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51. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Shibru D, Khafnashar E, Chung KW, Hwang J, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):873-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common genetic change observed in adrenocortical carcinoma is loss of heterozygozity on chromosome 11q13.
  • As genes on this chromosome may be important in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma, we compared their expression profile between benign and malignant adrenocortical tissue.
  • METHODS: We used the Affymetrix GeneChip (U133 plus 2.0) array in 54 adrenocortical tumors (11 carcinoma and 43 benign).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determined the diagnostic accuracy of the differently expressed genes for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found 25 of the 314 genes on chromosome 11q13 to be differentially expressed between adrenocortical carcinoma and benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • All 25 were downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma by 2-fold to 4.8-fold; 21 were validated to be differentially expressed by RT-PCR (Pearson's coefficient>0.5).
  • Six genes (SERPING1, MRPL48, TM7SF2, DDB1, NDUSF8, PRDX5) validated by RT-PCR were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (p<0.05) with an overall accuracy of 89% for SERPING1, 91% for MRPL48, 87% for TM7SF2, 88% for DDB1, 91% for NDUFS8, and 89% for PRDX5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 25 genes located on chromosome 11q13 that are downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and may be candidate tumor suppressor genes.
  • Six of these genes were good diagnostic markers for distinguishing adrenocortical carcinoma from adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18324346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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52. Ji ZG, Xue C, Li HZ, Wang HJ, Xie Y, Liu GH: Piggyback liver transplant techniques in the surgical management of urological tumors with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Sep 20;122(18):2155-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: An important characteristic of renal cell carcinomas and adrenal tumors is that these tumors may expand into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, and transform into tumor thrombi.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients with renal cell carcinomas or adrenal tumors with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were treated from November 1995 to April 2008.
  • One patient with adrenal cortical carcinoma and level IV thrombus died in the immediate postoperative period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Liver Transplantation / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology


53. Gamliel-Lazarovich A, Gantman A, Shiner M, Coleman R, Aviram M, Keidar S: Paraoxonase 1 deficiency in mice is associated with reduced steroid biosynthesis: effects on HDL binding, cholesteryl ester accumulation and scavenger receptor type BI expression. Atherosclerosis; 2010 Jul;211(1):130-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Selective uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester (CE) is considered as the major source of cholesterol for production of steroids in the adrenal gland in rodents.
  • Adrenal glands obtained from PON1KO mice had significantly lower CE content compared to adrenals from C57Bl6 control mice.
  • Binding of HDL obtained from PON1KO mice to human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line was found to be significantly lower than that of control HDL, and was associated with decreased CS biosynthesis.
  • When challenged with low salt diet, PON1KO mice demonstrated an increase in adrenal SR-BI gene expression and in serum corticosterone which reached levels similar to those obtained in control mice.
  • CONCLUSION: PON1 regulates adrenal CS biosynthesis at two levels: (a) via an accessory role in HDL binding properties, and (b) a supportive role in SR-BI expression and CE supply to the cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Animals. Diet, Sodium-Restricted. Humans. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20189567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1484
  • [Journal-full-title] Atherosclerosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Atherosclerosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol Esters; 0 / Lipoproteins, HDL; 0 / Scarb1 protein, mouse; 0 / Scavenger Receptors, Class B; EC 3.1.8.1 / Aryldialkylphosphatase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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4. Kuwada M, Hosokawa Y, Takada S, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):599-602
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report].
  • Based on abdominal CT, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The patient died three months after operation because of disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Back Pain / etiology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Chest Pain / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology


55. Dural C, Bilge O, Toker A, Erbil Y, Salmaslioglu A, Ozbey N, Aral F: Malignant phaeochromocytoma with cavoatrial extension: transcaval removal of tumor without cardiopulmonary bypass A case report. Minerva Chir; 2010 Aug;65(4):485-8
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  • [Title] Malignant phaeochromocytoma with cavoatrial extension: transcaval removal of tumor without cardiopulmonary bypass A case report.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a rare tumor and with metastasis usually in lungs, lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
  • The surgical approach to adrenal tumor extending into the vena cava is challenging.
  • This article reports a case of malignant pheochromocytoma extending into the cavoatrial junction in a young man.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Atria. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 20802436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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56. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Lou E, Goodwin J, Howell DN, Hicks J, Caram LB: A G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation causing leukocytosis. Nat Rev Urol; 2009 Jul;6(7):392-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation causing leukocytosis.
  • He had chronic renal insufficiency, sleep apnea, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease.
  • DIAGNOSIS: G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / secretion. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / secretion. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19578356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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58. Karakas Z, Tugcu D, Unuvar A, Atay D, Akcay A, Gedik H, Kayserili H, Dogan O, Anak S, Devecioglu O: Li-Fraumeni syndrome in a Turkish family. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 May;27(4):297-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) association with acute leukemia is unusual in childhood, even in LFS.
  • The authors here present a family with pR337P mutation in TP53 gene who had a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated adrenocortical carcinoma as a case 1 and his cousin with brain tumor as a case 2.
  • A hereditary TP53 mutation supported the diagnosis of LFS in this family.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20426520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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59. Muttarak M, Chotirosniramit A, Unsrisong K, Na Chiangmai W: Adrenal carcinoma. Biomed Imaging Interv J; 2006 Jan;2(1):e9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21614222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1823-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical imaging and intervention journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Imaging Interv J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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60. Soon PS, Sidhu SB: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Treat Res; 2010;153:187-210
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19957226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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61. Ren R, Guo M, Sneige N, Moran CA, Gong Y: Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Sep;126(3):389-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges.
  • We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma.
  • Cytologic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural findings should be correlated with clinical and radiologic information for achieving a proper cytologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16880150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Shackelford RE, Veillon DM, Heldmann M, Elmajian DA, Gonzalez E, Cotelingam JD: Pathology case of the month. Thirty-year-old man with a right adrenal mass. Adrenocortical carcinoma with lung and right renal hilar metastases. J La State Med Soc; 2006 Jul-Aug;158(4):172-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology case of the month. Thirty-year-old man with a right adrenal mass. Adrenocortical carcinoma with lung and right renal hilar metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary


63. Argyriou P, Zisis C, Alevizopoulos N, Kefaloyannis EM, Gennatas C, Petraki CD: Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:134
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortex oncocytic carcinoma (AOC) represents an exceptional pathological entity, since only 22 cases have been documented in the literature so far.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Our case concerns a 54-year-old man with past medical history of right adrenal excision with partial hepatectomy, due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Finally, approximately five years post disease onset, the patient died due to massive metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Histological classification of adrenocortical oncocytic tumours has been so far a matter of debate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19091123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630932
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64. Palmero EI, Schüler-Faccini L, Caleffi M, Achatz MI, Olivier M, Martel-Planche G, Marcel V, Aguiar E, Giacomazzi J, Ewald IP, Giugliani R, Hainaut P, Ashton-Prolla P: Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil. Cancer Lett; 2008 Mar 8;261(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil.
  • Germline TP53 mutations predispose to a rare familial cancer syndrome, the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), characterized by the early onset of multiple cancers including childhood adrenocortical carcinomas, sarcomas and brain tumors, and breast and colon cancer in young adults.
  • An identical germline mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (R337H) has been shown to be causally related to an increased risk of multiple cancers in unrelated subjects with familial cancer risk in Southern Brazil.
  • Here we have assessed the prevalence of R337H in 750 healthy women participating in a community-based breast cancer screening program in the area of Porto Alegre.
  • The mutant was detected in two participants (0.3%) who were fourth-degree relatives and reported a familial history of cancer at multiple sites that did not match classical criteria for LFS and its variants.
  • Testing in additional family members detected the mutation in three subjects, one of whom developed breast cancer at the age of 36.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brazil. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Middle Aged. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 18248785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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65. Noda M, Ohno S, Nakajin S: Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces nuclear receptor 4A subfamily in NCI-H295R cells: a possible mechanism of aromatase suppression by MEHP. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Aug 15;274(1-2):8-18
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  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of phthalate esters on aromatase (CYP19) activity and on its gene expression in a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, NCI-H295R.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17574328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Plasticizers; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Transcription Factors; C42K0PH13C / Diethylhexyl Phthalate; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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66. Chen CH, Wu HC, Chang CH: An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma. MedGenMed; 2005;7(2):9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16369388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-0132
  • [Journal-full-title] MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MedGenMed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1681608
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67. Gross BA, Mindea SA, Pick AJ, Chandler JP, Batjer HH: Medical management of Cushing disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical management of Cushing disease.
  • Although transsphenoidal excision of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing neoplasm is often the treatment of choice in patients with Cushing disease, medical management is itself a useful preoperative temporizing measure, an option for long-term management in nonsurgical candidates, and an option for patients in whom surgery and/or radiotherapy have failed.
  • Three pathophysiologically based approaches exist in the research literature--neuro-modulation to limit ACTH levels, adrenal enzyme inhibition, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonism.
  • Adrenal enzyme inhibitors, however, offer substantial future promise in the management of Cushing disease but are limited by the potential need to use them indefinitely and by dose-tolerance effects.
  • Although etomidate is a potential intravenous alternative for acute cortisol level control, ketoconazole has shown efficacy in the long-term treatment of patients with the disease.
  • If success is still not achieved, the potent adrenolytic agent often used for adrenocortical carcinomas, mitotane, is another alternative.

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  • (PMID = 17961023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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68. Jiménez Peláez M, Bouvy BM, Dupré GP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of unilateral adrenocortical carcinomas: technique, complications, and results in seven dogs. Vet Surg; 2008 Jul;37(5):444-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of unilateral adrenocortical carcinomas: technique, complications, and results in seven dogs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of, and outcome after, laparoscopic adrenalectomy in dogs with unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • ANIMALS: Dogs (n=7) with Cushing's syndrome caused by unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • After dissection and hemostatic control of the phrenicoabdominal vein, the adrenal gland was carefully dissected or when there was capsule fragility, necrotic content was partially aspirated.
  • RESULTS: Dogs with unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma (3 right-sided, 4 left-sided) without invasion of the caudal vena cava were successfully operated by laparoscopic approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is feasible in dogs with either right- or left-sided adrenocortical carcinoma not involving the caudal vena cava.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: When performed by experienced surgeons, laparoscopic adrenalectomy offers a minimally invasive alternative to open laparotomy or retroperitoneal surgery for the treatment of unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18986311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Patel VV, Shah DS, Raychaudhari CR, Patel KB: Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Apr;31(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, especially in children.
  • Empty left renal fossa and compensatory enlarged right kidney were seen.
  • With a stage IV disease, the patient died after 2 months from diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Radiographics. 1999 Jul-Aug;19(4):989-1008 [10464805.001]
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  • (PMID = 21209768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2970938
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / adrenocortical tumor / nonfunctioning
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70. Vega Vega A, Canga Presa JM, Sanz de la Morena P, de la Cruz Vigo JL: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Mar;29(3):277-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma].
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions against open procedures because of the efficacy and less morbidity.
  • For suspected adrenal malignancies laparoscopic use is controversial.
  • We report our experience in 6 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with the suspicion of adrenal malignancy confined in the gland.
  • We concluded that in a suspected adrenal malignancy organ confined laparoscopic adrenalectomy presents the advantage compared with open surgery of reduced morbidity and similar results in the follow up of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15945253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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71. Kanczkowski W, Zacharowski K, Wirth MP, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):57-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells.
  • During sepsis, an intact adrenal gland glucocorticoid stress response is critical for survival.
  • However, the exact role which TLRs play in adrenal homeostasis and malfunction is not yet sufficiently known.
  • Using quantitative real-time PCR, confocal microscopy and the NF-kappaB reporter gene assay, we aimed to analyse both, expression and function of all relevant TLRs in the human adrenocortical cell line-NCI-H295R and adrenal cells in primary culture.
  • Our results demonstrate a differential expression pattern of TLR1-9 in human adrenocortical cells as compared to immune cells and adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Therefore, Toll-like receptors expression and function is a novel feature of the adrenal stress system contributing to adrenal tissue homeostasis, regeneration and tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Gene Expression Regulation. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19022344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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72. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • There were 4 false-negative biopsy results: 3 adrenocortical carcinomas and 1 pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Erbil Y, Salmaslioğlu A, Barbaros U, Bozbora A, Mete O, Aral F, Ozarmağan S: Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts. Urol Int; 2008;80(1):31-6
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  • [Title] Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts.
  • Adrenal cysts are very rare lesions, usually asymptomatic or without characteristic symptoms.
  • Although pseudocysts are reported to be the most common clinically recognized adrenal cysts in surgical series, endothelial cysts are more common in autopsy series.
  • We studied 15 consecutive patients with adrenal cysts who underwent surgical resection at our institution from 1990 to 2005.
  • Of 15 patients with adrenal cysts, 10 had pseudocysts, 3 epithelial cysts, 1 an endothelial cyst and 1 a parasitic cyst.
  • In conclusion, a better understanding of cystic adrenal masses is necessary to recognize true adrenal cysts and differentiating them from adrenal carcinoma or adenoma by demonstrating the foci of cystic or degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Endothelium / pathology. Epithelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18204230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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74. Bakthavathsalam G, Shanmugasundaram VP, Prabakaran J, Venkatesh SP, Sowndaravalli DV, Jain CB: Nonfunctioning adrenocorticalcarcinoma. Int Surg; 2008 Mar-Apr;93(2):81-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses detected through imaging for nonadrenal disease, often referred to as adrenal incidentalomas, were first described approximately 20 years ago.
  • Despite the rarity of primary endocrine cancers of the adrenal, adrenal masses are one of the most prevalent of all human tumors.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma approaches 3% in middle age and increases to as much as 10% in the elderly.
  • This report describes the case of a 30-year-old man who presented primarily with complaints of deep vein thrombosis of the left leg secondary to a nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18998286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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75. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • A recently used technique for the isolation of this cell population is through exclusion of the vital dye Hoechst 33342, which defines the so-called side population (SP).
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Furthermore, re-sorting and tracing experiments revealed the capacity for both cell types to give rise to the original SP- and non-SP-containing cell population.
  • Similarly to the baseline growth kinetics, no survival benefit was evident in SP cells after treatment with cytotoxic agents commonly used in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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76. Heye S, Woestenborghs H, Van Kerkhove F, Oyen R: Adrenocortical carcinoma with fat inclusion: case report. Abdom Imaging; 2005 Sep-Oct;30(5):641-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with fat inclusion: case report.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor that arises from the adrenal cortex, with an estimated incidence of 0.5% to 2% per 1 million patients yearly.
  • Although some fat content can be expected in hormonally active adrenocortical carcinomas, areas of 100% fat are extremely rare.
  • We present a case of an adrenocortical carcinoma with a small focus of pure fat depicted on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15688105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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77. Owecki M, Baszko-Błaszyk D, Waśko R, Sowiński J: [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Feb;18(104):216-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Niedrobnokomórkowy rak płuca przebiegajacy pod maska pierwotnego raka nadnercza--opis przypadku.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a malignant disease that often results in distant metastases to different organs, including the lungs.
  • While diagnosing patients with suspected adrenal carcinoma, metastases to the lungs should always be considered.
  • The opposite clinical situation also should be considered, i.e. lung cancer metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Both conditions may have a very similar course and their differential diagnosis may be sometimes very difficult.
  • However, proper diagnosis is of great importance because both diseases are treated by different means.
  • We present a case of a 50-year-old female patient with a small primary focus of non-small cell lung carcinoma and its large metastasis to the left adrenal gland, accompanied by SIADH and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia.
  • In the presented case adrenal carcinoma and its lung metastasis were primarily misdiagnosed which led to unnecessary laparotomy.
  • The proper diagnosis was enabled by CT guided biopsy of the lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Diagnostic Errors. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Unnecessary Procedures


78. Brix D, Allolio B, Fenske W, Agha A, Dralle H, Jurowich C, Langer P, Mussack T, Nies C, Riedmiller H, Spahn M, Weismann D, Hahner S, Fassnacht M, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group: Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients. Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):609-15
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare oncologic outcome in patients with ACC who underwent either open adrenalectomy (OA) or laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for localised disease.
  • INTERVENTION: Patients were stratified into two groups according to the surgical procedure (LA or OA).
  • For comparison, we used both a matched pairs approach by selecting for each patient from the LA group (n=35) one corresponding patient from the OA group (n=117) and multivariate analysis in all 152 patients.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Disease-specific survival was chosen as the predefined primary end point.
  • Secondary end points were recurrence-free survival, frequency of tumour capsule violation and postoperative peritoneal carcinomatosis, and incidence and reasons for conversion from LA to OA.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: LA and OA did not differ with regard to the primary end point using either the matched pairs approach (hazard ratio [HR] for death: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-1.72; p=0.55) or multivariate analysis (HR for death: 0.98; 95% CI, 0.51-1.92; p=0.92).
  • Similarly, adjusted recurrence-free survival was not different between LA and OA (HR: 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.47; p=0.69).
  • In 12 of 35 patients of the LA group, surgery was converted to open surgery with no impact on the clinical outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For localised ACC with a diameter of < or =10 cm, LA by an experienced surgeon is not inferior to OA with regard to oncologic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Dec;58(6):e53; author reply e54 [20864252.001]
  • (PMID = 20580485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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79. Daffara F, De Francia S, Reimondo G, Zaggia B, Aroasio E, Porpiglia F, Volante M, Termine A, Di Carlo F, Dogliotti L, Angeli A, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1043-53
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly.
  • Seventeen consecutive patients who were treated with mitotane after radical resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) from 1999 to 2005 underwent physical examination, routine laboratory evaluation, monitoring of mitotane concentrations, and a hormonal work-up at baseline and every 3 months till ACC relapse or study end (December 2007).
  • Mitotane affected adrenal steroidogenesis with a more remarkable inhibition of cortisol and DHEAS than aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18824557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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80. Abiven-Lepage G, Coste J, Tissier F, Groussin L, Billaud L, Dousset B, Goffinet F, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Raffin-Sanson ML: Adrenocortical carcinoma and pregnancy: clinical and biological features and prognosis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):793-800
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma and pregnancy: clinical and biological features and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, severe disease.
  • For the survival analysis, pregnant patients were compared with a subgroup of nonpregnant women matched for age, stage, and year of diagnosis (1 pregnant patient/2 controls).
  • RESULTS: Adrenocortical tumors diagnosed during pregnancy or in the postpartum period tend to be more often cortisol-secreting tumors (P=0.06) and to be discovered at a more advanced stage than those in nonpregnant women, although the differences were not significant.

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  • (PMID = 20699382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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82. Shimony A, Bereza S, Shalev A, Gilutz H, Ilia R, Zahger D: Ventricular fibrillation as the presenting manifestation of adrenocortical carcinoma. Am Heart Hosp J; 2009;7(1):65-6
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  • [Title] Ventricular fibrillation as the presenting manifestation of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We describe a case of a young adult in whom sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation was the presenting manifestation of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Sudden death has not been previously described as a manifestation of this adrenal neoplasm.
  • Unexplained persistent hypokalemia after resuscitated sudden death (especially when combined with hypertension( should prompt investigation for an underlying secondary hypertension, particularly adrenal pathology.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained sudden death associated with unexplained hypokalemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Ventricular Fibrillation / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19742438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-7168
  • [Journal-full-title] The American heart hospital journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Heart Hosp J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Ochi T, Tanji N, Shimamoto K, Ikeda T, Toshino A, Yokoyama M: Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium. Int J Urol; 2006 Mar;13(3):202-5
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  • [Title] Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium.
  • Tumors originated in the right kidney in four patients, and in left adrenal gland in one patient.
  • Of the five patients, three died of metastatic diseases, one died of liver dysfunction and one remains disease free as of 18 months postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods. Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery


84. Kazarian AM, Marangos IP, Røsok BI, Rosseland AR, Edwin B: [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2010;169(4):80-5
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals].
  • An analysis was made of experience with treatment of 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinomas (in 7 patients) and metastases in adrenals (in 17 cases).
  • The method can replace open operative intervention in the majority of patients with metastases to adrenals and primary cancer of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20973194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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85. Haase M, Schott M, Bornstein SR, Malendowicz LK, Scherbaum WA, Willenberg HS: CITED2 is expressed in human adrenocortical cells and regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor. J Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;192(2):459-65
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  • [Title] CITED2 is expressed in human adrenocortical cells and regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor.
  • CITED2 gene deletion in mice leads to adrenal agenesis.
  • Therefore, we analyzed CITED2, a CBP/p300 interacting transactivator with transforming activity, in the human adrenal gland.
  • In this study, we examined CITED2 expression in human embryonic and adult adrenal glands as well as adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • As ACTH and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are connected to the physiology and growth of adrenocortical cells we studied the regulation of CITED2 by these factors in the NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
  • We found CITED2 expression in the adult adrenal cortex as well in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • At an early stage of human adrenal organogenesis CITED2 could be located to the definitive zone of the developing adrenal gland using immunohistochemistry.
  • CITED2 is expressed in embryonic and adult human adrenal glands as well as in adrenocortical cancer.
  • This suggests a novel role for CITED2 in human adrenal growth and possibly in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Trans-Activators / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Embryonic Development. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 17283246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CITED2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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86. Cazejust J, De Baère T, Auperin A, Deschamps F, Hechelhammer L, Abdel-Rehim M, Schlumberger M, Leboulleux S, Baudin E: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Oct;21(10):1527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness, tolerance, and predictors of response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with progressive liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma were treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • RESULTS: Three months after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, a liver morphologic response was observed in six of 29 patients (21%), stabilization in 18 (62%), and progression in five (17%).
  • According to per-lesion analysis (n = 103), a morphologic response was observed in 23 lesions (22%), stabilization in 67 (65%), and progression in 13 (13%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization should be considered as part of the therapeutic arsenal to treat liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Hemostatics / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20801688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemostatics
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87. Attivi D, Ajana I, Astier A, Demoré B, Gibaud S: Development of microemulsion of mitotane for improvement of oral bioavailability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2010 Apr;36(4):421-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is considered to be the drug of choice in the treatment of nonresectable and metastasized adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacokinetics. Biological Availability. Drug Compounding / methods. Emulsions. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Jejunum / metabolism. Male. Particle Size. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Solubility. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19778161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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88. Schlamp A, Hallfeldt K, Mueller-Lisse U, Pfluger T, Reincke M: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Feb;3(2):191-5; quiz 1 p following 195
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection.
  • A left adrenal mass of 6.5 cm by 7.5 cm was detected by a CT scan.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to remove the tumor mass; histologic work-up revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: In our department, laboratory work-up for endocrine activity was performed, as well as CT scans of the adrenal region, and FDG-PET scans in order to determine the extension of disease.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • The patient is now scheduled for polychemotherapy because of progressive metastatic disease revealed by follow-up CT and FDG-PET scanning in June 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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89. Louiset E, Isvi K, Gasc JM, Duparc C, Cauliez B, Laquerrière A, Kuhn JM, Lefebvre H: Ectopic expression of serotonin7 receptors in an adrenocortical carcinoma co-secreting renin and cortisol. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1025-34
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  • [Title] Ectopic expression of serotonin7 receptors in an adrenocortical carcinoma co-secreting renin and cortisol.
  • Abnormal expression of membrane receptors has been previously described in benign adrenocortical neoplasms causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • In particular, we have observed that, in some adreno corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia tissues, cortisol secretion is controlled by ectopic serotonin(7) (5-HT(7)) receptors.
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxy tryptamine; 5-HT) on cortisol and renin production by a left adrenocortical carcinoma removed from a 48-year-old female patient with severe Cushing's syndrome and elevated plasma renin levels.
  • Tumor explants were obtained at surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and cell culture studies.
  • In addition, immunohistochemistry showed the occurrence of 5-HT(7) receptor-like immunoreactivity in carcinoma cells. mRNAs encoding renin as well as renin-like immunoreactivity were detected in endothelial and tumor cells.
  • Cell incubation studies revealed that the adrenocortical tissue also released renin.
  • 5-HT(7) receptors, in an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Our results also indicate that 5-HT can influence the secretory activity of malignant adrenocortical tumors in an autocrine/paracrine manner.
  • The effects of 5-HT on adrenocortical tumor cells included a paradoxical inhibitory action on renin production and a stimulatory action on cortisol secretion involving 5-HT(7) receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Receptors, Serotonin / metabolism. Renin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18708508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin; 0 / SB 269970; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 0 / serotonin 7 receptor; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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90. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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91. Morimoto R, Satoh F, Murakami O, Suzuki T, Abe T, Tanemoto M, Abe M, Uruno A, Ishidoya S, Arai Y, Takahashi K, Sasano H, Ito S: Immunohistochemistry of a proliferation marker Ki67/MIB1 in adrenocortical carcinomas: Ki67/MIB1 labeling index is a predictor for recurrence of adrenocortical carcinomas. Endocr J; 2008 Mar;55(1):49-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry of a proliferation marker Ki67/MIB1 in adrenocortical carcinomas: Ki67/MIB1 labeling index is a predictor for recurrence of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly malignant tumor.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 46 years old, and the mean size of the primary tumors was 7.1 cm with the minimal of 3.5 cm.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with Ki67/MIB1LI of 7% or more were associated with significantly shortened disease-free survival (P = 0.0037).
  • The survival analysis with Weiss score showed that patients with the scores of 6 or more had both significantly shortened disease-free survival (P = 0.0001) and overall survival (P = 0.0063).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18187873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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92. Xiao ZJ, Li CL: [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug 10;90(30):2123-5
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  • [Title] [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical efficacy of combined therapy in the treatment of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 12 cases with advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma at our hospital from 1986 - 2006 were analyzed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was all of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • According to evaluation criterion of chemotherapeutic effect by WHO in 1987, the results were: CR (complete remission) (n = 0), PR (partial remission) (n = 7), SD (stable disease) (n = 3) and PD (progressive disease) (n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined therapy of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma is effective to prolong the patient lifespan.
  • Making an early diagnosis and offering a novel therapy yield a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21029628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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93. Haluska P, Worden F, Olmos D, Yin D, Schteingart D, Batzel GN, Paccagnella ML, de Bono JS, Gualberto A, Hammer GD: Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody figitumumab in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Mar;65(4):765-73
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  • [Title] Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody figitumumab in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling through upregulation of the stimulatory ligand IGF-II has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • As there is a paucity of effective therapies, this dose expansion cohort of a phase 1 study was undertaken to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects on endocrine markers of figitumumab in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Figitumumab was administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle at the maximal feasible dose (20 mg/kg) to a cohort of patients with metastatic, refractory adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients with adrenocortical carcinoma received 50 cycles of figitumumab at the 20 mg/kg.
  • Pharmacokinetics of figitumumab was comparable to patients with solid tumors other than adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Eight of 14 patients (57%) had stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The side effect profile and pharmacokinetics of figitumumab were similar in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in comparison to patients with other solid tumors.
  • The majority of patients receiving protocol therapy with single agent figitumumab experienced stability of disease, warranting further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19649631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628-05
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Insulin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; VE267FC2UB / figitumumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS190253; NLM/ PMC2875253
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94. Broome JT, Gauger P: Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):185-93
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  • [Title] Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors.
  • As technology has advanced, the options for the surgical management of adrenal disorders have also increased.
  • An understanding of the basic evaluation of adrenal tumors, patient specific factors, and the risks and benefits of available techniques will allow the clinician to select an appropriate treatment for each individual.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for functional adrenocortical adenomas including aldosteronomas, cortisol-producing adenomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • While minimally-invasive techniques offer shorter recovery times and less potential morbidity, more traditional approaches remain necessary for management of known or suspected adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Except in the case of pheochromocytoma, large adrenal tumors >6 cm should not be removed laparoscopically due to the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This article will review basic surgical adrenal disorders, operative approaches, and delineate principles of patient and procedure selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Length of Stay. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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95. Mishra AK, Agarwal A, Gupta S, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Outcome of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: experience from a tertiary care center. World J Surg; 2007 Jul;31(7):1425-32
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  • There were various etiologies--unilateral adrenocortical adenoma (n = 11), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 13), pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma with failed transsphenoidal surgery (n = 4), ectopic unidentified ACTH source (n = 7), bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia (n = 1), primary pigmented nodular adrenal hyperplasia (n = 1) --for which the patients underwent adrenalectomy: unilateral (n = 22), bilateral (n = 13), or adrenonephrectomy (n = 2).
  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovered as shown by normalization of the short synacthen-stimulated cortisol level (peak level > or = 20 microg/dl) after a median follow-up of 9 months (range 6-18 months).
  • Surgery for adrenocortical adenoma is safe and effective; however, survival of patients with CS due to adrenocortical carcinoma remains poor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17534556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Ferruzzi P, Ceni E, Tarocchi M, Grappone C, Milani S, Galli A, Fiorelli G, Serio M, Mannelli M: Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1332-9
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  • [Title] Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R.
  • In the present study, we evaluated PPARgamma mRNA and protein expression in tissue samples of human adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), normal adrenal glands, and the human ACC cell line H295R.
  • PPARgamma mRNA was expressed in six of eight ACC, two of three normal adrenal glands and the H295R cells.
  • Western blot analysis showed that TZDs increased the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 and reduced the expression of cyclin D1.
  • These data suggest that TZDs reduce the malignant potential of the H295R ACC cell line and, therefore, might potentially constitute a novel tool in the medical treatment of human ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. PPAR gamma / genetics. PPAR gamma / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15585569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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97. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • In patients with metastatic or progressive disease, medical treatment is started with mitotane that requires a close monitoring of its blood level.
  • Local treatment (radiofrequency, chemoembolization, and radiation therapy) can have some indications for metastatic disease.
  • In patients with disease progression cytotoxic chemotherapy can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy


98. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Florczak A, Witkiewicz W, Tupikowski W, Cisarz E: [A long term survival of the patient treated due to advanced adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2005 May;113(5):462-5
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  • [Title] [A long term survival of the patient treated due to advanced adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Długoletnie przezycie chorej leczonej z powodu zaawansowanego raka kory nadnercza.
  • The authors presented a case of 52-years old woman with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma completely recovered after surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and mitotane treatment.
  • From the first diagnosis - patient lives 12 years, without any symptoms of recurrence until now.
  • The authors accentuate a big value of postoperative control, especially imaging studies for early diagnosis of recurrent of cancer and beginning therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16479829.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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99. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Khanafshar E, Suh I, Barker C, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling. Arch Surg; 2008 Sep;143(9):841-6; discussion 846
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  • [Title] Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling.
  • HYPOTHESIS: The gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors are different.
  • PATIENTS: Eighty-five patients with benign adrenocortical tumors (n = 74) and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 11).
  • INTERVENTION: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 89 adrenocortical tissue samples (11 malignant and 78 benign).
  • The criteria for differentially expressed genes between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors were a false discovery rate of less than 5% and an adjusted P < .01.
  • Fifteen genes were downregulated and 22 were upregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Of the 37 genes validated by RT-PCR, 22 were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (P < .05).
  • Five of these 22 genes had an AUC of 0.80 or greater (the AUC for IL13RA2 was 0.90; HTR2B, 0.87; CCNB2, 0.86; RARRES2, 0.86; and SLC16A9, 0.80), indicating high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: We identified 37 genes that are dysregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma, and several of the differentially expressed genes have excellent diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex. Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Chemokines / metabolism. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B2. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. ROC Curve. Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18794420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCNB2 protein, human; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B2; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B; 0 / chemerin protein, human
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100. Cho NH, Lee HW, Lim SY, Kang S, Jung WY, Park CS: Genetic aberrance of sporadic MEN 2A component tumours: analysis of RET. Pathology; 2005 Feb;37(1):10-3
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  • AIM: The molecular pathogenesis of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 (parathyroid adenoma with medullary thyroid carcinoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma) is associated with a germ-line mutation in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • METHODS: Direct sequencing for RET exon 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 and immunohistochemistry for RET monoclonal antibody were performed on the archival tissues of 84 cases of sporadic endocrine tumours, including 22 medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), 35 adrenal pheochromocytomas (APCs), 18 paragangliomas (PGs), and nine parathyroid adenomas (PTAs).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Paraganglioma / genetics. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Point Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15875728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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