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1. Malandrino P, Al Ghuzlan A, Castaing M, Young J, Caillou B, Travagli JP, Elias D, de Baere T, Dromain C, Paci A, Chanson P, Schlumberger M, Leboulleux S, Baudin E: Prognostic markers of survival after combined mitotane- and platinum-based chemotherapy in metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):797-807
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  • [Title] Prognostic markers of survival after combined mitotane- and platinum-based chemotherapy in metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • To progress in the stratification of the first-line therapeutic management of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we searched for prognostic parameters of survival in patients treated with combined mitotane- and cisplatinum-based chemotherapy as first-line.
  • We retrospectively studied prospectively collected parameters from 131 consecutive patients with metastatic ACC (44 with a tissue specimen available) treated at the Gustave Roussy Institute with mitotane- and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20592067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Schwarte S, Brabant EG, Bastian L, Bruns F: Cortisol as a possible marker of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with 3-year follow-up. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):1917-20
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  • [Title] Cortisol as a possible marker of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with 3-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour, sometimes causing glucocorticoid hypersecretion.
  • CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with adrenal Cushing's disease.
  • Diagnostic work-up revealed hepatic metastatic lesions of an ACC which were treated by right hemihepatectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnostic Errors. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17649795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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3. van Ditzhuijsen CI, van de Weijer R, Haak HR: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Neth J Med; 2007 Feb;65(2):55-60
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease with a poor prognosis.
  • Sometimes the adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with tumour syndromes such as the Beckwith-Wiedemann and Li-Fraumeni syndrome; however, most tumours are sporadic.
  • Using one of the international classification methods, histopathological research can in almost all cases distinguish between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma. complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Mitotane is given when surgery is not possible, after incomplete resection or for metastatic disease.
  • International and national cooperation has resulted in a randomised trial aimed at determining a standard therapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The Dutch Adrenal Network is a national cooperation of endocrinologists, pathologists and oncologists from all eight academic centres and Máxima Medical centre.
  • [MeSH-major] Academic Medical Centers / organization & administration. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols

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  • (PMID = 17379929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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4. Bacchetta J, Droz JP: [Practical use of o,p'DDD in adrenocortical carcinoma]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Mar;92(3):273-9
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  • [Title] [Practical use of o,p'DDD in adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) is a rare tumor of poor prognosis.
  • Five patients (four with AC and one with a metastatic Leydig cell tumor of the testis) were treated by Lysodren.
  • Surgery is an important part of metastatic disease treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15820922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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5. Assié G, Antoni G, Tissier F, Caillou B, Abiven G, Gicquel C, Leboulleux S, Travagli JP, Dromain C, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Schlumberger M, Baudin E: Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jan;92(1):148-54
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  • [Title] Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Prognostic parameters of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are poorly characterized.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical presentation of metastatic ACC and determine prognostic factors for survival.
  • PATIENTS: Participants included 124 consecutive patients with metastatic ACC, 70 from Gustave-Roussy Institute (main cohort) and 54 patients from the Cochin Hospital (validation cohort).
  • In univariate analysis, the presence of hepatic and bone metastases, the number of metastatic lesions and the number of tumoral organs at the time of the first metastasis, a high mitotic rate (>20 per 50 high-power field), and atypical mitoses in the primary tumor predicted survival (P = 0.05, 0.003, 0.046, 0.001, 0.01, and < 0.001, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic ACC is a heterogeneous disease with poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17062775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histology revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • Histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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7. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • [Title] Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival.
  • In this study, we evaluate whether Snail is expressed in adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and if its expression is related to patient outcome.
  • Increasing evidence suggests that EMT plays a pivotal role in tumour progression and metastatic spread.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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8. Stephan EA, Chung TH, Grant CS, Kim S, Von Hoff DD, Trent JM, Demeure MJ: Adrenocortical carcinoma survival rates correlated to genomic copy number variants. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Feb;7(2):425-31
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma survival rates correlated to genomic copy number variants.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for between 0.02% and 0.2% of all cancer deaths.
  • Unfortunately, ACC has undergone metastatic spread in 40% to 70% of patients at the time of diagnosis.
  • The modern molecular technology of comparative genomic hybridization allows the examination of DNA for chromosomal alterations, which can lend biological insight into cancer processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Chromosome Aberrations

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  • (PMID = 18281524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Mackie GC, Shulkin BL, Ribeiro RC, Worden FP, Gauger PG, Mody RJ, Connolly LP, Kunter G, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wallis JW, Hurwitz CA, Schteingart DE: Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2665-71
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  • [Title] Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinomas are uncommon, and their evaluation by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has not been well evaluated.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of FDG PET in the detection of recurrent or metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • DESIGN: In patients with known adrenocortical carcinoma who underwent FDG-PET imaging for suspected recurrence or metastasis, FDG activity was compared with other imaging findings, clinical features, and the presence or absence of disease as confirmed by resection, biopsy, or clinical follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most adrenocortical carcinomas accumulate and retain FDG and thus can be visualized by PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 16621901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R25 CA23944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 54216; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00042
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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10. Pacella CM, Stasi R, Bizzarri G, Pacella S, Graziano FM, Guglielmi R, Papini E: Percutaneous laser ablation of unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Apr;66(1):88-94
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  • [Title] Percutaneous laser ablation of unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical benefits of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) in patients with unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous laser ablation is a feasible, safe and well tolerated procedure for the palliative treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17498906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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11. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T: Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):345-54
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  • [Title] Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Discerning malignancy in resected adrenocortical neoplasms can pose diagnostic difficulty.
  • Histological scoring systems evaluating multiple parameters, especially the criteria of Weiss, have been shown to be reliable in differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma.
  • A tumor is defined as adrenocortical carcinoma when three or more of the following criteria are met;.
  • The criteria are relatively straightforward and considered the most effective standard for diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy.
  • However, great care should be taken in applying the criteria to histological evaluation of two relatively rare and peculiar adrenocortical tumors, adrenocortical oncocytoma and pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • At this juncture, ancillary biological or molecular markers are of little practical value in terms of differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma but tumors with MIB1 or Ki-67 labeling index more than 2.5 may be considered malignant.
  • Prognostic markers of adrenocortical carcinoma have not been established other than complete respectability of the tumor.
  • It sometimes is important for surgical pathologists to differentiate adrenocortical carcinoma from metastatic malignancies of other sites.
  • An immunohistochemical evaluation of adrenal 4 binding protein (Ad4BP) or SF-1, a transcription factor of all steroidogenesis, can aid in this differential diagnosis because nuclear immunoreactivity for this transcription factor is relatively specific to steroid producing cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Count. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitotic Index. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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12. Lee JO, Lee KW, Kim CJ, Kim YJ, Lee HE, Kim H, Kim JH, Bang SM, Kim JS, Lee JS: Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma treated with sunitinib: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Mar;39(3):183-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma treated with sunitinib: a case report.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis.
  • Palliative chemotherapy can be considered in patients with metastatic disease.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case showing the effects of sunitinib on metastatic ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Indoles / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19168875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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13. Roman S: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported.
  • Given the generally advanced stage at diagnosis, the overall 5-year survival remains poor, varying between 20 and 45%.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies focusing on the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma have focused on onco-developmental genes present in the fetal adrenal cortex, as well as local adrenal paracrine and autocrine effects of cellular peptides.
  • SUMMARY: Pre-operative diagnostic advances in positron emission scanning are emerging as promising modalities for confirmation of malignancy of indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • No significant advances in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma have been developed.
  • Mitotane has remained the preferred adjuvant treatment agent, showing modest effect in patients with unresectable, residual or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16357562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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14. Gur C, Salmon A, Silvetski N, Gross DJ: [Adrenocortical carcinoma]. Harefuah; 2008 Jun;147(6):520-5, 574
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a generally poor prognosis.
  • In approximately 60% of cases the initial clinical manifestations are due to hypersecretion of adrenocortical hormones.
  • Medical therapy is employed in patients with unresectable or partially resected tumor and metastatic disease.
  • In ACC patients there is wide variability in the course of the disease: some with metastatic disease will survive for more than 10 years, others succumb to the disease within months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18693629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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15. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience using kinase inhibition therapy with sorafenib in a patient with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • Postoperative scanning revealed metastases to both lungs and the liver that were confirmed by fine-needle biopsy, thus establishing stage IV disease.
  • A trial of sorafenib resulted in regression and eventual resolution of bilateral metastatic lung lesions, reduction in size of the hepatic lesion, normalization of androgen hypersecretion, and marked clinical improvement.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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16. Rodgers SE, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):535-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Despite its many drawbacks, mitotane continues to be a mainstay in the treatment of high-risk patients with ACC, especially those with recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16882496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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17. Suh I, Guerrero MA, Kebebew E: Gene-expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2009 May;9(4):343-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene-expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy of the adrenal cortex, associated with a generally dismal prognosis owing to its aggressive behavior.
  • The clinical management of ACC is complicated by the inadequacy of current diagnostic modalities to accurately distinguish benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • In addition, efforts to better predict clinical tumor behavior are limited by the lack of a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adrenocortical carcinogenesis.
  • Thus, there is a pressing need for the development of new therapeutic approaches for patients with ACC, as most patients present with advanced locoregional and metastatic disease.
  • Since 2003, several studies have reported distinct gene-expression profiles between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors that may have diagnostic and prognostic clinical utility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling

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  • (PMID = 19441174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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18. Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2027-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and heterogeneous malignancy with incompletely understood pathogenesis and poor prognosis.
  • The following search terms were used in varying combinations: adrenal, adrenocortical, cancer, carcinoma, tumor, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, radiotherapy, mitotane, cytotoxic, surgery.
  • Surgery also plays a role in local tumor recurrence and metastatic disease.
  • However, future advances in the management of ACC will mainly depend on a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis facilitating the use of modern cancer treatments (e.g. tyrosine kinase inhibitors).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16551738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 156
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19. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion.
  • In this report, we describe the fine-needle aspiration findings of a case of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that spread to the peritoneal cavity in an 80-year-old female.
  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Ascitic Fluid / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Schlamp A, Hallfeldt K, Mueller-Lisse U, Pfluger T, Reincke M: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Feb;3(2):191-5; quiz 1 p following 195
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic resection.
  • A left adrenal mass of 6.5 cm by 7.5 cm was detected by a CT scan.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to remove the tumor mass; histologic work-up revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: In our department, laboratory work-up for endocrine activity was performed, as well as CT scans of the adrenal region, and FDG-PET scans in order to determine the extension of disease.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma after laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • The patient is now scheduled for polychemotherapy because of progressive metastatic disease revealed by follow-up CT and FDG-PET scanning in June 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • One patient had an unequivocal ACC showing metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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22. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis].
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare tumors characterized by an aggressive behaviour with a 5-year survival rate below 30%.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • These significant advances are essential to improve adrenocortical carcinoma management.
  • This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding and management of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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23. Fareau GG, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):636-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss challenges in the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma and to suggest surveillance measures after removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • METHODS: We present the case of a 65-year-old man with worsening hypertension and new-onset hypokalemia attributed to primary hyperaldosteronism due to a 3-cm right adrenal nodule.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8-cm mass in the right adrenal bed and multiple hepatic metastatic lesions.
  • Fine-needle biopsy confirmed the presence of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite a comprehensive biochemical, radiologic, and histologic assessment, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma can be missed.
  • We recommend that abdominal imaging be performed every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months for the second year after surgical removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17954420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Tsuchida R, Kasahara N, Inobe M, Terado Y, Horita A, Yokoyama K, Sakamoto A, Fujioka Y, Kurata A: Aortic intramural hematoma associated with metastatic carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Dec 15;206(12):839-45

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aortic intramural hematoma associated with metastatic carcinoma.
  • We present a case of aortic intramural hematoma, a variant of aortic dissection, with metastatic carcinoma invasion within the aortic wall and pseudolumen.
  • One and a half months later, tumors in both adrenal glands and the lumbar vertebra were discovered.
  • An autopsy revealed intramural hematoma throughout the aorta, as well as systemic metastases of adrenocortical carcinoma with invasion into the aortic wall and formation of a pseudolumen accompanied by disruption of the vasa vasorum.
  • As far as we know, this is the second case of aortic dissection associated with metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Aneurysm, Dissecting / diagnosis. Aortic Diseases / diagnosis. Aortic Rupture / diagnosis. Hematoma / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20599327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Satter EK, Barnette DJ: Adrenocortical carcinoma with delayed cutaneous metastasis. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):677-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with delayed cutaneous metastasis.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon and aggressive malignancy.
  • Patients often have metastatic disease at initial presentation, with the most common sites being the liver, local lymph nodes, lungs, peritoneum and bone.
  • Herein, we report a case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with a cyst-like lesion on her back, which on biopsy proved to be ACC metastatic from a primary tumor diagnosed 30 years previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18201231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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26. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report.
  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a solitary tumor mass, eight cm in size, of the right adrenal gland.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • Histopathologic analysis confirmed metastatic ACC.
  • ACC is a rare malignant epithelial tumor of adrenal cortical cells, with high malignant potential.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • The purpose of this case report is to present clinical and cytomorphologic features of our case of adrenocortical carcinoma which is very rare in cytology practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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27. Koschker AC, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Weismann D, Allolio B: Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Feb;114(2):45-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • DIAGNOSIS: In case of an adrenal mass, hormonal workup before surgery is required for differential diagnosis, perioperative management, and for follow-up.
  • In stage 4, the adrenolytic compound mitotane is part of the first-line treatment, but often needs to be combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • GANIMED, as a Germany-wide network of experts on adrenal diseases, has been founded allowing for improved gathering of data and joint studies.
  • ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours) has been brought to life, aiming at European standards for therapy, diagnosis and tumour banking.
  • For the first time, patients with metastatic/unresectable ACC can participate in a prospective controlled randomized trial comparing two different cytotoxic chemotherapy regimes (FIRM-ACT).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16570232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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28. Müssig K, Wehrmann M, Horger M, Teichmann R, Maser-Gluth C, Häring HU, Overkamp D: Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2005 Apr;113(4):236-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Steroid profile in an adrenocortical carcinoma producing aldosterone.
  • We report a rare case of primary aldosteronism due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and hypokalemia was referred for evaluation of a 4.2 cm measuring adrenal mass without secondary signs of malignancy.
  • The patient underwent surgical resection of the adrenal mass; histology revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Four months after adrenalectomy, the patient presented again with hypokalemic hypertension and was found to have metastatic disease.
  • Careful hormonal investigation should be obtained in patients with adrenal masses causing excessive aldosterone secretion.
  • In uncertain cases of primary aldosteronism, we would suggest to measure 18-hydroxycortisol levels, as excessive amounts may indicate adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Posture. Supine Position. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15891961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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29. Siriwong S, Shuangshoti S, Saritsiri S, Pak-art P, Khovidhunkit W, Snabboon T: Functioning adrenocortical carcinoma with superior vena cava and upper airway obstructions. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Sep;89(9):1511-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functioning adrenocortical carcinoma with superior vena cava and upper airway obstructions.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies with a dismal prognosis.
  • Histopathological findings of the neck mass were compatible with metastatic ACC.
  • CONCLUSION: The present report describes a functioning ACC patient with an unusual metastatic site causing SVC and upper airway obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Airway Obstruction / pathology. Vena Cava, Superior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17100393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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30. Cazejust J, De Baère T, Auperin A, Deschamps F, Hechelhammer L, Abdel-Rehim M, Schlumberger M, Leboulleux S, Baudin E: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Oct;21(10):1527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for liver metastases in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness, tolerance, and predictors of response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with progressive liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma were treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • Time to liver and metastatic lesion progression were considered as endpoints.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization should be considered as part of the therapeutic arsenal to treat liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Hemostatics / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20801688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemostatics
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31. Sturm N, Moulai N, Laverrière MH, Chabre O, Descotes JL, Brambilla E: Primary adrenocortical sarcomatoid carcinoma: case report and review of literature. Virchows Arch; 2008 Feb;452(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary adrenocortical sarcomatoid carcinoma: case report and review of literature.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) mixed with a sarcoma or sarcoma-like component is exceptional, and only six cases have been detailed in the literature, three including osteo-, chondro-, or rhabdomyosarcoma components, and three others only showing a malignant spindle cell component.
  • These histological subtypes, respectively called adrenal carcinosarcomas and sarcomatoid AC, represent poorly differentiated and extremely aggressive forms of carcinoma, with locoregional recurrence and metastases rapidly arising from the sarcomatous or sarcomatoid component, and death occurring in a few months.
  • This case underlines the necessity to identify and isolate these carcinoma's subtypes with worse prognosis and the difficulties to distinguish them from metastatic carcinomas and retroperitoneal sarcomas, in relation to the particular adrenal cortex immunoprofile.
  • According to the World Health Organization principles of terminology, we suggest these tumors be collectively classified as "adrenal sarcomatoid carcinomas," a designation that tends to unify all carcinomas with "pleomorphic, sarcomatoid, or sarcomatous elements. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18080137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Chalasani S, Vats HS, Banerjee TK, McKenzie AK: Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy. Clin Med Res; 2009 Jun;7(1-2):48-51
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  • [Title] Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy.
  • A 57-year-old white woman with metastases to lungs and liver from virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was treated with radical nephroadrenalectomy followed by oral mitotane 3 to 6 g/day for 5 months.
  • Stage I and II disease is curable with surgery.
  • Stage III and IV disease may benefit from mitotane orally with gradual adjustment of the dosage to a tolerable level.
  • An international study has been started by randomizing between two of the above combinations by the Collaborative Group for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19574489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6179
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2705271
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33. Haluska P, Worden F, Olmos D, Yin D, Schteingart D, Batzel GN, Paccagnella ML, de Bono JS, Gualberto A, Hammer GD: Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody figitumumab in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Mar;65(4):765-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody figitumumab in patients with refractory adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling through upregulation of the stimulatory ligand IGF-II has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • As there is a paucity of effective therapies, this dose expansion cohort of a phase 1 study was undertaken to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects on endocrine markers of figitumumab in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Figitumumab was administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle at the maximal feasible dose (20 mg/kg) to a cohort of patients with metastatic, refractory adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients with adrenocortical carcinoma received 50 cycles of figitumumab at the 20 mg/kg.
  • Pharmacokinetics of figitumumab was comparable to patients with solid tumors other than adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The side effect profile and pharmacokinetics of figitumumab were similar in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in comparison to patients with other solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19649631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628-05
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Insulin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; VE267FC2UB / figitumumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS190253; NLM/ PMC2875253
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34. Zancanella P, Pianovski MA, Oliveira BH, Ferman S, Piovezan GC, Lichtvan LL, Voss SZ, Stinghen ST, Callefe LG, Parise GA, Santana MH, Figueiredo BC: Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Aug;28(8):513-24
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  • [Title] Mitotane associated with cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma: mitotane monitoring and tumor regression.
  • PURPOSE: To define a mitotane dose for pediatric patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC) that maintains therapeutic plasma levels (TL) between 14 and 20 microg/mL and to verify its antitumor efficacy in association with 8 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide, and doxorubicin (CED).
  • All patients had recurrent metastatic disease (2 to 9 times).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Mitotane / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16912591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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35. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Florczak A, Witkiewicz W, Tupikowski W, Cisarz E: [A long term survival of the patient treated due to advanced adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2005 May;113(5):462-5
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  • [Title] [A long term survival of the patient treated due to advanced adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • The authors presented a case of 52-years old woman with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma completely recovered after surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and mitotane treatment.
  • Two years later metastatic tumor of hepar was excised.
  • The authors accentuate a big value of postoperative control, especially imaging studies for early diagnosis of recurrent of cancer and beginning therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16479829.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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36. Peppa M, Pikounis V, Papaxoinis G, Macheras A, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Adrenocortical carcinoma secreting cortisol, androgens and aldosterone: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8951

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma secreting cortisol, androgens and aldosterone: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and presents with mass effects and less often with signs of hormone excess (approximately 60% of all adrenocortical carcinoma's).
  • Hormonally active adrenocortical carcinomas most commonly secrete cortisol while the co-secretion of multiple steroid hormones is rare.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 59 year-old woman with a medical history of hyperaldosteronism due to a right adrenal adenoma.
  • During follow up, she showed symptoms of hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenemia and a rapid growth of the adrenal mass.
  • She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology revealed the presence of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Six months post-operatively being on treatment with mitotane, she was diagnosed of metastatic disease to the liver.
  • CONCLUSION: The hormonal status should be carefully investigated in all cases of suspected adrenocortical carcinoma, as the pattern of hormone secretion may be a clue to the malignancy of an adrenal lesion.
  • In addition, more data are needed to clarify the clinical and prognostic significance of the combined production of all adrenocortical hormones affecting either the survival or the quality of life of adrenocortical carcinoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 20181215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827070
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37. Hah JO: Intensive chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma in a child. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Apr;30(4):332-4
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  • [Title] Intensive chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma in a child.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor in children.
  • Surgical resection of the primary and metastatic lesions with chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation could be an effective treatment for advanced ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 18391707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Arai H, Rino Y, Yamanaka S, Yukawa N, Wada N, Kato H, Yanagimachi M, Goto H, Oshiro H, Yamanaka S, Inayama Y, Lee J, Masuda M: Successful treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis in a child: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(10):965-9
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis in a child: report of a case.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in childhood is rare: in 2002, only three new cases were reported in Japan.
  • After bilateral lung surgery for the metastatic lesions, the plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level became negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18820878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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39. van't Sant HP, Bouvy ND, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Hop WC, Feelders RA, de Herder WW, de Krijger RR: The prognostic value of two different histopathological scoring systems for adrenocortical carcinomas. Histopathology; 2007 Aug;51(2):239-45

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic value of two different histopathological scoring systems for adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • AIMS: To compare two different multiparameter histopathological scoring indices and determine their prognostic value in patients presenting with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-nine adrenal cortical tumours were divided into adenomas (n = 17), non-metastatic carcinomas (n = 24) and carcinomas with metastatic disease and/or local recurrence during follow-up (n = 19) or at time of presentation (n = 19).
  • Cancer-specific survival in patients with metastasized ACC correlated with the scores for both indices (VSI, P = 0.0078; WRI, P = 0.0025).
  • Time from diagnosis of ACC to development of metastatic disease was correlated with the WRI (P = 0.036, r = -0.350).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17593212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Lacroix A: Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4812-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare and often aggressive malignancy that requires multidisciplinary expertise for optimal management.
  • Thorough imaging and endocrine evaluations can identify the majority of ACCs amongst adrenal tumors; however, some smaller ACCs are better identified using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.
  • Despite complete resection in stage I-III tumors, approximately 40% of patients develop metastasis within 2 yr.
  • For metastatic disease, combination chemotherapy should be administered, if possible, in the context of multicenter collaborative research protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21051577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Müssig K, Wehrmann M, Horger M, Maser-Gluth C, Häring HU, Overkamp D: Adrenocortical carcinoma producing 11-deoxycorticosterone: a rare cause of mineralocorticoid hypertension. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jan;28(1):61-5
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma producing 11-deoxycorticosterone: a rare cause of mineralocorticoid hypertension.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans showed a large right adrenal mass without signs of metastatic disease.
  • The tumor was removed by open laparotomy, and histology revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Two yr after diagnosis, the patient is in good general condition and there is no sign of recurrence or metastatic disease, despite the large tumor size.
  • DOC producing adrenocortical carcinomas causing mineralocorticoid hypertension are very rare, so far only 10 cases have been described in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Desoxycorticosterone / biosynthesis. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / physiopathology. Mineralocorticoids / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / urine. Catecholamines / urine. Humans. Hypokalemia / etiology. Hypokalemia / physiopathology. Male. Renin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15816373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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42. Bilimoria KY, Shen WT, Elaraj D, Bentrem DJ, Winchester DJ, Kebebew E, Sturgeon C: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer; 2008 Dec 1;113(11):3130-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a relatively poor prognosis.
  • METHODS: Patients diagnosed with ACC from 1985 to 2005 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACC carries a poor prognosis for patients commonly presenting with large, locally invasive tumors, involved margins, and metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18973179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Kirschner LS: Emerging treatment strategies for adrenocortical carcinoma: a new hope. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;91(1):14-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging treatment strategies for adrenocortical carcinoma: a new hope.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer but one that has devastating consequences for affected patients.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy, although the high frequency of metastatic disease implies that it is frequently noncurative.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Review articles and primary literature were identified by extensive PubMed searching to obtain papers evaluating the current state of knowledge regarding ACC, as well as assessing the development of new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the current grim outlook, the recent applications of emerging technology to the study of ACC and the development of newer, "targeted" therapies for cancer suggest the possibility of a new hope for patients with this disease, although these therapies will need to be evaluated by rigorous clinical trials to verify their effectiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16234301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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44. Jalali M, Krishnamurthy S: Comparison of immunomarkers for the identification of adrenocortical cells in cytology specimens. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Aug;33(2):78-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of immunomarkers for the identification of adrenocortical cells in cytology specimens.
  • We studied the immunoreactivity of three antibodies--A103, calretinin, and inhibin alpha in destained Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and cell-blocks of 40 fine-needle aspiration biopsy cases of adrenocortical lesions (35 cases of hyperplasia/adenoma and 5 cases of carcinoma).
  • Five cases of carcinoma (4) and melanoma (1) metastases to the adrenal gland and five cases of renal-cell carcinoma were also included for comparison.
  • In benign adrenocortical lesions, A103 staining was noted in 82% of the destained Pap smears and in 92% of cell-blocks.
  • In malignant adrenocortical lesions, A103 staining was noted in 50% of the destained Pap smears and in 80% of cell-blocks.
  • In comparison, calretinin staining was noted in 6% and 50% of destained smears and in 78% and 60% of the cell-blocks of benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions.
  • The specificity of A103 was lower than the other two makers, 90% vs. 100% because of positivity in metastatic melanoma in the adrenal gland.
  • Our data show A103 to be the immunomarker with the highest sensitivity for identifying cells of adrenocortical origin in destained Pap's smears and cell-block sections with, however, a lower specificity when compared with calretinin and inhibin alpha.
  • The results of this study suggest that if metastatic melanoma in adrenal gland is not a consideration then A103 is the marker of choice for identifying cells of adrenocortical origin in the limited material available for diagnostic purposes in cytology specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16007649.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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45. Gross MD, Avram A, Fig LM, Fanti S, Al-Nahhas A, Rubello D: PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2007 Sep;51(3):272-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Early experience with positron emission tomography (PET) has provided exciting results in the evaluation of a broad spectrum of neoplasms, to include primary adrenal tumors, their metastases and metastatic disease to the adrenal glands.
  • By virtue of the well-recognized propensity of malignancies to preferentially use glycolysis as an important energy source and the stimulation of mechanisms designed to absorb substrate glucose, the glucose analog, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, has become a successful radiopharmaceutical in the scintigraphic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Building upon prior experience gained with imaging the adrenal gland, other positron-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are finding their way into clinical use.
  • The 11b-hydroxylase inhibitor, metomidate labeled with 11C has been used to scintigraphically identify tissues of adrenocortical origin, to accurately identify recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma and may be useful in assessing the malignant potential of these tumors and predicting survival in afflicted patients.
  • Additional structural and functional information provided by computed tomography (CT), performed as part of hybrid PET/CT imaging directly complements PET and adds measurable diagnostic value in the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Image Enhancement / methods. Molecular Probe Techniques. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17464268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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46. Balasubramaniam S, Fojo T: Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):619-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, challenging disease with a broad range of clinical presentations.
  • Often presenting in an advanced stage with a large, locally invasive primary tumor or with Cushing's syndrome, it requires a multidisciplinary approach to treatment.
  • Biopsies should be performed only when metastatic disease is present and a primary tumor has not been clearly established.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is effective in patients with widely metastatic disease or as an adjunct to a surgical intervention and should focus on regimens that have been shown to effect responses; "novel targeted therapies" should not be employed as first-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 21167380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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47. Delaney HM, Prauner RD, Person DA: Germline p53 mutation in a Micronesian child with adrenocortical carcinoma and subsequent osteosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Nov;30(11):803-6
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  • [Title] Germline p53 mutation in a Micronesian child with adrenocortical carcinoma and subsequent osteosarcoma.
  • In 1990, an 18-month-old Micronesian girl was initially diagnosed with a right adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • More than a decade later (2003), she was diagnosed with metastatic osteosarcoma with the primary in her right proximal fibula.
  • Given this child's remarkable history of malignancy, she underwent testing for a genetic mutation that is associated with increased cancer formation.
  • One such cancer syndrome is called Li-Fraumeni syndrome where approximately 70% of patients carry a genetic mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene.
  • Patients with LFS are at risk for developing cancers of the breast, soft tissues, brain, bone, adrenal gland, and blood cells.
  • She was found to have a base pair change (A-->C) at nucleotide 394 resulting in a lysine to glutamine amino acid change at codon 132 (K132Q), which remarkably has never been described in association with either adrenocortical carcinoma or osteosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Osteosarcoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18989156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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48. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Owing to the rarity of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) no prognostic markers have been established beyond stage and resection status.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • HR for survival was 5.31 (1.80-15.62) in patients with metastatic ACC and in patients after radical resection the HR for disease-free survival was 6.10 (2.16-16.94).
  • In conclusion, GLUT1 is a highly promising stage-independent, prognostic marker in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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49. Pusantisampan T, Sangkhathat S, Kayasut K, Kanngurn S, Jaruratanasirikul S, Chotsampancharoen T, Kritsaneepaiboon S: Cushing's syndrome in an infant secondary to malignant adrenocortical tumors with somatic mutation of beta-catenin. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2010 May-Jun;13(3):238-42
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome in an infant secondary to malignant adrenocortical tumors with somatic mutation of beta-catenin.
  • A role of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) in the molecular pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has been suspected in adult ACC and pediatric pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, but it has never been reported in pediatric ACC.
  • We present the case of a 4-month-old Thai infant who had Cushing's syndrome secondary to bilateral adrenal tumors with hepatic metastasis.
  • Histopathology revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumors with different histologic grades; the right tumor had a higher score, according to modified Weiss criteria.
  • On molecular study, a deletion mutation of beta-catenin involving codons 44 to 45 was detected in the right adrenal tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin on the right adrenal tumor and the metastatic nodule.
  • In summary, we present evidence that supports the role of the Wnt-signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Gene Deletion. Liver Neoplasms / complications. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19863445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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50. Padberg BC, Rordorf T, Suter SL, Pfeiffer D, Wild D, Schröder S: [123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- (MIBG-) scintigraphy: paradoxical positivity in an oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2007 Jul;28(4):281-4
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  • [Title] [123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- (MIBG-) scintigraphy: paradoxical positivity in an oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • In contrast, the false-positive uptake of MIBG by adrenal cortical carcinoma is rare.
  • Here, we report a metastatic oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma with MIBG uptake used for therapeutic purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 16673076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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51. van Koetsveld PM, Vitale G, de Herder WW, Feelders RA, van der Wansem K, Waaijers M, van Eijck CH, Speel EJ, Croze E, van der Lely AJ, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Potent inhibitory effects of type I interferons on human adrenocortical carcinoma cell growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4537-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potent inhibitory effects of type I interferons on human adrenocortical carcinoma cell growth.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • Despite efforts to develop new therapeutic regimens for metastatic ACC, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment.
  • Interferons are known to exert tumor-suppressive effects in several types of human cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Interferon beta-1a. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Interferon-beta / pharmacology. Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16912135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IFNAR2 protein, human; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 156986-95-7 / Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; XRO4566Q4R / Interferon beta-1a
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52. Leboulleux S, Dromain C, Bonniaud G, Aupérin A, Caillou B, Lumbroso J, Sigal R, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):920-5
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with adrenocortical cancer are submitted to multiple imaging procedures for diagnosis of recurrence and staging.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with adrenocortical cancer referred from November 2003 to December 2004 to the Institut Gustave Roussy were included.
  • The sensitivities for the detection of distinct lesions and the diagnosis of metastatic organs were 90 and 93% for PET/CT and 88 and 82% for TAP-CT, respectively.
  • Eighteen percent of the metastatic organs were diagnosed with PET/CT only and 7% with TAP-CT only.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18

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  • (PMID = 16368753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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53. Kaneko T, Kojima Y, Umemoto Y, Sasaki S, Hayashi Y, Kohri K: Usefulness of transcription factors Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 as immunohistologic markers for diagnosis of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Horm Res; 2008;70(5):294-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Usefulness of transcription factors Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 as immunohistologic markers for diagnosis of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We examined the expressions of Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma with normal hormonal findings by immunohistochemistry and discussed their usefulness as immunohistochemical markers for diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients (average age 54.3 +/- 3.9) with retroperitoneal and metastatic tumors were enrolled in this study.
  • Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 underwent immunohistochemical study using needle biopsy specimens from the retroperitoneal tumor or metastatic tumor of these patients to diagnose primary adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Ad4BP/SF-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the carcinoma cells of 2 patients, but not in the others, whereas DAX-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the carcinoma cells of all 4 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 are considered essential to maintain the biological characteristics of adrenocortical cells even without abnormal hormonal findings or even after malignant transformation and metastasis.
  • These markers are useful to distinguish other retroperitoneal tumors, especially in patients with bulky tumors, and to diagnose the metastatic site of origin as adrenocortical carcinoma in patients clinically presenting with widespread metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / analysis. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18824868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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54. Kazarian AM, Marangos IP, Røsok BI, Rosseland AR, Edwin B: [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2010;169(4):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals].
  • An analysis was made of experience with treatment of 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinomas (in 7 patients) and metastases in adrenals (in 17 cases).
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was shown to be a safe and effective method of treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the adrenals.
  • The method can replace open operative intervention in the majority of patients with metastases to adrenals and primary cancer of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20973194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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55. Argyriou P, Zisis C, Alevizopoulos N, Kefaloyannis EM, Gennatas C, Petraki CD: Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:134
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortex oncocytic carcinoma (AOC) represents an exceptional pathological entity, since only 22 cases have been documented in the literature so far.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Our case concerns a 54-year-old man with past medical history of right adrenal excision with partial hepatectomy, due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical study revealed a metastatic AOC.
  • Finally, approximately five years post disease onset, the patient died due to massive metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Histological classification of adrenocortical oncocytic tumours has been so far a matter of debate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19091123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630932
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56. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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57. Wasco MJ, Pu RT: Utility of antiphosphorylated H2AX antibody (gamma-H2AX) in diagnosing metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Jul;16(4):349-56
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  • [Title] Utility of antiphosphorylated H2AX antibody (gamma-H2AX) in diagnosing metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) includes, although is not limited to, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) due to overlapping morphology.
  • Seventy-one cases of metastatic RCC, 18 HCC, and 21 ACC were stained with gamma-H2AX and RCC-Ma and the sensitivity and specificity of each marker was compared.
  • In metastatic RCC, 83% (39/47) of tumors with a higher nuclear grade stained with gamma-H2AX, compared with 46% (11/24) of low nuclear grade (equivalent of Fuhrman 2 and lower) tumors.
  • The results suggest gamma-H2AX is a useful adjunct in diagnosis of metastatic RCC when RCC-Ma is negative and in higher grade RCC, which are often a diagnostic challenge.

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  • (PMID = 18528282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones
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58. Garg K, Lee P, Ro JY, Qu Z, Troncoso P, Ayala AG: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;9(1):11-5
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases.
  • Rare extragenital adenomatoid tumors have been identified in the adrenal glands, heart, mesentery, pleura, and lymph nodes.
  • In the adrenal gland, adenomatoid tumors may pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • The differential diagnosis includes adrenocortical carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma, especially signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • We present 3 cases of adrenal adenomatoid tumors, including one with a concurrent large hemorrhagic vascular adrenal cyst.
  • One patient presented with abdominal pain due to the presence of a concurrent large adrenal cyst.
  • In our experience, the key to the diagnosis of this rare benign tumor is to consider adenomatoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of any glandular tumor occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Cysts / complications. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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59. Li SH, Huang CH, Ko SF, Chou FF, Huang SC: Extended survival in a patient with recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma by aggressive transarterial embolization--a case report. J Surg Oncol; 2005 May 1;90(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Extended survival in a patient with recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma by aggressive transarterial embolization--a case report.
  • The prognosis of inoperable recurrent or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma is poor due to lack of effective treatment modalities.
  • We report a case of recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma in which prolonged survival of 58 months was achieved with aggressive three sequential transarterial embolization.
  • A 60-year-old man received operation for left adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Three sequential transarterial embolization for metastatic liver tumors, tumor bed recurrence, and metastatic spleen tumor were performed and resulted in relief of symptoms and prolonged survival of 58 months after recurrence verified.
  • Aggressive transarterial embolization seems to be a safe and effective procedure for symptoms relief, and may prolong survival in the management of inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • It can be considered in any patient with inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma if not contraindicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15844181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. El Demellawy D, Nasr A, Samkari A, Pastolero P, Alowami S: Aberrant adrenocortical tissue in hernia sac occurring in an adult: case report and review of the literature. Hernia; 2009 Dec;13(6):659-662

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant adrenocortical tissue in hernia sac occurring in an adult: case report and review of the literature.
  • Aberrant adrenal tissue is rare, particularly in adults.
  • Awareness of the possible occurrence of adrenal tissue in hernial sac is crucial, as these rests may have several clinical implications.
  • These potential implications include hyperplasia, adrenal insufficiency, neoplastic transformation and misdiagnosis as metastatic clear cell carcinoma.
  • We report a rare case of aberrant adrenocortical tissue in hernial sac.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Choristoma / complications. Hernia, Inguinal / complications

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  • (PMID = 19367442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1248-9204
  • [Journal-full-title] Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hernia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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61. Chiche L, Dousset B, Kieffer E, Chapuis Y: Adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava: presentation of a 15-patient series and review of the literature. Surgery; 2006 Jan;139(1):15-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava: presentation of a 15-patient series and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Involvement of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a controversial risk factor for surgical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • Ten patients died of metastatic complications at 4 to 31 months.
  • Long-term prognosis is poor owing to delay in diagnosis, frequent associated metastatic disease and lack of effective adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16364713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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62. Hahner S, Stuermer A, Kreissl M, Reiners C, Fassnacht M, Haenscheid H, Beuschlein F, Zink M, Lang K, Allolio B, Schirbel A: [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2358-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to advances in conventional imaging, adrenal tumors are detected with increasing frequency.
  • Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution after iv injection of [(123/125)I]IMTO were analyzed in mice in biodistribution experiments and by small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
  • Furthermore, four patients with known adrenal tumors (two metastatic adrenal adenocarcinomas, one bilateral adrenocortical adenoma, and one melanoma metastasis) were investigated with [(123)I]iodometomidate-SPECT.
  • In patients, adrenocortical tissue showed high and specific tracer uptake in both primary tumor and metastases with short investigation time and low radiation exposure, whereas the non-adrenocortical tumor did not exhibit any tracer uptake.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully completed the development of an in vivo detection system of adrenal Cyp11B enzymes by [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy in both experimental animals and humans.
  • Our findings suggest that [(123)I]IMTO is a highly specific radiotracer for imaging of adrenocortical tissue.
  • Due to the general availability of SPECT technology, we anticipate that [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy may become a widely used tool to characterize adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / analysis. Iodine Radioisotopes. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Aged. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Etomidate / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Multigene Family. Radioactive Tracers. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18397978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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63. Fassnacht M, Johanssen S, Quinkler M, Bucsky P, Willenberg HS, Beuschlein F, Terzolo M, Mueller HH, Hahner S, Allolio B, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group, European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification. Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a Revised TNM Classification.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, and it was only in 2004 that the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) defined TNM criteria and published the first staging classification.
  • Patients were assigned to UICC tumor stage, and disease-specific survival (DSS) was assessed.
  • RESULTS: In total, 416 patients with a mean follow-up of 36 months met the inclusion criteria (stage I, n=23 patients; stage II, n=176 patients; stage III, n=67 patients; stage IV, n=150 patients).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a stage-dependent DSS.
  • However, DSS in patients with stage II ACC did not differ significantly from DSS in patients with stage III ACC (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.16).
  • Furthermore, patients who had stage IV ACC without distant metastases had an improved DSS compared with patients who had metastatic disease (P=.004).
  • An analysis of different potential risk factors for defining stage III ACC revealed important roles in DSS for tumor infiltration in surrounding tissue, venous tumor thrombus (VTT), and positive lymph nodes; whereas tumor invasion in adjacent organs carried a prognosis similar to that of infiltration in surrounding tissue only.
  • On the basis of the current analysis, a revised classification with superior prognostic accuracy is proposed (the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors classification).
  • In this system, stage III ACC is defined by the presence of positive lymph nodes, infiltration of surrounding tissue, or VTT; and stage IV ACC is restricted to patients with distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / classification

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848 [19827149.001]
  • (PMID = 19025987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Allolio B; Behrend M; Bucsky P; Brauckhoff M; Fasanacht M; Fottner C; Haaf M; Hahner S; Johanssen S; Koschker AC; Langer P; Laubner K; Linden T; Maeder U; Morcos M; Oelkers W; Quinkler M; Reincke M; Reisch N; Saeger W; Weismann D; Willenberg HS; Wortmann S; Baudin E; Bertherat J; Beuschlein F; Mannelli M; Terzolo M
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64. Ochi T, Tanji N, Shimamoto K, Ikeda T, Toshino A, Yokoyama M: Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium. Int J Urol; 2006 Mar;13(3):202-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium.
  • Tumors originated in the right kidney in four patients, and in left adrenal gland in one patient.
  • Of the five patients, three died of metastatic diseases, one died of liver dysfunction and one remains disease free as of 18 months postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods. Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery


65. Veytsman I, Nieman L, Fojo T: Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 20;27(27):4619-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy in which patients have poor overall 5-year survival.
  • In many patients with ACC, advanced disease at presentation precludes surgery or is followed by local relapse or distant metastatic disease that cannot be managed surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / physiopathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / etiology. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19667279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIE HD008832-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 120
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2754909
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66. Hamanaka W, Yoneda S, Shirakusa T, Shirahama H, Tashiro Y, Iwasaki A, Shiraishi T, Tsuru H: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adrenocortical carcinoma--long survival with various therapeutic strategies including a lung resection: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(3):275-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adrenocortical carcinoma--long survival with various therapeutic strategies including a lung resection: report of a case.
  • Instead of a large metastatic lung tumor with hemothorax and the existence of metastases in other organs, combined therapy of repeated resections for metastases and adjuvant therapy allowed for almost a 36-month survival following the first recurrence and a good quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. alpha-Fetoproteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18307006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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67. Mannelli M, Colagrande S, Valeri A, Parenti G: Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):649-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses.
  • In the last decades discoveries of adrenal masses incidentally during the course of diagnostic procedures for unrelated disorders (incidentalomas) have become progressively more frequent.
  • , and To what extent is the adrenal secretion altered?
  • To come to a clinical decision, several diagnostic tools need to be engaged, starting with an accurate and correct radiological evaluation and a hormonal assessment of the adrenal function.
  • Most frequently, adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are represented by benign cortical adenomas, a subset of which causes a mild hypercortisolism, known as subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS).
  • The surgical procedure for adrenal malignancies is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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68. Fulmer BR: Diagnosis and management of adrenal cortical carcinoma. Curr Urol Rep; 2007 Jan;8(1):77-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a relatively uncommon malignancy that represents a significant clinical challenge for the development of optimal treatment strategies.
  • This review focuses on a discussion of advances in modalities for the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cortical carcinoma amenable to curative therapy.
  • Patients that present with metastatic or locally advanced disease generally are treated with mitotane-based chemotherapy with or without the addition of cytotoxic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17239320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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69. Ren R, Guo M, Sneige N, Moran CA, Gong Y: Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Sep;126(3):389-98

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges.
  • We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls.
  • The mean size of primary ACCs was 11.9 cm, and that of metastatic ACCs was 3.0 cm.
  • The metastatic sites were liver, lung, lymph node, soft tissue, and bone.
  • Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16880150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Young AC, Hoffmann KL, Begg AP, Major DA: Acute lameness associated with osseous metastasis of a peri-renal carcinoma in a horse. Aust Vet J; 2010 Sep;88(9):346-50
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  • [Title] Acute lameness associated with osseous metastasis of a peri-renal carcinoma in a horse.
  • We present a case of aggressive metastatic carcinoma in a horse that was initially presented for shoulder lameness.
  • Histological examination yielded a diagnosis of undifferentiated metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / veterinary. Bone Neoplasms / veterinary. Horse Diseases / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / veterinary. Lameness, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20726969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-0813
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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71. Wagner AS, Fleitz JM, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK: Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):127-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare childhood neoplasm that seldom manifests brain metastases; hence few papers in the literature focus on neurological manifestations associated with ACC.
  • Although ACC is known to be a signature tumor type in several inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, particularly Li Fraumeni, ACC has not been previously associated with neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF-1), an inherited disorder with frequent CNS lesions that might prompt concern for metastatic disease by neuroimaging studies.
  • The first child developed metastasis to the brain 4 years after resection of his adrenal primary and 2 and 1 years, respectively, after metastases to the liver and lungs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neurofibromatosis 1

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  • (PMID = 16132517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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72. Bakshi N, Kunju LP, Giordano T, Shah RB: Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Sep;15(3):310-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of renal cell carcinoma antigen (RCC) in renal epithelial and nonrenal tumors: diagnostic Implications.
  • Antibody to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) antigen, a normal human proximal brush border antigen, has recently become commercially available and reported to be highly specific and a relatively sensitive marker for RCC.
  • Of the nonrenal tumors occasional carcinomas have been reported to express RCC, notably breast carcinoma.
  • Three tissue microarrays containing 241 REN samples, 192 samples of a wide variety of neoplasms and 170 adrenal tumor samples, respectively, were stained with RCC monoclonal antibody.
  • Out of 241 REN, 173 were positive for RCC (sensitivity 72%): clear cell 72%, papillary 95%, chromophobe 91%, unclassified 85%, oncocytoma 75%, sarcomatoid 20%, and metastatic RCC 40%.
  • These included: adrenocortical neoplasms 37/170 (22%), colonic 11/29 (37.5%), breast 9/27 (33%), prostate 5/18 (27.7%), ovary 2/17 (11.7%), melanoma 3/18 (16.6%), lung 3/21 (14.2%), and parathyroid 3/3 (100%).
  • RCC expression was seen equally among adrenal adenoma and carcinoma group.
  • Eight out of 28 (28.5%) normal adrenal cores also stained for RCC.
  • RCC does not reliably differentiate REN, especially classic clear cell type, from adrenocortical neoplasms, which are frequently confused due to close anatomic proximity and similar morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17721277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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73. Yokoyama H, Tanaka M: Incidence of adrenal involvement and assessing adrenal function in patients with renal cell carcinoma: is ipsilateral adrenalectomy indispensable during radical nephrectomy? BJU Int; 2005 Mar;95(4):526-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of adrenal involvement and assessing adrenal function in patients with renal cell carcinoma: is ipsilateral adrenalectomy indispensable during radical nephrectomy?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of ipsilateral adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy, by investigating the clinical aspects of adrenal involvement and adrenocortical function in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The demographic, clinical and pathological data of adrenal involvement were reviewed in 247 patients with RCC.
  • To evaluate adrenocortical function, 14 patients (adrenalectomy in eight, adrenal-sparing in six) had a rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test before and 2 weeks after surgery.
  • RESULTS: There was adrenal involvement with RCC in seven of the 247 (2.8%) patients (a solitary adrenal metastatic tumour in four and direct extension into the adrenal gland in three).
  • All adrenal involvement was detectable on abdominal computed tomography before surgery, and these patients had a large primary renal tumour of > pT2 and/or distant metastasis.
  • Plasma cortisol levels declined significantly more in response to the rapid ACTH stimulation test in those treated by adrenalectomy than in those with spared adrenal glands at 2 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference between the groups before surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that unconditional ipsilateral adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy for RCC should be avoidable, and thus preserve the reserve of adrenocortical function, as preoperative imaging, especially thin-slice multidetector helical computed tomography, can detect adrenal involvement with RCC in most cases.
  • Unilateral adrenalectomy might cause an irreversible impairment of the reserve of adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods


74. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • Surgical excision is the primary therapy for both tumors, including excision of metastatic and recurrent tumor.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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75. Feng C, Li HZ, Yan WG, Luo YF, Cao JL: [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;27(8):486-8
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  • [Title] [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (Syn) for differential diagnosis of different kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • METHODS: The samples of 69 adrenal gland tumors and 4 normal adrenal glands were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin.
  • RESULTS: In the normal adrenal gland, CgA and Syn was exclusively detected in the medulla.
  • CgA was detected in all pheochromocytomas 25/25 (100%), and gave less or no expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Syn was detected in adrenocortical adenomas 27/28 (96.4%), adrenocortical carcinoma 7/8 (87.5%), pheochromocytoma 24/25 (96.0%) and adrenal metastatic carcinoma 6/8 (75.0%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: There is statistically significant difference of CgA expression between adrenalcortical and adrenal medullary tumors, and also between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • CgA and Syn are immunohistochemically reliable markers in the differential diagnosis of various kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16188147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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76. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Bellantone R: Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;94(2):128-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of laparoscopic approach for the treatment of malignant adrenal diseases is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to verify the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all the patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for adrenal diseases and in whom malignancy was demonstrated at final histology were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients were included (three malignant pheochromocytomas, four adrenocortical carcinomas, and two adrenal metastases).
  • One patient died for metastatic disease and the other one for unrelated causes.
  • One patient operated on for an adrenocortical carcinoma developed a pelvic recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that LA can have a role also in case of adrenal malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Registries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16847903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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78. Babińska A, Sworczak K, Siekierska-Hellmann M, Lewczuk A, Błaut K, Obołoiczyk L, Wiśniewski P, Zielonko J, Kaska L, Lachiński A: [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):744-50
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  • [Title] [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk].
  • Clinically silent adrenal masses (incidentaloma) are incidentally discovered lesions when noninvasive imaging methods (ultrasonography--USG, computer tomography--CT, magnetic resonance imaging--MRI) are performed for the reason other than known or suspected adrenal disease.
  • Most of studies report the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma range between 1 and 10% in radiological series.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 03.2004 we observed 198 patients with incidentalomas of adrenal glands (144 females--72.7% and 54 males--27.3%).
  • Adrenocortical adenoma was diagnosed in 54.9%, adrenal hyperplasia in 8.5%, adrenal carcinoma in 6.7%, pheochromocytoma in 12.9% (in 3.1% of all cases malignant pheochromocytoma was diagnosed), in 4.9% others malignant tumors (primary or metastatic), in 4.9% adrenal cysts and in 7.1% other rare adrenal pathologies were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / epidemiology. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Female. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiography, Abdominal. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17427485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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79. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism


80. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, endocrinological and histological characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients (41, males; 38, females; age range 17-80 years) who were diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma at Korea University Hospital from 1992 to 2003 were studied retrospectively.
  • Pathologic examination revealed 16 adrenocortical adenomas (20%), five carcinomas (6%), 13 pheochromocytomas (16%), three metastatic cancers (4%), and other tumors (10%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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81. Clapper A, Nashelsky M, Dailey M: Evaluation of serum cortisol in the postmortem diagnosis of acute adrenal insufficiency. Am J Forensic Med Pathol; 2008 Jun;29(2):181-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of serum cortisol in the postmortem diagnosis of acute adrenal insufficiency.
  • Normal adrenocortical activity is necessary for electrolyte regulation and the maintenance of cardiovascular function.
  • Although chronic adrenal insufficiency generally presents with the gradual onset of a set of characteristic symptoms and signs, the more sudden loss of adrenal activity can present with acute, rapidly progressive cardiovascular dysfunction that can be fatal if not recognized and treated promptly.
  • We herein describe a patient who had most of his adrenal tissue removed during resection of metastatic renal carcinoma, conventional clear cell type, with much of the remaining adrenal tissue undergoing necrosis during or shortly after surgery.
  • When the gross autopsy findings suggested the possibility of adrenal insufficiency, clinical laboratory assessment of adrenocortical activity was sought.
  • The use of both antemortem and postmortem blood in the demonstration of acute adrenal insufficiency at autopsy is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Forensic Pathology. Humans. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / pathology. Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Pulmonary Edema / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18520491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-404X
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Forensic Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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82. Stelow EB, Debol SM, Stanley MW, Mallery S, Lai R, Bardales RH: Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Jul;33(1):26-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.
  • Aside from assessing thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the liver for metastases, EUS can assess and sample the adrenal glands, which are frequently involved by metastatic disease, but can also harbor benign primary neoplasms.
  • The cytology files at our institution were reviewed for all cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal glands.
  • Results were compared with overall EUS-guided FNA performance and the performance of non-EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal.
  • Between 1/1/00 and 5/15/04 there were 24 cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland from 22 different patients (13 men; 9 women) at our institution.
  • This represented 1.4% of overall EUS-guided FNA and 77% of adrenal gland FNA.
  • Almost all FNAs were of the left adrenal gland (23 of 24).
  • Final diagnoses were as follows: cortical tissue consistent with cortical adenoma (19), metastatic adenocarcinoma (3), pheochromocytoma (1), and adrenal cortical carcinoma (1).
  • EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland is primarily used in the staging of other malignancies when lesions of the left adrenal are recognized sonographically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15945088.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Albores-Saavedra J, Simpson KW, Bilello SJ: The clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a previously unrecognized pancreatic neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Oct;30(10):1237-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clues to distinguish the clear cell variant of solid pseudopapillary tumor from endocrine pancreatic tumor composed of clear cells, clear and foamy cell variants of ductal carcinoma, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, serous cystadenoma and ectopic adrenocortical nodules are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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84. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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85. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy


86. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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87. Yan BC, Gong C, Song J, Krausz T, Tretiakova M, Hyjek E, Al-Ahmadie H, Alves V, Xiao SY, Anders RA, Hart JA: Arginase-1: a new immunohistochemical marker of hepatocytes and hepatocellular neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1147-54
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • The distinction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumor in the liver often presents a diagnostic challenge that carries significant impact on prognostication and therapy.
  • We also examined Arg-1 expression in nonhepatocellular tumors, including many that are potential mimics of HCC (renal cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, melanomas, gastric adenocarcinomas, and adrenocortical carcinomas) and found that only 2 non-HCC tumors were reactive for Arg-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginase / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Hepatocytes / enzymology. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20661013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK081417; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK081417-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK081417-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS316258; NLM/ PMC3160135
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88. Cobb WS, Kercher KW, Sing RF, Heniford BT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignancy. Am J Surg; 2005 Apr;189(4):405-11
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  • The superiority of the minimally invasive approach to adrenal resections has been well documented for benign pathology.
  • With technical advances and increased experience, surgeons have successfully performed laparoscopic adrenalectomies for metastatic and primary malignancies of the adrenal gland.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic colorectal, lung, and renal tumors.
  • For primary adrenal malignancies, radical resections can be effectively performed laparoscopically; however, continued long-term follow-up is needed to establish the minimally invasive technique as the preferred approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15820450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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89. Mitchell J, Barbosa G, Tsinberg M, Milas M, Siperstein A, Berber E: Unrecognized adrenal insufficiency in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2009 Feb;23(2):248-54
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  • [Title] Unrecognized adrenal insufficiency in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) is a well-described phenomenon where abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis exist in the absence of overt signs and symptoms of classic Cushing's syndrome.
  • While this has been shown to exist in 5-20% of patients with adrenal lesions, no standardized biochemical regimen exists to screen for SCS.
  • Consequently, many of these patients may not be diagnosed prior to adrenalectomy with the risk of postoperative adrenal insufficiency.
  • We began checking morning (a.m.) serum cortisol levels on postoperative day 1 (POD1) following unilateral adrenalectomy for nonfunctioning adrenal lesions to determine the incidence of unrecognized adrenal insufficiency (AI) in these patients.
  • RESULTS: The 41 patients' diagnoses included 13 pheochromocytomas, 15 nonsecreting adenomas, 5 aldosteronomas, 5 metastatic lesions, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma, and 2 other benign lesions.
  • More thorough screening for cortisol hypersecretion may be warranted in patients with these characteristics, and obtaining routine postoperative cortisol levels may avoid potentially dangerous unrecognized adrenal insufficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Insufficiency / epidemiology. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19037697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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90. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • Four patients had adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Kayton ML: Pulmonary metastasectomy in pediatric patients. Thorac Surg Clin; 2006 May;16(2):167-83, vi
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  • Because many pediatric metastatic tumors are rare, surgeons have grouped together patients of different histologies for the generation and analysis of case series.
  • By examining tumor types individually, however, it is seen that certain histologies (adrenocortical carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteosarcoma) mandate surgical metastasectomy for patient survival.
  • In the case of still other types of tumor (neuroblastoma, differentiated thyroid cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma), metastasectomy is seldom performed except in highly unusual situations.

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  • (PMID = 16805206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-4127
  • [Journal-full-title] Thoracic surgery clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Surg Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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92. Sharma R, Ganpule A, Veeramani M, Sabnis RB, Desai M: Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter. Urol J; 2009;6(4):254-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter.
  • The incidence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases and technical difficulty of adrenalectomy increases as the size increases.
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were smaller than 5 cm.
  • Histopathology of large tumors revealed 16 benign tumors (8 pheochromocytomas, 4 adenomas, 2 ganglioneuromas, 1 pseudocyst, and 1 myelolipoma) and 3 malignancies, of which 1 was primary adrenocortical carcinoma and 2 were metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and feasible for large functioning adrenal tumors.
  • Large adrenal tumors suspicious of harboring malignancy with no peri-adrenal involvement can be tackled laparoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20027553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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93. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
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  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • These include (1) preoperative staging, (2) selection of appropriate site for biopsy, (3) identification of occult metastatic disease, (4) follow-up for residual or recurrent disease, and (5) assessment of response to chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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94. Kyriazopoulou V: Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2007 Apr;8(6):725-9
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  • Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease, but its prevalence is increasing.
  • The most frequent causes of adrenal insufficiency in western countries are autoimmune adrenalitis, but other causes include, tuberculosis systemic fungal infections, AIDS, metastatic carcinoma and isolated glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • Adrenocortical function is lost over a period of years as it progresses to overt Addison's disease.

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  • (PMID = 17425469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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95. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • There were 4 false-negative biopsy results: 3 adrenocortical carcinomas and 1 pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Berber E, Siperstein A: Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Feb;20(1):58-62
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite reports of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laparoscopic ablative techniques have not been described to treat adrenal tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to describe patient selection criteria and the technique for laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • METHODS: Four patients underwent laparoscopic RFA of adrenal tumors under general anesthesia for adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included lung metastasis in 2 patients, and renal cell cancer metastasis and cortical adenoma in 1 patient each.
  • Metastatic lesions were not resectable owing to the concomitant liver metastasis in 2 patients and because of local invasion in the third patient.
  • In the fourth patient with adrenocortical adenoma, ablation was carried out owing to the cardiopulmonary instability of the patient during attempted laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Despite normal catecholamine levels preoperatively, 2 patients had a transient hypertensive period during the ablation possibly owing to the release of catecholamines from the normal adrenal medulla.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • Laparoscopic RFA is an option for patients with unresectable adrenal tumors owing to the extent of disease or comorbidities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Catheter Ablation / methods. Hot Temperature / therapeutic use. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Fatal Outcome. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20173624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Sigruener A, Buechler C, Orsó E, Hartmann A, Wild PJ, Terracciano L, Roncalli M, Bornstein SR, Schmitz G: Human aldehyde oxidase 1 interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 and modulates its activity in hepatocytes. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Nov;39(11):781-9

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  • ABCA1 and AOX1 are coexpressed in human hepatocytes, kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells, Leydig, and adrenocortical cells.
  • Significant correlations were found between reduced AOX1 expression and tumor stage, or metastatic or regional lymph node states.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Aldehyde Oxidase / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / enzymology. Hepatocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17992631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCA1 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 1.2.3.1 / AOX1 protein, human; EC 1.2.3.1 / Aldehyde Oxidase
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98. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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99. Häcker FM, von Schweinitz D, Gambazzi F: The relevance of surgical therapy for bilateral and/or multiple pulmonary metastases in children. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Apr;17(2):84-9
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  • The primary malignancies were osteosarcoma (n = 4), hepatoblastoma (n = 3), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n = 1), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 1).
  • 2 patients (20%) died of recurrent metastatic disease (osteosarcoma: 1; adrenocortical carcinoma: 1).
  • CONCLUSION: Complete surgical resection of pulmonary metastases after response to induction chemotherapy may increase survival in carefully selected children, even in cases with multiple and recurrent metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 17503299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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100. Rachapalli V, Blanco-Guzman M, Jones GM, Oriolowo A: Interesting case: Metastatic adrenal adenocarcinoma of the mandible. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2006 Jun;44(3):239

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  • [Title] Interesting case: Metastatic adrenal adenocarcinoma of the mandible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15964108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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