmed in an independent American cohort.
  • In the ENSAT classification, stage I (tumors ≤ 5 cm) and II (tumors < 5 cm) are non-infiltrating tumors without positive lymph nodes and distant metastases.
  • Stage III is defined by the presence of positive lymph nodes, infiltration of surrounding tissue, or venous tumor thrombus.
  • Stage IV is restricted to patients with distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Prognosis. Registries

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  • (PMID = 20703482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Turbendian HK, Strong VE, Hsu M, Ghossein RA, Fahey TJ 3rd: Adrenocortical carcinoma: the influence of large vessel extension. Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1057-64; discussion 1064
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: the influence of large vessel extension.
  • BACKGROUND: The impact of large vessel extension (LVE) as a prognostic factor for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is not fully understood.
  • RESULTS: Multivariable regression analysis showed a significant association for decreased survival with Stage III and IV disease and LVE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21134533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using kinase inhibition therapy with sorafenib in a patient with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • Postoperative scanning revealed metastases to both lungs and the liver that were confirmed by fine-needle biopsy, thus establishing stage IV disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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14. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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15. Hanna AM, Pham TH, Askegard-Giesmann JR, Grams JM, Iqbal CW, Stavlo P, Moir CR: Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):843-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • PURPOSE: This study reviews adrenocortical tumors in children to determine factors that significantly affect outcome.
  • METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review from 1976 to 2005 identified 23 patients younger than 19 years old with histologic confirmation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and adenomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of the 23 children was 9.0 +/- 1.6 years; girls predominated (female-to-male ratio = 1.9:1) as did cancers (ACC 16, adenoma 7); tumor hormone production (74%); and advanced stage for disease (66%).
  • For ACC stage III and IV, median survival was 21 months, 5-year survival was 0%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18485950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Fenske W, Weismann D, Agha A, Beuschlein F, Führer D, Jurowich C, Quinkler M, Petersenn S, Spahn M, Hahner S, Allolio B, German ACC Registry Group: Improved survival in patients with stage II adrenocortical carcinoma followed up prospectively by specialized centers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4925-32
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  • [Title] Improved survival in patients with stage II adrenocortical carcinoma followed up prospectively by specialized centers.
  • CONTEXT: Median survival in stage II adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) differs widely in published series ranging between 23 and more than 60 months.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was a comparison of outcome in patients with stage II ACC who were followed up prospectively early after surgery and were counseled by a specialized center (prospective group) with patients who registered with the German ACC registry later than 4 months after diagnosis (retrospective group).
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: The study was a cohort analysis in 149 adult patients with stage II ACC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients who are followed up prospectively after surgery for stage II ACC and receive early specialized care have a much better prognosis than previously reported due to a major referral bias in previous series and use of adjuvant mitotane.
  • These findings will impact on the perception of prognosis in newly diagnosed stage II ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20668036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Investigator] Willenberg H; Morcos M; Fehm HL; Behrend M; Reisch N; Brauckhoff M; Arlt W; Beuschlein F; Saeger W; Müssig K; Denecke H; Hengst K
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17. Gomez-Rivera F, Medina-Franco H, Arch-Ferrer JE, Heslin MJ: Adrenocortical carcinoma: a single institution experience. Am Surg; 2005 Jan;71(1):90-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: a single institution experience.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ADCC) ranks among the least common malignant endocrine tumors.
  • Seven patients presented with stage II, five with stage III, four with stage IV, and in one could not be determined.
  • Older age, distant metastasis, nonoperative management, positive margins, advanced tumor stage, and venous invasion were significantly associated with worse overall actuarial survival.
  • Factors associated with a worse prognosis were stage of disease, nonoperative management, positive surgical margins, vascular invasion, and older age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15757066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Koschker AC, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Weismann D, Allolio B: Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Feb;114(2):45-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • DIAGNOSIS: In case of an adrenal mass, hormonal workup before surgery is required for differential diagnosis, perioperative management, and for follow-up.
  • In stage 4, the adrenolytic compound mitotane is part of the first-line treatment, but often needs to be combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • GANIMED, as a Germany-wide network of experts on adrenal diseases, has been founded allowing for improved gathering of data and joint studies.
  • ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours) has been brought to life, aiming at European standards for therapy, diagnosis and tumour banking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16570232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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19. Kebebew E, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Extent of disease at presentation and outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma: have we made progress? World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):872-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extent of disease at presentation and outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma: have we made progress?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive malignancy, accounts for up to 14% of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • The only chance of cure for ACC is diagnosis at an early stage; therefore, a main indication for adrenalectomy in patients with adrenal incidentaloma has been the potential risk of ACC.
  • Recent studies suggest that this has led to earlier stage of ACC at diagnosis, more curative operations, and better survival.
  • METHODS: We analyzed data on ACC from The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.
  • Between the time quartiles compared (as well as annually), there was no significant difference at presentation in age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, the frequency of distant metastasis, and overall TNM stage.
  • Low tumor grade, lower stage of ACC, later time quartile, and surgical resection were associated with a lower cause-specific mortality by univariate analysis (P < or = 0.002) and by multivariate analysis (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although adrenal incidentalomas have become a common indication for adrenalectomy, this has not resulted in patients with ACC being diagnosed earlier or treated at a lower stage of disease at the national level.
  • The most important predictors of survival in these patients are tumor grade, tumor stage, and surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16680602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
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20. Ohwada S, Izumi M, Tanahashi Y, Kawate S, Hamada K, Tsutsumi H, Horiguchi J, Koibuchi Y, Takahashi T, Yamada M: Combined liver and inferior vena cava resection for adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Today; 2007;37(4):291-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined liver and inferior vena cava resection for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, usually diagnosed at an advanced stage when it has invaded or adhered to adjacent organs.
  • METHODS: Six patients with clinical stage III (n = 4) or IV (n = 2) ACC underwent combined resection of the liver and IVC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17387560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-84-0 / Polytetrafluoroethylene
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21. Fassnacht M, Allolio B: What is the best approach to an apparently nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Nov;73(5):561-5
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  • [Title] What is the best approach to an apparently nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma?
  • In suspected nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) a careful preoperative diagnostic work up is needed including comprehensive endocrine analysis as recommended by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (http://www.ENSAT.org/ACC.htm).
  • Key factors for risk assessment are tumor stage, resection status and the proliferation marker Ki67.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20738315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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22. Brix D, Allolio B, Fenske W, Agha A, Dralle H, Jurowich C, Langer P, Mussack T, Nies C, Riedmiller H, Spahn M, Weismann D, Hahner S, Fassnacht M, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group: Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients. Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):609-15
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 152 patients with stage I-III ACC with a tumour < or =10 cm registered with the German ACC Registry.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Dec;58(6):e53; author reply e54 [20864252.001]
  • (PMID = 20580485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Miller BS, Gauger PG, Hammer GD, Giordano TJ, Doherty GM: Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):955-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proposal for modification of the ENSAT staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma using tumor grade.
  • PURPOSE: Various staging systems for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) have been proposed.
  • We hypothesized that incorporating tumor grade into the current European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) staging system would improve the ability to more accurately predict time to recurrence and death.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of patients included in the University of Michigan ACC database from 2005 to 2009 was done; and stage, tumor grade, time to recurrence, and death were recorded and analyzed using the Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • Time to death among stage 2 patients separated into those with high- and low-grade tumors reached statistical significance (p = 0.05), and notable but not statistically significant differences were identified in all stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging / trends

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  • (PMID = 20694732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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24. Lacroix A: Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4812-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare and often aggressive malignancy that requires multidisciplinary expertise for optimal management.
  • Thorough imaging and endocrine evaluations can identify the majority of ACCs amongst adrenal tumors; however, some smaller ACCs are better identified using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.
  • Despite complete resection in stage I-III tumors, approximately 40% of patients develop metastasis within 2 yr.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21051577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Polat B, Koschker AC, Kenn W, Flentje M, Allolio B: Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4501-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Local tumor recurrence is common in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and is the most frequent cause for reoperation.
  • Fourteen patients without distant metastases (World Health Organization stage I, one patient; stage II, seven; stage III, three; and stage IV, three) were matched with 14 patients for resection status, adjuvant mitotane treatment, stage, and tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4250-2 [17088440.001]
  • (PMID = 16895957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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26. Wängberg B, Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Nilsson B, Nilsson O, Jakobsson CE, Lindstedt S, Odén A, Ahlman H: The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):265-72
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour disease with sinister prognosis also after attempts to radical surgery; better prognosis is seen for low-stage tumours.
  • Despite a high proportion of high-stage tumours (67%), the complete resection rate was high (77%).
  • The disease-specific 5-year survival was high (64.1%); very high for patients with low-stage tumours without evident relation to mitotane levels.
  • Patients with high-stage tumours had a clear survival advantage with mitotane levels above a threshold of 14 mg/l in serum.
  • The results indicate that adjuvant mitotane may be the standard of care for patients with high-stage ACC after complete resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20026647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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27. Zini L, Capitanio U, Jeldres C, Lughezzani G, Sun M, Shariat SF, Isbarn H, Arjane P, Widmer H, Perrotte P, Graefen M, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: External validation of a nomogram predicting mortality in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. BJU Int; 2009 Dec;104(11):1661-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] External validation of a nomogram predicting mortality in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop nomograms predicting cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in patients managed with either surgery or no surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • The predictors comprised age, gender, race, stage and surgery status.
  • Nomograms based on Cox regression model-derived coefficients were used for predicting the cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, and were tested using area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve.
  • RESULTS: In cancer-specific analyses, the median survival of patients within the development cohort was 26 months, vs 71 months in the external validation cohort (P < 0.001).
  • Three variables (age, stage and surgical status) were included in the nomograms predicting cancer-specific and all-cause mortality.
  • In the external validation cohort, the nomograms achieved between 72 and 80% accuracy for prediction of cancer-specific or all-cause mortality at 1-5 years after either surgery or diagnosis of ACC for non-surgical patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Nomograms

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  • (PMID = 19493261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Pereira RM, Michalkiewicz E, Pianovski MA, França SN, Boguszewski MC, Cat I, Lacerda Filho Ld, Sandrini R: [Treatment of childhood adrenocortical tumor]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):747-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of childhood adrenocortical tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamento do tumor do córtex adrenal na infância.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in children are uncommon.
  • In our experience, disease stage I, absence of spillage during surgery and absence of intravenous thrombus are associated with better survival rates.
  • Side effects due to these drugs are common and adrenal insufficiency may occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16444357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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29. Giordano TJ, Kuick R, Else T, Gauger PG, Vinco M, Bauersfeld J, Sanders D, Thomas DG, Doherty G, Hammer G: Molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors by transcriptome profiling. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 15;15(2):668-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors by transcriptome profiling.
  • PURPOSE: Our understanding of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has improved considerably, yet many unanswered questions remain.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We did a whole genome gene expression study of a large cohort of adrenocortical tissues annotated with clinicopathologic data.
  • Using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide arrays, transcriptional profiles were generated for 10 normal adrenal cortices (NC), 22 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and 33 ACCs.
  • RESULTS: The overall classification of adrenocortical tumors was recapitulated using principal component analysis of the entire data set.
  • Multivariate Cox modeling using stage, mitotic rate, and gene expression data as measured by the first principal component for ACC samples showed that gene expression data contains significant independent prognostic information (P < 0.017).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study lays the foundation for the molecular classification and prognostication of adrenocortical tumors and also provides a rich source of potential diagnostic and prognostic markers.

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  • (PMID = 19147773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-209023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-219023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-199023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-219023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-199023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-209023
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS78831; NLM/ PMC2629378
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30. Balasubramaniam S, Fojo T: Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):619-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, challenging disease with a broad range of clinical presentations.
  • Often presenting in an advanced stage with a large, locally invasive primary tumor or with Cushing's syndrome, it requires a multidisciplinary approach to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 21167380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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31. Patel VV, Shah DS, Raychaudhari CR, Patel KB: Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Apr;31(2):65-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, especially in children.
  • With a stage IV disease, the patient died after 2 months from diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21209768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2970938
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / adrenocortical tumor / nonfunctioning
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32. Ko JH, Lee HS, Hong J, Hwang JS: Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Turner syndrome and somatic TP53 gene mutation. Eur J Pediatr; 2010 Apr;169(4):501-4
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Turner syndrome and somatic TP53 gene mutation.
  • Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma and Turner syndrome have opposite clinical manifestations in some aspects.
  • Here, we report on the first case of virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a girl with Turner syndrome.
  • A 2 10/12-year-old girl presented pubic hair of Tanner stage III with clitomegaly, deepening of her voice, and tall stature.
  • Biochemical assessment revealed normal electrolytes with pronounced elevation of adrenal androgens.
  • She was found to have a large mass of the left adrenal gland on abdominal computed tomography scan.
  • She underwent complete resection of the mass, and pathology was consistent with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genes, p53. Point Mutation / genetics. Turner Syndrome / complications. Virilism / genetics


33. Sbragia L, Oliveira-Filho AG, Vassallo J, Pinto GA, Guerra-Junior G, Bustorff-Silva J: Adrenocortical tumors in Brazilian children: immunohistochemical markers and prognostic factors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Sep;129(9):1127-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors in Brazilian children: immunohistochemical markers and prognostic factors.
  • CONTEXT: The behavior of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is usually difficult to establish in childhood, and the role of immunomarkers in predicting outcome has not yet been elucidated.
  • Virilization alone affected 70% (n = 23) of the patients, and 18 patients had stage 1 disease, 9 had stage 2 disease, and 3 each had stage 3 and stage 4 disease.
  • Female sex and stage 1 and stage 2 disease were associated with good outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16119984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Messer CK, Kirschenbaum A, New MI, Unger P, Gabrilove JL, Levine AC: Concomitant secretion of glucocorticoid, androgens, and mineralocorticoid by an adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):408-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concomitant secretion of glucocorticoid, androgens, and mineralocorticoid by an adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a case of concomitant secretion of cortisol, androgens, and 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) by an adrenocortical carcinoma and review the literature in an attempt to identify similar cases.
  • An abdominal computed tomographic scan showed a left adrenal tumor.
  • A left adrenalectomy was performed, and the histopathologic diagnosis was stage II adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our patient presented with a rare case of cosecretion of cortisol, testosterone, androstenedione, and DOC by an adrenocortical carcinoma, resulting in a clinical picture consistent with Cushing's syndrome, hyperandrogenism, and primary hypermineralocorticoidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / blood. Mineralocorticoids / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17669719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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35. Nishida S, Itoh N, Sasao T, Masumori N, Taguchi K, Tsukamoto T: Adrenocortical carcinoma: retrospective study of 14 patients experienced at a single institution over 34 years. Int J Urol; 2007 Jul;14(7):581-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: retrospective study of 14 patients experienced at a single institution over 34 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical outcome of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma experienced at a single institute over 34 years.
  • Two patients were classified as having stage II disease, seven as stage III and five as stage IV.
  • The median survival periods were 2 months in patients with stage IV and 108 months in those with stages II and III (P = 0.136).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease but frequently recurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 17645596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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36. Chalasani S, Vats HS, Banerjee TK, McKenzie AK: Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy. Clin Med Res; 2009 Jun;7(1-2):48-51
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  • [Title] Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy.
  • A 57-year-old white woman with metastases to lungs and liver from virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was treated with radical nephroadrenalectomy followed by oral mitotane 3 to 6 g/day for 5 months.
  • Stage I and II disease is curable with surgery.
  • Stage III and IV disease may benefit from mitotane orally with gradual adjustment of the dosage to a tolerable level.
  • An international study has been started by randomizing between two of the above combinations by the Collaborative Group for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19574489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6179
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2705271
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37. Aspinall SR, Imisairi AH, Bliss RD, Scott-Coombes D, Harrison BJ, Lennard TW: How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2009 Sep;91(6):489-93
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  • [Title] How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK?
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • This case series is reported to give an overview of how adrenocortical carcinoma is currently managed in the UK.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was made of case notes from patients with adrenocortical carcinomas presenting to the authors (TWJL, RDB, BJH, and DS-C) over the past 10 years in Newcastle, Sheffield and Cardiff.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of tumour, stage and mode of presentation, age and overall survival of patients in this study are comparable to published series of adrenocortical carcinomas from major endocrine surgical centres world-wide.
  • The exact role of adjuvant therapy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma is not as well established as for other more common malignancies.
  • Establishing a database for adrenocortical carcinomas in the UK would contribute to our understanding of the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19558758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cytotoxins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966201
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38. Haase M, Schott M, Bornstein SR, Malendowicz LK, Scherbaum WA, Willenberg HS: CITED2 is expressed in human adrenocortical cells and regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor. J Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;192(2):459-65
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  • [Title] CITED2 is expressed in human adrenocortical cells and regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor.
  • CITED2 gene deletion in mice leads to adrenal agenesis.
  • Therefore, we analyzed CITED2, a CBP/p300 interacting transactivator with transforming activity, in the human adrenal gland.
  • In this study, we examined CITED2 expression in human embryonic and adult adrenal glands as well as adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • As ACTH and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are connected to the physiology and growth of adrenocortical cells we studied the regulation of CITED2 by these factors in the NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
  • We found CITED2 expression in the adult adrenal cortex as well in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • At an early stage of human adrenal organogenesis CITED2 could be located to the definitive zone of the developing adrenal gland using immunohistochemistry.
  • CITED2 is expressed in embryonic and adult human adrenal glands as well as in adrenocortical cancer.
  • This suggests a novel role for CITED2 in human adrenal growth and possibly in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Trans-Activators / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Embryonic Development. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 17283246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CITED2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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39. Leboulleux S, Deandreis D, Al Ghuzlan A, Aupérin A, Goéré D, Dromain C, Elias D, Caillou B, Travagli JP, De Baere T, Lumbroso J, Young J, Schlumberger M, Baudin E: Adrenocortical carcinoma: is the surgical approach a risk factor of peritoneal carcinomatosis? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1147-53
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: is the surgical approach a risk factor of peritoneal carcinomatosis?
  • CONTEXT: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a rare site of distant metastases in patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • Patients had stage I disease in 2 cases, stage II disease in 32 cases, stage III disease in 7 cases, stage IV disease in 21 cases, and unknown stage disease in 2 cases.
  • Neither tumor size, stage, functional status, completeness of surgery, nor plasma level of op'DDD was associated with the occurrence of PC.

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  • (PMID = 20348273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Quinkler M, Bucsky P, Willenberg HS, Beuschlein F, Terzolo M, Mueller HH, Hahner S, Allolio B, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group, European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification. Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50
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  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and it was only in 2004 that the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) defined TNM criteria and published the first staging classification.
  • Patients were assigned to UICC tumor stage, and disease-specific survival (DSS) was assessed.
  • RESULTS: In total, 416 patients with a mean follow-up of 36 months met the inclusion criteria (stage I, n=23 patients; stage II, n=176 patients; stage III, n=67 patients; stage IV, n=150 patients).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a stage-dependent DSS.
  • However, DSS in patients with stage II ACC did not differ significantly from DSS in patients with stage III ACC (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.16).
  • Furthermore, patients who had stage IV ACC without distant metastases had an improved DSS compared with patients who had metastatic disease (P=.004).
  • An analysis of different potential risk factors for defining stage III ACC revealed important roles in DSS for tumor infiltration in surrounding tissue, venous tumor thrombus (VTT), and positive lymph nodes; whereas tumor invasion in adjacent organs carried a prognosis similar to that of infiltration in surrounding tissue only.
  • On the basis of the current analysis, a revised classification with superior prognostic accuracy is proposed (the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors classification).
  • In this system, stage III ACC is defined by the presence of positive lymph nodes, infiltration of surrounding tissue, or VTT; and stage IV ACC is restricted to patients with distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / classification

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848 [19827149.001]
  • (PMID = 19025987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Allolio B; Behrend M; Bucsky P; Brauckhoff M; Fasanacht M; Fottner C; Haaf M; Hahner S; Johanssen S; Koschker AC; Langer P; Laubner K; Linden T; Maeder U; Morcos M; Oelkers W; Quinkler M; Reincke M; Reisch N; Saeger W; Weismann D; Willenberg HS; Wortmann S; Baudin E; Bertherat J; Beuschlein F; Mannelli M; Terzolo M
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41. Volante M, Bollito E, Sperone P, Tavaglione V, Daffara F, Porpiglia F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification. Histopathology; 2009 Nov;55(5):535-43
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification.
  • AIMS: Pathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma relies on several microscopic features commonly used in combination in different scoring systems that are sometimes subjective and/or time consuming.
  • The aim was to investigate the impact of individual pathological parameters in the diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The presence of disruption of the reticular network, as highlighted by histochemical staining, was present in all adrenocortical carcinomas and the inclusion of at least one of the three following additional parameters - mitotic index >5/50 high-power fields (HPF), presence of necrosis and presence of vascular invasion - gave an algorithm with 100% sensitivity and specificity to recognize malignant tumours according to the Weiss system, with easier and more practical applicability.
  • Moreover, on multivariate analysis, stage III/IV and mitotic count >9/50 HPF showed a strong adverse impact on disease-free and overall survival, leading to the identification of three risk groups affected by a significantly different prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have defined an easy-to-perform and highly specific and sensitive algorithm for the diagnosis and prognostic categorization of adrenocortical tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Algorithms

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  • (PMID = 19912359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Bauditz J, Quinkler M, Wermke W: Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer--a case report and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Jul;117(7):316-9
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency thermal ablation of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer--a case report and review of the literature.
  • This method has been suggested as an alternative to surgery in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the literature, and report the case of a patient with stage 4 ACC who received intraoperative and percutaneous RFA of two liver metastasis according to a standard ablation protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19053031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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43. Grubbs EG, Callender GG, Xing Y, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Phan AT, Lee JE: Recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma following resection: surgery alone can achieve results equal to surgery plus mitotane. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Jan;17(1):263-70
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  • [Title] Recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma following resection: surgery alone can achieve results equal to surgery plus mitotane.
  • BACKGROUND: A recent nonrandomized interinstitutional study reported that adjuvant mitotane following surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was associated with decreased recurrence.
  • Factors predicting increased risk of recurrence on multivariate analysis were surgery at an outside institution [hazard ratio (HR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.53, P = 0.001] and no treatment with adjuvant mitotane (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.06-3.59, P = 0.03), and those predicting a poorer survival were advanced stage at presentation (P = 0.01) and surgery at an outside institution (HR 2.62, 95% CI 1.31-5.25, P = 0.007).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19851811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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44. Soga H, Takenaka A, Ooba T, Nakano Y, Miyake H, Takeda M, Tanaka K, Hara I, Fujisawa M: A twelve-year experience with adrenal cortical carcinoma in a single institution: long-term survival after surgical treatment and transcatheter arterial embolization. Urol Int; 2009;82(2):222-6

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  • [Title] A twelve-year experience with adrenal cortical carcinoma in a single institution: long-term survival after surgical treatment and transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • INTRODUCTION: We retrospectively analyzed 6 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) treated during a 12-year period at a single institution.
  • Three patients were clinically classified as stage II, 2 as stage III and 1 as stage IV with bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19322014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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45. Jones KM, Singh A, Haas GP, Landas SK: 1500 gram suprarenal mass: a case report. Can J Urol; 2007 Apr;14(2):3518-22

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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma can have a clinical presentation that mimics a primary renal tumor.
  • Upon surgical resection he was found to have a 1500 gram stage II adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The clinical features, pathologic findings, grading criteria, and differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17466160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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46. Yasumoto T, Hayashi S, Shimizu J, Dono K, Nakata S, Sato M, Kitada M, Shimano T: [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2371-3
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a case of local recurrent tumor after a resection of right adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • The lesions were judged to be T4, N0, M0 and Stage IV,then, he was treated as an outpatient on a regular schedule.
  • In July 2003, a right adrenal tumor 2 cm in diameter was detected by computed tomography (CT), but the value of the adrenocortical hormones were normal on blood examination, and he was observed at regular intervals.
  • In February 2005, the adrenal lesion enlarged to 5 cm in diameter and the value of PIVKA-II became high on blood examination, so April 2005, a surgical resection was performed, and it was diagnosed as the metastasis from HCC.
  • It was considered inoperable because of the past operation, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of an inferior adrenal artery and a fine branch through a right sub-phrenic artery was performed for the recurrent tumor, and one week after the embolization, radiofrequency ablation was treated by CT fluoroscopy guidance.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation is considered as a feasible and effective method for not only HCC but also for a local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20037426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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47. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71

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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • Strong SF-1 protein expression significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome: tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-4.64] and for recurrence 3.91 (95% CI = 1.71-8.94).
  • Similar results were obtained in the independent cohort using RNA analysis [tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 4.69 (95% CI = 1.44-15.30)].
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • In addition, SF-1 expression is of stage-independent prognostic value in patients with ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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48. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • Conversely, a statistically significant difference was observed between 2008 ENSAT stage II and stage III patients (p<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20044246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Xiao ZJ, Li CL: [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug 10;90(30):2123-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical efficacy of combined therapy in the treatment of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 12 cases with advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma at our hospital from 1986 - 2006 were analyzed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was all of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • According to the staging criteria of Jacques and Brennan, all 12 cases were of IV stage.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined therapy of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma is effective to prolong the patient lifespan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21029628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Children and adults with carcinoma had similar curves of survival (p = 0.76).
  • Carcinoma stage and PCNA immunoexpression displayed an association with outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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51. Funder JW, Carey RM, Fardella C, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Mantero F, Stowasser M, Young WF Jr, Montori VM, Endocrine Society: Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3266-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes.
  • We recommend that all patients with primary aldosteronism undergo adrenal computed tomography as the initial study in subtype testing and to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We recommend the presence of a unilateral form of primary aldosteronism should be established/excluded by bilateral adrenal venous sampling by an experienced radiologist and, where present, optimally treated by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • We recommend that patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, or those unsuitable for surgery, optimally be treated medically by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.


52. Gockel I, Heintz A, Domeyer M, Trinh TT, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Indications for conventional adrenalectomy]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Jun;133(3):255-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Indications for conventional adrenalectomy were - as compared with the minimally invasive procedure - significantly more frequent adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), especially in the context of multivisceral resections, as well as adrenal metastases (synchronous and metachronous).
  • In contrast, adrenal Cushing's disease (including 19 patients with bilateral tumours), pheochromocytoma, incidentaloma and Conn's syndrome constituted a more frequent indication for minimally invasive adrenalectomy.
  • Conventionally operated adrenal pathologies with on average 6.0 (range: 1.2-19.0) cm diameter were significantly larger than the endoscopically removed tumours with on average 3.3 (range: 0.2-9.2) cm diameter (p < 0.0001).
  • The side localisation and the frequency of bilateral adrenal tumours did not differ significantly in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Since the establishment of the minimally invasive technique in 1994, conventional adrenalectomy has been selected for 26 % of all resected adrenal pathologies at our clinic and, therefore, still plays an important role even in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • The benefit of the laparoscopic procedure in the case of malignant pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and isolated adrenal metastases at a locally confined stage is still unclear and requires prospective, randomised studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / utilization. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18563692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Sigruener A, Buechler C, Orsó E, Hartmann A, Wild PJ, Terracciano L, Roncalli M, Bornstein SR, Schmitz G: Human aldehyde oxidase 1 interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and modulates its activity in hepatocytes. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Nov;39(11):781-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • ABCA1 and AOX1 are coexpressed in human hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, Leydig, and adrenocortical cells.
  • Significant correlations were found between reduced AOX1 expression and tumor stage, or metastatic or regional lymph node states.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Hepatocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17992631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCA1 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 1.2.3.1 / AOX1 protein, human; EC 1.2.3.1 / Aldehyde Oxidase
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