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1. Zancanella P, Pianovski MA, Oliveira BH, Ferman S, Piovezan GC, Lichtvan LL, Voss SZ, Stinghen ST, Callefe LG, Parise GA, Santana MH, Figueiredo BC: Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Aug;28(8):513-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: To define a mitotane dose for pediatric patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC) that maintains therapeutic plasma levels (TL) between 14 and 20 microg/mL and to verify its antitumor efficacy in association with 8 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin (CED).
  • CED combined with mitotane is the best available pharmacologic treatment for ACC, but further studies are required to characterize different profiles of therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Mitotane / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16912591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Roman S: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):36-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported.
  • In the pediatric population, though, virilizing tumors carry a better survival than non-functional or cortisol-secreting tumors.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies focusing on the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma have focused on onco-developmental genes present in the fetal adrenal cortex, as well as local adrenal paracrine and autocrine effects of cellular peptides.
  • SUMMARY: Pre-operative diagnostic advances in positron emission scanning are emerging as promising modalities for confirmation of malignancy of indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • No significant advances in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma have been developed.
  • Mitotane has remained the preferred adjuvant treatment agent, showing modest effect in patients with unresectable, residual or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Activins / metabolism. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Inhibins / metabolism. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16357562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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3. Cheng HY, Zhu XD, Wang HM, Qin H: [Application of ATP based bioluminescence tumor chemosensitivity assay in the chemotherapy of pediatric solid tumor]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug;47(8):598-603
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  • [Title] [Application of ATP based bioluminescence tumor chemosensitivity assay in the chemotherapy of pediatric solid tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical significance of ATP based bioluminescence in vitro tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA) in the chemotherapy of pediatric solid tumor.
  • METHODS: The cell culture technique and ATP-TCA were used to study chemosensitivity assay in specimens from 50 cases who underwent resection surgery for solid tumor (15 malignant neurogenic tumor, 8 malignant germ cell tumors, 10 Wilms' tumors, 10 hepatoblastomas, 6 rhabdomyosarcomas, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma), 8 chemotherapeutic drugs and 8 drug combination schedules were applied in every specimen. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Specimens of 46 of 50 pediatric patients with solid tumors were suitable for evaluation and were evaluated, the overall evaluation rate was 92% (46/50). (2) There was the heterogeneity in the chemosensitivity of the solid tumors in vitro. (3) The drug combination schedules of high sensitivity rate of every kind of pediatric solid tumor are as follows: the malignant neurogenic tumor: CBP + EPI + IFO (12/15, 80.0%), VCR + CTX + DDP + DTIC (11/15, 73.3%); malignant germ cell tumor: DDP + VCR + BLM(8/8, 100%), TPTN + ACTD + IFO(8/8, 100%), As2O3 (7/8, 87.5%); Wilms' tumor: VCR + ACTD(6/7, 85.7%), CBP + VP16 (6/8, 75.0%); hepatoblastoma: VCR + CTX + DDP + VP16 (8/9, 88.9%), CBP +IFO + VM26 (7/9, 77.8%), DDP + VP16 + TPTN(7/9, 77.8%); rhabdomyosarcoma: VCR + CTX + DDP + VP16 (5/5, 100%); adrenocortical carcinoma: VCR + CTX + ADM. (4) As2O3 reached a high in vitro sensitive rate of 87.5% (7/8) and 46.7% (7/15) in malignant germ cell tumor and the malignant neurogenic tumor respectively, PTX was sensitive to the malignant neurogenic tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma (40.0% (6/15), 60.0% (3/5)), GEM was sensitive to pediatric malignant germ cell tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma (50.0% (4/8), 60.0% (3/5)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATP-TCA is a sensitive method for the chemotherapeutic agents screening of pediatric malignant solid tumor, and ATP-TCA assay results correlated well with clinical response.
  • It appears to be useful in screening new drugs for pediatric solid tumor, exploring the possible combination plots and principles, evaluating the efficacy of existing chemotherapy, and optimize chemotherapy on an individual basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 19951493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T: Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):345-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Discerning malignancy in resected adrenocortical neoplasms can pose diagnostic difficulty.
  • Histological scoring systems evaluating multiple parameters, especially the criteria of Weiss, have been shown to be reliable in differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma.
  • A tumor is defined as adrenocortical carcinoma when three or more of the following criteria are met;.
  • The criteria are relatively straightforward and considered the most effective standard for diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy.
  • However, great care should be taken in applying the criteria to histological evaluation of two relatively rare and peculiar adrenocortical tumors, adrenocortical oncocytoma and pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • At this juncture, ancillary biological or molecular markers are of little practical value in terms of differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma but tumors with MIB1 or Ki-67 labeling index more than 2.5 may be considered malignant.
  • Prognostic markers of adrenocortical carcinoma have not been established other than complete respectability of the tumor.
  • There are also no surrogate markers for predicting response to therapy with Mitotane, an adrenolytic agent.
  • It sometimes is important for surgical pathologists to differentiate adrenocortical carcinoma from metastatic malignancies of other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Count. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitotic Index. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.3.2.27 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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5. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • Clinical features and immunohistochemical reactions were compared in adult vs pediatric tumors.
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Children and adults with carcinoma had similar curves of survival (p = 0.76).
  • Carcinoma stage and PCNA immunoexpression displayed an association with outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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6. Zderic SA: Renal and adrenal tumors in children. Urol Clin North Am; 2004 Aug;31(3):607-17, xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Denys-Drash Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / radiography. Wilms Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15313069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scan provides both functional and anatomical information in a single diagnostic test.
  • It has the potential to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal tumors.
  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • It can also be valuable when the standard diagnostic studies are equivocal or conflicting.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data indicate that PET/CT is a promising tool in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal malignancies.
  • The delineation of the exact role of this diagnostic modality will require additional experience.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Drug Monitoring. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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8. Kletter GB: Medical therapy of adrenocortical tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):149-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical therapy of adrenocortical tumors.
  • Medical therapy is but one of a multiarm, multispecialty approach that is needed in order to successfully treat adrenocortical tumors.
  • In this article current and potential future medical therapies for adrenocortical tumors are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dopamine Antagonists / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / administration & dosage. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Patient Care Team. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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