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1. Turányi E, Dezso K, Paku S, Nagy P: DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Sep;455(3):295-9
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  • [Title] DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors.
  • Delta-like protein (DLK) is expressed in fetal and adult adrenal glands.
  • We have investigated if this expression is maintained in adrenal gland-derived tumors.
  • All the studied 37 cortical tumors, including five carcinomas, stained positively as well as the 13 examined pheochromocytomas.
  • Thus, DLK is a very sensitive marker for adrenal tumors of cortical and medullary origin.
  • Renal cell carcinomas, presenting the major differential diagnostic problem for cortical tumors, were all negative, as well as melanomas, which are similar to high portion of adrenocortical tumors that react with melan-A.
  • However, all paragangliomas, some carcinoids, and thyroid medullary carcinomas were also positive for DLK.
  • Therefore, this novel immunohistochemical marker seems useful for the identification of adrenocortical tumors while it has limited value for the distinction of pheochromocytomas from diagnostically related neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19685073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / delta protein
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2. Tacon LJ, Soon PS, Gill AJ, Chou AS, Clarkson A, Botling J, Stalberg PL, Skogseid BM, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB, Clifton-Bligh RJ: The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4591-9
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  • [Title] The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • The Weiss score is the most widely accepted method for distinguishing an ACC from an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA); however, in borderline cases, accurate diagnosis remains problematic.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study GR expression in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) and to assess its utility as an adjunct to the Weiss score.
  • This finding was validated in an external cohort of ACTs, such that 14 of 18 ACCs (78%) demonstrated positive nuclear staining whereas 32 of 33 ACAs (94%) were negative (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical finding of nuclear GR staining identified ACCs with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • We propose that GR immunohistochemistry may complement the Weiss score in the diagnosis of ACC in cases that display borderline histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19820023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / NR3C1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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3. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Sperone P, Pia A, Della Casa S, Gross DJ, Carnaghi C, Casali P, Porpiglia F, Mantero F, Reimondo G, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):657-66
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  • [Title] Etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin plus mitotane in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma: a large prospective phase II trial.
  • To investigate the activity of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin plus mitotane in the management of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients, 72 patients with measurable disease not amenable to radical surgery were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter phase II trial.
  • Radical surgical resection of residual disease after chemotherapy was performed in 10 patients.
  • The overall survival of patients attaining a disease free status (clinical complete responders+radically resected) was significantly higher than that of patients with partial response or no response (P<0.002).
  • Surgical resection of residual disease subsequent to chemotherapy leads to a more favourable outcome.
  • The natural history of the disease is significantly influenced by the secretory status of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16172198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Black VH, Sanjay A, van Leyen K, Lauring B, Kreibich G: Cholesterol and steroid synthesizing smooth endoplasmic reticulum of adrenocortical cells contains high levels of proteins associated with the translocation channel. Endocrinology; 2005 Oct;146(10):4234-49
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  • [Title] Cholesterol and steroid synthesizing smooth endoplasmic reticulum of adrenocortical cells contains high levels of proteins associated with the translocation channel.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that adrenal smooth microsomal subfractions enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum membranes contain high levels of translocation apparatus and oligosaccharyltransferase complex proteins, previously thought confined to rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Cholesterol / biosynthesis. Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Transport. Cell Fractionation. Guinea Pigs. Intracellular Membranes / metabolism. Microsomes / metabolism. Organ Specificity. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Ribosomes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15947003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG01468; United States / NIADDK NIH HHS / AM / AM32862; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK39671; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES00260; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD04005; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL48476
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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5. Zhang X, Yu RM, Jones PD, Lam GK, Newsted JL, Gracia T, Hecker M, Hilscherova K, Sanderson T, Wu RS, Giesy JP: Quantitative RT-PCR methods for evaluating toxicant-induced effects on steroidogenesis using the H295R cell line. Environ Sci Technol; 2005 Apr 15;39(8):2777-85
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  • [Title] Quantitative RT-PCR methods for evaluating toxicant-induced effects on steroidogenesis using the H295R cell line.
  • One approach to monitoring these pathways has been to use a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) that expresses all the key enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. RNA / analysis. RNA / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15884376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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6. Berruti A, Ferrero A, Sperone P, Daffara F, Reimondo G, Papotti M, Dogliotti L, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Emerging drugs for adrenocortical carcinoma. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2008 Sep;13(3):497-509
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging drugs for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an extremely rare aggressive disease.
  • Few data are available on the efficacy of systemic antineoplastic treatments (mitotane and cytotoxic therapy) in the treatment of advanced disease.
  • Based on the results of a case control study, mitotane is being explored as adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18764725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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7. Shapiro BA, Olala L, Arun SN, Parker PM, George MV, Bollag WB: Angiotensin II-activated protein kinase D mediates acute aldosterone secretion. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Apr 12;317(1-2):99-105
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  • Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin II (AngII)-aldosterone system can contribute to cardiovascular disease, such that an understanding of this system is critical.
  • Diacylglycerol-sensitive serine/threonine protein kinase D (PKD) is activated by AngII in several systems, including the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI H295R, where this enzyme enhances chronic (24h) AngII-evoked aldosterone secretion.
  • In primary cultures of bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells, which secrete detectable quantities of aldosterone in response to secretagogues within minutes, PKD was activated in response to AngII, but not an elevated potassium concentration or adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
  • Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of constitutively active PKD resulted in enhanced AngII-induced aldosterone secretion; whereas overexpression of a dominant-negative PKD construct decreased AngII-stimulated aldosterone secretion.

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  • (PMID = 19961896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL070046-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL70046; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070046-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Tetrazoles; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 130663-39-7 / PD 123319; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 2.7.10.- / protein kinase D; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; S8Q36MD2XX / candesartan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS162655; NLM/ PMC2814994
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8. Kotoula V, Sozopoulos E, Litsiou H, Fanourakis G, Koletsa T, Voutsinas G, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Mitsiades CS, Wellmann A, Mitsiades N: Mutational analysis of the BRAF, RAS and EGFR genes in human adrenocortical carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):565-72
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  • [Title] Mutational analysis of the BRAF, RAS and EGFR genes in human adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The serine/threonine kinase B-Raf plays a key role in the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway that relays extracellular signals for cell proliferation and survival.
  • EGFR inhibitors have produced objective responses in patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas harboring activating EGFR TK domain somatic mutations.
  • We evaluated the presence of mutations in BRAF (exons 11 and 15), KRAS (exons 1 and 2), NRAS (exons 1 and 2), and EGFR (exons 18-21) in adrenal carcinomas (35 tumor specimens and two cell lines) by DNA sequencing.
  • BRAF mutations were found in two carcinomas (5.7%).
  • Four carcinomas (11.4%) carried EGFR TK domain mutations.
  • No mutations were found in the two adrenocortical cell lines.
  • BRAF- and EGFR-mutant tumor specimens exhibited stronger immunostaining for the phosphorylated forms of the MEK and ERK kinases than their wild-type counterparts.
  • EGFR-mutant carcinomas exhibited increased phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr 992) compared with wild-type carcinomas.
  • We conclude that BRAF, RAS, and EGFR mutations occur in a subset of human adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Inhibitors of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and EGFR pathways represent candidate targeted therapies for future clinical trials in carefully selected patients with adrenocortical carcinomas harboring respective activating mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics


9. Ye H, Yoon GS, Epstein JI: Intrarenal ectopic adrenal tissue and renal-adrenal fusion: a report of nine cases. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):175-81
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  • [Title] Intrarenal ectopic adrenal tissue and renal-adrenal fusion: a report of nine cases.
  • Intrarenal ectopic adrenal tissue and renal-adrenal fusion are rare findings in the adult population.
  • We reviewed seven cases of intrarenal adrenal tissue and two cases of renal-adrenal fusion.
  • Ectopic adrenal tissue was identified at the superior pole of the kidney in all but one case, which was located in the mid-portion of the kidney.
  • Ectopic adrenal tissue varied in its growth from subcapsular lesions that were plaque-like (n=3), wedge-shaped (n=2), or spherical (n=1) to irregular nests deep in the renal parenchyma (n=1).
  • In all nine cases, the adherent and intrarenal adrenal tissue was composed of adrenal cortical tissue, with no adrenal medullary tissue present.
  • In six cases, adrenal tissue focally extended into renal parenchyma in an infiltrative manner.
  • In one case, intrarenal adrenal tissue mimicked low-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • In another case, an adrenocortical adenoma adherent to the kidney resembled renal invasion by adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This study summarizes key morphological features of intrarenal ectopic adrenal tissue and renal-adrenal fusion along with histological pitfalls and its differential diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands. Choristoma / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18820668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Farnworth PG, Wang Y, Escalona R, Leembruggen P, Ooi GT, Findlay JK: Transforming growth factor-beta blocks inhibin binding to different target cell types in a context-dependent manner through dual mechanisms involving betaglycan. Endocrinology; 2007 Nov;148(11):5355-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transforming growth factor-beta blocks inhibin binding to different target cell types in a context-dependent manner through dual mechanisms involving betaglycan.
  • To clarify the nature and extent of interactions between inhibin and TGF-beta, we therefore examined 1) the mutual competition between these ligands for binding, 2) the regulation of endogenous betaglycan expression by inhibin and TGF-beta isoforms, and 3) the consequences of such betaglycan regulation for subsequent inhibin binding in mouse Leydig (TM3), Sertoli (TM4), adrenocortical cancer (AC), and gonadotroph (LbetaT2) cell lines, chosen to model cellular targets for local and endocrine actions of inhibin.
  • Recognized inhibin, activin, and TGF-beta binding proteins and TGF-beta/activin signaling components were expressed by all four cell types, but AC and LbetaT2 cells notably lacked the type II receptor for TGF-beta, TbetaRII.
  • Thus, inhibin binding to its target cell types is controlled by TGF-beta through dual mechanisms of antagonism, the operation of which vary with cell context and display different sensitivities to TGF-beta.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Binding, Competitive. Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Mice. Protein Binding / drug effects. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Signal Transduction / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17656464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 145170-29-2 / betaglycan; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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11. Soon PS, Sidhu SB: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Cancer Treat Res; 2010;153:187-210
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19957226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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12. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion.
  • In this report, we describe the fine-needle aspiration findings of a case of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that spread to the peritoneal cavity in an 80-year-old female.
  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Ascitic Fluid / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Weitz J, Blumgart LH, Fong Y, Jarnagin WR, D'Angelica M, Harrison LE, DeMatteo RP: Partial hepatectomy for metastases from noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine carcinoma. Ann Surg; 2005 Feb;241(2):269-76
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  • [Title] Partial hepatectomy for metastases from noncolorectal, nonneuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To define perioperative and long-term outcome and prognostic factors in patients undergoing hepatectomy for liver metastases arising from noncolorectal and nonneuroendocrine (NCNN) carcinoma.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Hepatic resection is a well-established therapy for patients with liver metastases from colorectal or neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • However, for patients with liver metastases from other carcinomas, the value of resection is incompletely defined and still debated.
  • METHODS: Between April 1981 and April 2002, 141 patients underwent hepatic resection for liver metastases from NCNN carcinoma.
  • Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment, and postoperative outcome were analyzed.
  • The actuarial 3-year cancer-specific survival rate was 57% (95% CI, 48-67%) with a median of 42 months.
  • Primary tumor type and length of disease-free interval from the primary tumor were significant independent prognostic factors for relapse-free and cancer-specific survival.
  • Margin status was significant for cancer-specific survival and showed a strong trend for relapse-free survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic resection for metastases from NCNN carcinoma is safe and can offer long-term survival in selected patients.
  • Hepatic resection should be considered if all gross disease can be removed, especially in patients with metastases from reproductive tract tumors or a disease-free interval greater than 2 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15650637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1356912
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14. Phan AT: Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):489-507; viii-ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor long-term prognosis.
  • Accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of the patient presenting with an adrenal mass maximize the opportunity for optimal treatment planning.
  • In metastatic or recurrent disease, systemic treatment options are limited to chemotherapy with or without mitotane.
  • A multidisciplinary approach has the best chance for offering optimized management of this lethal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17548036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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15. Abma EM, Kluin PM, Dullaart RP: Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism. Neth J Med; 2008 Jun;66(6):252-5
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  • [Title] Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism.
  • We describe a case of hypokalaemic hypertension due to hyperaldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenocortical tumour with unfavourable histopathology suggestive of malignancy.
  • The patient's clinical course was uneventful, until she presented with extensive metastases of adrenal carcinoma four years later.
  • Although malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumours are very rare, the present case underscores that clinicians should be aware that primary hyperaldosteronism can occur in the context of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperkalemia / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18689909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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16. Ishida M, Yoshida K, Miyamoto K, Iwai M, Miyahira Y, Kushima R, Okabe H: Cytological features of myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component: a case report with differential diagnostic considerations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):576-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological features of myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component: a case report with differential diagnostic considerations.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors are extremely rare neoplasms with only nine adenomas and eleven carcinomas reported in the literature.
  • They occasionally have a pseudoglandular component resembling metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland.
  • However the cytological features of this unusual tumor have not been previously described.
  • We report here the first cytopathological study of a myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component, contributing especially to the differential diagnosis from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Two major cytopathological features distinguishing myxoid adrenocortical adenoma from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland are:.
  • Careful observation of these cytological features and positive immunoreactivity to Melan A, alpha-inhibin and synaptophysin can lead to the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18618725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Willenberg HS, Ansurudeen I, Schebesta K, Haase M, Wess B, Schinner S, Raffel A, Schott M, Scherbaum WA: The endothelium secretes interleukin-6 (IL-6) and induces IL-6 and aldosterone generation by adrenocortical cells. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Sep;116 Suppl 1:S70-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The endothelium secretes interleukin-6 (IL-6) and induces IL-6 and aldosterone generation by adrenocortical cells.
  • Endothelial cells have been shown to induce adrenal steroidogenesis and to enhance aldosterone secretion via angiotensin II and endothelin 1-independent mechanisms.
  • It has been demonstrated that endothelial cells and adrenocortical cells are capable of producing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 is a factor known to stimulate adrenal cortisol secretion.
  • We therefore asked whether endothelial cells have an effect on adrenal IL-6 generation and whether IL-6 mediates biosynthesis of aldosterone as is observed after exposure of adrenocortical cells to endothelial cell-conditioned medium (ECCM).
  • Cells from the adrenocortical cancer cell line NCI-H295R were incubated with ECCM produced from human umbilical vein endothelial cells at increasing concentrations.
  • As detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, pure ECCM significantly increased IL-6 protein secretion by cultured adrenocortical cells in a dose-dependent fashion, to a 18.0+/-2.0 pg/mL (mean+/-SEM).
  • Pure ECCM also induced aldosterone secretion by adrenocortical cells more than three times that of controls with serum-free medium.
  • These data suggest that endothelial cells secrete IL-6 and that endothelial cell-derived factors regulate adrenal IL-6 synthesis which does not alter adrenal aldosterone secretion.
  • Our findings support the hypothesis that the endothelium and the adrenal gland may play a role in the development of some forms of hypertension and - more speculative - inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Endothelium, Vascular / secretion. Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-6 / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18777460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media, Conditioned; 0 / Interleukin-6; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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18. Ohtake H, Kawamura H, Matsuzaki M, Yokoyama E, Kitajima M, Onizuka S, Yamakawa M: Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Jun;14(3):204-8
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  • [Title] Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Only 17 cases of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported in the English literature.
  • Here, we report an incidental case of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed a left adrenal tumor.
  • The excised tumor was whitish, encapsulated, and 75 x 60 x 45 mm in size.
  • Large polygonal tumor cells were arranged in a generally diffuse architecture and exhibited abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.
  • The tumor cells were immunopositive for vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, and synaptophysin but not for alpha-inhibin, melan A, or p53.
  • Diffuse and strong immunopositivity with an antimitochondrial antibody proved that this tumor was truly oncocytic.
  • Upon review of previous cases of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors, we reconsidered the diagnostic findings of the potential for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Autoantibodies / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Mitochondria / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20471567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Patel VV, Shah DS, Raychaudhari CR, Patel KB: Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Apr;31(2):65-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant non-functioning adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare childhood tumor.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy, especially in children.
  • Ultrasound abdomen showed a large right suprarenal tumor with calcifications and necrosis.
  • Empty left renal fossa and compensatory enlarged right kidney were seen.
  • With a stage IV disease, the patient died after 2 months from diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21209768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2970938
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / adrenocortical tumor / nonfunctioning
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20. Volante M, Bollito E, Sperone P, Tavaglione V, Daffara F, Porpiglia F, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Papotti M: Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification. Histopathology; 2009 Nov;55(5):535-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification.
  • AIMS: Pathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma relies on several microscopic features commonly used in combination in different scoring systems that are sometimes subjective and/or time consuming.
  • The aim was to investigate the impact of individual pathological parameters in the diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The series included 92 malignant cases and a control series of 47 adenomas, all classified according to Weiss score criteria.
  • The presence of disruption of the reticular network, as highlighted by histochemical staining, was present in all adrenocortical carcinomas and the inclusion of at least one of the three following additional parameters - mitotic index >5/50 high-power fields (HPF), presence of necrosis and presence of vascular invasion - gave an algorithm with 100% sensitivity and specificity to recognize malignant tumours according to the Weiss system, with easier and more practical applicability.
  • Moreover, on multivariate analysis, stage III/IV and mitotic count >9/50 HPF showed a strong adverse impact on disease-free and overall survival, leading to the identification of three risk groups affected by a significantly different prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have defined an easy-to-perform and highly specific and sensitive algorithm for the diagnosis and prognostic categorization of adrenocortical tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Algorithms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19912359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Jain SH, Sadow PM, Nosé V, Dluhy RG: A patient with ectopic cortisol production derived from malignant testicular masses. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec;4(12):695-700
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  • [Title] A patient with ectopic cortisol production derived from malignant testicular masses.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Cushing syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of a markedly elevated 24-hour urine free cortisol level and classic cushingoid features.
  • The etiology of Cushing syndrome was determined to be an adrenocortical carcinoma arising from testicular adrenal rest cells.
  • Nevertheless, the possibility of a malignant Leydig cell tumor with ectopic cortisol production could not be excluded.
  • Despite initial success with this regimen, the patient died as a result of tumor progression and complications of poorly controlled hypercortisolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Hydrocortisone / blood. Testicular Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Humans. Male. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18941436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
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22. Wang Y, Nicholls PK, Stanton PG, Harrison CA, Sarraj M, Gilchrist RB, Findlay JK, Farnworth PG: Extra-ovarian expression and activity of growth differentiation factor 9. J Endocrinol; 2009 Sep;202(3):419-30
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  • The present studies confirm GDF9 expression in the mouse testis, pituitary gland and adrenocortical cancer (AC) cells, and establish its expression in L beta T2 gonadotrophs, and in mouse adrenal glands, particularly foetal and neonatal cortical cells.
  • We therefore compared GDF9 activation of these potential extra-ovarian target cell types with its activation of granulosa cells.
  • Recombinant mouse GDF9 stimulated expression of activin/transforming growth factor-beta-responsive reporters, pGRAS-luc or pAR3-lux, in TM4 and AC cells (IC50=145 ng/ml in the latter case), and two granulosa cell lines, KGN and COV434.
  • Our findings show that GDF9 regulates the expression of R-SMAD2/3-responsive reporter genes through ALK4, 5 or 7 in extra-ovarian (adrenocortical and Sertoli) cells with similar potency and signalling pathway to its actions on granulosa cells, but suggest that expression of BMPRII, ALK5 (TGFBR1) and R-SMADs 2 and 3 may not be sufficient for a cell to respond to GDF9.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Growth Differentiation Factor 9 / genetics. Leydig Cells / physiology. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Sertoli Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19505950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(5-benzo(1,3)dioxol-5-yl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzamide; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / GDF9 protein, human; 0 / Gdf9 protein, mouse; 0 / Gdf9 protein, rat; 0 / Growth Differentiation Factor 9; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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23. Kuulasmaa T, Jääskeläinen J, Suppola S, Pietiläinen T, Heikkilä P, Aaltomaa S, Kosma VM, Voutilainen R: WNT-4 mRNA expression in human adrenocortical tumors and cultured adrenal cells. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Oct;40(10):668-73
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  • [Title] WNT-4 mRNA expression in human adrenocortical tumors and cultured adrenal cells.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of WNT-4 gene in human adrenals and adrenocortical tumors.
  • The WNT-4 mRNA expression (analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR) was significantly higher in Conn's adenomas (p<0.01) and lower in Cushing's adenomas, virilizing carcinomas and fetal adrenals (p<0.05) compared with normal adult adrenals.
  • WNT-4 mRNA expression was clearly upregulated by ACTH and 8-bromo-cAMP (8-BrcAMP) in primary cultures of normal adult adrenocortical cells, but downregulated by 8-BrcAMP and 12- O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in human NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • Angiotensin II tended to increase WNT-4 mRNA expression at 24 hours and decreased it at 48 hours time point in both cell culture types.
  • The abundant WNT-4 mRNA expression in Conn's adenomas and its hormonal regulation in adrenocortical cells suggest a role for WNT-4 in human adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Wnt Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18553255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / WNT4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / Wnt4 Protein; 0 / Wnt4 protein, mouse; 0 / beta Catenin; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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24. Bertherat J, Bertagna X: Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):261-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • The study of the clonality of adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) has shown that adrenocortical cancers (ACCs) are of monoclonal origin.
  • Numerous chromosomal alterations have been observed in ACCs, and they are much more frequent than in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Somatic mutations of the tumour suppressor gene TP53 are observed in a third of ACCs.
  • This recent progress in the molecular genetics of ACC has led to the development of new molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignancy; these might also help to identify prognostic markers of ACC and may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19500768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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25. Constantinou C, Sheldon D: Papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the adrenal gland: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg; 2008 Sep;74(9):813-6
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  • [Title] Papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the adrenal gland: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal papillary endothelial hyperplasia is an exceedingly rare process and is the basis of this review.
  • A 66-year-old female was referred for evaluation of an asymptomatic 6 cm right adrenal mass.
  • The pathologic analysis was consistent with adrenal PEH.
  • A review of the world's literature on papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH), and in particular adrenal PEH, yields five previous reports of this entity, and no comprehensive review.
  • A compilation of the now six patients with adrenal PEH reveals several common features: five of six patients were female and mean age was 64 years.
  • The disease radiologically mimics adrenal cortical carcinoma mandating a surgical oncological technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18807668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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26. Kirshtein B, Yelle JD, Moloo H, Poulin E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal malignancy: a preliminary report comparing the short-term outcomes with open adrenalectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Feb;18(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal malignancy: a preliminary report comparing the short-term outcomes with open adrenalectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic approach to adrenal malignancy remains a topic of debate.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six cases were identified: 19 women and 7 men with a median age of 48 years (range, 20-81) underwent 12 open (8 adrenocortical carcinoma [ACC] and 4 metastases) and 14 laparoscopic adrenalectomies (5 ACC, 8 metastases, and 1 lymphoma).
  • There was no difference in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status or diagnosis between the two groups, but patients in the laparoscopic group had a higher body mass index.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is both feasible and safe for some malignant tumors of the adrenal gland in experienced hands.
  • Careful selection, preoperative staging, and respect for oncologic principles are important considerations in choosing laparoscopic surgery for primary and secondary adrenal malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18266573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Samandari E, Kempná P, Nuoffer JM, Hofer G, Mullis PE, Flück CE: Human adrenal corticocarcinoma NCI-H295R cells produce more androgens than NCI-H295A cells and differ in 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and 17,20 lyase activities. J Endocrinol; 2007 Dec;195(3):459-72
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  • [Title] Human adrenal corticocarcinoma NCI-H295R cells produce more androgens than NCI-H295A cells and differ in 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and 17,20 lyase activities.
  • The human adrenal cortex produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens in a species-specific, hormonally regulated, zone-specific, and developmentally characteristic fashion.
  • Most molecular studies of adrenal steroidogenesis use human adrenocortical NCI-H295A and NCI-H295R cells as a model because appropriate animal models do not exist.
  • NCI-H295A and NCI-H295R cells originate from the same adrenocortical carcinoma which produced predominantly androgens but also smaller amounts of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
  • Research data obtained from either NCI-H295A or NCI-H295R cells are generally compared, although for the same experiments no direct comparison between the two cell lines has been performed.
  • Therefore, we compared the steroid profile and the expression pattern of important genes involved in steroidogenesis in both cell lines.
  • Expression of the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B2), cytochrome b5, and sulfonyltransferase genes is higher in NCI-H295A cells, whereas expression of the cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17), 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), and P450 oxidoreductase genes does not differ between the cell lines.
  • We found lower 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 but higher 17,20-lyase activity in NCI-H295R cells explaining the 'androgenic' steroid profile for these cells and resembling the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex.
  • Both cell lines were found to express the ACTH receptor at low levels consistent with low stimulation by ACTH.
  • By contrast, both cell lines were readily stimulated by 8Br-cAMP.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Androgens / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Angiotensin II / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Enzymes / genetics. Enzymes / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism. Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 / metabolism. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18000308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
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28. Johanssen S, Hahner S, Saeger W, Quinkler M, Beuschlein F, Dralle H, Haaf M, Kroiss M, Jurowich C, Langer P, Oelkers W, Spahn M, Willenberg HS, Mäder U, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Deficits in the management of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in Germany. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2010 Dec;107(50):885-91
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  • [Title] Deficits in the management of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma in Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • Often, the physicians who first treat patients with ACC have no prior experience with the disease.
  • The findings were compared with the recommendations of the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT).
  • RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 387 patients who had been given an initial diagnosis of ACC in the years 1998 to 2009.
  • For 13% of the patients, the diagnosis of ACC was later revised by a reference pathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data. Professional Competence / statistics & numerical data. Registries

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  • (PMID = 21246024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3021904
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29. Yamamoto N, Imai J, Watanabe M, Hiroi N, Sugano S, Yoshino G: Restoration of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor reduces tumorigenicity in the human adrenocortical carcinoma SW-13 cell line. Horm Metab Res; 2006 Mar;38(3):159-66
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  • [Title] Restoration of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor reduces tumorigenicity in the human adrenocortical carcinoma SW-13 cell line.
  • In this study, we examined TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) and TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII) expression in SW-13 adrenocortical carcinoma cells by Northern and Western blot analysis.
  • TbetaRII-positive SW-13 cell growth was inhibited by exogenous human TGF-beta1 (hTGF-beta1) in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Xenograft examination in athymic nude mice demonstrated that TbetaRII-positive SW-13 cells reduced tumor-forming activity.
  • Reconstructing the TbetaRII can lead to reversion of the malignant phenotype of TbetaRII-negative human adrenocortical carcinoma, which contains SW-13 cells.
  • Reduced TbetaRII expression may play a critical role in determining the malignant phenotype of human adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / prevention & control. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. Transfection. Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology. Transforming Growth Factor beta1. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16673206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / TGFB1 protein, human; 0 / Tgfb1 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor
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30. Rosati R, Cerrato F, Doghman M, Pianovski MA, Parise GA, Custódio G, Zambetti GP, Ribeiro RC, Riccio A, Figueiredo BC, Lalli E: High frequency of loss of heterozygosity at 11p15 and IGF2 overexpression are not related to clinical outcome in childhood adrenocortical tumors positive for the R337H TP53 mutation. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Oct;186(1):19-24
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  • [Title] High frequency of loss of heterozygosity at 11p15 and IGF2 overexpression are not related to clinical outcome in childhood adrenocortical tumors positive for the R337H TP53 mutation.
  • A germline TP53 R337H mutation is present in childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT) from southern Brazil.
  • Tumor DNA of 12 children with ACT (4 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) and from the blood of their parents was analyzed.
  • All patients showed 11p15 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the tumor.
  • Our data show that 11p15 LOH is a widespread finding in childhood ACT not related with malignancy, contrary to adult ACT.

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  • [Copyright] (c)2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 18786438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA063230-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA063230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA063230-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS70916; NLM/ PMC2603647
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31. Fragoso MC, Kohek MB, Martin RM, Latronico AC, Lucon AM, Zerbini MC, Longui CA, Mendonca BB, Domenice S: An inhibin B and estrogen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma leading to selective FSH suppression. Horm Res; 2007;67(1):7-11
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  • [Title] An inhibin B and estrogen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma leading to selective FSH suppression.
  • OBJECTIVE: Hormone-secreting adrenocortical tumors are frequently associated with endocrine syndromes.
  • Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a very large tumor in the right adrenal gland.
  • Cortisol and adrenal androgen levels were normal.
  • The unusual finding of selective FSH suppression suggested secretion of inhibin B by the adrenocortical tumor.
  • Right adrenalectomy and nephrectomy were performed and the tumor was classified as a malignant tumor (Weiss score: 7.0) and unilateral mastectomy disclosed a lipoma.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-B-inhibin antibody revealed intense staining in the adrenocortical tumor cells.
  • One month after surgery, an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a local recurrence of the tumor and a second surgery was performed with partial resection of the tumor and the patient died 1 year after the first surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We herein report the first inhibin B and estradiol-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The unusual selective inhibition of FSH secretion should be considered a valuable hormonal finding for the diagnosis of inhibin B-secreting adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoma / blood. Estradiol / blood. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Inhibins / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16974107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / inhibin B; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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32. Czajka I, Zgliczyński W, Kasperlik-Załuska A, Cichocki A: [Gynecomasty as a first sign of adrenal carcinoma--case report]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):940-4
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  • [Title] [Gynecomasty as a first sign of adrenal carcinoma--case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Ginekomastia pierwszym objawem raka kory nadnercza--opis przypadku.
  • We present a case of 50 year-old man with feminizing adrenal carcinoma.
  • Examinations revealed a large left adrenal mass and increased levels of estradiol.
  • Patient underwent adrenalectomy and followed by mitotan therapy as the result of histopathological examination was adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • One year after operation patient stays free from the recurrence of the disease and his estradiol, androstendion and DHEA levels are below the detection limits.
  • We report this case because feminizing adrenal carcinoma is a very rare but serious disease and gynecomastia that could be its manifestation is quite frequent symptom in men's population and thus it could easily be missed.
  • In every case of gynecomastia related to estradiol excess feminizing tumors of testis and adrenal gland should be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Gynecomastia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16821215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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33. Wasco MJ, Pu RT: Utility of antiphosphorylated H2AX antibody (gamma-H2AX) in diagnosing metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Jul;16(4):349-56
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  • [Title] Utility of antiphosphorylated H2AX antibody (gamma-H2AX) in diagnosing metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) includes, although is not limited to, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) due to overlapping morphology.
  • Immunohistochemical markers, including RCC marker (RCC-Ma) have been employed with varying success in the differential diagnosis of RCC.
  • The results suggest gamma-H2AX is a useful adjunct in diagnosis of metastatic RCC when RCC-Ma is negative and in higher grade RCC, which are often a diagnostic challenge.

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  • (PMID = 18528282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones
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34. Zwermann O, Beuschlein F, Lalli E, Klink A, Sassone-Corsi P, Reincke M: Clinical and molecular evidence for DAX-1 inhibition of steroidogenic factor-1-dependent ACTH receptor gene expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 May;152(5):769-76
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  • In non-functional adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas, ACTH-R expression is low.
  • DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene-1) is a general repressor of steroid production, inhibiting steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)-dependent expression of multiple steroidogenic enzymes.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACTH-R gene transcription is affected by DAX-1 and whether this mechanism is involved in down-regulation of ACTH-R expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • METHODS: We screened 22 adrenocortical tumors for ACTH-R and DAX-1 mRNA expression by Northern blot.
  • For in vitro analyses we co-transfected mouse Y1 adrenocortical carcinoma cells with the luciferase reporter gene vector pGL3 containing full-length constructs of human (h) or mouse (m) ACTH-R promoter together with a DAX-1 expression plasmid.
  • DAX-1 inhibition was also present in the shortest construct of a series of 5'-deletion constructs of the human promoter extending from -64 to +40 bp relative to the transcription start site.

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  • (PMID = 15879363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin
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35. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 210 LAs performed in 6 yr, 39 patients had potentially malignant tumors greater than 5 cm in diameter.
  • The mean tumor size was 6.2 cm (range, 5-12 cm), operative time 207 min (115-315 min), and blood loss 75 ml (minimal-1400 ml).
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Four patients (two adrenocortical carcinomas, one metastatic hepatoma, and one lymphoma) died 24, 10, 9, and 3 months after surgery, respectively.
  • Only the tumor size was larger and length of postoperative hospital stay longer for those in the hand-assisted group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Schwarte S, Brabant EG, Bastian L, Bruns F: Cortisol as a possible marker of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with 3-year follow-up. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):1917-20
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  • [Title] Cortisol as a possible marker of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with 3-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour, sometimes causing glucocorticoid hypersecretion.
  • CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with adrenal Cushing's disease.
  • Histological examination after a left adrenalectomy revealed a benign tumour.
  • Initial histological diagnosis was revised according to the increased proliferative changes.
  • An aggressive multimodal treatment, including repeated surgical approach with consolidating radiotherapy in cases of incomplete resection, might be indicated to provide symptom control and possible long-term survival in oligometastatic disease of ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnostic Errors. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17649795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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37. Qin K, Rosenfield RL: Characterization of the basal promoter element of the human type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2005 May 1;1728(3):115-25
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  • Of the androgenic 17beta-HSD isoenzymes, only type 5 (17beta-HSD5) is expressed ubiquitously, including the human adrenal gland and ovary.
  • To characterize this gene promoter, luciferase constructs of the human 5'-flanking region were transiently transfected into the H295R human adrenal carcinoma cell line.
  • Mithramycin A, which inhibits the binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to DNA, also remarkably decreased HSD17B5 mRNA expression in the H295R cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases. 5' Flanking Region / genetics. Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Colforsin / pharmacology. DNA Primers. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Humans. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases. Luciferases / genetics. Molecular Sequence Data. Oligonucleotides. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Sp1 Transcription Factor / genetics. Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Sp3 Transcription Factor. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transfection. Trinucleotide Repeats / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15814298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K08 HD043279-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD39267-02
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / SP3 protein, human; 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Transcription Factors; 148710-94-5 / Sp3 Transcription Factor; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 97666-60-9 / mithramycin A; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; NIJ123W41V / Plicamycin
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38. van't Sant HP, Bouvy ND, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Hop WC, Feelders RA, de Herder WW, de Krijger RR: The prognostic value of two different histopathological scoring systems for adrenocortical carcinomas. Histopathology; 2007 Aug;51(2):239-45
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of two different histopathological scoring systems for adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • AIMS: To compare two different multiparameter histopathological scoring indices and determine their prognostic value in patients presenting with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-nine adrenal cortical tumours were divided into adenomas (n = 17), non-metastatic carcinomas (n = 24) and carcinomas with metastatic disease and/or local recurrence during follow-up (n = 19) or at time of presentation (n = 19).
  • All cases were scored according to the Weiss revisited index (WRI) and the Van Slooten index (VSI).
  • Both scoring indices yielded a significantly different score (P < 0.005) between adenomas and carcinomas.
  • Non-metastasized carcinomas had a lower score with both indices compared with carcinomas with metastases at the time of presentation (VSI, P = 0.017; WRI, P = 0.019).
  • Cancer-specific survival in patients with metastasized ACC correlated with the scores for both indices (VSI, P = 0.0078; WRI, P = 0.0025).
  • Time from diagnosis of ACC to development of metastatic disease was correlated with the WRI (P = 0.036, r = -0.350).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17593212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Shen XC, Gu CX, Qiu YQ, Du CJ, Fu YB, Wu JJ: Estrogen receptor expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2009 Jan;10(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor expression in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but highly malignant tumor, and its diagnosis is mostly delayed and prognosis is poor.
  • We report estrogen receptor (ER) expression in this tumor and our clinical experiences with 17 ACC cases.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to detect ER expression in tumor samples from the 17 patients.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, 4 tumors were classified as Stage I, 4 as Stage II, 3 as Stage III, and 6 as Stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19198016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613956
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40. van Duursen MB, Nijmeijer SM, Ruchirawat S, van den Berg M: Chemopreventive actions by enterolactone and 13 VIOXX-related lactone derivatives in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicol Lett; 2010 Feb 15;192(3):271-7
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  • [Title] Chemopreventive actions by enterolactone and 13 VIOXX-related lactone derivatives in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) has been linked to various hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer, thus being a potential target for cancer chemoprevention.
  • We studied the naturally occurring phytochemical enterolactone (ENL) and 13 VIOXX-related lactone derivatives (CRI-1 to CRI-13) for their effects on CYP17 activity and expression and on cell cycle status in the human H295R adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line.
  • In addition, CRI-3, -7, -10 and -12 arrested the cell cycle in the G(2)/M phase.
  • The structure-activity similarities of the CRI-s with known micro-tubule binding agents strongly suggest that cell cycle arrest is a result of interaction with tubulin.
  • We conclude that the proposed cancer chemopreventive actions of ENL are not mediated through interaction with CYP17 or cell cycle status.
  • Of the VIOXX-related lactone derivatives, CRI-7 could prove useful in the prevention of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer, since in vitro it shows low cytotoxicity, it is a potent inhibitor of CYP17 activity and strong inducer of cell cycle arrest.
  • [MeSH-major] 4-Butyrolactone / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Lactones / pharmacology. Lignans / pharmacology. Phytoestrogens / pharmacology. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / drug effects. Sulfones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Induction / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / prevention & control. Protein Processing, Post-Translational / drug effects. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19913079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3169
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Lignans; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; OL659KIY4X / 4-Butyrolactone; X01E7E1D6H / 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone
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41. Letcher RJ, Sanderson JT, Bokkers A, Giesy JP, van den Berg M: Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2005 Dec 1;209(2):95-104
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  • [Title] Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Animals. Aromatase / metabolism. Benzhydryl Compounds. Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacology. Biphenyl Compounds / toxicity. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism. Estradiol / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / toxicity. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Male. Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Tamoxifen / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15907334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkanes; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Vitellogenins; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A
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42. Zhang H, Neely L, Lundgren K, Yang YC, Lough R, Timple N, Burrows F: BIIB021, a synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor, has broad application against tumors with acquired multidrug resistance. Int J Cancer; 2010 Mar 1;126(5):1226-34
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  • Here, we report that 17-AAG and other ansamycin derivatives are inactive in P-gp and/or MRP-1 expressing cell lines and sensitivity could be restored by coadministration of P-gp or MRP inhibitors.
  • Accordingly, BIIB021 was considerably more active than 17-AAG against adrenocortical carcinoma, a tumor that naturally expresses P-gp, both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Other than this, the cytotoxic activity of BIIB021 was also not influenced by loss of NQO1 or Bcl-2 overexpression, molecular lesions that do not prevent client loss but are nonetheless associated with reduced cell killing by 17-AAG.
  • These data indicate that the new generation of synthetic anti-Hsp90 drugs, exemplified by BIIB021 that is currently undergoing Phase II testing, may have broader application against tumors with acquired multidrug resistance or tumors located in organs protected by MDR proteins, such as the adrenal glands, brain and testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzoquinones / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Flow Cytometry. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Lactams, Macrocyclic / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19676042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-chloro-9-(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridin-2-ylmethyl)-9H-purin-2-ylamine; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / multidrug resistance-associated protein 1; 4GY0AVT3L4 / tanespimycin; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
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43. Bilimoria KY, Shen WT, Elaraj D, Bentrem DJ, Winchester DJ, Kebebew E, Sturgeon C: Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors. Cancer; 2008 Dec 1;113(11):3130-6
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma in the United States: treatment utilization and prognostic factors.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a relatively poor prognosis.
  • METHODS: Patients diagnosed with ACC from 1985 to 2005 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB).
  • Patient, tumor, treatment, and hospital factors associated with survival after resection were examined.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 55 years.
  • Median tumor size was 13 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACC carries a poor prognosis for patients commonly presenting with large, locally invasive tumors, involved margins, and metastatic disease.
  • Survival is not affected by size but is diminished with increasing age, poorly differentiated tumors, involved margins, and the presence of regional and distant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Registries. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18973179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • [Title] Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • No MHC class II antigen expression was detected in carcinomas.
  • The DRB1*01 genotype was found in 54.5% of patients with carcinoma (P = 0.046).
  • Fas receptor expression was 75.0% in adenomas compared with 20.0% in carcinomas (P = 0.0196), whereas ligand expression was 37.7% in adenomas and reached almost 100% in the carcinomas investigated in this study (P = 0.0033).
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Genotype. HLA-DRB1 Chains. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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45. Gil J, Kalembkiewicz M, Polak E, Kostecka-Matyja M: [Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2007 Jul;117(7):317-21
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  • [Title] [Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Rozsiany rak kory nadnercza.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm occurring with a frequency of 1-2 cases per million.
  • This type of a tumor is slightly more frequent in women (58.6%) than in men (41.4%).
  • Etiology of adrenocortical carcinoma is still unclear, but a role of genetic and environmental factors has been largely considered.
  • Most of the carcinomas (60%) are functional and usually the first manifestation is Cushing's syndrome with virilization.
  • The tumor size is still the best single predictor of prognosis.
  • Histopathology specimen from biopsy or obtained during operation should be stained for Melan A, which can confirm the adrenal origin of the tumor.
  • The only method of treatment is a complete surgical excision of the carcinoma.
  • We presented the case of functioning adrenocortical cancer in 37-year-old patient who at time of diagnosis had 12 cm in diameter tumor of the left adrenal gland and metastases to the liver and lung.
  • In the article the symptoms associated with hormones produced by the carcinoma, diagnostics and treatment with regard to the progression of the disease have also been discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17966598.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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46. Bausewein C, Kühnbach R, Haberland B: Adrenal insufficiency caused by bilateral adrenal metastases -- a rare treatable cause for recurrent nausea and vomiting in metastatic breast cancer. Onkologie; 2006 May;29(5):203-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency caused by bilateral adrenal metastases -- a rare treatable cause for recurrent nausea and vomiting in metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with malignant disease.
  • CASE REPORT: We report of a patient suffering from advanced breast cancer and complaining of severe nausea and vomiting over several weeks without any successful treatment.
  • Adrenal enlargement was noted in an abdominal scan.
  • The suspected diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency due to metastases was confirmed by laboratory tests.
  • CONCLUSION: If a patient with advanced cancer presents with unexplained and protracted nausea, vomiting and weakness, particularly if accompanied by hyponatremia and normal potassium levels, adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal metastases should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nausea / etiology. Vomiting / etiology


47. Nakamura Y, Vargas Morris C, Sasano H, Rainey WE: DAX-1A (NR0B1A) expression levels are extremely low compared to DAX-1 (NR0B1) in human steroidogenic tissues. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Jan;41(1):30-4
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  • DAX-1A expression has been observed in several tissues, including adrenal gland, ovary, and testis.
  • Transfection studies have further shown that DAX-1A has an inhibitory effect on DAX-1, suggesting a role for DAX-1A in the regulation of adrenal and gonadal differentiation/function.
  • Herein, we developed and performed quantitative real-time RT-PCR to measure DAX-1 and DAX-1A mRNA expression levels in H295R human adrenal carcinoma cell lines, human adult and fetal adrenal glands, corpus luteum, testis, whole pre- and postmenopausal ovaries, ovarian follicles, placenta, liver, and kidney.
  • In addition, Western blotting analysis was performed to examine both DAX-1 and DAX-1A protein levels in H295R cells, adrenal glands, corpus luteum, and liver.
  • Western blotting analysis results demonstrated that DAX-1 protein was predominantly expressed in H295R cells, human adult adrenal, and corpus luteum.
  • These results suggest that in comparison to DAX-1A, DAX-1 is, by far, the predominant mRNA isoform found in human adrenal glands and gonads.

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  • (PMID = 18819054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK069950; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK069950; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD11149
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS484291; NLM/ PMC3712853
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48. Schindera ST, Soher BJ, Delong DM, Dale BM, Merkle EM: Effect of echo time pair selection on quantitative analysis for adrenal tumor characterization with in-phase and opposed-phase MR imaging: initial experience. Radiology; 2008 Jul;248(1):140-7
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  • [Title] Effect of echo time pair selection on quantitative analysis for adrenal tumor characterization with in-phase and opposed-phase MR imaging: initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the effect of two pairs of echo times (TEs) for in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on (a) quantitative analysis prospectively in a phantom study and (b) diagnostic accuracy retrospectively in a clinical study of adrenal tumors, with use of various reference standards in the clinical study.
  • Single-breath-hold IP and OP 3.0-T MR images in 21 patients (14 women, seven men; mean age, 63 years) with 23 adrenal tumors (16 adenomas, six metastases, one adrenocortical carcinoma) were reviewed.
  • However, with scheme B, no overlap in the adrenal gland SI-to-liver SI ratio between adenomas and nonadenomas was seen (P < .05).
  • With scheme B, no overlap in adrenal gland SI index-to-liver SI index ratio between adenomas and nonadenomas was seen (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSION: This initial experience indicates SI index is the most reliable parameter for characterization of adrenal tumors with 3.0-T MR imaging when obtaining OP echo before IP echo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18566172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Delhanty PJ, van Koetsveld PM, Gauna C, van de Zande B, Vitale G, Hofland LJ, van der Lely AJ: Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;293(1):E302-9
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  • [Title] Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway.
  • Ghrelin is expressed in normal human adrenocortical cells and induces their proliferation through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a).
  • Consequently, it was of interest to us to determine whether acylated ghrelin and its predominant serum isoform, unacylated ghrelin, also act as factors for adrenocortical carcinoma cell growth.
  • To examine a potential ghrelin-regulated system in adrenocortical tumors, we measured proliferative effects of acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines SW-13 and NCI-H295R.
  • Acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the nanomolar range dose-dependently induced adrenocortical cell growth up to 200% of untreated controls, as measured by thymidine uptake and WST1 assay.
  • Cell cycle analysis suggests that acylated and unacylated ghrelin suppress the sub-G(0)/apoptotic fraction by up to 50%.
  • Acylated and unacylated ghrelin are potential auto/paracrine factors acting through an antiapoptotic pathway to stimulate adrenocortical tumor cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Ghrelin. Humans. Protein Isoforms / pharmacology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17405826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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50. Jalali M, Krishnamurthy S: Comparison of immunomarkers for the identification of adrenocortical cells in cytology specimens. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Aug;33(2):78-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of immunomarkers for the identification of adrenocortical cells in cytology specimens.
  • We studied the immunoreactivity of three antibodies--A103, calretinin, and inhibin alpha in destained Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and cell-blocks of 40 fine-needle aspiration biopsy cases of adrenocortical lesions (35 cases of hyperplasia/adenoma and 5 cases of carcinoma).
  • Five cases of carcinoma (4) and melanoma (1) metastases to the adrenal gland and five cases of renal-cell carcinoma were also included for comparison.
  • In benign adrenocortical lesions, A103 staining was noted in 82% of the destained Pap smears and in 92% of cell-blocks.
  • In malignant adrenocortical lesions, A103 staining was noted in 50% of the destained Pap smears and in 80% of cell-blocks.
  • In comparison, calretinin staining was noted in 6% and 50% of destained smears and in 78% and 60% of the cell-blocks of benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions.
  • Inhibin alpha was not positive in any of the smears and showed the lowest level of positivity in the cell-block sections, namely in 11% of the benign lesions and 25% of the malignant lesions.
  • The sensitivity of A103 was 90% on cell-blocks and 74% on smears, that of calretinin 75% on cell-blocks and 11% on smears, and that of inhibin alpha, 13% on cell-blocks alone.
  • The specificity of A103 was lower than the other two makers, 90% vs. 100% because of positivity in metastatic melanoma in the adrenal gland.
  • Our data show A103 to be the immunomarker with the highest sensitivity for identifying cells of adrenocortical origin in destained Pap's smears and cell-block sections with, however, a lower specificity when compared with calretinin and inhibin alpha.
  • Calretinin is comparable in sensitivity with A103 on cell-block sections alone and not on smears.
  • The results of this study suggest that if metastatic melanoma in adrenal gland is not a consideration then A103 is the marker of choice for identifying cells of adrenocortical origin in the limited material available for diagnostic purposes in cytology specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16007649.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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51. Wang X, Liang L, Jiang Y: Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature. Acta Paediatr; 2007 Jun;96(6):930-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature.
  • AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and outcome of children adrenal tumors presenting with hypertension.
  • METHODS: The records of nine children under 16 years of age with adrenal tumours presenting with hypertension were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Abdominal mass was palpable only in one patient at diagnosis.
  • Abdominal computed topography showed adrenal mass in all patients.
  • The median tumour weight was 73 g (11-530 g) and the size ranged from 1.5 x 1.5 to 12 x 14 cm2.
  • Pheochromocytoma (n = 2), adrenocortical adenoma (n = 3), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1), neuroblastoma (n = 2) and ganglioneuromas (n = 1) were found.
  • In one case, adrenal pheochromocytoma first occurred and non-functioning islet cell tumour successively occurred at pancreas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adrenal tumours presented with hypertension showed an atypical course, variable presentation.
  • We report a unique case of adrenal pheochromocytoma followed by the occurrence of non-functioning islet cell tumour.
  • Imaging techniques are important to detect adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vanilmandelic Acid / blood


52. Daneshmand S, Quek ML: Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management. Urol J; 2006;3(2):71-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are benign lesions that contain hematopoietic and fatty elements.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database containing the key word adrenal myelolipoma.
  • In this review, we highlighted the salient diagnostic features of adrenal myelolipomas and offered a guide for management of these benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal myelolipomas may grow over time, but they can usually be followed without surgical excision.
  • In some cases, very large myelolipomas can present with pain and can be confused with necrotic adrenal carcinomas, thus necessitating their surgical removal.

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  • (PMID = 17590837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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53. Freddi S, Arnaldi G, Fazioli F, Scarpelli M, Appolloni G, Mancini T, Kola B, Bertagna X, Mantero F, Collu R, Boscaro M: Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor splicing variants in human primary adrenocortical tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 May;62(5):533-8
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  • [Title] Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor splicing variants in human primary adrenocortical tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: Several splice variants (SVs) of GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) have been identified in various human cancers through which GHRH antagonists may exert their IGF-II-mediated antiproliferative action.
  • Because the overexpression of the IGF-II gene is a frequent feature of adrenal carcinoma, we searched for the presence of GHRH-R SVs in these tumours.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of GHRH-R SVs was assessed by nested PCR in 45 human adrenocortical tumours.
  • We have amplified 720-, 566- and 335-bp PCR products only in carcinomas.
  • SV2 was detected in five of 24 cancers examined, whereas the incidence of SV1 and SV4 was lower.
  • Their simultaneous expression was observed in one carcinoma.
  • No PCR products for SV3 or wild-type GHRH-R were found in carcinomas; mRNA for wild-type GHRH-R or SVs of GHRH-R were not observed either in adenomas or in normal adrenal or in NCI-H295R cells.
  • Interestingly, all carcinomas which expressed SVs were also positive for the presence of GHRH mRNA.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first time that the expression of splice variants of GHRH-R has been demonstrated in human adrenal carcinoma.
  • This study raises the possibility that splice variants might play a role in adrenal carcinogenesis and might offer the possibility for new therapeutic strategies at least in a subgroup of adrenal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Alternative Splicing. Carcinoma / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics. Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15853821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone; 0 / somatotropin releasing hormone receptor
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54. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan.
  • CONTEXT: The University of Michigan Health System has a rich tradition in the study and treatment of endocrine neoplasia.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • DATA SOURCES: Recent programmatic activity includes genome-wide transcriptomic evaluation of human adrenocortical tumors for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation; interrogation of the Wnt signaling pathway in adrenocortical carcinoma, using mouse models and transcriptome profiling; and clinical trials with targeted therapy focused on inhibition of insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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55. Amar L, Plouin PF, Steichen O: Aldosterone-producing adenoma and other surgically correctable forms of primary aldosteronism. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2010;5:9
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  • Unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (also known as Conn's adenoma and aldosteronoma), primary unilateral adrenal hyperplasia and rare cases of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Its prevalence in referred hypertensive populations is estimated to be between 6 and 13%, of which 1.5 to 5% have an aldosterone-producing adenoma or primary unilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The differential diagnosis of hypokalemic hypertension with low renin includes mineralocorticoid excess, with the mineralocorticoid being cortisol or 11-deoxycorticosterone, apparent mineralocorticoid excess, pseudo-hypermineralocorticoidism in Liddle syndrome or exposure to glycyrrhizic acid.
  • Once the diagnosis is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography is performed for all patients.
  • If surgery is considered, taking into consideration the clinical context and the desire of the patient, adrenal vein sampling is performed to detect whether or not aldosterone hypersecretion is unilateral.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Aldosterone / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20482833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 83
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2889888
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56. Pastore G, De Salvo GL, Bisogno G, Dama E, Inserra A, Cecchetto G, Ferrari A, TREP Group, CSD of Epidemiology Biostatistics, AIEOP: Evaluating access to pediatric cancer care centers of children and adolescents with rare tumors in Italy: the TREP project. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Aug;53(2):152-5
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  • [Title] Evaluating access to pediatric cancer care centers of children and adolescents with rare tumors in Italy: the TREP project.
  • BACKGROUND: A national project focusing on rare malignant pediatric tumors (the TREP project) was launched in Italy in 2000.
  • METHODS: The predicted number of cases was calculated from incidence data from the Italian network of cancer registries (AIRTum).
  • For the 0-14 years old age-group, the ratio of observed to expected cases was 1:1 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, adrenocortical tumors, renal cell carcinoma, and gonadal non-germ-cell tumors, while for the 15-17-year old individuals there was a statistically significant under-reporting for all tumor types.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19353626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Enyeart JA, Liu H, Enyeart JJ: Curcumin inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels and stimulates cortisol secretion from adrenocortical cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 Jun 13;370(4):623-8
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  • [Title] Curcumin inhibits bTREK-1 K+ channels and stimulates cortisol secretion from adrenocortical cells.
  • Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express bTREK-1 K(+) channels that set the resting membrane potential.
  • In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, curcumin inhibited bTREK-1 with an IC(50) of 0.93muM by a mechanism that was voltage-independent. bTREK-1 inhibition by curcumin occurred through interaction with an external binding site and was independent of ATP hydrolysis.

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  • (PMID = 18406348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK047875-12; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK047875; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK047875-12; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01-DK47875
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / potassium channel protein TREK-1; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS48736; NLM/ PMC2394713
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58. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Nov-Dec;107(6):670-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determinate the MRI and CT scanning appearance of adrenal ganglioneuroma and correlate the imaging with histological features.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In the last 10 years, eight patients with a pathologically proven adrenal ganglioneuroma were operated on in our department of endocrine surgery.
  • To our knowledge, these patients represent one the largest reported cohorts of adrenal ganglioneuroma treated in a single institution.
  • RESULTS: The most relevant characteristics of adrenal GN resected in our patients were: No hormonal hypersecretion, Presence of calcifications; no vessel involvement; and a non-enhanced attenuation of less than 40 HU on CT, A low non-enhanced T1W signal, a slightly high and heterogeneous T2W signal, a late and gradual enhancement on dynamic MRI, especially if associated with a whorled pattern.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even if many aggressive tumours, mainly adrenal carcinoma, may share some of these radiological features, the presence of all or most of them must made the clinician evoke the diagnosis of GN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18274182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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59. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • They are a very heterogenous group of diseases and include benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions, metastases, pheochromocytomas and other entities.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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60. Soon PS, Yeh MW, Delbridge LW, Bambach CP, Sywak MS, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Laparoscopic surgery is safe for large adrenal lesions. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;34(1):67-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery is safe for large adrenal lesions.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has surpassed open adrenalectomy as the gold standard for excision of benign adrenal lesions.
  • The size threshold for offering laparoscopic adrenalectomy is controversial as the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases with increasing tumour size.
  • The aim of this paper was to assess the safety of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumours (tumours > or = 60 mm).
  • There were 8 adrenocortical carcinomas in the group with tumours > or = 60 mm in size.
  • Four of the patients undergoing open adrenalectomy died of their disease while 1 is alive with recurrence 3 years later.
  • The 3 patients who underwent either laparoscopic or laparoscopic converted to open adrenalectomy are alive without evidence of disease after 18 months follow up.
  • These findings are concordant with the growing body of literature supporting laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant tumours > or = 60 mm in size without preoperative or intraoperative features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17532597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Kalgikar AM, Chandratreya SA, Goel A, Shrivastava M, Limaye US, Karvat A, Shah NS, Menon PS: Inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic evaluation of Cushing's syndrome: K.E.M. experience. J Assoc Physicians India; 2005 Aug;53:685-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: An overlap in the clinical and biochemical features of the more common pituitary Cushing's disease and the rare ectopic ACTH secreting tumors often leads to a diagnostic dilemma.
  • High quality computed imaging modalities have a poor sensitivity and do not always help in localising the tumor.
  • Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) with measurement of ACTH levels localizes the source of excess ACTH secretion and aids in the differential diagnosis of ACTH dependant Cushing's syndrome.
  • The data was analysed in 39 patients with definite histopathological diagnosis which included 34 patients with Cushing's disease, four with ectopic Cushing's syndrome and one with adrenal carcinoma.
  • A centre:periphery ratio of plasma ACTH levels of > or =2 was considered diagnostic of Cushing's disease.
  • IPSS could correctly localize the lesion in 23 of 34 patients of Cushing's disease (sensitivity: 67.6%).
  • All patients of ectopic Cushing's syndrome and adrenal carcinoma had a ratio of <2 (specificity: 100%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Petrosal Sinus Sampling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16398076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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62. Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Polat B, Koschker AC, Kenn W, Flentje M, Allolio B: Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4501-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Local tumor recurrence is common in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and is the most frequent cause for reoperation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was investigation of adjuvant tumor bed irradiation in the treatment of ACC.
  • PATIENTS: The German ACC Registry (n = 285) was screened for patients who had received tumor bed radiotherapy in an adjuvant setting (no macroscopic evidence for residual disease after surgery).
  • Fourteen patients without distant metastases (World Health Organization stage I, one patient; stage II, seven; stage III, three; and stage IV, three) were matched with 14 patients for resection status, adjuvant mitotane treatment, stage, and tumor size.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Survival without local recurrence and disease-free survival was the main outcome measure.
  • However, disease-free and overall survival were not significantly different between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: These data from the largest series of ACC patients treated with adjuvant tumor bed irradiation suggest that radiotherapy is effective in reducing the high rate of local recurrence in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4250-2 [17088440.001]
  • (PMID = 16895957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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63. Kayton ML: Pulmonary metastasectomy in pediatric patients. Thorac Surg Clin; 2006 May;16(2):167-83, vi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • By examining tumor types individually, however, it is seen that certain histologies (adrenocortical carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, osteosarcoma) mandate surgical metastasectomy for patient survival.
  • Other pediatric tumors (Wilms tumor, Ewing's sarcoma) are radiation sensitive, and the application of metastasectomy is controversial.
  • In the case of still other types of tumor (neuroblastoma, differentiated thyroid cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma), metastasectomy is seldom performed except in highly unusual situations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Humans. Infant. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / secondary. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / surgery. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / secondary. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Pulmonary Surgical Procedures. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / secondary. Sarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16805206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-4127
  • [Journal-full-title] Thoracic surgery clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Surg Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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64. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • Selection of patients in whom we should have a high suspicion of a malignancy is vital, so that biochemical investigation and imaging is deployed appropriately.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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65. Okabe H, Beppu T, Ishiko T, Horino K, Masuda T, Hayashi H, Komori H, Tanaka H, Takamori H, Masahiko H, Baba H: [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):1973-5
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  • [Title] [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)].
  • The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adrenal metastases are often accompanied with the metastasis from other sites, and their prognosis is poor.
  • The mean interval from the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma to the adrenal metastases was 46 months (1-95 months).
  • If there was a good control observed in the intrahepatic lesion with no metastases besides adrenal glands, we selected a surgical resection of the metastatic adrenal glands.
  • The mean overall survival time after the surgical treatment of the adrenal metastases was 23 months (7-54 months), and we considered it as a good prognosis.
  • The mean progression free survival of the adrenal metastases was 15 months (5-30 months).
  • Besides on such a good clinical outcome, we conclude that aggressive multimodal therapy including surgical resection of metastatic foci may be recommended if the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have no other metastatic sites other than the adrenal gland and liver lesions are well-controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18219869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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66. Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Cinel A, Isik AC, Reis A, Sari A, Ersoz HO, Ukinç K: Carotid body tumors and adrenal pheochromocytomas in siblings of a Turkish family. Med Princ Pract; 2006;15(5):396-400
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  • [Title] Carotid body tumors and adrenal pheochromocytomas in siblings of a Turkish family.
  • OBJECTIVE: This is a report of 2 hypertensive siblings with a history of carotid body tumors and subsequent benign adrenal pheochromocytomas (pheos) in a family where the mother had died of possible adrenal carcinoma.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: The first case was a 35-year-old woman with paroxysmal hypertensive attacks and a right adrenal mass.
  • Abdominal MRI and (131)I-MIBG scintigraphy revealed a right adrenal tumor.
  • The second case, the 45-year-old brother of the first case, was found to have a left adrenal mass on abdominal MRI.
  • Both siblings showed no evidence of other familial syndromes, such as multiple neoplasia type 2, von Hippel-Lindau disease or neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the combination of familial carotid body tumors and pheo is rare, a patient who remains hypertensive after removal of a carotid body tumor deserves a careful evaluation to exclude pheo.
  • Such tumors may be extra-adrenal or multifocal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carotid Body Tumor / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16888401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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67. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
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  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • These include (1) preoperative staging, (2) selection of appropriate site for biopsy, (3) identification of occult metastatic disease, (4) follow-up for residual or recurrent disease, and (5) assessment of response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Drug Monitoring. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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68. Bergamini C, Prosperi P, Bruscino A, Leahu A, Bargellini T, Poma A, Valeri A: [Update on the laparoscopic adrenal surgery in the second decade of the century: "doubts no more?]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):328-31
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  • [Title] [Update on the laparoscopic adrenal surgery in the second decade of the century: "doubts no more?].
  • Laparoscopic adrenal surgery has significantly improved during the last years.
  • Thus at the moment it is possible to define such technique as the therapeutic "Gold Standard" option in the treatment of the adrenal tumors.
  • However, some doubts are still remaining concerning the feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in case of malignant adrenal tumors, hyper-vascular tumors (pheochromocytoma) and indeterminate incidentaloma.
  • Nearly no respond has been given to others issues such as "the single port techniques" in laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the role of radiofrequency laparoscopic ablation of the adrenal tumor, the kind of treatment of stadium I and II adrenocortical carcinoma and big size (> 8 cm) tumors, the management of non-functioning incidentaloma of 4-6 cm, the role of the robot, and, finally, the approach of the bilateral tumors.
  • We conclude that, despite many issues on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopy in the adrenal surgery have been definitely clarified, so that such technique has been declared the "Gold Standard" method in the treatment of the adrenal tumor, doubts still remain in some aspects of this method.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20646385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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69. Sasano H, Suzuki T: [Adrenocortical carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:720-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16776259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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70. Jones KM, Singh A, Haas GP, Landas SK: 1500 gram suprarenal mass: a case report. Can J Urol; 2007 Apr;14(2):3518-22
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma can have a clinical presentation that mimics a primary renal tumor.
  • We describe a case of a 47-year-old male who presented with flank pain, weight loss, and a 14 cm mass arising from the upper pole of the right kidney on imaging.
  • Upon surgical resection he was found to have a 1500 gram stage II adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The clinical features, pathologic findings, grading criteria, and differential diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney / radiography. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17466160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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71. François C, Rangachari B, Bova D: Mammography and sonography of pathologically proven adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Apr;184(4):1279-81
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  • [Title] Mammography and sonography of pathologically proven adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15788610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Golden SH, Robinson KA, Saldanha I, Anton B, Ladenson PW: Clinical review: Prevalence and incidence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in the United States: a comprehensive review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1853-78
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  • Conditions with the lowest incidence were adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and pituitary adenomas.
  • Sparse data were available on pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal disorders.

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  • (PMID = 19494161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK079637
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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73. Ercolino T, Becherini L, Valeri A, Maiello M, Gaglianò MS, Parenti G, Ramazzotti M, Piscitelli E, Simi L, Pinzani P, Nesi G, Degl'Innocenti D, Console N, Bergamini C, Mannelli M: Uncommon clinical presentations of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in two different patients affected by two distinct novel VHL germline mutations. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):762-8
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  • CONTEXT: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an inherited multitumour disorder characterized by clinical heterogeneity and high penetrance.
  • Pheochromocytoma (Pheo) is present in 10%-15% of cases and can be isolated or associated with other lesions such as haemangioblastomas, kidney cysts or cancer and pancreatic lesions.
  • Extra-adrenal Pheos (paragangliomas, PGLs) are rare.
  • One patient was studied for the presence of an adrenal incidentaloma and the other for the presence of a neck tumour.
  • We identified two novel VHL point mutations: a L198V missense mutation in a 32-year-old female affected by a right adrenal compound and mixed tumour constituted by an epinephrine secreting Pheo, a ganglioneuroma and an adrenocortical adenoma, and a T152I missense mutation in a 24-year-old female affected by a left carotid body tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases enlarge the list of VHL mutations and add new insights in the clinical variability of VHL disease, thus confirming the importance of genetic testing in patients affected by apparently sporadic Pheos or PGLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics


74. Gur C, Salmon A, Silvetski N, Gross DJ: [Adrenocortical carcinoma]. Harefuah; 2008 Jun;147(6):520-5, 574
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  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a generally poor prognosis.
  • In approximately 60% of cases the initial clinical manifestations are due to hypersecretion of adrenocortical hormones.
  • In the remainder of the cases the tumor is identified after imaging procedures for nonspecific complaints such as abdominal pain and nausea.
  • Medical therapy is employed in patients with unresectable or partially resected tumor and metastatic disease.
  • The current accepted treatment is a combination of Mitotane with chemotherapy, aimed at controlling hormonal hypersecretion and reduction of tumor mass.
  • In ACC patients there is wide variability in the course of the disease: some with metastatic disease will survive for more than 10 years, others succumb to the disease within months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Humans. Nausea / etiology. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18693629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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75. van Staveren WC, Solís DW, Delys L, Venet D, Cappello M, Andry G, Dumont JE, Libert F, Detours V, Maenhaut C: Gene expression in human thyrocytes and autonomous adenomas reveals suppression of negative feedbacks in tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jan 10;103(2):413-8
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  • The cAMP signaling pathway regulates growth of many cell types, including somatotrophs, thyrocytes, melanocytes, ovarian follicular granulosa cells, adrenocortical cells, and keratinocytes.
  • Mutations of partners from the cAMP signaling cascade are involved in tumor formation.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor and Gsalpha activating mutations have been detected in thyroid autonomous adenomas, Gsalpha mutations in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, and PKAR1A mutations in Carney complex, a multiple neoplasia syndrome.
  • To gain more insight into the role of cAMP signaling in tumor formation, human primary cultures of thyrocytes were treated for different times (1.5, 3, 16, 24, and 48 h) with TSH to characterize modulations in gene expression using cDNA microarrays.
  • This result suggests a progressive sequential process leading to a change of cell program.
  • The gene expression profile of the long-term stimulated cultures resembled the autonomous adenomas, but not papillary carcinomas.
  • These results suggest that in tumorigenesis, activation of proliferation pathways may be complemented by suppression of multiple corresponding negative feedbacks, i.e., specific tumor suppressors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Down-Regulation / genetics. Feedback, Physiological. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Kinetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Thyrotropin / pharmacology. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16381821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1326163
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76. Ng VW, Ma RC, So WY, Choi KC, Kong AP, Cockram CS, Chow CC: Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Dec 13;170(22):2017-20
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  • [Title] Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered inadvertently.
  • We undertook this study to review the clinical characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentalomas who presented to a tertiary endocrine center in Hong Kong.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of all 139 cases of adrenal incidentalomas that were referred to the Endocrine Centre of the Prince of Wales Hospital between June 1, 2000, and May 31, 2007.
  • We reviewed detailed patient history, physical examination findings, and symptoms and signs related to hormonal hypersecretion or malignant neoplasm and recorded clinical indications for performing diagnostic radiological imaging.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (43.9%) had nonfunctional benign adrenal adenomas, 52 (37.4%) had functional lesions, 15 (10.8%) had malignant adrenal lesions, and the remaining 11 (7.9%) had varying adrenal disease.
  • Only 5 of the 27 patients with cortisol-secreting adrenal incidentalomas had symptoms or signs of excess cortisol levels at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentaloma is a commonly encountered clinical problem.
  • Functional or primary malignant adrenal incidentalomas can be detected at an earlier stage during hormonal and radiological evaluations, which provides an opportunity for further management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Catecholamines / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / blood. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Hong Kong / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21149760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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77. Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, Arai Y, Sasano H: Nuclear receptor DAX1 in human prostate cancer: a novel independent biological modulator. Endocr J; 2009;56(1):39-44
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  • [Title] Nuclear receptor DAX1 in human prostate cancer: a novel independent biological modulator.
  • Its expression has been reported in endocrine and sex steroid-dependent neoplasms such as human adrenocortical, pituitary, endometrial, and ovarian tumors.
  • Prostate cancer is also sex steroid-dependent tumor in which androgens play important roles in the pathogenesis and development via androgen receptor (AR).
  • DAX1 is also reported to repress AR activity in human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) but its biological roles have remained unclear in the human prostate cancer.
  • The aim of this study is to examine the expression of DAX1 in human prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry in order to evaluate its possible biological and/or clinical significance.
  • In this study, we examined the DAX1 immunoreactivity in human prostate cancer obtained from surgery (n = 40), and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features of the patients.
  • DAX1 immunoreactivity is considered a new biological modulator of human prostate cancer, but independent to the status of sex steroid receptors in human prostate cancer tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / physiology. Repressor Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor. Disease Progression. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18827407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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78. Louiset E, Stratakis CA, Perraudin V, Griffin KJ, Libé R, Cabrol S, Fève B, Young J, Groussin L, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: The paradoxical increase in cortisol secretion induced by dexamethasone in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease involves a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effect of dexamethasone on protein kinase A catalytic subunits. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jul;94(7):2406-13
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  • [Title] The paradoxical increase in cortisol secretion induced by dexamethasone in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease involves a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated effect of dexamethasone on protein kinase A catalytic subunits.
  • CONTEXT: Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) results in most cases from mutations of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit 1A (PRKAR1A) gene.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the mechanism of the action of dexamethasone on adrenocortical cells removed from patients with PPNAD and a transgenic model of PPNAD [Tg(tTA/X2AS) mice].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cortisol and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunological assays in cell culture supernatants.
  • Dexamethasone had no effect on cortisol production from normal human adrenocortical cells but stimulated corticosteroidogenesis in the presence of RU486.
  • Similarly, dexamethasone failed to influence corticosterone release by adrenocortical cells removed from Tg(tTA/X2AS) mice but stimulated corticosteroidogenesis in the presence of RU 486.

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  • (PMID = 19383776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NR3C1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2708955
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79. Ravindra S, Kini U: Cytomorphology and morphometry of small round-cell tumors in the region of the kidney. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):211-6
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  • [Title] Cytomorphology and morphometry of small round-cell tumors in the region of the kidney.
  • Small round-cell tumors (SRCTs), with malignant cell components measuring 10 m or less in diameter with scanty cytoplasm in alcohol-fixed smears, pose a diagnostic challenge at fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), especially when they are situated in and around the kidney and need facilities such as electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, tissue culture, and cytogenetics for their subtyping.
  • A precise cytodiagnosis of SRCTs is important because a definite diagnosis is mandatory in preoperative diagnostic workup for presurgical chemotherapy in these cases.
  • With this view in mind, an attempt has been made to diagnose SRCTs in the region of the kidney based on cytomorphology and morphometry alone so as to facilitate its diagnosis in a simple cytology laboratory of a developing country where facilities for auxiliary techniques are not easily available.
  • The smears were studied for cellularity, morphology, pattern of cell arrangement, and smear background and morphometrically analyzed using an ocular micrometer.
  • An aspirate with preponderant malignant round cells that were larger or double the size of red blood cells in air-dried smears or measured less than 10 micro in diameter in alcohol-fixed smears was considered as a small blue-cell tumor.
  • Twenty-one were diagnosed as Wilms' tumor (WT), 10 were diagnosed as neuroblastoma (NB), 3 were ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), 1 was a cellular congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), and 1 was an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • Cell clusters with neuropil and cytoplasmic processes were diagnostic of NB, ganglion cells of GNB, and blastema with tubular differentiation in WT.
  • The latter were appreciated only on retrospective analysis after histological confirmation.Thus, morphometry in correlation with cytology, clinical history, physical findings, and radiological data is helpful in guided FNA for a definite diagnosis of SRCT in the region of the kidney.
  • One needs to keep in mind the mimickers of small round-cell lesions at this anatomic site.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15754373.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Nishida S, Itoh N, Sasao T, Masumori N, Taguchi K, Tsukamoto T: Adrenocortical carcinoma: retrospective study of 14 patients experienced at a single institution over 34 years. Int J Urol; 2007 Jul;14(7):581-4
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: retrospective study of 14 patients experienced at a single institution over 34 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical outcome of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma experienced at a single institute over 34 years.
  • METHODS: The study included 14 patients who were diagnosed as having the disease and were treated at the Department of Urology, Sapporo Medical University Hospital between 1973 and 2006.
  • Two patients were classified as having stage II disease, seven as stage III and five as stage IV.
  • The disease was completely removed in eight patients and incompletely in three.
  • Three patients with metastasis at diagnosis received combination chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin (EDP) with or without mitotane treatment, to which lung metastasis completely responded in one patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease but frequently recurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 17645596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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81. Kim KH, Park JC, Lim SY, Sohn IS, Yun KH, Cho SH, Hong YJ, Park HW, Kim JH, Kim W, Ahn YK, Chung IJ, Jeong MH, Cho JG, Kang JC: A case of non-functioning huge adrenocortical carcinoma extending into inferior vena cava and right atrium. J Korean Med Sci; 2006 Jun;21(3):572-6
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  • [Title] A case of non-functioning huge adrenocortical carcinoma extending into inferior vena cava and right atrium.
  • Primary adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor and its usual sites of metastasis are the lung (71%), lymph node (68%), liver (42%), and bone (26%).
  • However, intracaval invasion extending into the right atrium is very rare and spontaneous regression of tumor burden in adrenal carcinoma is also rare.
  • However, tumor burden was not changed, but rather toxic hepatitis and thrombocytopenia were developed.
  • During clinical follow-up, this tumor showed spontaneous regression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Heart Atria / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Echocardiography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729971
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82. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • We report an interesting morphological alteration in the adrenal of a 72-year-old woman suffering from severe hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Ultrastructural study revealed that the inclusions originated in degenerating mitochondria, explaining their association with the oncocytic phenotype of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Moriya T: Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):345-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in histopathology and immunohistochemistry of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Discerning malignancy in resected adrenocortical neoplasms can pose diagnostic difficulty.
  • Macroscopic examination is the first important step toward diagnosis and should include accurate measurement of weight and dimension of the specimens and description of the cut surface of the tumors.
  • It is also important to sample the specimens for histological diagnosis near foci of hemorrhage and/or necrosis.
  • Histological scoring systems evaluating multiple parameters, especially the criteria of Weiss, have been shown to be reliable in differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma.
  • A tumor is defined as adrenocortical carcinoma when three or more of the following criteria are met;.
  • (1) high nuclear grade, (2) mitotic rate six or more per 50 high power fields, (3) atypical mitosis, (4) clear cells less than 25%, (5) a diffuse architecture pattern in more than one-third of the tumor, (6) confluent necrosis, (7) venous invasion, (8) sinusoidal invasion, and (9) capsular invasion.
  • The criteria are relatively straightforward and considered the most effective standard for diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy.
  • However, great care should be taken in applying the criteria to histological evaluation of two relatively rare and peculiar adrenocortical tumors, adrenocortical oncocytoma and pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • At this juncture, ancillary biological or molecular markers are of little practical value in terms of differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma but tumors with MIB1 or Ki-67 labeling index more than 2.5 may be considered malignant.
  • Prognostic markers of adrenocortical carcinoma have not been established other than complete respectability of the tumor.
  • It sometimes is important for surgical pathologists to differentiate adrenocortical carcinoma from metastatic malignancies of other sites.
  • An immunohistochemical evaluation of adrenal 4 binding protein (Ad4BP) or SF-1, a transcription factor of all steroidogenesis, can aid in this differential diagnosis because nuclear immunoreactivity for this transcription factor is relatively specific to steroid producing cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Count. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitotic Index. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.3.2.27 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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84. Hennings J, Lindhe O, Bergström M, Långström B, Sundin A, Hellman P: [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1410-4
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  • [Title] [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) using (11)C-labeled metomidate (MTO) has previously been described as a tool for specific adrenocortical imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19).
  • The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection.
  • RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.89 and specificity was 0.96 for MTO-PET in proving adrenocortical origin of the lesions.
  • Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative.
  • PET measurements using standardized uptake values (SUV) in pathological adrenocortical tissue could differentiate lesions larger than 1-1.5 cm from normal adrenocortical tissue.
  • SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC.
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors.
  • MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Antineoplastic Agents. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16403816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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85. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • The above have clinical implications (i) for patients with GISTs that are cKIT- and PDGFRA-mutation negative: these tumours are usually resistant to treatment with currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may be part of a syndrome such as CT or CSS; and (ii) for patients with an inherited PGL syndrome, family history should be explored to identify any other tumours in the family, and in particular other endocrine lesions and GISTs.


86. Kebebew E, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Extent of disease at presentation and outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma: have we made progress? World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):872-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extent of disease at presentation and outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma: have we made progress?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive malignancy, accounts for up to 14% of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • The only chance of cure for ACC is diagnosis at an early stage; therefore, a main indication for adrenalectomy in patients with adrenal incidentaloma has been the potential risk of ACC.
  • Recent studies suggest that this has led to earlier stage of ACC at diagnosis, more curative operations, and better survival.
  • METHODS: We analyzed data on ACC from The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.
  • The average tumor size was 12 cm (range: 2-36 cm), and only 4.2% were < or = 6 cm.
  • Most (88%) patients had surgical resection of their tumor, and external beam radiotherapy was used in only 12% of patients.
  • Between the time quartiles compared (as well as annually), there was no significant difference at presentation in age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, the frequency of distant metastasis, and overall TNM stage.
  • Low tumor grade, lower stage of ACC, later time quartile, and surgical resection were associated with a lower cause-specific mortality by univariate analysis (P < or = 0.002) and by multivariate analysis (P < or = 0.031).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although adrenal incidentalomas have become a common indication for adrenalectomy, this has not resulted in patients with ACC being diagnosed earlier or treated at a lower stage of disease at the national level.
  • The most important predictors of survival in these patients are tumor grade, tumor stage, and surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. SEER Program. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16680602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Pianovski MA, Maluf EM, de Carvalho DS, Ribeiro RC, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Boffetta P, Zancanella P, Figueiredo BC: Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):56-60
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  • [Title] Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Several reports refer to an increased frequency of adrenal cortex tumors (ACT) among children in Southern Brazil, yet all data have been derived from hospital-based registries.
  • PROCEDURE: We reviewed all death certificates that mentioned ACT or adrenal neuroblastoma (NB) and which were reported to the Paraná State Department of Health between 1998 and 2003, for individuals younger than 15 years who resided in the Curitiba metropolitan region.
  • The ratio of the adrenal NB and ACT age-adjusted mortality rates was 1.43.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of population-based mortality confirms the evidence from hospital-based registries of a clustering of ACT in Southern Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16200634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Gasińska T, Pietrasik L, Kulawik G: [Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Progress in diagnosis, clinical and genetic features]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2005 Sep;114(3):901-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Progress in diagnosis, clinical and genetic features].
  • [Transliterated title] Pierwotny rak kory nadnerczy. Postepy w diagnostyce, aspekty kliniczne i genetyczne.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16708566.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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89. Miyoshi I, Kubota T, Saito T, Kobayashi M, Toi M, Ohtsuki Y, Taguchi H: Psammoma bodies in lung cancer. Intern Med; 2006;45(5):335-6
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  • [Title] Psammoma bodies in lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16596008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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90. von Krogh K, Harjen H, Almås C, Zimmer KE, Dahl E, Olsaker I, Taubøll E, Ropstad E, Verhaegen S: The effect of valproate and levetiracetam on steroidogenesis in forskolin-stimulated H295R cells. Epilepsia; 2010 Nov;51(11):2280-8
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  • Two different AEDs, valproate (VPA) and levetiracetam (LEV), were tested in forskolin-stimulated human adrenal carcinoma (H295R) cells to explore their effect on steroidogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Aromatase / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / genetics. DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • [Copyright] Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.
  • (PMID = 20726872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1167
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 230447L0GL / etiracetam; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; ZH516LNZ10 / Piracetam
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91. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, Pani G, Maffione A, Princi P, Traini E, Galeotti T, Rossi ED, Fadda G, Bellantone R: Gene expression profiling of adrenal cortical tumors by cDNA macroarray analysis. Results of a preliminary study. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 May;60(4):186-90
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of adrenal cortical tumors by cDNA macroarray analysis. Results of a preliminary study.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis.
  • To verify if it is possible to assess their differential gene expression by a cDNA macroarray analysis using RNA extracted from paraffin sections, we analyzed two different cohorts of adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC.
  • Heat shock protein 60 (HSP-60) (ratio>2), Ciclin D1 and topoisomerase I (ratio>1.5) were overexpressed in the ACC cohort, while jun proto-oncogene was down-regulated. cDNA macroarray analysis from paraffin sections of adrenal tumors is feasible, despite with a low success rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Down-Regulation. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Up-Regulation


92. Bruhn AM, Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2010 Sep;62(3):305-18
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery.
  • The aim of this paper is to review the current state of laparoscopic and robotic surgery in the mannagement of benign and malignant disease of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal lesions can be adenomas, pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal cysts, hematomas, adrenal cortical carcinomas, metastases from other cancers, or other rare causes.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the new standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and is being increasingly utilized for malignant disease.
  • Robotic assistance offers unique advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal gland, especially considering its challenging vasculature.
  • Series of robotic adrenalectomy (RA) and LA show that techniques are both safe and effective compared to open.
  • There is also growing evidence in using minimally invasive approaches in adrenal sparing-surgery.
  • Success in these procedures depends on a firm understanding of adrenal anatomy and in careful patient selection.
  • Both LA and RA are offer advantages to patients and are comparable in outcomes.
  • While LA remains the standard of care, RA is an excellent option in high volume robotic centers from standpoints of outcomes, feasibility, and cost.

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  • (PMID = 20940699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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93. Assié G, Guillaud-Bataille M, Ragazzon B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Clauser E: The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;21(5):325-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses.
  • Accumulating data on adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumor transcriptomes have already identified striking transcriptome differences not only between adenoma and carcinoma but also between two sets of carcinoma, which have very different prognoses.
  • These transcriptome data observing adrenocortical tumor phenotype in great but complex detail, combined with genomic and proteomic information, will function for future research investigating the pathophysiology of their tumorigenesis and hormonal secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Animals. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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94. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Masi G, Stefani AL, Fincati K, Palù G: Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors. Oncology; 2005;68(4-6):414-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression of ghrelin and its receptors GHS-R1a and -R1b in a large series of normal and neoplastic human adrenocortical tissues.
  • Evaluation of the effects of ghrelin on GHS-R expression and proliferation of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Ghrelin and GHS-R transcripts are expressed in normal adrenal cortex, with GHS-R1b mRNA levels being 5- to 10-fold higher than GHS-R1amRNA.
  • A significant increase in ghrelin expression was observed in adrenocortical adenomas, but not in carcinomas.
  • GHS-R1a was undetectable in about 60% of both benign and malignant tumor samples, except for cortisol-producing adenomas, which showed increased receptor expression.
  • At variance, GHS-R1b was overexpressed in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • In vitro studies in human ACC cell lines demonstrated that GHS-R1a is downregulated and GHS-R1bmRNA expression is upregulated by ghrelin, while inhibiting cell proliferation.
  • CONCLUSION: Downregulation ofGHS-R1a in adrenal tumors and the presence of high levels of GHS-R1b transcripts in adrenocortical tissue suggest a role for these receptors in adrenal function and growth.
  • In this regard, ghrelin inhibits cell proliferation and modulates GHS-R expression in ACC cells in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Ghrelin. Growth Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger. Receptors, Ghrelin. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16020971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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95. Nychytaĭlo ME, Diachenko VV, Litvinenko AN, Gul'ko ON, Bulik II, Lukecha II: [Experience of performance of laparoscopic adrenalectomy using lateral transabdominal approach]. Klin Khir; 2008 Sep;(9):41-4
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  • In 2002-2008 yrs. in the Department of Laparoscopic Surgery and Cholelithiasis in 52 patients laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) was accomplished, performed for different diseases of suprarenal glands.
  • Incidentaloma was diagnosed in 8, fibroma--in 4, pheokhromocytoma--in 10, aldosteroma--in 11, adrenocortical cancer--in 3, corticosteroma--in 13, suprarenal gland cyst--in 3 patients.
  • The operation time in right-sided and left-sided LA had constituted accordingly 85 and 118 minutes.
  • In 1 (2.4%) observation hemoperitoneum had occurred as a result of traumatic damage of spleen during performance of left-sided LA.

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  • (PMID = 19278040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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96. Roman S: Adrenocortical carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, accounting for 0.02% of all annual cancers reported.
  • Given the generally advanced stage at diagnosis, the overall 5-year survival remains poor, varying between 20 and 45%.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies focusing on the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma have focused on onco-developmental genes present in the fetal adrenal cortex, as well as local adrenal paracrine and autocrine effects of cellular peptides.
  • SUMMARY: Pre-operative diagnostic advances in positron emission scanning are emerging as promising modalities for confirmation of malignancy of indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • No significant advances in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma have been developed.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay for primary and recurrent disease, including select patients with isolated liver metastases.
  • Mitotane has remained the preferred adjuvant treatment agent, showing modest effect in patients with unresectable, residual or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

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  • (PMID = 16357562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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97. Koschker AC, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Weismann D, Allolio B: Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Feb;114(2):45-51
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • DIAGNOSIS: In case of an adrenal mass, hormonal workup before surgery is required for differential diagnosis, perioperative management, and for follow-up.
  • Most patients will eventually have a recurrence, so adjuvant treatment (mitotane/tumour bed radiation) has to be considered in high risk patients, even if randomized controlled trials on adjuvant treatment are still lacking.
  • GANIMED, as a Germany-wide network of experts on adrenal diseases, has been founded allowing for improved gathering of data and joint studies.
  • ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours) has been brought to life, aiming at European standards for therapy, diagnosis and tumour banking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16570232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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98. Lee SS, Baek KH, Lee YS, Lee JM, Kang MI, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7):675-9
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • Oncocytoma is a neoplasm that can arise in several organs, and it has been more commonly described in the kidney, salivary gland and thyroid.
  • Oncocytoma arising in the adrenal gland is a rare finding.
  • Moreover, functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is exceptionally rare.
  • A 47-yr-old man was incidentally discovered to have a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient had no clinical features suggestive of increased adrenal function.
  • Right adrenalectomy was performed, and this revealed a well-circumscribed dark-brown tumor that measured 2.4x2.2 cm.
  • The tumor consisted almost exclusively of large eosinophilic and epitheloid cells whose cytoplasm was packed with eosinophilic granulations, which corresponded to the numerous mitochondria confirmed on electron microscopy.
  • This is a rare case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome that was caused by adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18787391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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99. Song R, He Y, Murphy MB, Yeung LW, Yu RM, Lam MH, Lam PK, Hecker M, Giesy JP, Wu RS, Zhang W, Sheng G, Fu J: Effects of fifteen PBDE metabolites, DE71, DE79 and TBBPA on steroidogenesis in the H295R cell line. Chemosphere; 2008 May;71(10):1888-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of fifteen PBDE metabolites, DE71, DE79 and TBBPA on steroidogenesis in the H295R cell line.
  • In the present study, 15 PBDE metabolites, two BDE mixtures (DE71 and DE79), and TBBPA were studied individually to determine their effects on ten steroidogenic genes, aromatase activity, and concentrations of two steroid hormones (testosterone and 17beta-estradiol) in the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aromatase / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics. Estradiol / metabolism. Humans. Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / genetics. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18313098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0045-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemosphere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemosphere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phenyl Ethers; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Polybrominated Biphenyls; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.1.- / Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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100. Doghman M, Lalli E: A matter of dosage: SF-1 in adrenocortical development and cancer. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):148-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A matter of dosage: SF-1 in adrenocortical development and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19296924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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