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1. Zwermann O, Beuschlein F, Lalli E, Klink A, Sassone-Corsi P, Reincke M: Clinical and molecular evidence for DAX-1 inhibition of steroidogenic factor-1-dependent ACTH receptor gene expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):769-76
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  • In non-functional adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas, ACTH-R expression is low.
  • DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1) is a general repressor of steroid production, inhibiting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)-dependent expression of multiple steroidogenic enzymes.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACTH-R gene transcription is affected by DAX-1 and whether this mechanism is involved in down-regulation of ACTH-R expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • METHODS: We screened 22 adrenocortical tumors for ACTH-R and DAX-1 mRNA expression by Northern blot.
  • For in vitro analyses we co-transfected mouse Y1 adrenocortical carcinoma cells with the luciferase reporter gene vector pGL3 containing full-length constructs of human (h) or mouse (m) ACTH-R promoter together with a DAX-1 expression plasmid.

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  • (PMID = 15879363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin
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2. Zafar SS, Abaza R: Robot-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: initial report and review of the literature. J Endourol; 2008 May;22(5):985-9
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  • [Title] Robot-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: initial report and review of the literature.
  • We report the first robot-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This patient was referred to our center for extirpation of an incidentally discovered 8-cm adrenal mass.
  • We review the literature regarding robot-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy and discuss the potential benefits of this technique as compared with standard laparoscopy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18377235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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3. Yasumoto T, Hayashi S, Shimizu J, Dono K, Nakata S, Sato M, Kitada M, Shimano T: [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2371-3
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a case of local recurrent tumor after a resection of right adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • The case is a man in his 80s who had a curative surgical resection and microwave coagulation therapy (MCT) for multiple hepatocellular carcinomas in February 2003.
  • In July 2003, a right adrenal tumor 2 cm in diameter was detected by computed tomography (CT), but the value of the adrenocortical hormones were normal on blood examination, and he was observed at regular intervals.
  • In February 2005, the adrenal lesion enlarged to 5 cm in diameter and the value of PIVKA-II became high on blood examination, so April 2005, a surgical resection was performed, and it was diagnosed as the metastasis from HCC.
  • It was considered inoperable because of the past operation, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of an inferior adrenal artery and a fine branch through a right sub-phrenic artery was performed for the recurrent tumor, and one week after the embolization, radiofrequency ablation was treated by CT fluoroscopy guidance.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation is considered as a feasible and effective method for not only HCC but also for a local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20037426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Adam P, Hahner S, Hartmann M, Heinrich B, Quinkler M, Willenberg HS, Saeger W, Sbiera S, Schmull S, Voelker HU, Ströbel P, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome. Mod Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(12):1596-604
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but highly malignant neoplasm with still limited treatment options.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be overexpressed in many solid tumors, but its expression in adrenocortical carcinoma has been studied only in a limited number of cases.
  • Therefore, we analyzed the expression of EGFR in 169 adrenocortical carcinoma samples and compared it with 31 adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Additionally, in 30 cases of adrenocortical carcinoma, exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene were cloned and sequenced.
  • EGFR expression was found in 128 of 169 adrenocortical carcinoma samples (76%), and in 60 of these samples (=36%) strong membrane staining was detected.
  • In contrast, only 1 out of 31 adrenocortical adenomas weakly expressed the EGFR (3%).
  • In summary, EGFR was overexpressed in more than three-quarters of adrenocortical carcinoma cases of this series.
  • As EGFR is hardly expressed in adrenocortical adenomas, our results suggest that its expression in adrenocortical tumors indicates a malignant phenotype, which may be used in the differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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5. Mete O, Kapran Y, Güllüoğlu MG, Kiliçaslan I, Erbil Y, Senyürek YG, Dizdaroğlu F: Anti-CD10 (56C6) is expressed variably in adrenocortical tumors and cannot be used to discriminate clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2010 May;456(5):515-21
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  • [Title] Anti-CD10 (56C6) is expressed variably in adrenocortical tumors and cannot be used to discriminate clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
  • In the evaluation of retroperitoneal masses, the practicing pathologist faces a dilemma when making a diagnosis based on histology given the often overlapping morphologic appearances of the adrenocortical carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • CD10 is expressed in a membranous fashion in the vast majority of clear cell RCCs; therefore, it is widely used for distinction from its mimics.
  • However, its expression is not well-investigated in adrenal cortical tumors.
  • We examined CD10 expression in 47 surgically resected adrenocortical tumors (26 adenomas and 21 carcinomas) and compared with 20 clear cell RCCs and 25 HCCs.
  • Twenty HCCs (80%), 18 RCCs (90%), 11 adrenocortical carcinomas (52%), and 18 adrenocortical adenomas (69%) were positive for CD10.
  • HCCs were characterized by a canalicular staining, and clear cell RCCs exhibited membranous or mixed membranous-cytoplasmic staining.
  • Adrenocortical tumors displayed mainly cytoplasmic staining.
  • Four adrenocortical carcinomas and one adenoma also displayed the membranous staining pattern.
  • Despite the relatively small number of samples, our preliminary results revealed that adrenocortical tumors may express CD10 (Clone: 56C6).
  • The most important point from this paper is the fact that anti-CD10 expression has not been previously reported in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • This suggests that CD10 does not seem to be a useful marker for discriminating clear cell RCCs from adrenocortical tumors since CD10 expression does not rule out the possibility of adrenocortical tumors.
  • This feature should be kept in mind when constructing an antibody panel for an epithelial tumor that involves the adrenal gland and kidney, especially in small biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neprilysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / immunology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / immunology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20390424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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6. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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7. Ko JH, Lee HS, Hong J, Hwang JS: Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Turner syndrome and somatic TP53 gene mutation. Eur J Pediatr; 2010 Apr;169(4):501-4
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Turner syndrome and somatic TP53 gene mutation.
  • Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma and Turner syndrome have opposite clinical manifestations in some aspects.
  • Here, we report on the first case of virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a girl with Turner syndrome.
  • No other morphologic anomaly was found.
  • Biochemical assessment revealed normal electrolytes with pronounced elevation of adrenal androgens.
  • She was found to have a large mass of the left adrenal gland on abdominal computed tomography scan.
  • She underwent complete resection of the mass, and pathology was consistent with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • She was tested for TP53 gene mutation, and we found a de novo TP53 gene mutation (Val143Ala) as well as a 45,X karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genes, p53. Point Mutation / genetics. Turner Syndrome / complications. Virilism / genetics


8. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • RESULTS: There was a bimodal age distribution of carcinomas and adenomas, with a first peak occurring before age 5 years.
  • The proportion of carcinomas in children (18 of 29) was higher than in adults (6 of 21).
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • Children and adults with carcinoma had similar curves of survival (p = 0.76).
  • Carcinoma stage and PCNA immunoexpression displayed an association with outcome.
  • The role of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in discrimination of adenomas from carcinomas is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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9. Wright CB, Brennan L, Brophy P, Kirsh G, Shapiro M, Potter B, Giss S, Lindeman KE, Obial R, Fannin E: Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2008 Feb;49(1):79-81
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension.
  • A 41 year old white female presented with upper respiratory distress and shortness of breath appeared on initial computed tomography (CT) scan to have a large left retroperitoneal mass with left renal vein extension including a mass up to the level of the atrium.
  • She proved, however, to have an adrenal cortical carcinoma which displaced the kidney, exhibiting vascular invasion within the gland and non-adherent extension into the vena cava, atrium, common hepatic vein and left renal vein, where some adherence was present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Heart Atria / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18212691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Fulmer BR: Diagnosis and management of adrenal cortical carcinoma. Curr Urol Rep; 2007 Jan;8(1):77-82
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a relatively uncommon malignancy that represents a significant clinical challenge for the development of optimal treatment strategies.
  • Although the framework of a successful treatment paradigm still relies on these steps, advances in diagnostic imaging have led to increased accuracy in diagnosis, and advances in laparoscopic surgical technique have served to reduce morbidity for patients facing treatment.
  • This review focuses on a discussion of advances in modalities for the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cortical carcinoma amenable to curative therapy.
  • Patients that present with metastatic or locally advanced disease generally are treated with mitotane-based chemotherapy with or without the addition of cytotoxic drugs.
  • Contemporary results of this treatment approach are presented in this review as well as a discussion of further directions for the treatment of patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17239320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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11. Allwes D, Popovich ML: Empowering patients and researchers through a common health information registry: a case example of adrenocortical carcinoma patients and researchers. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2007;127:219-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Empowering patients and researchers through a common health information registry: a case example of adrenocortical carcinoma patients and researchers.
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that forms in the outer layer of tissue of the adrenal gland, which is a small gland situated on the anteriosuperior aspect of the kidneys.
  • Because this cancer affects a limited number of patients, it is referred to as an Orphan disease, which is defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people nationwide.
  • With a small number of patients, and a correspondingly small number of providers and researches, this disease is a candidate for establishing a shareable information system that is used by the patient, provider, and researcher.
  • Orphan disease registries are prime candidates for establishing health information resources that support communications between patients, providers, and researchers.
  • By empowering a common community of individuals that share a common disease, the potential to accelerate research and identify improved treatment options may also increase.
  • This paper presents a strategic plan and design for implementing Orphan disease registries within an e-health environment that specifically links patients and providers with researchers.
  • The Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry will be used to demonstrate the implementation and potential of these systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Medical Informatics / organization & administration. Patient Participation. Registries. Research Personnel

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  • (PMID = 17901614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Ignaszak-Szczepaniak M, Horst-Sikorska W, Sawicka J, Kaczmarek M, Slomski R: The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jul;16(1):65-71
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  • [Title] The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients.
  • We have analyzed the 72Pro polymorphic variant in patients with adrenocortical tumors to evaluate whether 72G--> C substitution at codon 72 of TP53 gene may be associated with increased risk for malignancy in adrenal cortex in comparison to the control group.
  • DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes of 46 Polish patients with adrenocortical tumors (17 malignant and 29 benign) and 50 controls was examined by PCR-HD method followed by direct sequencing.
  • High frequency of 72Pro allele in patients with carcinoma (29%) in comparison to the benign tumors (14%) and controls (12%) was statistically analyzed.
  • Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism could be associated with susceptibility for adrenocortical cancer in the examined Polish patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16786124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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13. Chou SH, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Moon HS, Chamberland JP, Liu X, Kavantzas N, Mantzoros CS: Adiponectin receptor expression in human malignant tissues. Horm Cancer; 2010 Jun;1(3):136-45
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  • [Title] Adiponectin receptor expression in human malignant tissues.
  • We used immunohistochemistry to assess expression of adiponectin receptors in archival specimens of renal cell carcinoma (n = 64), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 123), melanoma (n = 20), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 20), transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (n = 24), ovarian epithelial carcinoma (n = 63), cervical squamous cell carcinoma (n = 49), and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 48).
  • To compare expression in malignant versus nonmalignant tissues, we also studied AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in pairs of renal cell carcinoma and adjacent healthy kidney tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry.
  • We also studied mRNA expression in 45 specimens of renal cell carcinoma by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
  • Finally, we utilized Western blotting to confirm the presence of adiponectin receptors and subsequently studied cell signaling pathways of adiponectin in the renal cancer cell line 786-O.
  • Of the specimens of renal cell carcinoma, which is strongly associated with obesity, 93.8% expressed AdipoR1 compared to 44.9% of the specimens of cervical cell carcinoma, which is not associated with obesity (p < 0.001).
  • There was no difference in the expression of adiponectin receptors or their mRNA between malignant and benign kidney tissue specimens.
  • Finally, Western blotting confirmed the presence of AdipoR1 in the renal cancer cell line 786-O, and adiponectin activates in vitro several signaling pathways in this cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications. Obesity / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 21761356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Adiponectin
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14. Cheng MF, Wu YW, Tzen KY, Yen RF: F-18 FDG PET/CT illustrating tumor invasion in the IVC from adrenocortical carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Nov;32(11):891-2
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  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT illustrating tumor invasion in the IVC from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18075433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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15. Bielinska M, Parviainen H, Kiiveri S, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Review paper: origin and molecular pathology of adrenocortical neoplasms. Vet Pathol; 2009 Mar;46(2):194-210
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  • [Title] Review paper: origin and molecular pathology of adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • Neoplastic adrenocortical lesions are common in humans and several species of domestic animals.
  • Although there are unanswered questions about the origin and evolution of adrenocortical neoplasms, analysis of human tumor specimens and animal models indicates that adrenocortical tumorigenesis involves both genetic and epigenetic alterations.
  • Epigenetic changes serve to expand the size of the uncommitted adrenal progenitor population, modulate their phenotypic plasticity (i.e., responsiveness to extracellular signals), and increase the likelihood of subsequent genetic alterations.
  • Analyses of heritable and spontaneous types of human adrenocortical tumors documented alterations in either cell surface receptors or their downstream effectors that impact neoplastic transformation.
  • Many of the mutations associated with benign human adrenocortical tumors result in dysregulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling, whereas key factors and/or signaling pathways associated with adrenocortical carcinomas include dysregulated expression of the IGF2 gene cluster, activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor.
  • A better understanding of the factors and signaling pathways involved in adrenal tumorigenesis is necessary to develop targeted pharmacologic and genetic therapies.

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  • (PMID = 19261630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 165
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS85359; NLM/ PMC2811968
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16. Meyer A, Behrend M: 32-year survival with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma--update of a case report. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1045-6
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  • [Title] 32-year survival with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma--update of a case report.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with up to 70% of the patients diagnosed at an advanced clinical stage and up to 40% presenting with metastasis.
  • In 2004, we reported a case of a 62-year-old woman with a non-functional ACC of the left adrenal gland (T2 N0 M0, classified as stage II) who survived the disease for 28 years with 3 operations for metastases of the contralateral adrenal gland and 4 operations for metastases of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17465241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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17. Kaneko T, Kojima Y, Umemoto Y, Sasaki S, Hayashi Y, Kohri K: Usefulness of transcription factors Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 as immunohistologic markers for diagnosis of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Horm Res; 2008;70(5):294-9
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  • [Title] Usefulness of transcription factors Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 as immunohistologic markers for diagnosis of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We examined the expressions of Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma with normal hormonal findings by immunohistochemistry and discussed their usefulness as immunohistochemical markers for diagnosis.
  • Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 underwent immunohistochemical study using needle biopsy specimens from the retroperitoneal tumor or metastatic tumor of these patients to diagnose primary adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Ad4BP/SF-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the carcinoma cells of 2 patients, but not in the others, whereas DAX-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the carcinoma cells of all 4 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 are considered essential to maintain the biological characteristics of adrenocortical cells even without abnormal hormonal findings or even after malignant transformation and metastasis.
  • These markers are useful to distinguish other retroperitoneal tumors, especially in patients with bulky tumors, and to diagnose the metastatic site of origin as adrenocortical carcinoma in patients clinically presenting with widespread metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / analysis. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18824868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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18. Ochi T, Tanji N, Shimamoto K, Ikeda T, Toshino A, Yokoyama M: Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium. Int J Urol; 2006 Mar;13(3):202-5
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  • [Title] Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium.
  • Tumors originated in the right kidney in four patients, and in left adrenal gland in one patient.
  • Of the five patients, three died of metastatic diseases, one died of liver dysfunction and one remains disease free as of 18 months postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods. Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery


19. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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20. Barzon L, Masi G, Pacenti M, Trevisan M, Fallo F, Remo A, Martignoni G, Montanaro D, Pezzi V, Palù G: Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2008 Feb;452(2):181-91
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  • [Title] Expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • We recently demonstrated that adrenocortical carcinoma cells express aromatase and estrogen receptors (ERs) and that 17beta-estradiol enhances adrenocortical cell proliferation.
  • To provide a clue to the role of estrogens in adrenal tumorigenesis, we investigated the expression profile of genes involved in sex steroid hormone production and activity in a large series of normal and neoplastic human adrenocortical tissues.
  • Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry showed that ERalpha and ERbeta, androgen receptor (AR), and aromatase were expressed in the adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Western blot analysis revealed the presence of a truncated form of AR in adrenocortical tissues.
  • With respect to the normal adrenal cortex and adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas were characterized by significantly lower ERbeta levels, ERalpha upregulation, and aromatase overexpression.
  • In agreement with our in vitro findings, the results of this study suggest that estrogens, locally produced by aromatase, could enhance adrenocortical cell proliferation though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Aromatase / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18157729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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21. Terzolo M, Berruti A: Adjunctive treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Jun;15(3):221-6
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  • [Title] Adjunctive treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Description of the adjunctive treatment strategies in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma after complete surgical resection.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: A retrospective analysis showing that adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in a large cohort of patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma has recently been published.
  • SUMMARY: Radical surgical resection of adrenocortical carcinoma offers the best chance for prolonged recurrence-free survival; however, a significant number of patients without objective and biochemical evidence of residual tumor after surgery are destined to relapse.
  • Mitotane, an analogue of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, has been used for treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma since the 1960s, but its use as an adjunctive postoperative measure has remained controversial.
  • The recent demonstration that mitotane treatment following macroscopically complete removal of adrenocortical carcinoma was associated with beneficial effects on outcome in a well designed, multicenter, international study should renew interest in adjuvant mitotane therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitotane / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Humans


22. Lindhe O, Skogseid B: Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Sep;42(10):725-30
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  • [Title] Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies.
  • Growth through the capsule or accidental release of cancer cells during surgery frequently results in metastatic disease.
  • We investigated the antitumoral effect of 2 adrenocorticolytic compounds, O, P'-DDD and MeSO2-DDE, in the adrenocortical cell line H295R both in vitro and as a xenograft model in vivo.
  • O, P'-DDD, MeSO2-DDE, or oil (control) was administered i. p., either simultaneously with cell injection at day 0 (mimicking adjuvant treatment), or at day 48 (established tumors).
  • We suggest that FLT may be a potential PET biomarker when assessing adrenocortical cancer treatment with O,P'-DDD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Aggregation / drug effects. Cell Count. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radioactive Tracers. Spheroids, Cellular / drug effects. Spheroids, Cellular / pathology. Time Factors. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20665429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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23. Shi Z, Henwood MJ, Bannerman P, Batista D, Horvath A, Guttenberg M, Stratakis CA, Grimberg A: Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease reveals insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 regulation by protein kinase A. Growth Horm IGF Res; 2007 Apr;17(2):113-21
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  • [Title] Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease reveals insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 regulation by protein kinase A.
  • OBJECTIVE: Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) can occur as an isolated trait or part of Carney complex, a familial lentiginosis-multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome frequently caused by mutations in PRKAR1A, which encodes the 1alpha regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA).
  • Because alterations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, particularly IGF-II and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 overexpression, have been implicated in sporadic adrenocortical tumors, we sought to examine the IGF axis in PPNAD.
  • NCI-H295R cells were used to study PKA and IGF axis signaling in adrenocortical cells in vitro.
  • RESULTS: IGFBP-2 mRNA level distinguished between the two genetic subtypes of this disease; increased IGFBP-2 expression in PRKAR1A mutation-positive PPNAD tissues was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Moreover, PKA inhibitors increased IGFBP-2 expression in NCI-H295R adrenocortical cells, and anti-IGFBP-2 antibody reduced their proliferation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IGFBP-2 expression is increased in PPNAD caused by PRKAR1A mutations, and in adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • This is the first evidence for PKA-dependent regulation of IGFBP-2 expression in adrenocortical cells.

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  • (PMID = 17280861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-6374
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Horm. IGF Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] OMIM/ 160980
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK63688; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK063688; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642-04; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 5 K08 DK64352; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK064352
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS22924; NLM/ PMC2577759
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24. Hofland J, Timmerman MA, de Herder WW, van Schaik RH, de Krijger RR, de Jong FH: Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Dec;65(6):792-9
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  • [Title] Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The growth and differentiation factors activin and inhibin can affect tumour formation and steroid production in the adrenal cortex.
  • Expression of these activin-related mRNAs was measured in different types of adrenocortical tissues and tumours to study the relationship with tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN: Quantitative expression of activin-related mRNAs was investigated in patient adrenocortical samples.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty-eight human adrenocortical samples from normal and hyperplastic adrenals and from adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas were collected after surgery for study purposes.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the expression of inhibin alpha-, betaA- and betaB-subunits, follistatin, betaglycan, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and Alk-4 in the adrenocortical tissues.
  • RESULTS: All genes studied were expressed in all tissues, with the exception of the inhibin alpha-subunit in one hyperplastic adrenal and three adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Expression of inhibin betaA-subunit, follistatin, betaglycan, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and CYP17 differed between nontumorous adrenals and carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins is affected by tumour formation in the adrenal gland and may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type II / genetics. Activin Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Follistatin / genetics. Follistatin / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Inhibin-beta Subunits / genetics. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Proteoglycans / genetics. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17121532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Follistatin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / inhibin beta A subunit; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 145170-29-2 / betaglycan; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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25. Carmona-Bayonas A, Soler IO, Gómez FI, Billalabeitia EG, Saura HP, Tafalla MS, Díaz MP: Tailored hormonal therapy in secretory adrenocortical cancer. Ann Oncol; 2007 Jul;18(7):1281
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  • [Title] Tailored hormonal therapy in secretory adrenocortical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17675396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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26. Hancock S, Still RA, Fielding AM, Doran JF, Stephens JW: A rare cause of Cushing's syndrome demonstrates analytical discrepancies between the Roche E170 and Bayer Centaur testosterone assays. Ann Clin Biochem; 2008 May;45(Pt 3):328-30
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  • Overnight and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests confirmed the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Imaging investigations revealed an appearance compatible with adrenocortical carcinoma with metastases in the lungs and liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Testosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18482927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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27. Korzeniewska M, Kołomecki K, Stepień H, Naze M, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;56(1):39-44
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  • [Title] [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Ocena stezeń wybranych czynników pro i antyangiogennych we krwi u chorych z nieczynnymi hormonalnie guzami nadnerczy.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the value of serum VEGF and soluble forms of VEGF receptors concentration as a marker of malignancy in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients (18 female, 9 male; mean age 48+/-4.3 years) with adrenocortical carcinoma (N=8), adrenal metastases (N=4) and adrenocortical adenoma (N=15) were included in this study.
  • Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma had the levels of VEGF (1263.8 pg/ml) significantly higher and of sVEGFR-2 (5893.7 pg/ml) significantly lower in comparison to control group (p<0.05).
  • On the other hand the mean VEGF (334.2 pg/ml) concentration in patients with benign adrenocortical adenoma wasn't significant different than in control group (p>0.05) but mean sVEGFR-1 (21.7 pg/ml) and sVEGFR-2 (7106.4 pg/ml) concentrations were significantly lower than in the control (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that determination of VEGF and sVEGFR concentration in the serum of patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors may be applied as an additional marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16335673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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28. Suzuki H: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal carcinoma and metastases. Curr Opin Urol; 2006 Mar;16(2):47-53
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal carcinoma and metastases.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article discusses topics concerned with laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal pathologies.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the operation of choice for the resection of adrenal tumors, and provides dramatically reduced morbidity associated with the operation.
  • Although current laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic or primary adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, great care is required.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for these adrenal pathologies should be converted to open adrenalectomy or hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy for difficult dissection, invasion, adhesions or surgeon inexperience.
  • In general, laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be performed with acceptable outcomes in carefully selected patients with small, organ-confined, solitary adrenal metastasis or primary adrenal carcinoma.
  • SUMMARY: As surgical technique and complete resection are crucial to the success of the procedure, appropriate and careful judgment on the part of the surgeon is the most important factor in the care of a patient with such adrenal malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16479203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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29. Cantón RF, Scholten DE, Marsh G, de Jong PC, van den Berg M: Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2008 Feb 15;227(1):68-75
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  • Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17.

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  • (PMID = 18022659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Polybrominated Biphenyls; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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30. Sencan M, Dokmetas HS: A case of postpartum hypopituitarism accompanied by Cushing's syndrome as a result of an adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):219-22
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  • [Title] A case of postpartum hypopituitarism accompanied by Cushing's syndrome as a result of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We found an adrenal mass with distant metastases to the liver and lung while investigating the origin of the hypercortisolism.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as hypopituitarism due to Sheehan's syndrome accompanied by Cushing's syndrome as a result of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Puerperal Disorders / etiology


31. Lin J, Wasco MJ, Korobkin M, Doherty G, Giordano TJ: Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(4):239-43
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature.
  • A 31-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a large right adrenal mass by computed tomography imaging and underwent a workup that included endocrinological evaluation and positron emission tomography imaging.
  • Because of concern for adrenal cortical carcinoma, the patient underwent a successful right adrenalectomy.
  • The diagnosis of leiomyoma was supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains.
  • Adrenal leiomyomas have been reported in the literature, although most are small and not preoperatively suspicious for malignancy.
  • This case illustrates that benign tumors such as leiomyomas, when large and heterogeneous on imaging, can clinically mimic adrenal cortical carcinomas and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Incidental Findings. Leiomyoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18197480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. West AN, Ribeiro RC, Jenkins J, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Kriwacki R, Zambetti GP: Identification of a novel germ line variant hotspot mutant p53-R175L in pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma. Cancer Res; 2006 May 15;66(10):5056-62
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel germ line variant hotspot mutant p53-R175L in pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • When inherited, hotspot mutants are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a familial cancer predisposition.
  • We have identified a novel germ line variant of the 175 mutant (Arg to Leu; R175L) in a pediatric patient who developed adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • These findings suggest that p53-R175L retains sufficient activity to suppress LFS, but not adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Growth Processes / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Models, Molecular. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 16707427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Igaz P, Tömböl Z, Szabó PM, Likó I, Rácz K: Steroid biosynthesis inhibitors in the therapy of hypercortisolism: theory and practice. Curr Med Chem; 2008;15(26):2734-47
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  • Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease with significant morbidity and mortality.
  • It is not uncommon, however, that surgery fails to cure or control the disease.
  • A few drugs inhibiting single or multiple steps in adrenal steroid biosynthesis can be used in clinical practice.
  • Besides blocking multiple steps in adrenal steroid biosynthesis, the DDT (insecticide) analogue mitotane also has adrenolytic properties by inducing mitochondrial degeneration that renders it superior to other drugs in the treatment of adrenocortical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18991633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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34. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Histopathological prognostic factors of ACC have not been fully established because of the rarity of the disease.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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35. Moid F, DePalma L: Comparison of relative value of bone marrow aspirates and bone marrow trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma: institutional experience and literature review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Apr;129(4):497-501
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  • [Title] Comparison of relative value of bone marrow aspirates and bone marrow trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma: institutional experience and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative value of aspirates and trephine biopsies in the diagnosis of solid tumor metastasis and Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The diagnosis and findings made on aspirates were compared with those made on trephine biopsies in each case.
  • The correlation between aspirates and trephine biopsies was highest in cases of small cell carcinoma of the lung (3/11, or 36.3%) followed by breast carcinoma (7/20, or 35%), prostate carcinoma (1/9, or 11.1%), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1/20, or 5%).
  • Two of 5 cases from the miscellaneous category demonstrated simultaneous involvement of aspirate and trephine biopsy by a gastric carcinoma as well as an adrenal gland carcinoma.
  • In cases of breast carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of lung, and prostate carcinoma, aspirate evaluation may confirm trephine biopsy results or, more rarely, provide the sole confirmation of the malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Marrow Examination / methods. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Hodgkin Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15794673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Zhu Y, Zhang HB, Lu L, Li NS, Fu Y, Wang O, Xu LL, Jiang Y, Tong AL, Zhu HJ, Li W, Hu MM, Yu M, Mao JF, Yuan T, Li M, Xia WB, Xing XP: [Adrenal lesions in patients of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 19;90(38):2689-92
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  • [Title] [Adrenal lesions in patients of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of adrenal lesions in Chinese multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) patients.
  • METHODS: Adrenal CT scan and clinical manifestations were retrospectively reviewed in 32 consecutive MEN-1 patients who were evaluated at our hospital during January 1986 to December 2009.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal lesions were identified in 16 of 32 (50%) MEN-1 patients.
  • Five (31.3%) patents with adrenal involvement showed bilateral lesions, including bilateral adenoma (n=1), bilateral hyperplasia (n=2) and adenoma and hyperplasia on each side (n=2).
  • Unilateral adrenal lesion was presented in 11 (68.7%) patients.
  • In two patients, functioning adrenal abnormalities were detected including Cushing adenoma (n=1) and aldosterone-secreting adenoma (n=1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adrenal lesion in MEN-1 patient is similar between China and western countries.
  • Taking into account a high incidence of adrenal carcinoma in previous foreign studies, routine screening and close surveillance are still recommended for adrenal lesions in MEN-1 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology


37. Shackelford RE, Veillon DM, Heldmann M, Elmajian DA, Gonzalez E, Cotelingam JD: Pathology case of the month. Thirty-year-old man with a right adrenal mass. Adrenocortical carcinoma with lung and right renal hilar metastases. J La State Med Soc; 2006 Jul-Aug;158(4):172-5
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  • [Title] Pathology case of the month. Thirty-year-old man with a right adrenal mass. Adrenocortical carcinoma with lung and right renal hilar metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary


38. Bertherat J, Groussin L, Bertagna X: Mechanisms of disease: adrenocortical tumors--molecular advances and clinical perspectives. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;2(11):632-41
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of disease: adrenocortical tumors--molecular advances and clinical perspectives.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign, unilateral, adrenocortical adenomas that are often discovered incidentally.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is rare.
  • Exceptionally, adrenocortical tumors can be bilateral.
  • Although most adrenocortical tumors occur sporadically, they may also feature in congenital and/or familial disease.
  • The identification of germline genetic defects in familial diseases associated with adrenocortical tumors helped to define the somatic alterations in sporadic disease: for example, overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 2 and alterations at the 11p15 locus (observed in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome) are also found in most adrenocortical cancers.
  • Similarly, inactivating mutations of the TP53 gene, located at 17p13 (observed in Li-Fraumeni syndrome), can also be found at the somatic level in sporadic adrenocortical cancers, as can 17p13 allelic losses.
  • Components of the cyclic AMP signaling pathway--for example, adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors and other membrane receptors, Gs proteins and protein kinase A--can be altered to various degrees in adrenocortical tumors.
  • More recently, gene profiling and genetic studies have shown that the Wnt-beta-catenin signaling pathway is frequently activated in adrenocortical tumors.
  • These research findings already have profound implications for clinical management of patients with adrenocortical tumors, for example in unraveling the genetic origin of the disease in some patients, and in the development of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17082810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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39. Vranic S, Kapur L, Foco F, Bilalovic N, Hainaut P: The first case of Li-Fraumeni syndrome in Bosnia and Herzegovina: case report. Pathologica; 2006 Apr;98(2):156-9
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  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a very rare autosomal dominant and highly penetrant cancer syndrome characterized by early-onset primary tumours, including soft tissue and bone sarcoma, breast cancer, leukemia, brain tumours and adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bosnia and Herzegovina / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Exons / genetics. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / genetics. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Haplotypes / genetics. Humans. Introns / genetics. Lip Neoplasms / genetics. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Orbit Evisceration. Pedigree. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16929790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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40. Doghman M, Cazareth J, Lalli E: The T cell factor/beta-catenin antagonist PKF115-584 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Aug;93(8):3222-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The T cell factor/beta-catenin antagonist PKF115-584 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • CONTEXT: Mutations of the beta-catenin (CTNNB1) gene are frequently found in adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the small-molecule inhibitor of the T cell factor (Tcf)/beta-catenin complex PKF115-584 on beta-catenin-dependent transcription and proliferation of H295R adrenocortical tumor cells, which harbor mutations in CTNNB1 as well as the TP53 tumor suppressor gene.
  • PKF115-584 dose-dependently inhibited beta-catenin-dependent transcription and H295R proliferation, even in the presence of increased steroidogenic factor-1 levels, which augment proliferation in this cell line.
  • The drug had no effect on HeLa cells, a cell line in which the beta-catenin pathway is not activated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inhibitors of the Tcf/beta-catenin complex may prove useful in the treatment of adrenocortical tumors in which multiple genetic alterations have accumulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. TCF Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. beta Catenin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Genes, p53. Humans. Mutation. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18544621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin
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41. Tomkova K, Tomka M, Zajac V: Contribution of p53, p63, and p73 to the developmental diseases and cancer. Neoplasma; 2008;55(3):177-81
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  • [Title] Contribution of p53, p63, and p73 to the developmental diseases and cancer.
  • This syndrome is characterized by the early onset of different types of cancers including soft-tissue sarcomas, breast and brain cancers, leukemias, lung, laryngeal cancers, and adrenocortical carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18348649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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42. Gross MD, Avram A, Fig LM, Fanti S, Al-Nahhas A, Rubello D: PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2007 Sep;51(3):272-83
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  • [Title] PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Early experience with positron emission tomography (PET) has provided exciting results in the evaluation of a broad spectrum of neoplasms, to include primary adrenal tumors, their metastases and metastatic disease to the adrenal glands.
  • By virtue of the well-recognized propensity of malignancies to preferentially use glycolysis as an important energy source and the stimulation of mechanisms designed to absorb substrate glucose, the glucose analog, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, has become a successful radiopharmaceutical in the scintigraphic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Building upon prior experience gained with imaging the adrenal gland, other positron-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are finding their way into clinical use.
  • The 11b-hydroxylase inhibitor, metomidate labeled with 11C has been used to scintigraphically identify tissues of adrenocortical origin, to accurately identify recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma and may be useful in assessing the malignant potential of these tumors and predicting survival in afflicted patients.
  • Additional structural and functional information provided by computed tomography (CT), performed as part of hybrid PET/CT imaging directly complements PET and adds measurable diagnostic value in the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Image Enhancement / methods. Molecular Probe Techniques. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17464268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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43. Caso J, Seigne J, Back M, Spiess PE, Pow-Sang J, Sexton WJ: Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors. J Urol; 2009 Sep;182(3):887-93
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  • [Title] Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors.
  • We explored the oncological effectiveness of inferior vena caval resection, as determined by margin status, cancer recurrence and survival.
  • Primary tumor type was renal cell carcinoma in 7 patients, metastatic testicular cancer in 5, leiomyosarcoma in 3, and adrenal cortical carcinoma, primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumor and upper tract transitional cell carcinoma in 1 each.
  • Data reviewed included preoperative and postoperative sequelae of inferior vena caval obstruction, postoperative complications, pathological results, cancer recurrence, graft requirements and functional outcomes.
  • A total of 12 patients underwent simultaneous nephrectomy and/or left renal vein ligation in the same setting with acceptable alterations in postoperative renal function and no need for permanent dialysis.
  • Cancer recurred locally in 4 of 15 patients who underwent resection.
  • Five of 15 patients in the resection group died of disease or were lost to followup compared to all 3 in whom resection was aborted or macroscopically incomplete (mean followup 19.2 vs 4.3 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local cancer control and potentially increased cancer specific survival can be achieved with successful complete circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava as a component of multimodality care in select patients with locally advanced malignancy.
  • The most common postoperative complications are renal insufficiency and lower extremity edema, which are generally transient.

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  • (PMID = 19616230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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45. Gladding P, King T, Grey A: Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal carcinoma. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1497
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal carcinoma.
  • We present a case of adrenocortical carcinoma-causing corticotrophin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cellulitis / diagnosis. Cellulitis / etiology. Cellulitis / therapy. Groin. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


46. Toti P, Regoli M, Nesi G, Occhini R, Bartolommei S, Fonzi L, Bertelli E: Nestin expression in normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical tumors. Histol Histopathol; 2005 10;20(4):1115-20
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  • [Title] Nestin expression in normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical tumors.
  • Human adrenocortical cells have been shown to express cytokeratins and vimentin.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein that is mainly expressed in the developing nervous system and that has been recently reported in rat adrenal gland as well.
  • Using immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, the present study demonstrates that nestin is constantly expressed in situ in the cortex of normal human adrenal glands.
  • Moreover, patches of nestin-positive cells have been constantly detected on sections of cortical adenomas.
  • In contrast, adrenal carcinomas displayed a variable number of nestin-immunoreactive cells that in some cases were virtually absent.
  • Samples of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis in the adrenals were also examined which did not show nestin-immunoreactivity.
  • We propose that a positive nestin-immunoreaction could be useful in differential diagnosis of clear cell tumors in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Case-Control Studies. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16136494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin
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47. Asp V, Ullerås E, Lindström V, Bergström U, Oskarsson A, Brandt I: Biphasic hormonal responses to the adrenocorticolytic DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in human cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2010 Feb 1;242(3):281-9
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  • The DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO(2)-DDE) has been proposed as a lead compound for an improved adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) treatment.
  • ACC is a rare malignant disorder with poor prognosis, and the current pharmacological therapy o,p'-DDD (mitotane) has limited efficacy and causes severe adverse effects.
  • 3-MeSO(2)-DDE is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 11B1 in mice and causes formation of irreversibly bound protein adducts, reduced glucocorticoid secretion, and cell death in the adrenal cortex of several animal species.
  • The results support previous indications that humans are sensitive to the adrenocorticolytic actions of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE by demonstrating protein adduct formation and cytotoxicity in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. DDT / metabolism. Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Aldosterone / secretion. Animals. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Design. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Mice. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19900470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 4M7FS82U08 / Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene; 62938-14-1 / 1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)benzene; CIW5S16655 / DDT; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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48. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino MC, Camera L, Klain M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G, Colao A: Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1779-84
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  • [Title] Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.
  • Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16522701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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49. Villar JM, Moreno P, Ortega J, Bollo E, Ramírez CP, Muñoz N, Martínez C, Domínguez-Adame E, Sancho J, del Pino JM, Couselo JM, Carrión A, Candel M, Cáceres N, Octavio JM, Mateo F, Galán L, Ramia JM, Aguiló J, Herrera F: Results of adrenal surgery. Data of a Spanish National Survey. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):837-43
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  • [Title] Results of adrenal surgery. Data of a Spanish National Survey.
  • Most frequent indications were pheochromocytoma (23.2%), aldosteronoma (16.7%), incidentaloma (12.2%), metastasis (10.3%), Cushing adenoma (9.6%), and carcinoma (3.8%).
  • High-volume centers had a greater proportion of laparoscopically treated cases (p = 0.008), more malignant lesions treated (p = 0.03), a shorter overall stay (p < 0.0001), and a shorter stay after laparotomic adrenalectomy (p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Hospital Mortality / trends. Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparotomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Hospitals, Public / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Male. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Population Surveillance. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Risk Assessment. Spain. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 20658299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Muro Toledo GE, Losada Guerra JL, Martín Pérez A, Pérez Marín IR: [Giant adrenal carcinoma. Case report]. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Mar;62(2):134-6
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal carcinoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarenal gigante. Presentación de un caso.
  • BACKGROUND: To present a case of giant suprarenal carcinoma assisted by the Urology Service of the "Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán" General University Hospital of Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.
  • Pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of suprarenal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The big dimensions of the tumor determined a wide excision surgery which didn't stop the progression of the disease and the death of the patient 6 months after being operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19448281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Hiroi N, Yanagisawa R, Yoshida-Hiroi M, Endo T, Kawase T, Tsuchida Y, Toyama K, Shibuya K, Nakata K, Yoshino G: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):551-4
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.
  • A 56-yr-old man was admitted to our university hospital for severe back pain one month after a resection for lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIA) without evidence of the adrenal mass.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed bilateral bleeding of adrenal tumors.
  • Core-needle biopsy was performed on the right adrenal tumor and revealed adenocarcinoma cells mimicking a primary lung tumor previously examined.
  • We diagnosed retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma with adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenal metastases most commonly originate from a primary lung tumor, followed by stomach, esophagus and liver/bile ducts.
  • Bilateral adrenal metastases were noted in approximately half of all adrenal metastases patients.
  • Clinically significant adrenal hemorrhage by metastasis is exceedingly rare and non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal, chest or back pain, nausea and vomiting, confusion, weakness, hypotension, shock and high fever, are often observed in these patients.
  • We present a case of massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16840834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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52. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Bellantone R: Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;94(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of laparoscopic approach for the treatment of malignant adrenal diseases is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to verify the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all the patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for adrenal diseases and in whom malignancy was demonstrated at final histology were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients were included (three malignant pheochromocytomas, four adrenocortical carcinomas, and two adrenal metastases).
  • One patient died for metastatic disease and the other one for unrelated causes.
  • One patient operated on for an adrenocortical carcinoma developed a pelvic recurrence.
  • One patient operated on for a malignant pheochromocytoma developed multiple intra-abdominal recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that LA can have a role also in case of adrenal malignancies.
  • A preliminary laparoscopic exploration can be planned in case of suspected malignant lesions to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate their operability.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Registries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16847903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Abiven G, Coste J, Groussin L, Anract P, Tissier F, Legmann P, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2650-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 44 +/- 16 yr (range, 11-88 yr).
  • We found that 154 patients (76%) had hypersecreting tumors [mostly cortisol and androgens (47%), cortisol alone (27%), or androgens alone (6%)] and 43 patients (21%) had metastases at diagnosis.
  • Multivariate analysis identified the following independent prognostic factors associated with shorter survival: older age at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; P < 0.0001], initial MacFarlane extension stages 3 (HR, 4.42; P = 0.005) and 4 (HR, 7.93; P < 0.0001), and cortisol hypersecretion (HR, 3.90; P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16670169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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54. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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55. Schmidt A, Schwella N, Helmchen U, von Renteln D, Caca K: [A 42 year old patient with bilateral loss of sight and hypertension. Gemcitabine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)]. Internist (Berl); 2008 Aug;49(8):989-90, 992-4
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  • We report a case of a 42 year old male patient with a history of adrenocortical carcinoma, who was admitted with bilateral loss of sight and hypertension.
  • Laboratory tests and further clinical evaluation showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anemia, Hemolytic / chemically induced. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / toxicity. Blindness / etiology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / chemically induced. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology. Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 18427761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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56. Dichtchekenian V, de Bragança Pereira CA, Kuperman H, Della Manna T, Damiani D, Ferreira Alves VA, Filho AL, Setian N: Adrenocortical carcinoma: prognostic indices based on clinical and immunohistochemical markers. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;18(4):347-53
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: prognostic indices based on clinical and immunohistochemical markers.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare condition with an unpredictable prognosis as a rule.
  • Y = 1 when chronological age (CA) >33 mo, Y = 0 when CA < or =33 mo; L = 1 for right sided tumor and L = 0 for left sided tumor; H = 1 in presence of hypertension and H = 0 for normal blood pressure; T = length of disease in months; W = weight of tumor (g); O = 1 in the absence of p53 protein and O = 0 in the presence of p53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 15844468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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57. Cantini G, Lombardi A, Piscitelli E, Poli G, Ceni E, Marchiani S, Ercolino T, Galli A, Serio M, Mannelli M, Luconi M: Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:904041
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling.
  • We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R) of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR).
  • We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC.
  • Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ.
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

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  • (PMID = 18670617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Hahner S, Stürmer A, Fassnacht M, Hartmann RW, Schewe K, Cochran S, Zink M, Schirbel A, Allolio B: Etomidate unmasks intraadrenal regulation of steroidogenesis and proliferation in adrenal cortical cell lines. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jun;42(7):528-34
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  • [Title] Etomidate unmasks intraadrenal regulation of steroidogenesis and proliferation in adrenal cortical cell lines.
  • To characterize intraadrenal adaptations for inhibition of cortisol synthesis, we analyzed the effects of etomidate (ETO) on steroid hormone secretion and expression of key regulators of steroidogenesis and proliferation in human NCI-h295 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • In summary, ETO exhibits pleiotropic effects on adrenal function in vitro.
  • These changes reflect adaptations to maintain steroidogenesis at the cost of adrenal proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Etomidate / pharmacology. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / genetics. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Humans. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.
  • (PMID = 20352599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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59. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Shibru D, Khafnashar E, Chung KW, Hwang J, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):873-81
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  • [Title] Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common genetic change observed in adrenocortical carcinoma is loss of heterozygozity on chromosome 11q13.
  • As genes on this chromosome may be important in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma, we compared their expression profile between benign and malignant adrenocortical tissue.
  • METHODS: We used the Affymetrix GeneChip (U133 plus 2.0) array in 54 adrenocortical tumors (11 carcinoma and 43 benign).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determined the diagnostic accuracy of the differently expressed genes for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found 25 of the 314 genes on chromosome 11q13 to be differentially expressed between adrenocortical carcinoma and benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • All 25 were downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma by 2-fold to 4.8-fold; 21 were validated to be differentially expressed by RT-PCR (Pearson's coefficient>0.5).
  • Six genes (SERPING1, MRPL48, TM7SF2, DDB1, NDUSF8, PRDX5) validated by RT-PCR were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (p<0.05) with an overall accuracy of 89% for SERPING1, 91% for MRPL48, 87% for TM7SF2, 88% for DDB1, 91% for NDUFS8, and 89% for PRDX5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 25 genes located on chromosome 11q13 that are downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and may be candidate tumor suppressor genes.
  • Six of these genes were good diagnostic markers for distinguishing adrenocortical carcinoma from adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18324346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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60. Ji ZG, Xue C, Li HZ, Wang HJ, Xie Y, Liu GH: Piggyback liver transplant techniques in the surgical management of urological tumors with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Sep 20;122(18):2155-8
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  • BACKGROUND: An important characteristic of renal cell carcinomas and adrenal tumors is that these tumors may expand into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, and transform into tumor thrombi.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients with renal cell carcinomas or adrenal tumors with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were treated from November 1995 to April 2008.
  • One patient with adrenal cortical carcinoma and level IV thrombus died in the immediate postoperative period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Liver Transplantation / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology


61. Kuwada M, Hosokawa Y, Takada S, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):599-602
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  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report].
  • Based on abdominal CT, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The patient died three months after operation because of disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Back Pain / etiology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Chest Pain / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology


62. Dural C, Bilge O, Toker A, Erbil Y, Salmaslioglu A, Ozbey N, Aral F: Malignant phaeochromocytoma with cavoatrial extension: transcaval removal of tumor without cardiopulmonary bypass A case report. Minerva Chir; 2010 Aug;65(4):485-8
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  • [Title] Malignant phaeochromocytoma with cavoatrial extension: transcaval removal of tumor without cardiopulmonary bypass A case report.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a rare tumor and with metastasis usually in lungs, lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
  • The surgical approach to adrenal tumor extending into the vena cava is challenging.
  • This article reports a case of malignant pheochromocytoma extending into the cavoatrial junction in a young man.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Atria. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 20802436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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63. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68
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  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Lou E, Goodwin J, Howell DN, Hicks J, Caram LB: A G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation causing leukocytosis. Nat Rev Urol; 2009 Jul;6(7):392-7
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  • [Title] A G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation causing leukocytosis.
  • He had chronic renal insufficiency, sleep apnea, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease.
  • DIAGNOSIS: G-CSF-secreting adrenal carcinoma with rhabdoid-like differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / secretion. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / secretion. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19578356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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65. Karakas Z, Tugcu D, Unuvar A, Atay D, Akcay A, Gedik H, Kayserili H, Dogan O, Anak S, Devecioglu O: Li-Fraumeni syndrome in a Turkish family. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 May;27(4):297-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) association with acute leukemia is unusual in childhood, even in LFS.
  • The authors here present a family with pR337P mutation in TP53 gene who had a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated adrenocortical carcinoma as a case 1 and his cousin with brain tumor as a case 2.
  • A hereditary TP53 mutation supported the diagnosis of LFS in this family.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20426520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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66. Liang F, Kapoun AM, Lam A, Damm DL, Quan D, O'Connell M, Protter AA: B-Type natriuretic peptide inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol transfer, and steroidogenesis in primary human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology; 2007 Aug;148(8):3722-9
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  • [Title] B-Type natriuretic peptide inhibited angiotensin II-stimulated cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol transfer, and steroidogenesis in primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) opposed angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, cellular cholesterol uptake, cholesterol transfer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and steroidogenesis, which are required for biosynthesis of steroid hormones such as aldosterone and cortisol in primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • BNP dose-dependently stimulated intracellular cGMP production with an EC(50) of 11 nm, implying that human adrenocortical cells express the guanylyl cyclase A receptor. cDNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that BNP inhibited Ang II-stimulated genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis (acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase, HMG coenzyme A synthase 1, HMG coenzyme A reductase, isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase, lanosterol synthase, sterol-4C-methyl oxidase, and emopamil binding protein/sterol isomerase), cholesterol uptake from circulating lipoproteins (scavenger receptor class B type I and low-density lipoprotein receptor), cholesterol transfer to the inner mitochondrial membrane (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), and steroidogenesis (ferredoxin 1,3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, glutathione transferase A3, CYP19A1, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2).
  • Consistent with the microarray and real-time PCR results, BNP also blocked Ang II-induced binding of (125)I-labeled low-density lipoprotein and (125)I-labeled high-density lipoprotein to human adrenocortical cells.
  • Furthermore, BNP markedly inhibited Ang II-stimulated release of estradiol, aldosterone, and cortisol from cultured primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • This study provides new insights into the cellular mechanisms by which BNP modulates Ang II-induced steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Angiotensin II / metabolism. Cholesterol / metabolism. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / metabolism. Vasoconstrictor Agents / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Cyclic GMP / metabolism. Drug Interactions. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Humans. Lipoproteins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / standards. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroids / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17478552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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67. Chervin RA, Danilowicz K, Pitoia F, Gómez RM, Bruno OD: [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(4):341-50
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  • [Title] [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio de 34 pacientes con incidentaloma suprarrenal.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma, a tumor discovered unexpectedly during imaging performed for non-adrenal related causes, has become a frequent clinical concern.
  • Although in most cases they are benign and hormonally nonfunctioning, it is important to appropriately identify those few cases of malignant or hyperfunctioning lesions of surgical resolution.
  • In the present retrospective study we analyzed 34 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Of these, 32% of the patients displayed hyperfunctioning pathologies that included subclinical Cushing's syndrome in four patients, probable primary hyperaldosteronism in two, late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one, adrerocortical carcinoma in one and pheochromocytoma in three.
  • CT and/or MRI permitted the identification of adenomas and were crucial to decide on surgery in two patients with nonfunctioning pheochromocytomas and in a patient carrying a primitive adrenocortical carcinoma, a diagnosis also suggested by a mixed pattern of hypersecretion of androgens and cortisol.
  • Nonfunctioning tumors were mainly adenomas (87%) with individual cases of histoplasmosis, pseudocyst, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia and mielolipoma.
  • Six of the eight operated patients presented malignant and/or hyperfunctioning tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Androgens / secretion. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17891929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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68. Muttarak M, Chotirosniramit A, Unsrisong K, Na Chiangmai W: Adrenal carcinoma. Biomed Imaging Interv J; 2006 Jan;2(1):e9
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  • [Title] Adrenal carcinoma.

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  • [Cites] World J Urol. 1999 Feb;17(1):26-34 [10096148.001]
  • [Cites] J Urol. 2003 Jan;169(1):5-11 [12478091.001]
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  • (PMID = 21614222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1823-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical imaging and intervention journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Imaging Interv J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3097607
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69. Soon PS, Sidhu SB: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Treat Res; 2010;153:187-210
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19957226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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70. Ren R, Guo M, Sneige N, Moran CA, Gong Y: Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Sep;126(3):389-98
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges.
  • We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma.
  • Cytologic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural findings should be correlated with clinical and radiologic information for achieving a proper cytologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16880150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Balogh K, Hunyady L, Patócs A, Valkusz Z, Bertalan R, Gergics P, Majnik J, Toke J, Tóth M, Szucs N, Gláz E, Futo L, Horányi J, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: [Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Results of genetic screening in Hungarian patients]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Oct 23;146(43):2191-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Results of genetic screening in Hungarian patients].
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by endocrinopathies involving the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreas.
  • Also, it may be associated with foregut carcinoid, adrenocortical tumors and non-endocrine tumors.
  • After reviewing the prevalence, genetic background, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the disorder, the authors present their genetic screening method used for the detection of mutations of the MEN1 gene (prescreening of polymerase chain reaction amplified exons using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis followed by direct DNA sequencing).
  • Using this method, the authors identified disease-causing MEN1 gene mutations in 9 probands (small deletions in 2 cases, insertion in 2 cases, nonsense mutations in 2 cases and missense mutations in 3 cases).
  • Family screening indicated de novo mutations in 2 probands.
  • The authors conclude that one of the major advantages of genetic screening in families with MEN1 syndrome was the identification of family members carrying the mutation who should be regularly screened for disease manifestations and those not carrying the mutation in whom clinical screening is unnecessary.
  • Also, genetic screening may be useful in cases when MEN1 syndrome is suspected, but the clinical manifestations do not fully establish the diagnosis of MEN1 syndrome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / therapy. Mutation. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Pedigree. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Polymorphism, Genetic


72. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards


73. Argyriou P, Zisis C, Alevizopoulos N, Kefaloyannis EM, Gennatas C, Petraki CD: Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:134
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortex oncocytic carcinoma (AOC) represents an exceptional pathological entity, since only 22 cases have been documented in the literature so far.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Our case concerns a 54-year-old man with past medical history of right adrenal excision with partial hepatectomy, due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Finally, approximately five years post disease onset, the patient died due to massive metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Histological classification of adrenocortical oncocytic tumours has been so far a matter of debate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19091123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630932
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74. Palmero EI, Schüler-Faccini L, Caleffi M, Achatz MI, Olivier M, Martel-Planche G, Marcel V, Aguiar E, Giacomazzi J, Ewald IP, Giugliani R, Hainaut P, Ashton-Prolla P: Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil. Cancer Lett; 2008 Mar 8;261(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil.
  • Germline TP53 mutations predispose to a rare familial cancer syndrome, the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), characterized by the early onset of multiple cancers including childhood adrenocortical carcinomas, sarcomas and brain tumors, and breast and colon cancer in young adults.
  • An identical germline mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (R337H) has been shown to be causally related to an increased risk of multiple cancers in unrelated subjects with familial cancer risk in Southern Brazil.
  • Here we have assessed the prevalence of R337H in 750 healthy women participating in a community-based breast cancer screening program in the area of Porto Alegre.
  • The mutant was detected in two participants (0.3%) who were fourth-degree relatives and reported a familial history of cancer at multiple sites that did not match classical criteria for LFS and its variants.
  • Testing in additional family members detected the mutation in three subjects, one of whom developed breast cancer at the age of 36.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brazil. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Middle Aged. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 18248785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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75. Noda M, Ohno S, Nakajin S: Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) induces nuclear receptor 4A subfamily in NCI-H295R cells: a possible mechanism of aromatase suppression by MEHP. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Aug 15;274(1-2):8-18
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  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of phthalate esters on aromatase (CYP19) activity and on its gene expression in a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, NCI-H295R.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17574328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Plasticizers; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Transcription Factors; C42K0PH13C / Diethylhexyl Phthalate; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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76. Chen CH, Wu HC, Chang CH: An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma. MedGenMed; 2005;7(2):9
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  • [Title] An accessory spleen mimics a left adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16369388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-0132
  • [Journal-full-title] MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MedGenMed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1681608
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77. Gross BA, Mindea SA, Pick AJ, Chandler JP, Batjer HH: Medical management of Cushing disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical management of Cushing disease.
  • Although transsphenoidal excision of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing neoplasm is often the treatment of choice in patients with Cushing disease, medical management is itself a useful preoperative temporizing measure, an option for long-term management in nonsurgical candidates, and an option for patients in whom surgery and/or radiotherapy have failed.
  • Three pathophysiologically based approaches exist in the research literature--neuro-modulation to limit ACTH levels, adrenal enzyme inhibition, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonism.
  • Adrenal enzyme inhibitors, however, offer substantial future promise in the management of Cushing disease but are limited by the potential need to use them indefinitely and by dose-tolerance effects.
  • Although etomidate is a potential intravenous alternative for acute cortisol level control, ketoconazole has shown efficacy in the long-term treatment of patients with the disease.
  • If success is still not achieved, the potent adrenolytic agent often used for adrenocortical carcinomas, mitotane, is another alternative.

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  • (PMID = 17961023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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78. Barzon L, Maffei P, Sonino N, Pilon C, Baldazzi L, Balsamo A, Del Maschio O, Masi G, Trevisan M, Pacenti M, Fallo F: The role of 21-hydroxylase in the pathogenesis of adrenal masses: review of the literature and focus on our own experience. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):615-23
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  • [Title] The role of 21-hydroxylase in the pathogenesis of adrenal masses: review of the literature and focus on our own experience.
  • An exaggerated response of 17- hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) to exogenous ACTH stimulation has been found in 30 to 70% of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors, supporting the concept that congenital 21- hydroxylase deficiency may be a predisposing factor for adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • Decreased expression of 21-hydroxylase gene has been observed in sporadic non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas, in agreement with the reduced steroidogenic activity found in these types of tumors.
  • Screening studies for the presence of mutations in CYP21A2 gene, encoding 21-hydroxylase, in patients with sporadic adrenocortical tumors yielded discordant results.
  • Overall, a higher frequency of germline 21-hydroxylase mutation carriers has been found among patients with adrenal tumors, including incidentalomas, than in the general population.
  • However, the presence of mutations did not correlate with endocrine test results and tumor mass features, suggesting that 21-hydroxylase deficiency does not represent a relevant mechanism in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17848847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; EC 1.14.14.16 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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79. Patel VV, Shah DS, Raychaudhari CR, Patel KB: Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Apr;31(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, especially in children.
  • Empty left renal fossa and compensatory enlarged right kidney were seen.
  • With a stage IV disease, the patient died after 2 months from diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21209768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2970938
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / adrenocortical tumor / nonfunctioning
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80. Vega Vega A, Canga Presa JM, Sanz de la Morena P, de la Cruz Vigo JL: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Mar;29(3):277-80
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma].
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions against open procedures because of the efficacy and less morbidity.
  • For suspected adrenal malignancies laparoscopic use is controversial.
  • We report our experience in 6 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with the suspicion of adrenal malignancy confined in the gland.
  • We concluded that in a suspected adrenal malignancy organ confined laparoscopic adrenalectomy presents the advantage compared with open surgery of reduced morbidity and similar results in the follow up of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15945253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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81. Kanczkowski W, Zacharowski K, Wirth MP, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):57-65
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  • [Title] Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells.
  • During sepsis, an intact adrenal gland glucocorticoid stress response is critical for survival.
  • However, the exact role which TLRs play in adrenal homeostasis and malfunction is not yet sufficiently known.
  • Using quantitative real-time PCR, confocal microscopy and the NF-kappaB reporter gene assay, we aimed to analyse both, expression and function of all relevant TLRs in the human adrenocortical cell line-NCI-H295R and adrenal cells in primary culture.
  • Our results demonstrate a differential expression pattern of TLR1-9 in human adrenocortical cells as compared to immune cells and adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Therefore, Toll-like receptors expression and function is a novel feature of the adrenal stress system contributing to adrenal tissue homeostasis, regeneration and tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Gene Expression Regulation. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19022344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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82. Erbil Y, Salmaslioğlu A, Barbaros U, Bozbora A, Mete O, Aral F, Ozarmağan S: Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts. Urol Int; 2008;80(1):31-6
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  • [Title] Clinical and radiological features of adrenal cysts.
  • Adrenal cysts are very rare lesions, usually asymptomatic or without characteristic symptoms.
  • Although pseudocysts are reported to be the most common clinically recognized adrenal cysts in surgical series, endothelial cysts are more common in autopsy series.
  • We studied 15 consecutive patients with adrenal cysts who underwent surgical resection at our institution from 1990 to 2005.
  • Of 15 patients with adrenal cysts, 10 had pseudocysts, 3 epithelial cysts, 1 an endothelial cyst and 1 a parasitic cyst.
  • In conclusion, a better understanding of cystic adrenal masses is necessary to recognize true adrenal cysts and differentiating them from adrenal carcinoma or adenoma by demonstrating the foci of cystic or degenerative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Endothelium / pathology. Epithelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18204230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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83. Bakthavathsalam G, Shanmugasundaram VP, Prabakaran J, Venkatesh SP, Sowndaravalli DV, Jain CB: Nonfunctioning adrenocorticalcarcinoma. Int Surg; 2008 Mar-Apr;93(2):81-7
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  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses detected through imaging for nonadrenal disease, often referred to as adrenal incidentalomas, were first described approximately 20 years ago.
  • Despite the rarity of primary endocrine cancers of the adrenal, adrenal masses are one of the most prevalent of all human tumors.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma approaches 3% in middle age and increases to as much as 10% in the elderly.
  • This report describes the case of a 30-year-old man who presented primarily with complaints of deep vein thrombosis of the left leg secondary to a nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18998286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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84. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • A recently used technique for the isolation of this cell population is through exclusion of the vital dye Hoechst 33342, which defines the so-called side population (SP).
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Furthermore, re-sorting and tracing experiments revealed the capacity for both cell types to give rise to the original SP- and non-SP-containing cell population.
  • Similarly to the baseline growth kinetics, no survival benefit was evident in SP cells after treatment with cytotoxic agents commonly used in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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85. Heye S, Woestenborghs H, Van Kerkhove F, Oyen R: Adrenocortical carcinoma with fat inclusion: case report. Abdom Imaging; 2005 Sep-Oct;30(5):641-3
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with fat inclusion: case report.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor that arises from the adrenal cortex, with an estimated incidence of 0.5% to 2% per 1 million patients yearly.
  • Although some fat content can be expected in hormonally active adrenocortical carcinomas, areas of 100% fat are extremely rare.
  • We present a case of an adrenocortical carcinoma with a small focus of pure fat depicted on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15688105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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86. Owecki M, Baszko-Błaszyk D, Waśko R, Sowiński J: [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Feb;18(104):216-8
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  • [Title] [Non-small cell lung cancer presenting under the mask of a primary adrenal cancer--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Niedrobnokomórkowy rak płuca przebiegajacy pod maska pierwotnego raka nadnercza--opis przypadku.
  • Adrenal carcinoma is a malignant disease that often results in distant metastases to different organs, including the lungs.
  • While diagnosing patients with suspected adrenal carcinoma, metastases to the lungs should always be considered.
  • The opposite clinical situation also should be considered, i.e. lung cancer metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Both conditions may have a very similar course and their differential diagnosis may be sometimes very difficult.
  • However, proper diagnosis is of great importance because both diseases are treated by different means.
  • We present a case of a 50-year-old female patient with a small primary focus of non-small cell lung carcinoma and its large metastasis to the left adrenal gland, accompanied by SIADH and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia.
  • In the presented case adrenal carcinoma and its lung metastasis were primarily misdiagnosed which led to unnecessary laparotomy.
  • The proper diagnosis was enabled by CT guided biopsy of the lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Diagnostic Errors. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Unnecessary Procedures


87. Brix D, Allolio B, Fenske W, Agha A, Dralle H, Jurowich C, Langer P, Mussack T, Nies C, Riedmiller H, Spahn M, Weismann D, Hahner S, Fassnacht M, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group: Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients. Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):609-15
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare oncologic outcome in patients with ACC who underwent either open adrenalectomy (OA) or laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for localised disease.
  • INTERVENTION: Patients were stratified into two groups according to the surgical procedure (LA or OA).
  • For comparison, we used both a matched pairs approach by selecting for each patient from the LA group (n=35) one corresponding patient from the OA group (n=117) and multivariate analysis in all 152 patients.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Disease-specific survival was chosen as the predefined primary end point.
  • Secondary end points were recurrence-free survival, frequency of tumour capsule violation and postoperative peritoneal carcinomatosis, and incidence and reasons for conversion from LA to OA.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: LA and OA did not differ with regard to the primary end point using either the matched pairs approach (hazard ratio [HR] for death: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-1.72; p=0.55) or multivariate analysis (HR for death: 0.98; 95% CI, 0.51-1.92; p=0.92).
  • Similarly, adjusted recurrence-free survival was not different between LA and OA (HR: 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.47; p=0.69).
  • In 12 of 35 patients of the LA group, surgery was converted to open surgery with no impact on the clinical outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For localised ACC with a diameter of < or =10 cm, LA by an experienced surgeon is not inferior to OA with regard to oncologic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Dec;58(6):e53; author reply e54 [20864252.001]
  • (PMID = 20580485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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88. Daffara F, De Francia S, Reimondo G, Zaggia B, Aroasio E, Porpiglia F, Volante M, Termine A, Di Carlo F, Dogliotti L, Angeli A, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1043-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly.
  • Seventeen consecutive patients who were treated with mitotane after radical resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) from 1999 to 2005 underwent physical examination, routine laboratory evaluation, monitoring of mitotane concentrations, and a hormonal work-up at baseline and every 3 months till ACC relapse or study end (December 2007).
  • Mitotane affected adrenal steroidogenesis with a more remarkable inhibition of cortisol and DHEAS than aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18824557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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89. Abiven-Lepage G, Coste J, Tissier F, Groussin L, Billaud L, Dousset B, Goffinet F, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Raffin-Sanson ML: Adrenocortical carcinoma and pregnancy: clinical and biological features and prognosis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):793-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma and pregnancy: clinical and biological features and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, severe disease.
  • For the survival analysis, pregnant patients were compared with a subgroup of nonpregnant women matched for age, stage, and year of diagnosis (1 pregnant patient/2 controls).
  • RESULTS: Adrenocortical tumors diagnosed during pregnancy or in the postpartum period tend to be more often cortisol-secreting tumors (P=0.06) and to be discovered at a more advanced stage than those in nonpregnant women, although the differences were not significant.

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  • (PMID = 20699382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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91. Shimony A, Bereza S, Shalev A, Gilutz H, Ilia R, Zahger D: Ventricular fibrillation as the presenting manifestation of adrenocortical carcinoma. Am Heart Hosp J; 2009;7(1):65-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ventricular fibrillation as the presenting manifestation of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We describe a case of a young adult in whom sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation was the presenting manifestation of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Sudden death has not been previously described as a manifestation of this adrenal neoplasm.
  • Unexplained persistent hypokalemia after resuscitated sudden death (especially when combined with hypertension( should prompt investigation for an underlying secondary hypertension, particularly adrenal pathology.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained sudden death associated with unexplained hypokalemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Ventricular Fibrillation / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19742438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-7168
  • [Journal-full-title] The American heart hospital journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Heart Hosp J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. Park BK, Kim CK, Jung BC, Suh YL: Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination. Eur Urol; 2009 Dec;56(6):1082-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination.
  • Preoperative differential diagnoses included primary or secondary malignant hepatic tumors or adrenal cortical carcinoma due to aggressive imaging features.
  • The tumor proved to be an adrenal cortical adenoma arising from the adrenohepatic fusion tissue and consisted of adenoma cells with lipid-rich cytoplasm.
  • Retrospective review of preoperative computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated that the tumor measured 6 Hounsfield units in mean CT number and was continuous with a medial limb of the right adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19447543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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93. Kazarian AM, Marangos IP, Røsok BI, Rosseland AR, Edwin B: [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2010;169(4):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals].
  • An analysis was made of experience with treatment of 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinomas (in 7 patients) and metastases in adrenals (in 17 cases).
  • The method can replace open operative intervention in the majority of patients with metastases to adrenals and primary cancer of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20973194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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94. Sharma R, Ganpule A, Veeramani M, Sabnis RB, Desai M: Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter. Urol J; 2009;6(4):254-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter.
  • The incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases and technical difficulty of adrenalectomy increases as the size increases.
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were smaller than 5 cm.
  • Histopathology of large tumors revealed 16 benign tumors (8 pheochromocytomas, 4 adenomas, 2 ganglioneuromas, 1 pseudocyst, and 1 myelolipoma) and 3 malignancies, of which 1 was primary adrenocortical carcinoma and 2 were metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and feasible for large functioning adrenal tumors.
  • Large adrenal tumors suspicious of harboring malignancy with no peri-adrenal involvement can be tackled laparoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20027553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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95. Cazejust J, De Baère T, Auperin A, Deschamps F, Hechelhammer L, Abdel-Rehim M, Schlumberger M, Leboulleux S, Baudin E: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Oct;21(10):1527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness, tolerance, and predictors of response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with progressive liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma were treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • RESULTS: Three months after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, a liver morphologic response was observed in six of 29 patients (21%), stabilization in 18 (62%), and progression in five (17%).
  • According to per-lesion analysis (n = 103), a morphologic response was observed in 23 lesions (22%), stabilization in 67 (65%), and progression in 13 (13%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization should be considered as part of the therapeutic arsenal to treat liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Hemostatics / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20801688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemostatics
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96. Yokoyama H, Tanaka M: Incidence of adrenal involvement and assessing adrenal function in patients with renal cell carcinoma: is ipsilateral adrenalectomy indispensable during radical nephrectomy? BJU Int; 2005 Mar;95(4):526-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of adrenal involvement and assessing adrenal function in patients with renal cell carcinoma: is ipsilateral adrenalectomy indispensable during radical nephrectomy?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of ipsilateral adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy, by investigating the clinical aspects of adrenal involvement and adrenocortical function in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The demographic, clinical and pathological data of adrenal involvement were reviewed in 247 patients with RCC.
  • To evaluate adrenocortical function, 14 patients (adrenalectomy in eight, adrenal-sparing in six) had a rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test before and 2 weeks after surgery.
  • RESULTS: There was adrenal involvement with RCC in seven of the 247 (2.8%) patients (a solitary adrenal metastatic tumour in four and direct extension into the adrenal gland in three).
  • All adrenal involvement was detectable on abdominal computed tomography before surgery, and these patients had a large primary renal tumour of > pT2 and/or distant metastasis.
  • Plasma cortisol levels declined significantly more in response to the rapid ACTH stimulation test in those treated by adrenalectomy than in those with spared adrenal glands at 2 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference between the groups before surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that unconditional ipsilateral adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy for RCC should be avoidable, and thus preserve the reserve of adrenocortical function, as preoperative imaging, especially thin-slice multidetector helical computed tomography, can detect adrenal involvement with RCC in most cases.
  • Unilateral adrenalectomy might cause an irreversible impairment of the reserve of adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods


97. Attivi D, Ajana I, Astier A, Demoré B, Gibaud S: Development of microemulsion of mitotane for improvement of oral bioavailability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2010 Apr;36(4):421-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is considered to be the drug of choice in the treatment of nonresectable and metastasized adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacokinetics. Biological Availability. Drug Compounding / methods. Emulsions. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Jejunum / metabolism. Male. Particle Size. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Solubility. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19778161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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98. Schlamp A, Hallfeldt K, Mueller-Lisse U, Pfluger T, Reincke M: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Feb;3(2):191-5; quiz 1 p following 195
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection.
  • A left adrenal mass of 6.5 cm by 7.5 cm was detected by a CT scan.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to remove the tumor mass; histologic work-up revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: In our department, laboratory work-up for endocrine activity was performed, as well as CT scans of the adrenal region, and FDG-PET scans in order to determine the extension of disease.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • The patient is now scheduled for polychemotherapy because of progressive metastatic disease revealed by follow-up CT and FDG-PET scanning in June 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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99. Louiset E, Isvi K, Gasc JM, Duparc C, Cauliez B, Laquerrière A, Kuhn JM, Lefebvre H: Ectopic expression of serotonin7 receptors in an adrenocortical carcinoma co-secreting renin and cortisol. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1025-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic expression of serotonin7 receptors in an adrenocortical carcinoma co-secreting renin and cortisol.
  • Abnormal expression of membrane receptors has been previously described in benign adrenocortical neoplasms causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • In particular, we have observed that, in some adreno corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia tissues, cortisol secretion is controlled by ectopic serotonin(7) (5-HT(7)) receptors.
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxy tryptamine; 5-HT) on cortisol and renin production by a left adrenocortical carcinoma removed from a 48-year-old female patient with severe Cushing's syndrome and elevated plasma renin levels.
  • Tumor explants were obtained at surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and cell culture studies.
  • In addition, immunohistochemistry showed the occurrence of 5-HT(7) receptor-like immunoreactivity in carcinoma cells. mRNAs encoding renin as well as renin-like immunoreactivity were detected in endothelial and tumor cells.
  • Cell incubation studies revealed that the adrenocortical tissue also released renin.
  • 5-HT(7) receptors, in an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Our results also indicate that 5-HT can influence the secretory activity of malignant adrenocortical tumors in an autocrine/paracrine manner.
  • The effects of 5-HT on adrenocortical tumor cells included a paradoxical inhibitory action on renin production and a stimulatory action on cortisol secretion involving 5-HT(7) receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Receptors, Serotonin / metabolism. Renin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18708508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin; 0 / SB 269970; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 0 / serotonin 7 receptor; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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100. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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