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1. Suh I, Weng J, Fernandez-Ranvier G, Shen WT, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Antineoplastic effects of decitabine, an inhibitor of DNA promoter methylation, in adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Arch Surg; 2010 Mar;145(3):226-32
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  • [Title] Antineoplastic effects of decitabine, an inhibitor of DNA promoter methylation, in adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • HYPOTHESES: Decitabine recovers expression of silenced genes on chromosome 11q13 and has antineoplastic effects in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells.
  • Cells were evaluated at 24-hour intervals for the effects of decitabine on ACC cell proliferation, cortisol secretion, and cell invasion.
  • Study Specimen Human ACC cell line.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adrenocortical carcinoma cell proliferation, cortisol secretion, and cell invasion were measured using immunometric assays.
  • RESULTS: Decitabine inhibited ACC cell proliferation by 39% to 47% at 5 days after treatment compared with control specimens (P < .001).
  • Decitabine decreased cortisol secretion by 56% to 58% at 5 days after treatment (P = .02) and inhibited cell invasion by 64% at 24 hours after treatment (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decitabine exhibits antitumoral properties in ACC cells at clinically achievable doses and may be an effective adjuvant therapy in patients with advanced disease.
  • Decitabine recovers expression of silenced genes on 11q13, which suggests a possible role of epigenetic gene silencing in adrenocortical carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 20231622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA BC011275-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS408412; NLM/ PMC3478887
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2. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


3. Ishikura K, Takamura T, Takeshita Y, Nakagawa A, Imaizumi N, Misu H, Taji K, Kasahara K, Oshinoya Y, Suzuki S, Ooi A, Kaneko S: Cushing's syndrome and big IGF-II associated hypoglycaemia in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome and big IGF-II associated hypoglycaemia in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A 41-year-old woman had a general health examination and was diagnosed with a non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • Initially, she developed adrenal insufficiency and was treated with hydrocortisone.
  • We identified big IGF-II, a primary hormonal mediator of non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH), in the serum and tumour using western blotting.

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  • (PMID = 22461853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027795
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4. Suyama K, Beppu T, Isiko T, Sugiyama S, Matsumoto K, Doi K, Masuda T, Ohara C, Takamori H, Kanemitsu K, Hirota M, Baba H: Spontaneous rupture of adrenocortical carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2007 Jul;194(1):77-8
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Massive hemorrhage from an adrenocortical carcinoma seldom occurs in the retroperitoneal or abdominal cavity.
  • We report a case of spontaneous rupture of primary adrenocortical carcinoma occurring in an adolescent.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17560914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Pradeep PV, Mishra AK, Aggarwal V, Bhargav PR, Gupta SK, Agarwal A: Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience. World J Surg; 2006 Oct;30(10):1817-20
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  • [Title] Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts are rare clinical entities.
  • We report our institutional experience with adrenal cysts and also assess various management options.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over the past 15 years the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, has had seven cases of adrenal cysts, of which two were functional: one patient had Cushing's syndrome and the other patient had pheochromocytoma.
  • It is generally agreed that a hormonal work-up is necessary in all cases of adrenal cysts to rule out a sub-clinical disease.
  • Adrenal neoplasms, including adrenocortical carcinomas, can be associated with cysts that are benign in appearance.
  • However, surgical excision provides a definite histopathological diagnosis and also removes the fear of future complications such as hemorrhage into the cyst and local pressure effects due to the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that the adrenals are a vascular gland and taking into consideration the possibilities of bleeding and complications in the cyst, our treatment of choice is the elective excision of adrenal cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Academies and Institutes / statistics & numerical data. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16983481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, Déchaud H, Bonnay M, Baudin E, Pugeat M: Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2165-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DESIGN: Human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2), lacking estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, and Hep89, stably transfected by ERalpha, were used.
  • PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 male patients with recurrent adrenal carcinoma, receiving mitotane (4-6.5 g daily) for more than 6 months.
  • In the HepG2 cell line, 17beta-estradiol (E2) or o,p'-DDD treatment had no effect on mRNA or SHBG/CBG concentrations.
  • In contrast, in the Hep89 cell line, E2 increased concentrations of SHBG (r = 0.44, P < 0.0001) and CBG (r = 0.585, P < 0.0001) secreted into culture media in a dose-dependent manner. o,p'-DDD significantly increased SHBG (150% vs. control, P < 0.05) and CBG (184% vs. control, P < 0.05) production by Hep89 cells, at a concentration of 2 x 10(-5) m.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor alpha / physiology. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Male. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16551731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9010-38-2 / Transcortin
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7. Lee JE: Adjuvant mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1258; author reply 1259
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17891836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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8. Gonzalez RJ, Tamm EP, Ng C, Phan AT, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):867-75; discussion 867-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease in which recurrence after surgery is common.
  • RESULTS: The median disease-free survival for all 186 patients was 12 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 37 months.
  • For patients with stable or responding disease to mitotane, the median OS from date of recurrence was 18 months, compared with 9 months (P = .01) for those who progressed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent ACC who have stable or responding disease to mitotane have a more favorable prognosis than those who progress.
  • Mitotane should be considered in most patients with recurrent ACC, including as preoperative therapy for those with recurrent disease considered for surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18063070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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9. Geiss HK, Feldhues R, Niemann S, Nolte O, Rieker R: Landouzy septicemia (sepsis tuberculosa acutissima) due to Mycobacterium microti in an immunocompetent man. Infection; 2005 Oct;33(5-6):393-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the following, we describe the case of a previously healthy man who underwent laparotomy for suspected adrenal carcinoma.
  • No other pathogen could be isolated during the clinical course, which finally led to the diagnosis of Landouzy septicemia (sepsis tuberculosa acutissima).

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  • (PMID = 16258876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8126
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infection
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Heye S, Woestenborghs H, Van Kerkhove F, Oyen R: Adrenocortical carcinoma with fat inclusion: case report. Abdom Imaging; 2005 Sep-Oct;30(5):641-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with fat inclusion: case report.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor that arises from the adrenal cortex, with an estimated incidence of 0.5% to 2% per 1 million patients yearly.
  • Although some fat content can be expected in hormonally active adrenocortical carcinomas, areas of 100% fat are extremely rare.
  • We present a case of an adrenocortical carcinoma with a small focus of pure fat depicted on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15688105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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11. Fardella CE, Mosso LM, Carvajal CA: [Primary aldosteronism]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Jul;136(7):905-14
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  • In the cardiovascular system, aldosterone modifies endothelial and smooth muscle cell response, increasing cardiovascular risk in a blood pressure-independent way.
  • This ratio increases along with the severity of the hypertensive disease.
  • The diagnostic work up of PA should confirm the autonomy of aldosterone secretion from the renin-angiotensin system and should differentiate the clinical subtypes of the disease.
  • Other causes are familial hyperaldosteronism (FH) type I (glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), FH-II (non glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism), primary adrenal hyperplasia and adrenal carcinoma.
  • This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of PA and also the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of its different subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18949169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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12. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Khanafshar E, Suh I, Barker C, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling. Arch Surg; 2008 Sep;143(9):841-6; discussion 846
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling.
  • HYPOTHESIS: The gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors are different.
  • PATIENTS: Eighty-five patients with benign adrenocortical tumors (n = 74) and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 11).
  • INTERVENTION: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 89 adrenocortical tissue samples (11 malignant and 78 benign).
  • The criteria for differentially expressed genes between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors were a false discovery rate of less than 5% and an adjusted P < .01.
  • Fifteen genes were downregulated and 22 were upregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Of the 37 genes validated by RT-PCR, 22 were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (P < .05).
  • Five of these 22 genes had an AUC of 0.80 or greater (the AUC for IL13RA2 was 0.90; HTR2B, 0.87; CCNB2, 0.86; RARRES2, 0.86; and SLC16A9, 0.80), indicating high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: We identified 37 genes that are dysregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma, and several of the differentially expressed genes have excellent diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex. Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Chemokines / metabolism. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B2. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. ROC Curve. Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18794420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCNB2 protein, human; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B2; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B; 0 / chemerin protein, human
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13. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Abadie C, Bernard F, Netchine I, Sanlaville D, Roque A, Rossignol S, Coupier I: Acute lymphocytic leukaemia in a child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome harbouring a CDKN1C mutation. Eur J Med Genet; 2010 Nov-Dec;53(6):400-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This syndrome is a multigenic disorder caused by dysregulation of imprinted growth regulatory genes in the 11p15.5 region.
  • The most commonly reported tumours in this syndrome are tumours of embryologic origin such as Wilms tumours, hepatoblastomas, neuroblastomas, rhabdomyosarcomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • We report the case of a 10-year-old patient diagnosed with BWS, harbouring a CDKN1C (p57(KIP2)) mutation, who developed a T-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • We discuss the possibility of a link between BWS and leukaemia via one of the few known negative regulator of hematopoiesis, the transforming growth factor beta pathway, depending upon the up-regulation of CDKN1C.
  • [MeSH-major] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57 / genetics. Mutation. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20826236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0849
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1C protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57
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15. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • Selection of patients in whom we should have a high suspicion of a malignancy is vital, so that biochemical investigation and imaging is deployed appropriately.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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16. Lodin M, Privitera A, Giannone G: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA): keys to success: correct surgical indications, adequate preoperative preparation, surgical team experience. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Oct;17(5):392-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA): keys to success: correct surgical indications, adequate preoperative preparation, surgical team experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the surgical procedure of choice for the treatment of most adrenal lesions.
  • Controversy still remains about the treatment for primary and secondary malignant lesions and for pheochromocytoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1997 to December 2005, 77 patients were operated on for adrenal tumors in a single center.
  • Fifty-five patients were eligible for LA and 22 for open surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is the treatment of choice for benign adrenal tumors regardless of size.
  • Appropriate selection of patients, adequate preoperative preparation of patients with functional lesions and expertise in adrenal surgery and advanced laparoscopic skills are necessary to allow reduction of perioperative morbidity and early recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Clinical Competence / standards. Laparoscopy / methods. Patient Care Team / standards. Preoperative Care / standards

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  • (PMID = 18049399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Barzon L, Masi G, Fincati K, Pacenti M, Pezzi V, Altavilla G, Fallo F, Palù G: Shift from Conn's syndrome to Cushing's syndrome in a recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Nov;153(5):629-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Shift from Conn's syndrome to Cushing's syndrome in a recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical tumors may originate from the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, or zona reticularis and be associated with syndromes due to overproduction of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, or androgens respectively.
  • We report an unusual case of recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), which seems to contradict the paradigm of functional adrenal zonation.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Extensive pathologic examination showed that this shift in steroid hormone production was paralleled by an attenuation of tumor cell atypia and polymorphism, whereas gene expression profile analysis demonstrated a change in expression of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.
  • Moreover, cancer progression was associated with overexpression of the inhibin-alpha subunit, which could have contributed to the phenotypic changes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case of recurrent ACC demonstrates that adrenocortical cells can reverse their differentiation program during neoplastic progression and change their specific hormone synthesis, as a consequence of modifications in the expression profile of steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors.
  • These findings, besides opening new perspectives to study adrenocortical cell plasticity and potential, demonstrate how conventional clinical and pathologic evaluation can be combined with genomic analysis in order to dissect thoroughly the biology of cancer.


18. Białas M, Okoń K, Stachura J: Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(2):101-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution.
  • The incidence of primary adrenal gland tumors observed at the Pathology Department, Cracow, in the period of 16 years was examined.
  • The frequency of adrenal lesion in males and females was studied and compared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Poland / epidemiology. Sex Factors. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18669176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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19. Hu X, Dietz JD, Xia C, Knight DR, Loging WT, Smith AH, Yuan H, Perry DA, Keiser J: Torcetrapib induces aldosterone and cortisol production by an intracellular calcium-mediated mechanism independently of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition. Endocrinology; 2009 May;150(5):2211-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The direct effects of torcetrapib and related molecules on adrenal steroid production were assessed in cell culture using the H295R as well as the newly developed HAC15 human adrenal carcinoma cell lines.
  • Torcetrapib induced the synthesis of both aldosterone and cortisol in these two in vitro cell systems.
  • Transcription profiling indicated that torcetrapib and angiotensin II share overlapping pathways in regulating adrenal steroid biosynthesis.
  • Consistent with intracellular calcium being the key mediator of torcetrapib's effect in adrenal cells, calcium channel blockers completely blocked torcetrapib-induced corticoid release and calcium increase.
  • The results indicate that the pressor and adrenal effects observed with torcetrapib and related molecules are independent of CETP inhibition.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticholesteremic Agents / adverse effects. Anticholesteremic Agents / chemistry. Anticholesteremic Agents / pharmacology. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Intracellular Fluid / drug effects. Intracellular Fluid / metabolism. Models, Biological. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Structure-Activity Relationship


20. Mitra S, Roy SG, Sur PK: Adrenocortical carcinoma with skeletal metastases in a postmenopausal woman. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jan;30(1):24-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with skeletal metastases in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a very rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • CT-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of an abdominal mass revealed the presence of a carcinoma of the left adrenal cortex.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
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  • (PMID = 20668603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2902211
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / androgen secreting tumors / mitotane
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21. Huang H, Fojo T: Adjuvant mitotane for adrenocortical cancer--a recurring controversy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):3730-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane for adrenocortical cancer--a recurring controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitotane / adverse effects. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18842984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2579650
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22. Patalano A, Brancato V, Mantero F: Adrenocortical cancer treatment. Horm Res; 2009 Jan;71 Suppl 1:99-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: With a reported incidence of 1 to 2 cases per million, adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • Although most cases of ACC are of sporadic origin, they may also occur as part of a congenital or familial disease in which the genetic abnormalities are well established.
  • New treatments, such as insulin-like growth factor I receptor antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other antiangiogenic compounds, are now being intensively investigated to identify better therapies for this extremely severe malignant neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19153517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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23. Kazaryan AM, Marangos IP, Rosseland AR, Røsok BI, Villanger O, Pinjo E, Pfeffer PF, Edwin B: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Norwegian single-center experience of 242 procedures. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2009 Apr;19(2):181-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The last 15 years have been characterized by a rapid expansion of minimally invasive surgery as treatment for adrenal diseases.
  • Of these, 192 patients were operated on for benign lesions, 23 for malignant lesions, and in 5 cases "en bloc" adrenalectomies were performed.
  • Benign lesions included 136 hormonally active lesions (41 pheochromocytomas, 48 Conn adenomas, 25 Cushing adenomas, and 18 patients with Cushing's disease) and 56 with hormonally inactive lesions (among them, 47 nonfunctional adenomas).
  • Malignant lesions included 16 adrenal metastases and 7 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The number of complications did not differ between the types of adrenal pathology.
  • Per- and postoperative parameters were homogeneous among patients with different adrenal lesions.
  • The patients with adrenocortical carcinoma had a distinctive intraoperative course with an evidently longer operative time and higher blood loss.
  • Hospital stay was the only postoperative parameter where a difference was found between patients with different adrenal lesions.
  • The patients with carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and Cushing's disease had the longest median postoperative stay, respectively, 5 (range, 2-6), 3 (range, 1-15), and 3 (range, 2-6) days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe, effective procedure providing improved fast and uncomplicated patient recovery independent of the type of adrenal lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19216698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Kvacheniuk AN: [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection]. Klin Khir; 2008 Mar;(3):34-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection].
  • Comparative efficacy of radical methods of surgical intervention for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) with lymphodissection (LD) and without it was studied.

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  • (PMID = 18680995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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25. Stritzel S, Mischke R, Philipp U, Kleinschmidt S, Wohlsein P, Stock KF, Distl O: [Familial canine pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in wirehaired Dachshunds]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr; 2008 Sep-Oct;121(9-10):349-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Canine pituitary hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's disease) caused by neoplasia of the corticotrope cells is one of the most common endocrine diseases especially in smaller dog breeds.
  • Cushing's disease was diagnosed in eleven wire-haired Dachshunds and for further six wire-haired Dachshunds Cushing's disease was suspected on the basis of clinical signs.
  • The main lesions consisted of atrophic dermatosis with alopecia, increase of activity of liver enzymes in plasma and bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia and therefore corresponded to the typical signs of a secondary hyperadrenocorticism.
  • A rather unusual finding was the pituitary carcinoma in one of these dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / genetics. Pedigree
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Breeding. Dogs. Female. Genes, MDR. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Male

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  • (PMID = 18822606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-9366
  • [Journal-full-title] Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Miyoshi I, Kubota T, Saito T, Kobayashi M, Toi M, Ohtsuki Y, Taguchi H: Psammoma bodies in lung cancer. Intern Med; 2006;45(5):335-6
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  • [Title] Psammoma bodies in lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16596008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60
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  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Significant modifications concern carcinomas of the oesophagus, oesophagogastric junction, stomach, appendix, biliary tract, lung, skin, prostate and ophthalmic tumours, which will be not addressed in this article.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Volante M, Buttigliero C, Greco E, Berruti A, Papotti M: Pathological and molecular features of adrenocortical carcinoma: an update. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Jul;61(7):787-93
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  • [Title] Pathological and molecular features of adrenocortical carcinoma: an update.
  • The pathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), which is based on gross and microscopic criteria, is subjective.
  • The classification of oncocytic and paediatric adrenocortical tumours is even more challenging, as not all of the above morphological parameters are predictors of malignancy in these tumour types.
  • Genetic and epigenetic alterations of p53, IGF-2 and molecules involved in cancer cell invasive properties seem the most promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18430754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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29. Meyer A, Behrend M: State of the art management of adrenal masses--"how to do it?". Eur J Med Res; 2006 Sep 29;11(9):397-404
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  • [Title] State of the art management of adrenal masses--"how to do it?".
  • By the frequent use of computed tomography or ultrasound the detection of incidentally found adrenal tumours has become a common problem.
  • Most incidentally-found adrenal tumours are benign non-functioning cortical adenomas.
  • But benign functioning tumours producing aldosterone, cortisol or catecholamines, adrenocortical carcinoma or adrenal gland metastasis can also be found.
  • Surgical therapy is always indicated in case of hormonal overproduction or in case of suspected adrenocortical carcinoma; in all other cases the correct and adequate therapeutic approach is still under debate and a controversial topic of discussion.
  • This review deals with the different forms of adrenal tumours regarding the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach to give physicians an easy-to-follow guideline.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17101464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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30. Breen MS, Breen M, Terasaki N, Yamazaki M, Conolly RB: Computational model of steroidogenesis in human H295R cells to predict biochemical response to endocrine-active chemicals: model development for metyrapone. Environ Health Perspect; 2010 Feb;118(2):265-72
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  • BACKGROUND: An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R is being evaluated as a possible screening assay to detect and assess the impact of endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop a mechanistic computational model of the metabolic network of adrenal steroidogenesis to estimate the synthesis and secretion of adrenal steroids in human H295R cells and their biochemical response to steroidogenesis-disrupting EAC.
  • METHODS: We developed a deterministic model that describes the biosynthetic pathways for the conversion of cholesterol to adrenal steroids and the kinetics for enzyme inhibition by metryrapone (MET), a model EAC.
  • A sensitivity analysis indicated the parameter uncertainties and identified transport and metabolic processes that most influenced the concentrations of primary adrenal steroids, aldosterone and cortisol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology. Metyrapone / pharmacology. Steroids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Computational Biology / methods. Humans. Models, Theoretical

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  • (PMID = 20123619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Steroids; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831928
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31. Oskarsson A, Ullerås E, Plant KE, Hinson JP, Goldfarb PS: Steroidogenic gene expression in H295R cells and the human adrenal gland: adrenotoxic effects of lindane in vitro. J Appl Toxicol; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):484-92
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  • [Title] Steroidogenic gene expression in H295R cells and the human adrenal gland: adrenotoxic effects of lindane in vitro.
  • The focus on the refinement, reduction and replacement of animal use in toxicity testing requires the development of cell-based systems that mimic the effects of xenobiotics in human tissues.
  • The human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line, H295R, has been proposed as a model for studies on adrenal steroidogenesis and its disruption.
  • In this study, expression profiles for nine adrenal steroidogenic genes were characterized in H295R cells using real-time RT-PCR.
  • The transcript profile from H295R cells in the presence and absence of forskolin was compared with the transcript profile from human adrenal glands.
  • The gene expression pattern observed in the forskolin-treated H295R cells was more similar to that in the human adrenal gland, than the expression pattern in untreated cells.
  • To examine H295R cells as a possible in vitro system for the assessment of adrenal disruption using molecular endpoints, the insecticide lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) was used.
  • In vivo, lindane has been shown to inhibit testicular, ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • It was demonstrated that lindane reduced cortisol secretion, downregulated the expression of a subset of the genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes and repressed transcriptional activation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene promoter.
  • Thus the H295R cell line provides a good in vitro system for the analysis of the human adrenal steroidogenic pathway at the level of hormone production and gene expression.
  • This in vitro test can be used for the rapid detection of adrenal endocrine disruption and as a tool for mechanistic studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Insecticides / toxicity. Lindane / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Sulfotransferases / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17080404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0260-437X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 59NEE7PCAB / Lindane; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.2 / alcohol sulfotransferase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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32. Walz MK, Petersenn S, Koch JA, Mann K, Neumann HP, Schmid KW: Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours. Br J Surg; 2005 Jun;92(6):719-23
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  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic adrenalectomy has become the treatment of choice for small benign adrenal tumours but should not be used for malignant lesions.
  • It is debatable whether large and therefore potentially malignant primary adrenal tumours should be removed by minimally invasive techniques.
  • METHODS: Three hundred and eighty primary adrenal tumours in 368 patients (142 male and 226 female; mean(s.d.) age 48.9(14.4) years) were excised by laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Adrenal neoplasias exceeded 6 cm in diameter (range 6-13 cm) in 33 patients (18 male and 15 female; age 42.6(14.2) years).
  • Six malignant tumours were identified (diameter 4-10 cm; four phaeochromocytomas and two adrenocortical carcinomas).
  • Local recurrence developed in two patients and distant metastasis occurred in all six patients with malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15856491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Locali RF, Matsuoka PK, Cherbo T, Gabriel EA, Buffolo E: Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2009 Mar;92(3):168-76
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The resection of tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium (RA) increases the survival rate of patients with renal/adrenal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical procedure in cases of IVC and RA in the treatment of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical intervention (during the period) between January 1997 and June 2007, for resection of IVC and/or RA thrombus due to renal or adrenal tumors, were retrospectively evaluated.
  • The patients (64.2% male) presented with Wilms' tumor, clear cell carcinoma and adrenal adenocarcinoma, and had mean age of 4.5, 60.5 and 2.5 years, respectively.
  • Two deaths, due to intraoperative cardiorespiratory arrest, were seen among patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma.
  • More postoperative complications are seen in patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma, and the postoperative prognosis is better for patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombectomy / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior. Venous Thrombosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced / methods. Extracorporeal Circulation / methods. Female. Heart Atria / surgery. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery. Young Adult


34. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Diwan BA: Transplacental arsenic carcinogenesis in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2007 Aug 1;222(3):271-80
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  • In C3H mice, two separate studies show male offspring exposed to arsenic in utero developed liver carcinoma and adrenal cortical adenoma in a dose-related fashion during adulthood.
  • Prenatally exposed female C3H offspring show dose-related increases in ovarian tumors and lung carcinoma and in proliferative lesions (tumors plus preneoplastic hyperplasia) of the uterus and oviduct.
  • Male CD1 mice treated with arsenic in utero develop tumors of the liver and adrenal and renal hyperplasia while females develop tumors of urogenital system, ovary, uterus and adrenal and hyperplasia of the oviduct.
  • Additional postnatal treatment with diethylstilbestrol or tamoxifen after prenatal arsenic in CD1 mice induces urinary bladder transitional cell proliferative lesions, including carcinoma and papilloma, and enhances the carcinogenic response in the liver of both sexes.

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  • (PMID = 17306315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-21; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Estrogens; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS28781; NLM/ PMC1995036
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35. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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36. Thompson MA, Habra MA, Routbort MJ, Holsinger FC, Perrier ND, Waguespack SG, Rodriguez MA: Primary adrenal natural killer/T-cell nasal type lymphoma: first case report in adults. Am J Hematol; 2007 Apr;82(4):299-303
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  • [Title] Primary adrenal natural killer/T-cell nasal type lymphoma: first case report in adults.
  • We report the first case of a primary adrenal natural killer (NK)/T-cell nasal type lymphoma in adults.
  • The patient presented with an enlarging left adrenal mass and the initial concern was for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Surgical resection revealed NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • Rapid recurrence in the contralateral adrenal gland was treated with a single cycle of chemotherapy before he died due to infectious complications and progressive disease.
  • This case demonstrates the aggressive presentation of a novel subset of primary adrenal lymphoma that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly enlarging adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. RNA, Viral

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  • (PMID = 17094095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / RNA, Viral
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37. Ferreira U, Nardi Pedro R, Matheus WE, Prudente A, Mendonça Borges G, Rodrigues Netto N Jr: Open surgical treatment of right-sided adrenal carcinomas &gt;15 cm. Urol Int; 2007;78(1):46-9
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  • [Title] Open surgical treatment of right-sided adrenal carcinomas >15 cm.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal carcinomas are rare and are associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • The incidence is estimated to be 1 in 1.7 million which represents 0.02% of all cancers and 0.2% of all cancer mortality.
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a single-institution experience in excising right-sided giant adrenal carcinomas, discussing the difficulties and the usage of special surgical devices to facilitate the procedure.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During June 2001 to June 2003, 18 patients with right-sided adrenal tumors were treated at the State University of Campinas Hospital--UNICAMP.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal cortical carcinoma was the histological diagnosis according to the Weiss criteria; no positive surgical margin was detected, even in those patients with invasion of the hepatic capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17192732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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38. Dichtchekenian V, de Bragança Pereira CA, Kuperman H, Della Manna T, Damiani D, Ferreira Alves VA, Filho AL, Setian N: Adrenocortical carcinoma: prognostic indices based on clinical and immunohistochemical markers. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;18(4):347-53
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: prognostic indices based on clinical and immunohistochemical markers.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare condition with an unpredictable prognosis as a rule.
  • Y = 1 when chronological age (CA) >33 mo, Y = 0 when CA < or =33 mo; L = 1 for right sided tumor and L = 0 for left sided tumor; H = 1 in presence of hypertension and H = 0 for normal blood pressure; T = length of disease in months; W = weight of tumor (g); O = 1 in the absence of p53 protein and O = 0 in the presence of p53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 15844468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Sperone P, Pia A, Della Casa S, Gross DJ, Carnaghi C, Casali P, Porpiglia F, Mantero F, Reimondo G, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):657-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial.
  • To investigate the activity of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin plus mitotane in the management of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients, 72 patients with measurable disease not amenable to radical surgery were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter phase II trial.
  • Radical surgical resection of residual disease after chemotherapy was performed in 10 patients.
  • The overall survival of patients attaining a disease free status (clinical complete responders+radically resected) was significantly higher than that of patients with partial response or no response (P<0.002).
  • Surgical resection of residual disease subsequent to chemotherapy leads to a more favourable outcome.
  • The natural history of the disease is significantly influenced by the secretory status of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16172198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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40. Sèbe P, Rigaud J, Avancès C, Brunaud L, Caillard C, Camparo P, Carnaille B, Culine S, Durand X, Mathonnet M, Mirallie E, Soulié M, Oncology Committee of the French Association of Urology (CCAFU): [Malignant tumors of the adrenal: contribution to the repository CCAFU INCa]. Prog Urol; 2010 Nov;20 Suppl 4:S310-6
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  • [Title] [Malignant tumors of the adrenal: contribution to the repository CCAFU INCa].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs malignes de la surrénale: Contribution du CCAFU au référentiel INCa.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Follow-Up Studies. France. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21129649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] France
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41. Lahera Vargas M, da Costa CV: [Prevalence, etiology and clinical findings of Cushing's syndrome]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Jan;56(1):32-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Prevalencia, etiología y cuadro clínico del síndrome de Cushing.
  • Cushing's disease is the most frequent cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome, which is 5 or 6 times more frequent than adrenal Cushing's syndrome, with an incidence of between 1.2 and 2.4 cases per million inhabitants per year.
  • Cushing's disease is 3-8 times higher in women than in men.
  • The frequency of adrenal tumors is 3 times higher in women, while that of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumors is 3-5 times higher.
  • Age at diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome varies according to the etiology.
  • Most cases of Cushing's disease are due to a pituitary adenoma, although the tumor may not be visible on the available imaging techniques.
  • ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome is found in 20% of cases and is most frequently due to adenomas (10%) or adrenal carcinomas (8).
  • Both familial and sporadic forms exist: the familial form, or Carney complex, and ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular hyperplasia, in which the size of the adrenal glands is considerably enlarged.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / secretion. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Female. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hyperplasia. Incidence. Male. Phenotype. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Prevalence. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19627706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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42. Gasilionis V, Ersahin C, Gabram S, Bova D, Branch J, Rajan P: Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;59(5):546-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • A 56 year old woman was diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma in May 2003, for which she underwent left radical adrenalectomy.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was made on core biopsy.
  • Subsequently, the patient underwent a lumpectomy of the mass, which confirmed the diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 1982 Jul;144(2):309-12 [7089284.001]
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  • (PMID = 16644887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860300
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43. Karakas Z, Tugcu D, Unuvar A, Atay D, Akcay A, Gedik H, Kayserili H, Dogan O, Anak S, Devecioglu O: Li-Fraumeni syndrome in a Turkish family. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 May;27(4):297-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) association with acute leukemia is unusual in childhood, even in LFS.
  • The authors here present a family with pR337P mutation in TP53 gene who had a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated adrenocortical carcinoma as a case 1 and his cousin with brain tumor as a case 2.
  • A hereditary TP53 mutation supported the diagnosis of LFS in this family.
  • The availability of a reliable molecular marker to detect the R337P TP53 mutation allows the rapid identification of carriers in families that have a child with ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20426520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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44. Dundr P, Povýsil C, Zelinka T, Tvrdík D, Ciprová V, Novák K: Adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(3):177-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features.
  • We report a case of an aldosterone producing adrenocortical adenoma with rhabdoid features in a 16-year-old girl.
  • Rhabdoid features have been described in many tumors of variable histogenesis; however, to the best of our knowledge, the presence of rhabdoid phenotype has never been described in either adrenocortical adenoma or carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16448785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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45. Grubbs E, Lee JE: Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a revised TNM classification. Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5847; author reply 5848
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  • [Title] Limited prognostic value of the 2004 International Union Against Cancer staging classification for adrenocortical carcinoma: proposal for a revised TNM classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer. 2009 Jan 15;115(2):243-50 [19025987.001]
  • (PMID = 19827149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Roman S: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):36-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported.
  • Given the generally advanced stage at diagnosis, the overall 5-year survival remains poor, varying between 20 and 45%.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies focusing on the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma have focused on onco-developmental genes present in the fetal adrenal cortex, as well as local adrenal paracrine and autocrine effects of cellular peptides.
  • SUMMARY: Pre-operative diagnostic advances in positron emission scanning are emerging as promising modalities for confirmation of malignancy of indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • No significant advances in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma have been developed.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay for primary and recurrent disease, including select patients with isolated liver metastases.
  • Mitotane has remained the preferred adjuvant treatment agent, showing modest effect in patients with unresectable, residual or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16357562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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47. Nishikawa T, Saito J, Omura M: [Medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho; 2008 Jan;66(1):186-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is well known that the development of the microvascular disease of various organs such as the heart and kidney, in patients with diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension of which disorders are frequently associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Thus, we should treat Cushing's syndrome as soon as possible, since many complications, including cardiovascular diseases and infections, will soon occur when the definite diagnosis is delayed.
  • Medical adrenalectomy is achieved by using with mitotane which is usually used for adrenocortical cancer.
  • We commonly treat the patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumor and pituitary or ectopic ACTH producing tumor by using metyrapone which mainly inhibits 11-hydroxylase.
  • Metyrapone is also recommended to treat the patients who are not well differentiated Cushing's disease from ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Replacement therapy with hydrocortisone should be considered if adrenal failure will occur during treatment with those drugs.

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  • (PMID = 18186263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0O54ZQ14I9 / Aminoglutethimide; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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48. Hofland J, Timmerman MA, de Herder WW, van Schaik RH, de Krijger RR, de Jong FH: Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Dec;65(6):792-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The growth and differentiation factors activin and inhibin can affect tumour formation and steroid production in the adrenal cortex.
  • Expression of these activin-related mRNAs was measured in different types of adrenocortical tissues and tumours to study the relationship with tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN: Quantitative expression of activin-related mRNAs was investigated in patient adrenocortical samples.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty-eight human adrenocortical samples from normal and hyperplastic adrenals and from adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas were collected after surgery for study purposes.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we investigated the expression of inhibin alpha-, betaA- and betaB-subunits, follistatin, betaglycan, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and Alk-4 in the adrenocortical tissues.
  • RESULTS: All genes studied were expressed in all tissues, with the exception of the inhibin alpha-subunit in one hyperplastic adrenal and three adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Expression of inhibin betaA-subunit, follistatin, betaglycan, ActRIIA, ActRIIB and CYP17 differed between nontumorous adrenals and carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins is affected by tumour formation in the adrenal gland and may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type II / genetics. Activin Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Follistatin / genetics. Follistatin / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Inhibin-beta Subunits / genetics. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Proteoglycans / genetics. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17121532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Follistatin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / inhibin beta A subunit; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 145170-29-2 / betaglycan; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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49. Luconi M, Mangoni M, Gelmini S, Poli G, Nesi G, Francalanci M, Pratesi N, Cantini G, Lombardi A, Pepi M, Ercolino T, Serio M, Orlando C, Mannelli M: Rosiglitazone impairs proliferation of human adrenocortical cancer: preclinical study in a xenograft mouse model. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):169-77
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone impairs proliferation of human adrenocortical cancer: preclinical study in a xenograft mouse model.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • The lack of a specific and effective medical treatment is due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Mice. Mice, Nude. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19955217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone
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50. Sun XY, Li XG, Gao H, Zhou XQ, Zheng HW: [Renal clear cell carcinoma associated with pelvis hemangioma and adrenal cortical adenoma: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 May;36(5):352-3
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  • [Title] [Renal clear cell carcinoma associated with pelvis hemangioma and adrenal cortical adenoma: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology


51. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71
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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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52. Coli A, Di Giorgio A, Castri F, Destito C, Marin AW, Bigotti G: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jan 15;206(1):59-65
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature.
  • Reports about adrenocortical carcinomas (AC) mixed with sarcomatous areas are very rare.
  • Herein, we report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland in a 75-year-old woman who presented with left abdominal pain of one month's standing.
  • The results of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large heterogeneous adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the neoplasm showed areas of adrenocortical carcinoma and areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation.
  • Twelve months after removal of the primary tumor, the patient died of her disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature.
  • We review the reported cases according to the 2004 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung tumors, and highlight the histogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical course of this very aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19369012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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53. Brix D, Allolio B, Fenske W, Agha A, Dralle H, Jurowich C, Langer P, Mussack T, Nies C, Riedmiller H, Spahn M, Weismann D, Hahner S, Fassnacht M, German Adrenocortical Carcinoma Registry Group: Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients. Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):609-15
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical and oncologic outcome in 152 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare oncologic outcome in patients with ACC who underwent either open adrenalectomy (OA) or laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for localised disease.
  • INTERVENTION: Patients were stratified into two groups according to the surgical procedure (LA or OA).
  • For comparison, we used both a matched pairs approach by selecting for each patient from the LA group (n=35) one corresponding patient from the OA group (n=117) and multivariate analysis in all 152 patients.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Disease-specific survival was chosen as the predefined primary end point.
  • Secondary end points were recurrence-free survival, frequency of tumour capsule violation and postoperative peritoneal carcinomatosis, and incidence and reasons for conversion from LA to OA.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: LA and OA did not differ with regard to the primary end point using either the matched pairs approach (hazard ratio [HR] for death: 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-1.72; p=0.55) or multivariate analysis (HR for death: 0.98; 95% CI, 0.51-1.92; p=0.92).
  • Similarly, adjusted recurrence-free survival was not different between LA and OA (HR: 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.47; p=0.69).
  • In 12 of 35 patients of the LA group, surgery was converted to open surgery with no impact on the clinical outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For localised ACC with a diameter of < or =10 cm, LA by an experienced surgeon is not inferior to OA with regard to oncologic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Dec;58(6):e53; author reply e54 [20864252.001]
  • (PMID = 20580485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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54. Goldschneider KR, Racadio JM, Weidner NJ: Celiac plexus blockade in children using a three-dimensional fluoroscopic reconstruction technique: case reports. Reg Anesth Pain Med; 2007 Nov-Dec;32(6):510-5
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  • One carried the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, one abdominal pain and gastrointestinal dysmotility, the other adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adult. Carcinoma / complications. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystic Fibrosis / complications. Fatal Outcome. Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mitochondrial Diseases / complications. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care. Pancreatitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18035298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Regional anesthesia and pain medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reg Anesth Pain Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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56. Mahe E, El-Shinnawy I: A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Dec;32(2):123-8
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  • [Title] A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass.
  • Histology of the renal mass was consistent with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade III.
  • There was no extra-renal extension or lymphovascular invasion.
  • The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes.
  • We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions.
  • In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


57. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • A recently used technique for the isolation of this cell population is through exclusion of the vital dye Hoechst 33342, which defines the so-called side population (SP).
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Furthermore, re-sorting and tracing experiments revealed the capacity for both cell types to give rise to the original SP- and non-SP-containing cell population.
  • Similarly to the baseline growth kinetics, no survival benefit was evident in SP cells after treatment with cytotoxic agents commonly used in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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58. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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59. Lindström V, Brandt I, Lindhe O: Species differences in 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE bioactivation by adrenocortical tissue. Arch Toxicol; 2008 Mar;82(3):159-63
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  • [Title] Species differences in 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE bioactivation by adrenocortical tissue.
  • The CYP11B1-activated adrenocortical toxicant 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) is proposed as a lead compound for an improved chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We compared the binding of 3-MeSO2-[14C]DDE in the adrenal cortex of four rodent species; hamster, guinea pig, mouse and rat, using a precision-cut adrenal slice culture system ex vivo.
  • The results revealed major species differences since 3-MeSO2-[14C]DDE was extensively bound to the hamster adrenal tissue while the guinea pig adrenals were devoid of binding.
  • A high binding in mouse adrenal cortex was confirmed while binding in rat adrenal cortex was very weak.
  • Since CYP11B1 could be expressed in tissues other than the adrenal cortex, final toxicological characterization should be carried out in a species that can bioactivate this compound.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18034334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5761
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4M7FS82U08 / Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene; 62938-14-1 / 1-chloro-4-(2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl)-3-(methylsulfonyl)benzene
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60. Cawood TJ, Hunt PJ, O'Shea D, Cole D, Soule S: Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink? Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):513-27
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  • [Title] Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of current clinical recommendations for the evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Eligible studies were those deemed most applicable to the clinical scenario of a patient referred to an endocrinologist for assessment of an incidentally detected adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of functional and malignant lesions presenting as adrenal incidentaloma was similar to that quoted in most reviews, other than a lower incidence of adrenal carcinoma (1.9 vs 4.7%) and metastases (0.7 vs 2.3%).
  • The development of functionality or malignancy during follow-up was rare (<1% becoming functional and 0.2% becoming malignant).
  • The average recommended computed tomography (CT) scan follow-up exposes each patient to 23 mSv of ionising radiation, equating to a 1 in 430 to 2170 chance of causing fatal cancer.
  • This is similar to the chance of developing adrenal malignancy during 3-year follow-up of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSION: Current recommendations for evaluation of adrenal incidentaloma are likely to result in significant costs, both financial and emotional, due to high false-positive rates.
  • The dose of radiation involved in currently recommended CT scan follow-up confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal becoming malignant.


61. Almeida MQ, Soares IC, Ribeiro TC, Fragoso MC, Marins LV, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Nishi MY, Jorge AA, Lerario AM, Alves VA, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Steroidogenic factor 1 overexpression and gene amplification are more frequent in adrenocortical tumors from children than from adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Mar;95(3):1458-62
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  • [Title] Steroidogenic factor 1 overexpression and gene amplification are more frequent in adrenocortical tumors from children than from adults.
  • BACKGROUND: Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a key determinant of endocrine development and function of adrenal cortex.
  • SF-1 overexpression and gene amplification were previously demonstrated in a small group of pediatric adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of SF-1 protein expression and gene amplification in a large cohort of pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.
  • PATIENTS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed in a cohort of 103 adrenocortical tumors from 36 children and 67 adults, whereas gene amplification was studied in 38 adrenocortical tumors (17 from children).
  • RESULTS: A strong nuclear SF-1 expression was detected by tissue microarray in 56% (20 of 36) and 19% (13 of 67) of the pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors, respectively (P = 0.0004).
  • Increased SF-1 copy number was identified in 47% (eight of 17) and 10% (two of 21) of the pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors, respectively (P = 0.02).
  • All adrenocortical tumors with SF-1 gene amplification showed a strong SF-1 staining, whereas most of the tumors (61%) without SF-1 amplification displayed a weak or negative staining (P = 0.0008).
  • Interestingly, a strong SF-1 staining was identified in five (29%) pediatric adrenocortical tumors without SF-1 amplification.
  • The frequency of SF-1 overexpression and gene amplification was similar in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a higher frequency of SF-1 overexpression and gene amplification in pediatric than in adult adrenocortical tumors, suggesting an important role of SF-1 in pediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Amplification / genetics. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20080844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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62. Else T, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD: Evaluation of telomere length maintenance mechanisms in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1442-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of telomere length maintenance mechanisms in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease with an often fatal outcome.
  • The clinical and pathological diagnosis of a malignant vs. benign adrenocortical tumor is sometimes challenging.
  • Telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) are critical for the persistence of the malignant phenotype, but little is known about these mechanisms or their diagnostic value in adrenocortical lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: Tissue samples of diagnostically known adrenocortical neoplasms were evaluated for parameters of known TMMs, telomerase activity (TA), and alternative telomere lengthening (ALT).
  • DESIGN: The study analyzed retrospectively collected frozen adrenocortical tissue samples from the University of Michigan Health System.
  • PATIENT SAMPLES: Samples included 24 ACCs, 11 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and three normal adrenal tissues.
  • None of the normal adrenal tissues (none of three) or ACA (none of 11) samples had signs of an active TMM.
  • Determination of telomere maintenance mechanisms in diagnostically challenging adrenocortical tumors might be of additional diagnostic value in the pathological diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Telomere

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  • (PMID = 18198226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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63. Khan S, Imtiaz KE: Adrenocortical carcinoma: a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Br J Hosp Med (Lond); 2009 Jan;70(1):46-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: a diagnostic and treatment dilemma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 19357579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-8460
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Hosp Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Ishida M, Yoshida K, Miyamoto K, Iwai M, Miyahira Y, Kushima R, Okabe H: Cytological features of myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component: a case report with differential diagnostic considerations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):576-80
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  • [Title] Cytological features of myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component: a case report with differential diagnostic considerations.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors are extremely rare neoplasms with only nine adenomas and eleven carcinomas reported in the literature.
  • They occasionally have a pseudoglandular component resembling metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland.
  • We report here the first cytopathological study of a myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component, contributing especially to the differential diagnosis from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Two major cytopathological features distinguishing myxoid adrenocortical adenoma from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland are:.
  • Careful observation of these cytological features and positive immunoreactivity to Melan A, alpha-inhibin and synaptophysin can lead to the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18618725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Assié G, Guillaud-Bataille M, Ragazzon B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Clauser E: The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;21(5):325-34
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  • [Title] The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses.
  • Accumulating data on adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumor transcriptomes have already identified striking transcriptome differences not only between adenoma and carcinoma but also between two sets of carcinoma, which have very different prognoses.
  • These transcriptome data observing adrenocortical tumor phenotype in great but complex detail, combined with genomic and proteomic information, will function for future research investigating the pathophysiology of their tumorigenesis and hormonal secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Animals. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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66. Cobb WS, Kercher KW, Sing RF, Heniford BT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignancy. Am J Surg; 2005 Apr;189(4):405-11
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  • The superiority of the minimally invasive approach to adrenal resections has been well documented for benign pathology.
  • With technical advances and increased experience, surgeons have successfully performed laparoscopic adrenalectomies for metastatic and primary malignancies of the adrenal gland.
  • The technique of laparoscopic adrenalectomy as it pertains to malignant lesions is presented.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic colorectal, lung, and renal tumors.
  • For primary adrenal malignancies, radical resections can be effectively performed laparoscopically; however, continued long-term follow-up is needed to establish the minimally invasive technique as the preferred approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15820450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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67. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 52 year-old female was diagnosed with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and treated with oesophagectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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68. McNicol AM: A diagnostic approach to adrenal cortical lesions. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):241-51
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  • [Title] A diagnostic approach to adrenal cortical lesions.
  • The adrenal gland is not a common specimen in surgical pathology practice as, until recently, adrenal tumors were recognized in life only if associated with hypersecretion of hormones or evidence of malignancy.
  • However, adrenal nodules are not uncommon at autopsy, and the number of these found in life is now increasing as they are identified when the abdomen is scanned for the investigation of other diseases using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • It is therefore becoming increasingly important for the surgical pathologist to be aware of the range of pathology in the gland and to understand how to approach the specimens.
  • This short review will deal with lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19089656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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69. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • DATA SOURCES: Recent programmatic activity includes genome-wide transcriptomic evaluation of human adrenocortical tumors for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation; interrogation of the Wnt signaling pathway in adrenocortical carcinoma, using mouse models and transcriptome profiling; and clinical trials with targeted therapy focused on inhibition of insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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70. Gustavsen MW, von Krogh K, Taubøll E, Zimmer KE, Dahl E, Olsaker I, Ropstad E, Verhaegen S: Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on steroidogenesis in a human in vitro cell model. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl; 2009;(189):14-21
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  • [Title] Differential effects of antiepileptic drugs on steroidogenesis in a human in vitro cell model.
  • OBJECTIVES: To better understand the interaction of antiepileptic drugs and production of sex hormones, possible effects of valproate (VPA), levetiracetam (LEV) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on steroidogenesis were investigated in the human adrenal carcinoma cell line H295R.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbamazepine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation. Endocrine Disruptors / pharmacology. Estradiol / metabolism. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / genetics. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Piracetam / analogs & derivatives. Piracetam / pharmacology. Progesterone / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroid Hydroxylases / genetics. Testosterone / metabolism. Valproic Acid / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19566492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-5449
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 230447L0GL / etiracetam; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.14.- / Steroid Hydroxylases; ZH516LNZ10 / Piracetam
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71. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: New methods for investigating experimental human adrenal tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):175-9
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  • [Title] New methods for investigating experimental human adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • Adenomas and nodules of the human adrenal cortex are common, whereas adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • Genes such as IGF2 have been suggested to be important in human adrenocortical tumorigenesis but their role has not been directly investigated.
  • We describe here elements of a system in which hypotheses concerning the molecular basis for the formation of benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions can be experimentally tested.
  • Various viral vectors have been employed in the study of adrenocortical cell biology.
  • Because of the low proliferative rate of primary human adrenocortical (pHAC) cells, a lentiviral system is ideal for transducing these cells with genes that may alter their characteristics or cause them to acquire benign or malignant tumorigenicity.
  • For tumorigenesis studies of genetically modified adrenocortical cells, we use RAG2(-/-), gammac(-/-) mice.
  • Using this immunodeficient mouse model, we established an orthotopic intra-adrenal cell transplantation technique for adrenocortical cells that should be of value for future studies of the experimental conversion of human adrenocortical cells to a benign or malignant tumorigenic state.

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  • (PMID = 19047010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99076; NLM/ PMC2676229
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72. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • [Title] Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines.
  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Both cell lines were irradiated at a 6 Gy dose and were treated with o,p'-DDD 10(-5) M separately and with IR/o,p'-DDD in combination.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Cell cycle analysis showed that IR alone and IR/o,p'-DDD in combination induced the cell accumulation in the G2 phase.
  • In order to study the molecular mechanism involved in the G2 irreversible arrest, we have considered the H295R cell line showing the highest inhibition of cell proliferation associated with a noteworthy G2 arrest.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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73. Beuschlein F: Adrenal incidentalomas: presentation and clinical work-up. Horm Res; 2007;68 Suppl 5:191-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: presentation and clinical work-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Through the widespread use of imaging techniques with great sensitivity, adrenal tumours are often diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • The majority of these adrenal lesions are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity or malignancy.
  • However, in addition to the classic forms of overt adrenal hypersecretion, it has become evident in recent years that even modest adrenal hormonal autonomy, as exhibited in clinically silent phaeochromocytoma, normokalaemic primary aldosteronism and subclinical Cushing syndrome, is associated with significant morbidity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection and differential diagnosis of subtle changes in adrenal hormone secretion can pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician, and accurate diagnosis is dependent on use of tests with reliable sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18174744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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74. Zhang L, Liu M, Merling R, Giam CZ: Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1. J Virol; 2006 Aug;80(15):7459-68
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  • [Title] Versatile reporter systems show that transactivation by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax occurs independently of chromatin remodeling factor BRG1.
  • Potent activation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is mediated by the virus-encoded transactivator protein Tax and three imperfect 21-bp repeats in the viral long terminal repeats.
  • Using an easily transduced and chromosomally integrated reporter system derived from a self-inactivating lentivirus vector, we showed in a BRG1- and BRM1-deficient adrenal carcinoma cell line, SW-13, that Tax- and 21-bp repeat-mediated transactivation does not require BRG1 or BRM1 and is not enhanced by BRG1.

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  • (PMID = 16840326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / F32 GM075688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 48709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA/GM 75688
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factors; 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Gene Products, tax; 0 / Histones; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / SMARCA2 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / SMARCA4 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563696
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75. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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76. Sawhney S, Burney I, Jain R: Pulmonary Infarction: A rare case of adrenal carcinoma. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J; 2007 Apr;7(1):55-7
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  • [Title] Pulmonary Infarction: A rare case of adrenal carcinoma.
  • A case report of unsuspected adrenal carcinoma with pulmonary artery obstruction in a young girl who was admitted with recurrent episodes of hypotension is presented.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a large right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium, right ventricle and right pulmonary artery.
  • There are many case reports in literature documenting IVC and right atrial thrombus in patients with adrenal carcinoma.

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  • [Cites] Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2002 Feb;36(1):71-3 [12002362.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Radiol. 2003 Mar;44(2):160-1 [12694101.001]
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  • (PMID = 21654947.001).
  • [ISSN] 2075-051X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sultan Qaboos University medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3086421
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal carcinoma / Case report / Computed Tomography / Oman / Pulmonary infarction
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77. Wang Y, Nicholls PK, Stanton PG, Harrison CA, Sarraj M, Gilchrist RB, Findlay JK, Farnworth PG: Extra-ovarian expression and activity of growth differentiation factor 9. J Endocrinol; 2009 Sep;202(3):419-30
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  • The present studies confirm GDF9 expression in the mouse testis, pituitary gland and adrenocortical cancer (AC) cells, and establish its expression in L beta T2 gonadotrophs, and in mouse adrenal glands, particularly foetal and neonatal cortical cells.
  • We therefore compared GDF9 activation of these potential extra-ovarian target cell types with its activation of granulosa cells.
  • Recombinant mouse GDF9 stimulated expression of activin/transforming growth factor-beta-responsive reporters, pGRAS-luc or pAR3-lux, in TM4 and AC cells (IC50=145 ng/ml in the latter case), and two granulosa cell lines, KGN and COV434.
  • Our findings show that GDF9 regulates the expression of R-SMAD2/3-responsive reporter genes through ALK4, 5 or 7 in extra-ovarian (adrenocortical and Sertoli) cells with similar potency and signalling pathway to its actions on granulosa cells, but suggest that expression of BMPRII, ALK5 (TGFBR1) and R-SMADs 2 and 3 may not be sufficient for a cell to respond to GDF9.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Growth Differentiation Factor 9 / genetics. Leydig Cells / physiology. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Sertoli Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19505950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(5-benzo(1,3)dioxol-5-yl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzamide; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / GDF9 protein, human; 0 / Gdf9 protein, mouse; 0 / Gdf9 protein, rat; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 9; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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78. Boesch C, Vermathen P, Kreis R: Insufficient spectral quality to draw conclusions. Radiology; 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentOn] Radiology. 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97 [18024453.001]
  • (PMID = 19244058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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80. McLaughlin SA, Schmitt TM, Huguet KL, Menke DM, Nguyen JH: Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):191-3
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  • [Title] Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal masses have varying presentations.
  • Most commonly, adrenal masses are discovered incidentally on CT or MRI during an evaluation for an unrelated complaint.
  • Although the majority of these are nonfunctional cortical adenomas, hormonally active tumors and adrenocortical carcinoma must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • Rarely, retroperitoneal tumors may mimic an adrenal mass.
  • We report a case of a 49-year-old man with anemia and weight loss who was found to have a large retroperitoneal mass arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Surgical treatment involved en bloc resection of the right kidney, adrenal gland, segments 7 and 8 of the liver, and a portion of the right hemidiaphragm.
  • We believe that this is the first case report of a myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Myofibrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors composed of myofibroblasts that arise from the deep soft tissues.
  • We will briefly discuss the workup of an adrenal mass and focus on the diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myosarcoma / pathology. Myosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15869129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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81. Ota K, Satoh H, Lin SY, Fujita J, Ohara G, Kurishima K, Hizawa N: Endobronchial metastasis from adrenocortical carcinoma. Intern Med; 2009;48(13):1161-4
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  • [Title] Endobronchial metastasis from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We present herein a case of endobronchial metastasis from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • In the English language literature, this is the first case with such rare metastasis from adrenocortical carcinoma diagnosed antemortem.
  • Although very rare, physicians should keep in mind the possibility of endobronchial metastasis in patients with a history of extrapulmonary malignancy including adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19571451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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82. Korzeniewska M, Kołomecki K, Stepień H, Naze M, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;56(1):39-44
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  • [Title] [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Ocena stezeń wybranych czynników pro i antyangiogennych we krwi u chorych z nieczynnymi hormonalnie guzami nadnerczy.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the value of serum VEGF and soluble forms of VEGF receptors concentration as a marker of malignancy in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients (18 female, 9 male; mean age 48+/-4.3 years) with adrenocortical carcinoma (N=8), adrenal metastases (N=4) and adrenocortical adenoma (N=15) were included in this study.
  • Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma had the levels of VEGF (1263.8 pg/ml) significantly higher and of sVEGFR-2 (5893.7 pg/ml) significantly lower in comparison to control group (p<0.05).
  • On the other hand the mean VEGF (334.2 pg/ml) concentration in patients with benign adrenocortical adenoma wasn't significant different than in control group (p>0.05) but mean sVEGFR-1 (21.7 pg/ml) and sVEGFR-2 (7106.4 pg/ml) concentrations were significantly lower than in the control (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that determination of VEGF and sVEGFR concentration in the serum of patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors may be applied as an additional marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16335673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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83. Li R, Johnson AB, Salomons G, Goldman JE, Naidu S, Quinlan R, Cree B, Ruyle SZ, Banwell B, D'Hooghe M, Siebert JR, Rolf CM, Cox H, Reddy A, Gutiérrez-Solana LG, Collins A, Weller RO, Messing A, van der Knaap MS, Brenner M: Glial fibrillary acidic protein mutations in infantile, juvenile, and adult forms of Alexander disease. Ann Neurol; 2005 Mar;57(3):310-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glial fibrillary acidic protein mutations in infantile, juvenile, and adult forms of Alexander disease.
  • Alexander disease is a progressive, usually fatal neurological disorder defined by the widespread and abundant presence in astrocytes of protein aggregates called Rosenthal fibers.
  • The disease most often occurs in infants younger than 2 years and has been labeled a leukodystrophy because of an accompanying severe myelin deficit in the frontal lobes.
  • Recently, we and others have found pathogenic, de novo missense mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene in most infantile patients examined and in a few later onset patients.
  • To obtain further information about the role of glial fibrillary acidic protein mutations in Alexander disease, we analyzed 41 new patients and another 3 previously described clinically, including 18 later onset patients.
  • Our results show that dominant missense glial fibrillary acidic protein mutations account for nearly all forms of this disorder.
  • They also significantly expand the catalog of responsible mutations, verify the value of magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis, indicate an unexpected male predominance for the juvenile form, and provide insights into phenotype-genotype relations.
  • [MeSH-major] Alexander Disease / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Mutation, Missense
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Adult. Age Factors. Age of Onset. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Molecular. Mutagenesis / physiology. Transfection / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Neurol. 2005 Mar;57(3):307-8 [15732119.001]
  • (PMID = 15732097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-5134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / N01 HD 43368; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / N01 HD 83284; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS 42803; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / P30 HD 38985; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 39055
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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84. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • [Title] Management of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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85. Sangoi AR, McKenney JK: A tissue microarray-based comparative analysis of novel and traditional immunohistochemical markers in the distinction between adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):423-32
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  • [Title] A tissue microarray-based comparative analysis of novel and traditional immunohistochemical markers in the distinction between adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytoma.
  • We have encountered an increasing number of image-guided adrenal mass biopsies in which the differential diagnosis is adrenal cortical lesion versus pheochromocytoma.
  • In this study, a detailed immunoprofile of 63 adrenal cortical lesions (3 adrenal rests, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 43 adrenal cortical adenomas, 4 adrenal cortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas) was compared with 35 pheochromocytomas using traditional (calretinin, chromogranin, inhibin, melanA, and synaptophysin) and novel [steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), microtubule-associated protein 2, and mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1] antibodies, using tissue microarray technology to simulate small image-guided biopsies.
  • Staining results based on a > or = 1+ and (> or = 2+) intensity threshold were as follows: calretinin-95% (89%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 14% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; chromogranin-0% in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% in pheochromocytomas; inhibin-97% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 6% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; microtubule-associated protein 2-29% (16%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% (89%) in pheochromocytomas; mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1-0% in both adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytomas; melanA-94% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 6% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; SF-1-87% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 0% in pheochromocytomas; synaptophysin-67% (59%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% in pheochromocytomas.
  • Using an antibody panel consisting of chromogranin plus the nuclear antibody SF-1 and either calretinin or inhibin, while requiring a high-staining intensity threshold, helps to eliminate interpretative issues of artifactual or background reactivity, improves diagnostic sensitivity/specificity, and makes for an effective immunohistochemical approach in distinguishing adrenal cortical lesions from pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Tissue Array Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Artifacts. Biopsy. Calbindin 2. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Inhibins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20154585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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86. McDougal WS: Ruptured adrenocortical carcinoma as a cause of paediatric acute abdomen. J Urol; 2005 Mar;173(3):984
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  • [Title] Ruptured adrenocortical carcinoma as a cause of paediatric acute abdomen.

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Surg Int. 2002 Dec;18(8):730-2 [12598975.001]
  • (PMID = 15711359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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88. Cantini G, Lombardi A, Piscitelli E, Poli G, Ceni E, Marchiani S, Ercolino T, Galli A, Serio M, Mannelli M, Luconi M: Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:904041
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling.
  • We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R) of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR).
  • We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC.
  • Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ.
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

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  • (PMID = 18670617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Kuruba R, Gallagher SF: Current management of adrenal tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Jan;20(1):34-46
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  • [Title] Current management of adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal tumors evoke considerable interest and diagnostic challenges.
  • This rare group of tumors includes functional tumors with a gamut of clinical presentations, as well as adrenocortical carcinoma, with its advanced disease at presentation and dismal prognosis posing additional challenge.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances have been made in diagnostic imaging modalities for identifying malignancy risk in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Considerable progress has occurred in understanding adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenesis from the study of genetics at the germline level in familial carcinomas, as well as at the somatic level by analyzing molecular alterations in sporadic tumors; this research supplies opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents against a tumor with poor prognosis.
  • SUMMARY: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has emerged as standard of care in the treatment of functional benign adenomas and nonfunctional tumors larger than 4 cm when adrenocortical carcinoma is not suspected.
  • Open adrenalectomy with en-bloc excision has been the mainstay for primary and recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma due to the lack of effective adjuvant therapy.
  • International consensus conferences have attempted to standardize diagnostic and treatment approaches in the management of adrenal tumors; further research is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18043254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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90. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Mazzoni G: Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197. Chemotherapy; 2009;55(6):425-32
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  • [Title] Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma by diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197.
  • BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated the effect of CRM197 treatment in human adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) implanted in nude mice.
  • The effects on cell invasion and migration were investigated with a matrigel invasion assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bacterial Proteins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19996587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Hbegf protein, mouse; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 92092-36-9 / CRM197 (non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin)
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91. Mackie GC, Shulkin BL, Ribeiro RC, Worden FP, Gauger PG, Mody RJ, Connolly LP, Kunter G, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wallis JW, Hurwitz CA, Schteingart DE: Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2665-71
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  • [Title] Use of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluating locally recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinomas are uncommon, and their evaluation by [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) has not been well evaluated.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the potential utility of FDG PET in the detection of recurrent or metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • DESIGN: In patients with known adrenocortical carcinoma who underwent FDG-PET imaging for suspected recurrence or metastasis, FDG activity was compared with other imaging findings, clinical features, and the presence or absence of disease as confirmed by resection, biopsy, or clinical follow-up.
  • One patient with no abnormal FDG activity had a morphological abnormality subsequently proven to be a postoperative scar.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most adrenocortical carcinomas accumulate and retain FDG and thus can be visualized by PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 16621901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R25 CA23944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 54216; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00042
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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92. Yokoyama H, Tanaka M: Incidence of adrenal involvement and assessing adrenal function in patients with renal cell carcinoma: is ipsilateral adrenalectomy indispensable during radical nephrectomy? BJU Int; 2005 Mar;95(4):526-9
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  • [Title] Incidence of adrenal involvement and assessing adrenal function in patients with renal cell carcinoma: is ipsilateral adrenalectomy indispensable during radical nephrectomy?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of ipsilateral adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy, by investigating the clinical aspects of adrenal involvement and adrenocortical function in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The demographic, clinical and pathological data of adrenal involvement were reviewed in 247 patients with RCC.
  • To evaluate adrenocortical function, 14 patients (adrenalectomy in eight, adrenal-sparing in six) had a rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test before and 2 weeks after surgery.
  • RESULTS: There was adrenal involvement with RCC in seven of the 247 (2.8%) patients (a solitary adrenal metastatic tumour in four and direct extension into the adrenal gland in three).
  • All adrenal involvement was detectable on abdominal computed tomography before surgery, and these patients had a large primary renal tumour of > pT2 and/or distant metastasis.
  • Plasma cortisol levels declined significantly more in response to the rapid ACTH stimulation test in those treated by adrenalectomy than in those with spared adrenal glands at 2 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference between the groups before surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that unconditional ipsilateral adrenalectomy with radical nephrectomy for RCC should be avoidable, and thus preserve the reserve of adrenocortical function, as preoperative imaging, especially thin-slice multidetector helical computed tomography, can detect adrenal involvement with RCC in most cases.
  • Unilateral adrenalectomy might cause an irreversible impairment of the reserve of adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods


93. Chamuleau SA, Corssmit EP, Pereira AM, van de Berg BT, Siegert CE: A young woman with a severe bilateral pneumonia as the presenting sign of an adrenal carcinoma. Neth J Med; 2008 Mar;66(3):121-4
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  • [Title] A young woman with a severe bilateral pneumonia as the presenting sign of an adrenal carcinoma.
  • Additional diagnostic procedures accidentally revealed a large adrenal carcinoma and hypercortisolism.
  • The adrenal carcinoma was surgically removed, and she received mitotane treatment.
  • This severe and life-threatening infection was the first sign of an immunosuppressive state as part of Cushing's syndrome due to the adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Immunocompromised Host. Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18349468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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94. Kaneko T, Kojima Y, Umemoto Y, Sasaki S, Hayashi Y, Kohri K: Usefulness of transcription factors Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 as immunohistologic markers for diagnosis of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma. Horm Res; 2008;70(5):294-9
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  • [Title] Usefulness of transcription factors Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 as immunohistologic markers for diagnosis of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We examined the expressions of Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma with normal hormonal findings by immunohistochemistry and discussed their usefulness as immunohistochemical markers for diagnosis.
  • Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 underwent immunohistochemical study using needle biopsy specimens from the retroperitoneal tumor or metastatic tumor of these patients to diagnose primary adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Ad4BP/SF-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the carcinoma cells of 2 patients, but not in the others, whereas DAX-1 immunoreactivity was observed in the carcinoma cells of all 4 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of Ad4BP/SF-1 and DAX-1 are considered essential to maintain the biological characteristics of adrenocortical cells even without abnormal hormonal findings or even after malignant transformation and metastasis.
  • These markers are useful to distinguish other retroperitoneal tumors, especially in patients with bulky tumors, and to diagnose the metastatic site of origin as adrenocortical carcinoma in patients clinically presenting with widespread metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / analysis. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18824868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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95. Wang FF, Chang YH, Pan CC, Tu DG, Won JG: Unusual visualization of an adrenal carcinoma on NP-59 scintiscan. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Apr;105(4):340-5
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  • [Title] Unusual visualization of an adrenal carcinoma on NP-59 scintiscan.
  • [Iodine-131]6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol (NP-59) visualization of adrenocortical carcinoma is unusual.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a 9-cm right adrenal mass.
  • NP-59 adrenal scanning displayed unilateral uptake of tracer and no visualization of the contralateral adrenal gland.
  • Exploratory laparotomy revealed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Visualization of an adrenal tumor on NP-59 scintiscan is an unusual finding, which cannot exclude the possibility of malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 16618615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 55623-03-5 / Adosterol; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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96. Szücs N, Gláz E, Varga I, Tóth M, Kiss R, Patócs A, Jakab C, Perner F, Járay J, Horányi J, Dabasi G, Molnár F, Major L, Füto L, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: [Diagnosis and treatment outcome in primary aldosteronism based on a retrospective analysis of 187 cases]. Orv Hetil; 2006 Jan 15;147(2):51-9
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment outcome in primary aldosteronism based on a retrospective analysis of 187 cases].
  • The disease has been described by Jerome W.
  • Conn in 1955; since that time there has been a great progress in the knowledge concerning the prevalence, diagnostics and treatment of the disease.
  • METHODS: The efficacy of different methods used for the diagnosis, the frequency of the different subtypes of primary aldosteronism, as well as the surgical outcomes in patients with surgically treated subtypes of primary aldosteronism were studied.
  • Other subtypes of primary hyperaldosteronism occurred less frequently (unilateral primary adrenocortical hyperplasia in 5 patients and adrenocortical carcinoma in one patient).
  • For the diagnosis of familial hyperaldosteronism type I, molecular biological studies of the aldosterone-synthase/11beta-hydroxylase gene chimera were carried out in 30 patients but none of them showed the presence of the chimeric gene.
  • When comparing the clinical parameters of patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, no significant differences were found in the time period between the diagnosis of hypertension and the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism, or in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values.
  • To confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate the subtypes of primary aldosteronism, the postural test combined with furosemide administration was performed in the majority of patients.
  • In cases of adrenocortical adenomas not or not clearly detectable by radiological imaging techniques, as well as in cases with bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, selective adrenal vein sampling was performed (n = 55).
  • Histology and postoperative hormone results confirmed the preoperative diagnosis in all operated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / therapy. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16509213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Mutant Chimeric Proteins; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
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97. Kirshtein B, Yelle JD, Moloo H, Poulin E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal malignancy: a preliminary report comparing the short-term outcomes with open adrenalectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Feb;18(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal malignancy: a preliminary report comparing the short-term outcomes with open adrenalectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic approach to adrenal malignancy remains a topic of debate.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six cases were identified: 19 women and 7 men with a median age of 48 years (range, 20-81) underwent 12 open (8 adrenocortical carcinoma [ACC] and 4 metastases) and 14 laparoscopic adrenalectomies (5 ACC, 8 metastases, and 1 lymphoma).
  • There was no difference in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status or diagnosis between the two groups, but patients in the laparoscopic group had a higher body mass index.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is both feasible and safe for some malignant tumors of the adrenal gland in experienced hands.
  • Careful selection, preoperative staging, and respect for oncologic principles are important considerations in choosing laparoscopic surgery for primary and secondary adrenal malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18266573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Rodgers SE, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):535-53
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • ACC is a rare clinical entity that carries a poor prognosis; early diagnosis and complete surgical resection are associated with the improvement in patient survival.
  • Even with appropriated diagnosis and treatment, most patients will develop recurrence and succumb to ACC because of the underlying tumor biology, the difficulty of achieving a complete resection, and the lack of effective systemic therapies.
  • Despite its many drawbacks, mitotane continues to be a mainstay in the treatment of high-risk patients with ACC, especially those with recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16882496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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99. Lin MT, Shieh JJ, Chang JH, Chang SW, Chen TC, Hsu WH: Early detection of adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Apr;52(4):541-4
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  • [Title] Early detection of adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • We report an early detection of cancer in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • The younger sister at risk was followed, and an asymptomatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was detected 3 years later.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Early Detection of Cancer. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19101993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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100. Gaisa NT, Klöppel G, Brehmer B, Neulen J, Stephan P, Knüchel R, Donner A: [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours]. Pathologe; 2009 Sep;30(5):407-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Virilisierendes Ganglioneurom der Nebenniere : Eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose testosteronproduzierender Nebennierentumoren.
  • Testosterone secreting tumours of the adrenal glands are usually adrenal carcinomas or adenomas.
  • Here we report the rare case of an adrenal ganglioneuroma with ectopic Leydig cells, a so-called virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • Clinically it is characterized by symptoms of virilization, histologically by the occurrence of a population of eosinophilic cells.
  • In the absence of crystalloids of Reinke this cell population can be identified as Leydig cells based on positive immunohistochemical staining of inhibin and calretinin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / secretion. Testosterone / secretion. Virilism / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Choristoma / pathology. Choristoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Inhibins / analysis. Laparoscopy. Leydig Cells. Male. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19396442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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