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1. Vonend O, Stegbauer J, Kokulinsky P, Adams S, Liermann D, Hahn K, Rump LC: [Comparison of adrenal imaging and selective adrenal vein sampling in primary hyperaldosteronism]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2007 Nov;132(46):2436-41
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  • [Title] [Comparison of adrenal imaging and selective adrenal vein sampling in primary hyperaldosteronism].
  • This retrospective study was performed to determine the role of adrenal scanning and adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in distinguishing unilateral autonomous adenoma from idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia (IHA).
  • 44 had a diagnosis of PHA, 22 or whom had an adenoma and 22 had IHA.
  • RESULTS: 17 of the 22 patients with adenoma and 15 with IHA had an aldosterone-renin ratio > 50.
  • Adrenal CT or MR scanning was performed in 73 patients.
  • In 87 patients AVS provided values for aldosterone (A) and cortisol (C) from the adrenal veins and vena cava inferior (VCI).
  • Successful sampling (C-adrenal vein/C-VCI > 1.1) was achieved from 55 % of the right and from 92 % of the left adrenal veins.
  • When AVS was successful on both sides, localizing adenoma was possible using A/C (site of adenoma) vs. A/C (contralateral) at a cut-off point > 3 (sensitivity 85 %, specifity 88 %).
  • In patients with adenoma, aldosterone release was suppressed on the contralateral site (A/C-adrenal vein/A/C-VCI ratio = 0.8).
  • CONCLUSION: AVS is a useful tool for localizing unilateral autonomous adenoma.
  • However, selective sampling often fails on the right adrenal vein, which limits its significance.
  • In this case the A/C-adrenal vein/A/C-VCI in combination with the posture test should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperplasia / blood. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Renal Veins. Renin / blood. Retrospective Studies. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17987550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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2. Yu R, Furmark L, Wong C: Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):10-6
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  • [Title] Cardiac abnormalities associated with pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed pathology records of patients seen at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 1997 and 2007; patients with adrenal or extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma and those with nonfunctioning benign or malignant adrenal tumors were identified.
  • Patients with functioning adrenal adenomas that secreted cortisol or aldosterone were excluded.
  • Clinical history, imaging, pathology, biochemical test results, electrocardiographic findings, and echocardiographic findings were compared between patients with pheochromocytoma and patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: The charts of 22 patients with pheochromocytoma and 35 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors were included.
  • The average age of patients with pheochromocytoma was similar to that of control patients (51.9 +/- 3.9 years vs 60.2 +/- 2.5 years, respectively), as was the number of patients with known cardiovascular diseases (2 [9%] in the pheochromocytoma group vs 5 [14%] in the control group).
  • Coronary artery disease should be excluded in patients with significant ST-T changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Heart / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology. Case-Control Studies. Echocardiography. Electrocardiography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Retrospective Studies. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / etiology. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19211391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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3. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • The level of vascular endothelium growth factor tended to increase with increasing the stage of adrenocortical cancer.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • Presumably, vascular endothelium growth factor is involved into mechanisms of growth, invasion, and metastatic growth of adrenocortical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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4. Pieterman CR, Schreinemakers JM, Koppeschaar HP, Vriens MR, Rinkes IH, Zonnenberg BA, van der Luijt RB, Valk GD: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): its manifestations and effect of genetic screening on clinical outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Apr;70(4):575-81
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  • Patients are divided into two groups: patients with a (i) clinical MEN1 diagnosis and (ii) MEN1 diagnosis by genetic screening.
  • RESULTS: A total of 74 patients was included (median follow-up 5.5 year); 78% had hyperparathyroidism, 46% a pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumour (NET), 38% a pituitary abnormality, 8% a NET of other origin and 16% an adrenal adenoma at the end of follow-up.
  • Compared with patients identified by genetic screening, patients with a clinical MEN1 diagnosis had significantly more manifestations at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and at end of follow-up (P = 0.002).
  • Eleven of 30 patients with a genetic MEN1 diagnosis (mean age at diagnosis 30.0 years) already had manifestations at diagnosis.
  • Genetic diagnosis is associated with less morbidity at diagnosis and at follow-up.
  • Early genetic diagnosis might therefore lead to improvement of long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Testing. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


5. Branco AW, Kondo W, Stunitz LC, Neto SR, Nascimento CC, Filho AJ: Adrenalectomy by retroperitoneal laparoendoscopic single site surgery. JSLS; 2010 Oct-Dec;14(4):571-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the current standard for treatment of benign adrenal disease.
  • CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old female patient with an incidental finding of a 3-cm mass in the left adrenal was referred to us.
  • Pathological analysis of the specimen identified an adrenal cortical adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 21605525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3083052
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6. Sbragia L, Oliveira-Filho AG, Vassallo J, Pinto GA, Guerra-Junior G, Bustorff-Silva J: Adrenocortical tumors in Brazilian children: immunohistochemical markers and prognostic factors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Sep;129(9):1127-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors in Brazilian children: immunohistochemical markers and prognostic factors.
  • CONTEXT: The behavior of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is usually difficult to establish in childhood, and the role of immunomarkers in predicting outcome has not yet been elucidated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data were evaluated retrospectively in 33 children with ACTs, including age at diagnosis, sex, time between first symptoms and diagnosis, clinical signs and symptoms, tumor position, and follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-four percent (n = 21) of the patients were female, and the age at diagnosis in the cohort ranged from 2 to 96 months.
  • Virilization alone affected 70% (n = 23) of the patients, and 18 patients had stage 1 disease, 9 had stage 2 disease, and 3 each had stage 3 and stage 4 disease.
  • Female sex and stage 1 and stage 2 disease were associated with good outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brazil / epidemiology. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16119984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Boesch C, Vermathen P, Kreis R: Insufficient spectral quality to draw conclusions. Radiology; 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentOn] Radiology. 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97 [18024453.001]
  • (PMID = 19244058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • One patient was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma during follow-up.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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9. West AN, Neale GA, Pounds S, Figueredo BC, Rodriguez Galindo C, Pianovski MA, Oliveira Filho AG, Malkin D, Lalli E, Ribeiro R, Zambetti GP: Gene expression profiling of childhood adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2007 Jan 15;67(2):600-8
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of childhood adrenocortical tumors.
  • Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and often fatal malignancies; little is known regarding their etiology and biology.
  • To provide additional insight into the nature of ACT, we determined the gene expression profiles of 24 pediatric tumors (five adenomas, 18 carcinomas, and one undetermined) and seven normal adrenal glands.
  • Distinct patterns of gene expression, validated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, were identified that distinguish normal adrenal cortex from tumor.
  • Differences in gene expression were also identified between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • In addition, pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas were found to share similar patterns of gene expression when compared with those published for adult ACT.
  • Our findings lay the groundwork for establishing gene expression profiles that may aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of pediatric ACT, and in the identification of signaling pathways that contribute to this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17234769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Hennings J, Hellman P, Ahlström H, Sundin A: Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography for evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):314-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography for evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Given the higher sensitivity of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners, adrenal incidentalomas are being discovered increasingly often.
  • Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) using the tracer (11)C-metomidate (MTO) has been established as an alternative diagnostic method with high sensitivity for identifying adrenocortical lesions.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and value of MTO-PET compared to CT and MRI in the characterisation and work-up of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Initially, we retrospectively evaluated 20 adrenal incidentalomas in patients who had undergone CT, MRI and MTO-PET and from whom we had either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up data.
  • In the latter study, 24 incidentalomas were imaged by CT, MRI and MTO-PET and the results were correlated to those from histopathology (n=8) and clinical diagnosis after follow-up (n=16).
  • RESULTS: In the retrospective analysis, MRI and especially MTO-PET, correlated well to histopathology and clinical diagnosis after follow-up, whereas specificity with CT was low.
  • This was possibly due to the presence of several haematomas/fibrosis which were misdiagnosed as adrenocortical adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma may be established by CT in most patients and by MRI in an additional number.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18082990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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11. Sangwaiya MJ, Boland GW, Cronin CG, Blake MA, Halpern EF, Hahn PF: Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT--10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort. Radiology; 2010 Aug;256(2):504-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental adrenal lesions: accuracy of characterization with contrast-enhanced washout multidetector CT--10-minute delayed imaging protocol revisited in a large patient cohort.
  • A multidetector computed tomography (CT) adrenal protocol (unenhanced, dynamic contrast material-enhanced, and 10-minute delayed CT) was used in 314 consecutive patients (201 women, 113 men; mean age, 63.6 years) for the period from January 2006 through February 2009.
  • The mean adrenal attenuation during all three CT phases was measured by two readers, and the relative percentage washout (RPW) and absolute percentage washout (APW) values were calculated.
  • RESULTS: There were 323 adrenal lesions (213 left, 110 right) consisting of 307 adenomas and 16 nonadenomas.
  • Areas under the ROC curve were 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 0.95) and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97) for the APW and RPW tests, respectively, to detect adenomatous disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The 10-minute delayed adrenal enhancement washout test has reduced sensitivity for the characterization of adrenal adenomas compared with results from prior studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Iopamidol / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data

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  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2012 May;263(2):619; author reply 619-20 [22517967.001]
  • (PMID = 20656838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; JR13W81H44 / Iopamidol
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12. Meyer A, Behrend M: Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The accidental discovery of an adrenal mass called incidentaloma has become an increasingly frequent clinical problem with the question of a correct and appropriate therapeutic approach being the subject of controversial discussions.
  • Histopathologic examination ruled out adrenal adenoma in 32 patients, adrenal myelolipoma in 12, unilateral nodular hyperplasia in 4, cystic lesion in 3, and adrenocortical carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • Evaluating the criteria for surgical treatment regarding age of the patients and size of the lesions, 25 patients (48%), including the patient with the adrenocortical carcinoma, were younger than 60 years and had an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size.
  • Especially in patients younger than 60 years with an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size, an adrenalectomy, predominantly via an endoscopic approach, should be carried out, because a repeated and life-long close follow-up of an anxious patient who has been informed of the diagnosis will in some cases exceed the cost of a single endoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 16888426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Alevizaki M, Stratakis CA: Multiple endocrine neoplasias: advances and challenges for the future. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):1-4
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  • Several important advances have been made over the last 2 years, since the last international workshop on multiple endocrine neoplasias (MENs) that was held in Marseilles, France (MEN2006).
  • The series of articles that are included in this issue summarize the most important of these advances as they were presented in Delphi, Greece, during the 11th International Workshop on MENs, September 25-27, 2008 (MEN2008).
  • This editorial summarizes some of these advances: the identification of the AIP, and the PDE11A and PDE8B genes by genome-wide association (GWA) studies as predisposing genes for pituitary and adrenal tumours, respectively, the discovery of p27 mutations in a new form of MEN similar to MEN type 1 (MEN 1) that is now known as MEN 4, the molecular investigations of Carney triad (CT), a disorder that associates paragangliomas (PGLs), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GISTs), and pulmonary chondromas (PCH) with pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical adenomas and other lesions, and the molecular elucidation of the association of GISTs with paragangliomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome) that is now known to be because of SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD mutations.
  • Indeed, new advances in the preventive diagnosis and molecular treatment of MEN 1 and MEN 2, respectively, continued unabated, and an update on this front was also presented at MEN2008 and is included in this issue.

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  • (PMID = 19522821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307447; NLM/ PMC3138202
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14. Wagner S, Kiupel M, Peterson RA 2nd, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol; 2008 Jul;45(4):439-42
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  • [Title] Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen.
  • The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue.
  • We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17.
  • Cyt b(5) immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96%) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production.
  • Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b(5), which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets.
  • We concluded that cyt b(5) is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18587089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45245; NLM/ PMC2497446
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15. Spinazzi R, Rucinski M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3544-9
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  • [Title] Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.
  • We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B.
  • Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins.
  • All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex.
  • Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15797953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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16. Kamenicky P, Houdoin L, Ferlicot S, Salenave S, Brailly S, Droupy S, Meduri G, Sasano H, Suzuki T, Young J, Chanson P: Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jun;66(6):778-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum androgen levels are below normal in patients with benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, owing to ACTH suppression.
  • The objective of the study was to analyse the androgen-producing ability of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • METHODS: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations were measured before and after adrenalectomy and then at 6-month intervals in 20 women (eight cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, six subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and six nonfunctional adenomas).
  • RESULTS: Before adrenalectomy, serum androgen concentrations were measurable in all women with clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Postoperatively, during adrenocortical insufficiency, DHEAS, Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations fell to near the detection limit in all patients with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas (P = 0.008 for each marker) and showed a similar tendency to fall in all patients with subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Pre- and post-treatment androgen concentrations did not differ in patients with nonfunctional adenomas.
  • The intensity of CYP17 and SULT2A1 expression was stronger in cortisol-secreting adenomas than in their adjacent normal adrenal tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Both clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas appear to show moderate autonomous androgen production.
  • Thus, weak androgen secretion in patients with adrenocortical tumours should not necessarily be considered as a sign of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17408424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Sun XY, Li XG, Gao H, Zhou XQ, Zheng HW: [Renal clear cell carcinoma associated with pelvis hemangioma and adrenal cortical adenoma: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 May;36(5):352-3
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  • [Title] [Renal clear cell carcinoma associated with pelvis hemangioma and adrenal cortical adenoma: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology


18. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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19. Yoon JK, Remer EM, Herts BR: Incidental pheochromocytoma mimicking adrenal adenoma because of rapid contrast enhancement loss. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Nov;187(5):1309-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental pheochromocytoma mimicking adrenal adenoma because of rapid contrast enhancement loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Contrast Media. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Barrett Esophagus / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17056921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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20. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • Normokalaemia with potassium >4.0 mmol/l is very unusual in patients with Conn's syndrome and has not been described in childhood before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


21. Jain M, Kapoor S, Mishra A, Gupta S, Agarwal A: Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):222-6
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  • [Title] Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study.
  • BACKGROUND: Several systems including pathologic criteria alone or in combination with clinical features have been proposed to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and assess their prognosis.
  • Since we see large adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we attempt to evaluate the diagnostic power of Weiss system in large ACC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study clinicopathological characteristics of 42 adrenocortical neoplasms are studied and classified into adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC based on Weiss score of less than or equal to three or greater than three.
  • CONCLUSION: Weiss score was found to be a good prognostic factor for tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Histocytochemistry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20551521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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22. Reincke M, Beuschlein F, Bidlingmaier M, Funder JW, Bornstein SR: Progress in primary aldosteronism. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jun;42(6):371-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine / trends. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20503135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Introductory Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Miller FH, Wang Y, McCarthy RJ, Yaghmai V, Merrick L, Larson A, Berggruen S, Casalino DD, Nikolaidis P: Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Feb;194(2):W179-85
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  • [Title] Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI in characterization of adrenal lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for characterizing adrenal lesions and determine if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can distinguish lipid-rich from lipid-poor adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 160 adrenal lesions in 156 patients (96 women and 60 men; mean age, 63 years).
  • ADCs and signal intensity (SI) decrease on chemical shift imaging were measured in adrenal lesions with a wide variety of pathologies.
  • Lipid-rich and lipid-poor adenomas were identified by unenhanced CT.
  • RESULTS: ADCs of adrenal malignancies (median, 1.67 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; interquartile range, 1.41-1.84 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) were not different compared with those of benign lesions (1.61 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 1.27-1.96 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; p > 0.05).
  • Cysts (2.93 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s; 2.70-3.09 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s) showed higher ADCs than the remaining adrenal lesions (p < 0.05).
  • The median ADCs of lipid-rich adenomas did not differ from those of lipid-poor ones (p > 0.05).
  • The CT attenuation had no negative or positive correlation with the ADCs of adrenal adenomas (r = -0.05, p = 0.97).
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike lesion size and percentage decrease in SI, the ADCs were not useful in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal lesions.
  • Lipid-poor adenomas could not be distinguished from lipid-rich adenomas and all other nonfatty lesions of the adrenal gland with DWI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20093571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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24. Yoon JH, Kim SH, Kim MA, Han JK, Choi BI: MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Jan-Feb;11(1):126-30
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  • [Title] MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • We report a case of an adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland mimicking a hepatocellular carcinoma in a heavy alcohol abuser.
  • A tumorectomy was performed and adrenal adenoma from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20046505.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799643
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal adenoma / Ectopic adrenal gland / Liver / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)
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25. Johnson SP, Bagrosky BM, Mitchell EL, McIntyre RC Jr, Grant NG: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of an aldosterone-secreting primary adrenal tumor in a surgically unfit patient. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2008 Jul;19(7):1115-7
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  • [Title] CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of an aldosterone-secreting primary adrenal tumor in a surgically unfit patient.
  • Because of the speed and efficiency of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, alternative surgical procedures for adrenal adenomas are uncommon.
  • The present report outlines the case of a young patient with an adrenal adenoma causing Conn syndrome who was a poor candidate for surgical treatment.
  • Computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation of the adenoma was performed with a paraspinal approach and injection of dextrose 5% in water.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Catheter Ablation. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18589330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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26. Minei S, Igarashi T, Hirano D: A case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst treated by laparoscopic surgery. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Mar;53(3):171-4
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  • We describe herein a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery.
  • A 39-year-old man with low-grade fever was referred to our hospital because of suspicion of an adrenal tumor.
  • Laboratory studies showed that the levels of adrenal hormones were normal except for the white blood cell count of 9,700/microL and C-reactive protein of 1.7 mg/dl.
  • We diagnosed it as a non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma or an adrenal cyst.
  • Pathological evaluation of the surgical specimens established the diagnosis of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.

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  • (PMID = 17447486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Hsiao HP, Chao MC, Lin CY, Chen HL, Chiou SS, Chen BH: Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case. Acta Paediatr Taiwan; 2005 Mar-Apr;46(2):97-100
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  • [Title] Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case.
  • We report on a case of a 2 2/12-year-old boy with heterosexual precocious puberty secondary to a feminizing adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The boy, with no previous history of disease or treatment, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and pubic hair development (Tanner III breasts and Tanner II pubic hair).
  • After removal of the adrenal tumor, the estradiol and testosterone levels fell to normal in 2 weeks.
  • These findings were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma secreting estradiol and testosterone as the cause of the patient's heterosexual precocious puberty.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Puberty, Precocious / etiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Paediatr Taiwan. 2005 Nov-Dec;46(6):392. Chen, Shiu-Lin [corrected to Chen, Hsiu-Lin]
  • (PMID = 16302588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1608-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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28. Ikoma A, Saito T, Murata M, Toyoshima H, Nakamura Y, Kawakami M, Sasano H, Ishikawa SE: Bilateral aldosteronoma associated with secondary aldosteronism in a chronic hemodialysis subject. Intern Med; 2010;49(11):1017-21
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  • We demonstrated a rare case of bilateral aldosteronoma accompanied by secondary aldosteronism in a 37-year-old man with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumors, measuring 34 and 40 mm in diameter in right and left tumors, respectively. (131)I-Adosterol scintigram showed bilateral accumulation.
  • The majority of the tumor was composed of a dark-brown portion admixed with sporadic foci of golden-yellow portions.
  • The tumor was composed of clear cortical cells in viable portions.
  • These findings suggest that the presence of secondary aldosteronism, which is closely related to the conditions of chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, eventually promoted the development of bilateral aldosteronoma from the zona glomerulosa hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20519819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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29. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):437-43
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  • [Title] Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumors are a common manifestation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome.
  • A genotype-phenotype correlation has been described as well as the development of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Adrenal glands have been screened by biochemical analysis and either by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or computed tomography (CT) or both.
  • Age at diagnosis of MEN-1, type of adrenal tumor, genotype, therapy, and clinical characteristics have been analyzed.
  • RESULTS: In 21 (55%) patients, adrenal involvement of the disease was detected.
  • Adrenal lesions were detected in average 6.9 years after the initial diagnosis of MEN-1.
  • Twelve patients had unilateral while nine had bilateral adrenal lesions.
  • EUS detected all adrenal tumors, whereas CT failed in seven cases.
  • In three patients, functioning tumors (one pheochromocytoma, one bilateral Cushing adenoma, and one adrenocortical carcinoma) and one nonfunctioning adenoma were diagnosed by histology and biochemical assessment.
  • Nonfunctioning adrenal lesions, not characterized by histology yet, were found in 18 patients.
  • There was no statistical difference with regard to adrenal involvement between patients with germline mutations in exons 2 and 10 (12/21) and those with mutations in exons 3-9 (6/11).
  • CONCLUSION: MEN-1-associated adrenal tumors are mostly small, benign, and nonfunctioning and much more common than previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

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  • (PMID = 17235589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Lu HS, Gan MF, Chen HS, Huang SQ: Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):500-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome.
  • The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported.
  • Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications

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  • (PMID = 18543405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408705
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31. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
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  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Although computed tomographic (CT) findings will not always yield a definitive diagnosis, attention to these findings provides a road map to guide image interpretation.
  • Adenomas typically demonstrate rapid washout, which is defined as an absolute percentage washout (APW) of more than 60% and a relative percentage washout (RPW) of more than 40% on delayed images.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Washout characteristics of pheochromocytoma are variable; in conjunction with high levels of dynamic enhancement, pheochromocytomas may mimic adenoma (ie, APW > 60%, RPW > 40%).
  • After contrast material administration, metastases usually demonstrate slower washout on delayed images (APW < 60%, RPW < 40%) than do adenomas, although hypervascular metastases may enhance similarly to pheochromocytoma.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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32. Bassett MH, Mayhew B, Rehman K, White PC, Mantero F, Arnaldi G, Stewart PM, Bujalska I, Rainey WE: Expression profiles for steroidogenic enzymes in adrenocortical disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5446-55
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  • [Title] Expression profiles for steroidogenic enzymes in adrenocortical disease.
  • The mechanisms leading to the autonomous hypersecretion of aldosterone or cortisol in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA) are unknown.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the expression profiles of several steroid-metabolizing enzymes and transcription factors from normal adrenal (NA), APAs, and CPAs.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in adrenocortical disease.
  • Real-time RT-PCR showed that APAs produced higher levels of HSD3B2, CYP21 (21-hydroxylase), and CYP11B2 mRNA, whereas CPAs produced higher levels of CYP11A (cholesterol side-chain cleavage), CYP17 (17alpha-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase), HSD3B2, and CYP11B1 (11beta-hydroxylase) mRNA compared with normal adrenal.
  • Steroidogenic factor-1, DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome gene 1), and GATA-6 were expressed at higher levels in APAs and CPAs, whereas NURR1 was expressed at higher levels in APAs than in CPAs or NAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Aldosterone / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Hydrocortisone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15985477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-069950; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-43140; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-11149
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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33. Sangoi AR, McKenney JK: A tissue microarray-based comparative analysis of novel and traditional immunohistochemical markers in the distinction between adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):423-32
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  • [Title] A tissue microarray-based comparative analysis of novel and traditional immunohistochemical markers in the distinction between adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytoma.
  • We have encountered an increasing number of image-guided adrenal mass biopsies in which the differential diagnosis is adrenal cortical lesion versus pheochromocytoma.
  • In this study, a detailed immunoprofile of 63 adrenal cortical lesions (3 adrenal rests, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 43 adrenal cortical adenomas, 4 adrenal cortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas) was compared with 35 pheochromocytomas using traditional (calretinin, chromogranin, inhibin, melanA, and synaptophysin) and novel [steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), microtubule-associated protein 2, and mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1] antibodies, using tissue microarray technology to simulate small image-guided biopsies.
  • A comparison of sensitivity and specificity using different intensity thresholds required for a "positive" result (> or = 1+ vs. > or = 2+) was performed.
  • Staining results based on a > or = 1+ and (> or = 2+) intensity threshold were as follows: calretinin-95% (89%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 14% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; chromogranin-0% in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% in pheochromocytomas; inhibin-97% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 6% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; microtubule-associated protein 2-29% (16%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% (89%) in pheochromocytomas; mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1-0% in both adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytomas; melanA-94% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 6% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; SF-1-87% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 0% in pheochromocytomas; synaptophysin-67% (59%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% in pheochromocytomas.
  • Using an antibody panel consisting of chromogranin plus the nuclear antibody SF-1 and either calretinin or inhibin, while requiring a high-staining intensity threshold, helps to eliminate interpretative issues of artifactual or background reactivity, improves diagnostic sensitivity/specificity, and makes for an effective immunohistochemical approach in distinguishing adrenal cortical lesions from pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Tissue Array Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Artifacts. Biopsy. Calbindin 2. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Inhibins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20154585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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34. Troshina EA, Bel'tsevich DG, Molashenko NV: [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2009;87(5):15-20
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism].
  • This literature review concerns diagnosis and differential diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism, a frequent cause of arterial hypertension.
  • It describes different phases of diagnosis of this condition including main medicamentous tests and instrumental methods as well as nosological entities from which primary hyperaldosteronism needs to be distinguished.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19565821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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35. Rossi E, Foroni M, Regolisti G, Perazzoli F, Negro A, Santi R, Grasselli C, Galli P, Gardini G: Combined Conn's syndrome and subclinical hypercortisolism from an adrenal adenoma associated with homolateral renal carcinoma. Am J Hypertens; 2008 Nov;21(11):1269-72
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  • [Title] Combined Conn's syndrome and subclinical hypercortisolism from an adrenal adenoma associated with homolateral renal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


36. Hood SJ, Taylor KP, Ashby MJ, Brown MJ: The spironolactone, amiloride, losartan, and thiazide (SALT) double-blind crossover trial in patients with low-renin hypertension and elevated aldosterone-renin ratio. Circulation; 2007 Jul 17;116(3):268-75
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  • BACKGROUND: There is continuing variation in diagnosis and estimated prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The higher estimates encourage search for adrenal adenomas in patients with elevated ratios of plasma aldosterone to renin.
  • However, it is more likely that patients with normal plasma K+ and aldosterone belong to the polygenic spectrum of low-renin hypertension rather than have the same monogenic syndrome as classic Conn's.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In hypertensive patients with a low plasma renin but normal K+, bendroflumethiazide 5 mg was as effective as spironolactone 100 mg in lowering blood pressure, despite patients being selected for a previous large fall in blood pressure on spironolactone.
  • Because this result differs from that expected in primary hyperaldosteronism, our finding argues against low-renin hypertension including a large, undiagnosed pool of primary hyperaldosteronism.


37. Inaba H, Suzuki S, Shigematsu S, Shinomiya K, Ohfusa H, Shimojo Y, Uehara T, Hashizume K: Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Intern Med; 2009;48(8):601-5
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Five years earlier, he underwent simultaneous surgeries for an adrenal adenoma, a benign Leydig cell tumor (LCT), and a malignant lymphoma.
  • Based on the laboratory results, he was diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD).
  • On immunohistochemistry analysis using the antibody against adrenal-specific 11beta-hydroxylase antibody, the LCT showed both properties as a testicular cell and as an adrenal cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / etiology. Lymphoma / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hypoglycemia / diagnosis. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged


38. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8).
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU.
  • The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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39. Boylu U, Oommen M, Lee BR, Thomas R: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope. J Endourol; 2009 Jun;23(6):971-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the role of laparoscopy for large adrenal tumors in terms of outcomes, pathology, operative time, and morbidity.
  • Pathologic examination revealed eight adrenal cortical adenomas, five myolipomas, four pheochromocytomas, four cysts/pseudocysts, and three adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • Our findings suggest, however, that laparoscopic adrenalectomy for masses larger than 8 cm can produce comparable results concerning hospital stay, conversion to open surgery rate, and pathologic outcome in comparison with results for adrenal masses smaller than 8 cm.

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  • (PMID = 19456243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • [Title] Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival.
  • In this study, we evaluate whether Snail is expressed in adrenocortical cancer (ACC) and if its expression is related to patient outcome.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Survival rates were significantly decreased in Snail-positive tumours compared to Snail-negative tumours: 10 out of 16 vs one out of eight patients succumbed to disease after a median follow up of 14.5 and 28.5 months, respectively (P=0.03).
  • Patients with Snail-expressing ACCs presented in advanced disease (11 out of 12 vs 6 out of 14, P=0.01) and tend to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients with negative staining (7 out of 11 vs two out of eight, P=0.19).
  • Furthermore, Snail expression is associated with decreased survival, advanced disease and higher risk of developing distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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41. Inomoto C, Sato H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Shoji S, Terachi T, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY: Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):57-61
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  • [Title] Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma.
  • The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed.
  • Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA.
  • The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21319027.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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42. de Cremoux P, Rosenberg D, Goussard J, Brémont-Weil C, Tissier F, Tran-Perennou C, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Raffin-Sanson ML: Expression of progesterone and estradiol receptors in normal adrenal cortex, adrenocortical tumors, and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):465-74
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  • [Title] Expression of progesterone and estradiol receptors in normal adrenal cortex, adrenocortical tumors, and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease.
  • Adrenal tumors occur more frequently in women and are the leading cause of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy.
  • We aimed to evaluate the potential role of sex steroids in the susceptibility of women to adrenocortical tumors.
  • We evaluated the presence of the progesterone receptor (PR), estradiol receptors (ERs), and aromatase in 5 patients with primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD), 15 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and adjacent normal tissues, 12 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), and 3 normal adrenal glands (NA).
  • ERalpha concentrations were low in NA, in adrenal tissues adjacent to ACA (51+/-33), in ACC (53+/-78), and lower in ACA (11+/-11 fmol/mg DNA).
  • Conversely, PR concentrations were high in NA and adrenal tissues adjacent to ACA, at 307+/-216 fmol/mg DNA, and were even higher in tumors - 726+/-706 fmol/mg DNA in ACA and 1154+/-1586 fmol/mg DNA in ACC - and in isolated PPNAD nodules.
  • PR and ERbeta are clearly present in normal adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Further studies may shed light on the possible pathogenic role of these receptors in adrenal proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Estrogen Receptor beta / genetics. Receptors, Progesterone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aromatase / metabolism. Child. Cytosol / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18508999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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43. Botsios D, Blouhos K, Vasiliadis K, Asimaki A, Tsalis K, Betsis D: Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(7):612-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case.
  • Adrenocortical oncocytomas are exceptionally rare.
  • To our knowledge, only 23 cases have been reported in the world literature, most of which were benign and nonfunctioning.
  • We report a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma diagnosed by pathological examination of an extirpated right adrenal mass in a young woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17593485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Zhou G, Wei Y, Chen X, Jiang X, Gu W, Li X, Peng C, Ning G, Li H: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 simultaneous with various types of enteropancreatic endocrine tumors: one case report: lessons learned. Pancreas; 2010 Jul;39(5):680-3
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic endocrine tumors, pituitary adenomas, and adrenal adenomas.


45. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Shibru D, Khafnashar E, Chung KW, Hwang J, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):873-81
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  • [Title] Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common genetic change observed in adrenocortical carcinoma is loss of heterozygozity on chromosome 11q13.
  • As genes on this chromosome may be important in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma, we compared their expression profile between benign and malignant adrenocortical tissue.
  • METHODS: We used the Affymetrix GeneChip (U133 plus 2.0) array in 54 adrenocortical tumors (11 carcinoma and 43 benign).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determined the diagnostic accuracy of the differently expressed genes for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found 25 of the 314 genes on chromosome 11q13 to be differentially expressed between adrenocortical carcinoma and benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • All 25 were downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma by 2-fold to 4.8-fold; 21 were validated to be differentially expressed by RT-PCR (Pearson's coefficient>0.5).
  • Six genes (SERPING1, MRPL48, TM7SF2, DDB1, NDUSF8, PRDX5) validated by RT-PCR were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (p<0.05) with an overall accuracy of 89% for SERPING1, 91% for MRPL48, 87% for TM7SF2, 88% for DDB1, 91% for NDUFS8, and 89% for PRDX5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 25 genes located on chromosome 11q13 that are downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and may be candidate tumor suppressor genes.
  • Six of these genes were good diagnostic markers for distinguishing adrenocortical carcinoma from adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18324346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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46. Delibasi T, Ustun I, Aydin Y, Berker D, Erol HK, Gul K, Unal M, Guler S: Early severe pre-eclamptic findings in a patient with Cushing's syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2006 Dec;22(12):710-2
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  • Herein we present the case of a 22-year-old patient in the 11th week of pregnancy who was admitted to our hospital with Cushing's syndrome complicated by early pre-eclampsia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Pre-Eclampsia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17162715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Penezić Z, Zarković M, Vujović S, Ivović M, Beleslin B, Ciric J, Drezgić M: [The value of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test for differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2007 Jan-Feb;135(1-2):31-7
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  • [Title] [The value of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test for differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome].
  • INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) remain considerable challenge in endocrinology.
  • Following the CRH administration, the majority of patients with ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma show a significant rise of plasma cortisol and ACTH, whereas those with ectopic ACTH secretion characteristically do not.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the value of CRF test for differential diagnosis of CS using the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve method.
  • ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma was found in 18, ectopic ACTH secretion in 3 and cortisol secreting adrenal adenoma in 9 of all patients with CS.
  • CONCLUSION: Determination of cortisol and ACTH levels in CRH test remains reliable tool in differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17503565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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48. Komatsu S, Watanabe R, Naito M, Mizusawa T, Obara K, Nishiyama T, Takahashi K: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):606-7
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from adrenal gland in adulthood, diagnosed preoperatively as having non-functional adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunohistological examination revealed the definite diagnosis as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16771733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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49. Ikarashi T, Kamoi K, Asakawa K, Tanaka M, Miyakoshi M, Komeyama T, Morishita H, Usuda H, Emura I, Sasano H: A case of preclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with diurnal rhythms of ACTH and cortisol in blood: correlation with histological findings. Endocr J; 2006 Oct;53(5):609-13
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  • We describe a case of adrenocortical adenoma with preclinical Cushing's syndrome demonstrating diurnal rhythms of ACTH and cortisol in blood.
  • A 50-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the evaluation of incidental right adrenal mass with hyperglycemia and hypertension.
  • Ultrasonogram, CT and scintiscan of (131)I adosterol all demonstrated an enlarged adrenal mass in the right adrenal gland.
  • The right adrenal gland was subsequently resected by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological findings of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal tissue demonstrated adrenocortical atrophy but DHEA-sulfotransferase immunoreactivity in the zona reticularis was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Circadian Rhythm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16896266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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50. Berber E, Mitchell J, Milas M, Siperstein A: Robotic posterior retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: operative technique. Arch Surg; 2010 Aug;145(8):781-4
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  • Pathology included benign adrenocortical adenoma in 3 patients, aldosteronoma in 2, and pheochromocytoma, subclinical Cushing syndrome, and lymphangioma in 1 patient each.
  • Owing to the limitations of a conventional laparoscopic PR approach, we believe that use of the robot is a refinement of the technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20713932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Dubova EA, Mishnev OD, Shchegolev AI: [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Nov-Dec;69(6):38-9
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  • [Title] [Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal gland].
  • Pseudoglandular adenoma of the adrenal is described in a 44-year-old female patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18290380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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52. Erbil Y, Ademoğlu E, Ozbey N, Barbaros U, Yanik BT, Salmaslioğlu A, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Evaluation of the cardiovascular risk in patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome before and after surgery. World J Surg; 2006 Sep;30(9):1665-71
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  • BACKGROUND: The widespread use of ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has led to an increase in the number of incidental adrenal masses identified.
  • Asymptomatic incidentally discovered adrenal masses may indicate that subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS) is not uncommon.
  • METHODS: An autonomous cortisol-producing tumor was detected in 11 of 94 patients with adrenal incidentaloma between 1995 and 2005.
  • Twenty-eight patients suffering from classical Cushing syndrome (CS) associated with unilateral adrenocortical adenoma, who were treated at our department in the same period, served as a control group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adult. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16927063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Nishimoto K, Nakagawa K, Li D, Kosaka T, Oya M, Mikami S, Shibata H, Itoh H, Mitani F, Yamazaki T, Ogishima T, Suematsu M, Mukai K: Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2296-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical zonation in humans under normal and pathological conditions.
  • CONTEXT: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) catalyze the terminal steps for aldosterone and cortisol syntheses, respectively, thereby determining the functional differentiation of human adrenocortical cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the localization of CYP11B2 and -B1 in human adrenal specimens by using developed antibodies capable of distinguishing the two enzymes from each other.
  • Adrenocortical cells lacking both enzymes were observed in the outer cortical regions.
  • In addition to conventional zonation, we found a variegated zonation consisting of a subcapsular cell cluster expressing CYP11B2, which we termed aldosterone-producing cell cluster, and a CYP11B1-expressing area.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenomas differed in cell populations expressing CYP11B2 from one another, whereas CYP11B1-expressing and double-negative cells were also intermingled.
  • Adenomas from patients with Cushing's syndrome expressed CYP11B1 entirely but not CYP11B2, resulting in atrophic nontumor glands.
  • The nontumor portions of both types of adenomas bore frequently one or more aldosterone-producing cell clusters, which sustained CYP11B2 expression markedly under the conditions of the suppressed renin-angiotensin system.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry of the human normal adrenal cortex for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 revealed a variegated zonation with cell clusters constitutively expressing CYP11B2.
  • This technique may provide a pathological confirmatory diagnosis of adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Corticosterone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / enzymology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / deficiency. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Mammals. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Rabbits. Reference Values. Rodentia. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Zona Fasciculata / enzymology. Zona Glomerulosa / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20200334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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54. Fong ED, Cranshaw IM, Martin RM, Morrine A, Shaw JH: Ossified adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual radiological and morphological appearance. ANZ J Surg; 2005 Sep;75(9):835-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ossified adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual radiological and morphological appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16174006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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55. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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56. Zarnegar R, Young WF Jr, Lee J, Sweet MP, Kebebew E, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Clark OH, Duh QY: The aldosteronoma resolution score: predicting complete resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy for aldosteronoma. Ann Surg; 2008 Mar;247(3):511-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To develop a prediction model using information readily available, at clinical presentation, which could determine whether patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas would have complete resolution of hypertension after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18376197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Gołkowski F, Jabrocka-Hybel A, Buziak-Bereza M, Husznol B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Zajac M: [Preoperative diagnostics in patients with adrenal tumors]. Folia Med Cracov; 2005;46(1-2):89-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Preoperative diagnostics in patients with adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostyka przedoperacyjna u chorych z guzami nadnerczy.
  • In the preoperative diagnostics in 10 patients (22.2%) pheochromocytoma was found, in 8 (17.8%) Conn's syndrome, in 4 (8.9%) Cushing's syndrome and in 1 (2.2%) adrenal virilization.
  • Full accordance between histopathological findings and preoperative diagnosis was achieved in 91% of cases.
  • Four cases of discrepancy were: 1 false positive preoperative diagnosis of aldosteronoma, 1 false positive and 2 false negative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adosterol. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Catecholamines / urine. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / epidemiology. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17037291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia medica Cracoviensia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Med Cracov
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 55623-03-5 / Adosterol
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58. Almeida MQ, Soares IC, Ribeiro TC, Fragoso MC, Marins LV, Wakamatsu A, Ressio RA, Nishi MY, Jorge AA, Lerario AM, Alves VA, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Steroidogenic factor 1 overexpression and gene amplification are more frequent in adrenocortical tumors from children than from adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Mar;95(3):1458-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Steroidogenic factor 1 overexpression and gene amplification are more frequent in adrenocortical tumors from children than from adults.
  • BACKGROUND: Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a key determinant of endocrine development and function of adrenal cortex.
  • SF-1 overexpression and gene amplification were previously demonstrated in a small group of pediatric adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the frequency of SF-1 protein expression and gene amplification in a large cohort of pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.
  • PATIENTS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed in a cohort of 103 adrenocortical tumors from 36 children and 67 adults, whereas gene amplification was studied in 38 adrenocortical tumors (17 from children).
  • RESULTS: A strong nuclear SF-1 expression was detected by tissue microarray in 56% (20 of 36) and 19% (13 of 67) of the pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors, respectively (P = 0.0004).
  • Increased SF-1 copy number was identified in 47% (eight of 17) and 10% (two of 21) of the pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors, respectively (P = 0.02).
  • All adrenocortical tumors with SF-1 gene amplification showed a strong SF-1 staining, whereas most of the tumors (61%) without SF-1 amplification displayed a weak or negative staining (P = 0.0008).
  • Interestingly, a strong SF-1 staining was identified in five (29%) pediatric adrenocortical tumors without SF-1 amplification.
  • The frequency of SF-1 overexpression and gene amplification was similar in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrated a higher frequency of SF-1 overexpression and gene amplification in pediatric than in adult adrenocortical tumors, suggesting an important role of SF-1 in pediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Amplification / genetics. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20080844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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59. Noordzij MJ, de Heide LJ, Links TP, Jager PL, Wolfenbuttel BH: [Four patients with incidentalomas of the thyroid discovered on 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 Oct 20;151(42):2337-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Vier patiënten met een incidentaloom van de schildklier bij fluor-18-deoxyglucose-positronemissietomografie (FDG-PET).
  • In the second patient, an 81-year-old woman, a follicular thyroid carcinoma was found as a result of a FDG-PET evaluation of an adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • In the third patient, a 64-year-old woman, a papillary thyroid carcinoma was found during dissemination investigation after curative removal of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The last patient, a 78-year-old man, was found to have a thyroid incidentaloma on FDG-PET scan during staging ofa recurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour.
  • Treatment depends on the primary disease for which the FDG-PET scan was initially made.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18064937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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60. Lee R, Storr M, Hershfield NB: A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy. J Dig Dis; 2010 Apr;11(2):111-4
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  • [Title] A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy.
  • The patient was subsequently diagnosed with primary aldosteronism secondary to an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Bilateral adrenal venous sampling revealed excessive levels of aldosterone in the left adrenal vein prior to definitive surgery.
  • This case indicates that an oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, though safe for most patients, can be complicated by a previously not diagnosed endocrine disease like the primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) reported here.
  • This is the first report of a Conn's syndrome diagnosed after bowel cleansing with a sodium phosphate solution.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonoscopy / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / chemically induced. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Phosphates / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Administration, Oral. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 20402838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; SE337SVY37 / sodium phosphate
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61. Millard RP, Pickens EH, Wells KL: Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Feb 15;234(4):505-8
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  • [Title] Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass in the region of the right adrenal gland.
  • Results of adrenal hormonal analyses revealed considerable increases in serum concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: A mass associated with the right adrenal gland was found during exploratory laparotomy.
  • Adrenalectomy of the right adrenal gland was performed, and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adrenal gland tumors can produce a variety of hormones other than cortisol.
  • An adrenal gland tumor should be considered in neutered cats with newly developed physical and behavioral changes of a sexual nature.
  • In the absence of debilitating conditions that are often associated with hyperadrenocorticism, cats undergoing adrenalectomy for an adrenal gland tumor that is producing sex hormones may have resolution of clinical signs and a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Androstenedione / blood. Cat Diseases / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19222361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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62. Okura T, Miyoshi K, Watanabe S, Kurata M, Irita J, Manabe S, Fukuoka T, Higaki J, Sasano H: Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Jun;10(2):127-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Physical examination revealed no signs of excessive adrenocortical steroid production, as are found in Cushing's syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance image revealed three sequential nodular masses (each 15 mm x 15 mm) in the right adrenal gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the upper and lower tumors were adrenocortical adenomas, and the middle tumor was a black adenoma.
  • Surprisingly, at 33 years of age, she had been diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, due to a cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma, and she had received a left adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged


63. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


64. Fareau GG, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):636-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss challenges in the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma and to suggest surveillance measures after removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • METHODS: We present the case of a 65-year-old man with worsening hypertension and new-onset hypokalemia attributed to primary hyperaldosteronism due to a 3-cm right adrenal nodule.
  • RESULTS: A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed, and the histologic diagnosis was a benign adenoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8-cm mass in the right adrenal bed and multiple hepatic metastatic lesions.
  • Fine-needle biopsy confirmed the presence of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite a comprehensive biochemical, radiologic, and histologic assessment, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma can be missed.
  • We recommend that abdominal imaging be performed every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months for the second year after surgical removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17954420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome).
  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • Macronodular BAHs, ACTH-independent macronodular hyperplasia or massive macronodular adrenocortical disease are less frequently genetic and almost never present in children (except in McCune-Albright syndrome); they present often with atypical CS in middle-aged or elderly adults.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • Adrenalectomy is the preferred mode of treatment for all adrenocortical causes of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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66. Faria JF, Goldman SM, Szejnfeld J, Melo H, Kater C, Kenney P, Huayllas MP, Demarchi G, Francisco VV, Andreoni C, Srougi M, Ortiz V, Abdalla N: Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience. Radiology; 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the accuracy of in vivo proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in distinguishing adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and metastases, with histologic or computed tomographic findings and follow-up data as the reference standards.
  • Sixty consecutive patients (24 male and 36 female patients; mean age, 53 years) harboring adrenal tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (mean diameter, 4.6 cm +/- 3.4 [standard deviation]) entered the study and were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging system and point-resolved multivoxel (1)H MR spectroscopy.
  • Thirty-eight patients had adenomas; 10, pheochromocytomas; five, carcinomas; and seven, metastases.
  • Metabolite ratios (choline-creatine, choline-lipid, lipid-creatine, and 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine) and cutoff values (obtained by using receiver operating characteristic analyses) were obtained and compared for each type of adrenal mass, which was identified previously on the basis of clinical, hormonal, and pathologic evidence.
  • RESULTS: Cutoff values of 1.20 for the choline-creatine ratio (92% sensitivity, 96% specificity; P < .01), 0.38 for the choline-lipid ratio (92% sensitivity, 90% specificity; P < .01), and 2.10 for the lipid-creatine ratio (45% sensitivity, 100% specificity) enabled adenomas and pheochromocytomas to be distinguished from carcinomas and metastases.
  • A 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine ratio greater than 1.50 enabled distinction of pheochromocytomas and carcinomas from adenomas and metastases (87% sensitivity, 98% specificity; P < .01).
  • CONCLUSION: (1)H MR spectroscopy can be used to characterize adrenal masses on the basis of spectral findings for benign adenomas, carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2007.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956 [19244058.001]
  • (PMID = 18024453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Niizuma S, Nakahama H, Kamide K, Fukuchi K, Iwanaga Y, Nakata H, Yoshihara F, Horio T, Nakamura S, Kawano Y: The cutoff value of aldosterone-to-renin ratio for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in patients taking antihypertensive medicine. Clin Exp Hypertens; 2008 Oct;30(7):640-7
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  • [Title] The cutoff value of aldosterone-to-renin ratio for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in patients taking antihypertensive medicine.
  • The diagnosis of PA was established with the results of both abdominal computed tomography and adrenal scintigraphy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 55 patients, 27 were found to have PA, including adrenal adenoma (n = 18) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (n = 9).
  • [MeSH-major] Aldosterone / blood. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Hyperaldosteronism / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Aged. Drug Resistance. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18855267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6006
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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68. Rizk-Rabin M, Assie G, Rene-Corail F, Perlemoine K, Hamzaoui H, Tissier F, Lieberherr M, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Bouizar Z: Differential expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in adrenocortical tumors: autocrine/paracrine effects on the growth and signaling pathways in H295R cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Sep;17(9):2275-85
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  • [Title] Differential expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in adrenocortical tumors: autocrine/paracrine effects on the growth and signaling pathways in H295R cells.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are rare and heterogeneous, but their pathogenesis is unclear.
  • We monitored the synthesis of PTHrP and PTH-R1 in a series of 25 ACT: 12 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) and 13 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and investigated the effects of PTHrP(1-34) on H295R cells derived from an ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18768493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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69. Reimel B, Zanocco K, Russo MJ, Zarnegar R, Clark OH, Allendorf JD, Chabot JA, Duh QY, Lee JA, Sturgeon C: The management of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas--does adrenalectomy increase costs? Surgery; 2010 Dec;148(6):1178-85; discussion 1185
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  • [Title] The management of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas--does adrenalectomy increase costs?
  • BACKGROUND: Most experts agree that primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA) caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is best treated by adrenalectomy.
  • Pharmacologic management for all patients with PHA was compared with a strategy of screening for and resecting an aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • For a reference patient with 41 remaining years of life, the discounted expected cost of the surgical strategy was $27,821.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / biosynthesis


70. Yoh T, Hosono M, Komeya Y, Im SW, Ashikaga R, Shimono T, Tsuchiya N, Okada M, Hanada K, Yagyu Y, Nishimura Y, Murakami T: Quantitative evaluation of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT attenuation value, and chemical-shift MR imaging for characterizing adrenal adenomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Jul;22(6):513-9
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  • [Title] Quantitative evaluation of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT attenuation value, and chemical-shift MR imaging for characterizing adrenal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate diagnostic ability and features of quantitative indices of three modalities: uptake rate on norcholesterol scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, and fat suppression on chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterizing adrenal adenomas.
  • METHODS: Image findings of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT, and MRI were reviewed for 78 patients with functioning (n = 48) or nonfunctioning (n = 30) adrenal masses.
  • The norcholesterol uptake rate, attenuation value on unenhanced CT, and suppression on in-phase to opposed-phase MRI were measured for adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: The norcholesterol uptake rate, CT attenuation value, and MR suppression index showed the sensitivity of 60%, 82%, and 100%, respectively, for functioning adenomas of <2.0 cm, and 96%, 79%, and 67%, respectively, for those of >or=2.0 cm.
  • Regarding norcholesterol uptake, the adenoma-to-contralateral gland ratio was significantly higher in cortisol releasing than in aldosterone-releasing adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The norcholesterol uptake rate was reliable for characterization of adenomas among adrenal masses of >or=2.0 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18670858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol
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71. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68
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  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Ohtake H, Kawamura H, Matsuzaki M, Yokoyama E, Kitajima M, Onizuka S, Yamakawa M: Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Jun;14(3):204-8
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  • [Title] Oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Only 17 cases of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported in the English literature.
  • Here, we report an incidental case of oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed a left adrenal tumor.
  • Upon review of previous cases of oncocytic adrenocortical tumors, we reconsidered the diagnostic findings of the potential for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Autoantibodies / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Mitochondria / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20471567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Bocca G, Voorhoeve PG, de Delemarre-van Wall HA: [Cushing's syndrome in children]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2345-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Het syndroom van Cushing bij kinderen.
  • In addition, the first showed a decrease in linear growth and weight gain; a pituitary adenoma was found, which was surgically excised.
  • The second girl was examined because of a male body-hair pattern and weight increase.
  • She had an adrenal adenoma, visible on MRI, which was excised during laparoscopy.
  • Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease in childhood.
  • Arriving at an aetiological diagnosis may be difficult and is based on the performance and interpretation of endocrinologic function and laboratory tests such as determination of the cortisol level in blood, saliva and urine, a dexamethasone-suppression test, and a corticotropin assay in blood drawn from the cerebral cavernous sinuses.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Growth. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Treatment Outcome. Weight Gain

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Mar 3;151(9):560; author reply 560-1 [17375397.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2365-9 [17100127.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2390-3 [17100132.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2359-64 [17100126.001]
  • (PMID = 17100122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Mann MW, Ellis SS, Mallory SB: Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Feb;56(2 Suppl):S15-8
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  • [Title] Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Ultrasound and abdominal computed tomographic scan revealed a large adrenal mass consistent with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Although rare, childhood adrenocortical tumors have a poor prognosis, with the majority of tumors having regional and metastatic disease.
  • Because early diagnosis and complete surgical excision improve prognosis, children with refractory infantile acne should be evaluated for signs of virilization and accelerated growth.
  • Elevated levels of DHEA and DHEA-S should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / etiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17097383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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75. Quack I, Reincke M, Rump LC: [Therapy-resistant hypertension--the value of aldosterone antagonists]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2007 Nov 15;149(46):39-40
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  • [Transliterated title] Wenn die Dreierkombination den Blutdruck nicht ausreichend senkt. Stellenwert der Aldosteronantagonisten.
  • However, it still must be clarified whether a PHA screening has a predictive value for the efficacy of a therapy with an aldosterone receptor antagonist.
  • Before generally accepted recommendations can be made, a randomized, controlled study with aldosterone antagonists must prove that such a therapy is safer, tolerable and leads to better long-term blood pressure control as well as lower renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18069192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
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76. Gockel I, Kneist W, Heintz A, Beyer J, Junginger T: Endoscopic adrenalectomy: an analysis of the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches and results of a prospective follow-up study. Surg Endosc; 2005 Apr;19(4):569-73
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  • [Title] Endoscopic adrenalectomy: an analysis of the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches and results of a prospective follow-up study.
  • The aim of this study was to determine which of these is the optimal surgical technique in a prospectively designed analysis of a large series of patients operated on by a single team over a 10-year period.
  • The most prevalent indication was incidentaloma (35.9%), followed by pheochromocytoma and Conn's adenoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Body Mass Index. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Peritoneum. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Space. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15759181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Porterfield JR, Thompson GB, Young WF Jr, Chow JT, Fryrear RS, van Heerden JA, Farley DR, Atkinson JL, Meyer FB, Abboud CF, Nippoldt TB, Natt N, Erickson D, Vella A, Carpenter PC, Richards M, Carney JA, Larson D, Schleck C, Churchward M, Grant CS: Surgery for Cushing's syndrome: an historical review and recent ten-year experience. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):659-77
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  • BACKGROUND: Cushing's syndrome (CS), due to multiple etiologies, is a disorder associated with the ravages of cortisol excess.
  • The purpose of this review article is to provide a historical synopsis of surgery for CS, review a recent 10-year period of operative management at a tertiary care facility, and to outline a practical approach to diagnosis and management.
  • Fifty-four patients (18%) had cortisol-secreting adenomas, 10 patients (3%) had cortisol-producing adrenocortical carcinomas, and 1% had other causes.
  • Most benign adrenal processes could be managed laparoscopically.
  • Five-year survival rates (all causes) were 90%, 51%, and 23% for adrenocortical adenomas, ectopic ACTH syndrome, and adrenocortical carcinomas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgery for CS is highly successful for pituitary-dependent CS and most ACTH-independent adrenal causes.
  • Unfortunately, to date, adrenocortical carcinomas are rarely cured.
  • Future successes with this disease will likely depend on a better understanding of tumor biology, more effective adjuvant therapies and earlier detection.

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  • (PMID = 18196319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 139
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78. Surgit O: Clipless and sutureless laparoscopic adrenalectomy carried out with the LigaSure device in 32 patients. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Apr;20(2):109-13
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the standard procedure for treating patents with adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: The LigaSure device was used in 32 patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal masses.
  • In 1 patient the adrenal tumor had invaded the ipsilateral kidney, so laparoscopic nephrectomy was also carried out during the same operation.
  • In another patient, a renal cell carcinoma in the left kidney had metastasized to the right adrenal gland.
  • Both the kidney and the contralateral adrenal gland were removed laparoscopically during the same operation.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal masses had a mean greatest diameter of 3.48 cm (range 2 to 11 cm).
  • Adrenal tumor types included adrenocortical adenoma (16 patients), pheochromocytoma (13 patients), malignant pheochromocytoma (1 patient), chromophobic carcinoma (1 patient), and metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma (1 patient).
  • For patients with conditions such as renal cell carcinoma combined with metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland, nephrectomy, and contralateral adrenalectomy can be carried out during the same laparoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Chromophobe / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20393338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Eldahshan S, Celia A, Zeccolini G, Guerini A, Breda G: Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy for adrenocortical oncocytoma. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2008 Jun;80(2):82-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy for adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • A middle aged male patient (39 year old) presented with right renal pain.
  • During evaluation a small renal stone was found in the right kidney, and a mass 6 cm in diameter related to the upper pole of the left kidney was discovered.
  • Final pathology was adrenocortical oncocytoma with malignant potential.

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  • (PMID = 18683814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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80. Perretta S, Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Rimini M, Lezoche E: Sub-mesocolic access in laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2005 Jul;19(7):977-80
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  • BACKGROUND: This article reports an alternative laparoscopic access to left adrenal gland.
  • Indications were Conn adenoma (55 cases), incidentaloma (64), Cushing adenoma (45), pheochromocytoma (32), adreno-genital syndrome (two), mielolipoma (two), and metastatic mass(nine).
  • Of 209, in 12 cases the left adrenalectomy was performed through a submesocolic access (seven pheochromocytoma, two incidentaloma, two Cushing adenoma, one Conn adenoma,).
  • The identification and closure of the adrenal vein with minimal gland manipulation resulted the main benefit of this approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Left adrenal lesions, as selected cases of pheochromocytoma, can be safely treated by laparoscopic submesocolic access.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Surgical Instruments

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  • (PMID = 15920687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Terui K, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Nigawara T, Takayasu S, Matsuhashi Y, Kon A, Yamamoto H, Ohyama C, Sasano H, Suda T: A case of adrenocortical oncocytoma occurring with aldosteronoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Aug;95(8):3597-8
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  • [Title] A case of adrenocortical oncocytoma occurring with aldosteronoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20685888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Giordano TJ: Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):355-63
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare but interesting endocrine tumor.
  • Its diagnosis is usually straightforward using morphologic assessment and supplemental immunohistochemistry.
  • Here, the relevant molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is reviewed with special reference to those methods (e.g., DNA microarrays) that hold promise for improved diagnosis and prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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83. Inan N, Arslan A, Akansel G, Anik Y, Balci NC, Demirci A: Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jan;65(1):154-62
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  • [Title] Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of dynamic MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant tumors, especially in cases with atypical adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four masses (48 adenomas, 16 malignant tumors) were included in this prospective study.
  • RESULTS: Chemical shift MR imaging was able to differentiate 44 out of 48 adenomas (91.7%) from non-adenomas.
  • The 4 adenomas (8.3%) which could not be differentiated from non-adenomas by this technique did not exhibit signal loss on out-of-phase images.
  • With a cut-off value of 30, SI indices of adenomas had a sensitivity of 93.8%, specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100%.
  • On visual evaluation of dynamic MR imaging, early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 75% and punctate in 20,83% of the adenomas; while patchy in 56.25% and peripheral in 25% of the malignant tumors.
  • On the late phase images 58.33% of the adenomas showed peripheral ring-shaped enhancement and 10.41% showed heterogeneous enhancement.
  • At the 25th second, the SIs and wash-in rates of the adenomas were significantly higher than those of the malignant masses (p=0.010).
  • Time-to-peak enhancement of the malignant masses was significantly longer than that of the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemical shift MR has a high sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • However, taking into consideration only the atypical adenomas, chemical shift MRI is of no diagnostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17466481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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84. Pai SG, Shivashankara KN, Pandit V, Sheshadri S: Symptomatic hypocalcemia in primary hyperaldosteronism: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2009 Dec;24(6):1220-3
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  • But its effects on calcium metabolism, parathyroid metabolism and renal handling of calcium are less well described.
  • We hereby report a case of primary hyperaldosteronism due to adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) who presented with a myriad of clinical features including symptomatic hypocalcemia, significant weight loss along with uncontrolled hypertension for a prolonged period before eventually detected to have primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism. Hypocalcemia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19949688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2775880
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hypocalcemia / Primary Aldosteronism / Weight Loss
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85. Browning L, Bailey D, Parker A: D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):293-6
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  • [Title] D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The morphological similarities between the cells of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and those of the adrenal cortex impose diagnostic difficulties, for example in the context of a solitary nodule in the adrenal gland in a patient with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • D2-40, an antibody commonly used to highlight lymphatic endothelial cells, is consistently positive in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • AIMS: To investigate the utility of D2-40 in distinguishing neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortical cells from those of CCRCC, and from phaeochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: D2-40 antibody was applied to tissue sections from 10 normal adrenal glands, 15 renal carcinomas (13 clear cell, 2 papillary variants), 1 metastatic CCRCC in the adrenal gland, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 5 adrenal cortical adenomas, 3 adrenal cortical carcinomas, and 4 phaeochromocytomas.
  • RESULTS: D2-40 was strongly and diffusely positive in the cells of the neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortex, but negative in the cells of the CCRCC, both primary and metastatic, in 100% of the cases.
  • The cells of the adrenal medulla, and those of the phaeochromocytomas, were negative for D2-40.
  • CONCLUSIONS: D2-40 may be a useful marker for distinguishing primary adrenal cortical neoplasms from both metastatic CCRCC and phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytoplasm / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry


86. Vascik T: Case of the month. JAAPA; 2009 Dec;22(12):70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Male

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  • (PMID = 24887476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Schön G: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Aktuelle Urol; 2010 Sep;41(5):329-38; quiz 339-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Hormones / blood. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20824578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8820
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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88. Dluhy RG: Incidentaloma--role of the endocrinologist. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):279-84 [18463033.001]
  • [CommentOn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78 [18463032.001]
  • (PMID = 18463031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2358-62
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  • [Title] Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In a patient with a history of cancer, an isolated adrenal mass is usually thought to be a metastasis.
  • This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of functional adrenal lesions in patients with a history of cancer and examine predictive factors for the type of lesion.
  • METHODS: At a single institution, 33 patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer underwent surgical treatment.
  • Patients' records were retrospectively analyzed for type of adrenal lesion and other diagnostic parameters.
  • Of these, 20 (61%) had adrenal metastases, 8 (24%) had pheochromocytomas, and 5 (15%) had adrenal adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 4 resected adrenal masses in patients with a history of cancer were pheochromocytomas.
  • Therefore, remember one thing in patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer: pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Medical Records. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden


90. Halefoglu AM, Bas N, Yasar A, Basak M: Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT histogram analysis method: a prospective study. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Mar;73(3):643-51
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT histogram analysis method: a prospective study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis method in the differentiation of benign and malignant adrenal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2007 and June 2008, 94 patients (46 males, 48 females, age range: 30-79 years, mean age: 57.7 years) with 113 adrenal masses (mean diameter: 3.03 cm, range: 1.07-8.02 cm) were prospectively evaluated.
  • These included 66 adenomas, 45 metastases and 2 pheochromocytomas.
  • Histogram analysis method was performed using a circular region of interest (ROI) and mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels and subsequent percentage of negative pixels were detected on both unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced CT images for each adrenal mass.
  • Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery and adrenal washout study.
  • RESULTS: 51 of 66 adenomas (77.3%) showed attenuation values of < or =10HU and 15 (22.7%) adenomas showed more than 10HU on unenhanced CT.
  • All of these adenomas contained negative pixels on unenhanced CT.
  • Eight of 66 (12.1%) adenomas showed a mean attenuation value of < or =10HU on delayed contrast-enhanced scans and 45 adenomas (68.2%) persisted on containing negative pixels.
  • Both methods gave a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The CT histogram analysis is a simple and easily applicable method which provides higher sensitivity than the commonly used 10HU threshold mean attenuation method of unenhanced CT and can replace it for the diagnosis of an adenoma.
  • But with contrast-enhanced CT, although 100% specificity is being maintained, the sensitivities obtained are very poor for each method and is therefore likely to limit CT histogram analysis to be used as a clinically useful adjunct in the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19167179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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91. Tritos NA: Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in a patient with an incidentally found adrenal mass. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;3(7):547-51
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism in a patient with an incidentally found adrenal mass.
  • BACKGROUND: A 50-year-old woman who was complaining of abdominal pain was referred to the endocrine clinic after a small (0.8 cm by 0.8 cm) mass was found in her right adrenal gland on CT examination of the abdomen.
  • She had a history of hypertension for 10 years, generalized anxiety disorder for 5 years and a weight increase of 18 kg over the previous 3 years.
  • In addition, measurements of urine aldosterone excretion on a high-salt diet, MRI-examination of the adrenal glands and bilateral adrenal vein sampling were conducted.
  • DIAGNOSIS: An aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma.
  • MANAGEMENT: The patient underwent laparoscopic resection of the right adrenal gland, which led to normalization of aldosterone excretion, lowering of her blood pressure on a single antihypertensive medication (50 mg sustained-release metoprolol daily) and resolution of hypokalemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17581624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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92. El-Kappany HA, Shoma AM, El-Tabey NA, El-Nahas AR, Eraky II: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a single-center experience of 43 cases. J Endourol; 2005 Dec;19(10):1170-3
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  • Functioning adrenal masses and solid masses>5 cm were the most common indications.
  • Intraoperative complications occurred in 3 cases (6.9%), necessitating conversion to open surgery in 2 to control bleeding from the avulsed right adrenal vein.
  • A third case of conversion was elective because of difficult dissection of a large left pheochromocytoma from the renal hilum, so there was a 6.9% rate of conversion to open surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is surgically feasible and can be applied for different adrenal pathologies.

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  • (PMID = 16359207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • We report a patient with composite neuroblastoma (NB), adrenocortical tumor (ACT), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • LFS predisposes to the development of leukemia, sarcomas, adrenocortical and breast carcinomas, brain tumors and, questionably, NB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Point Mutation. Virilism / etiology


94. Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Evanson J, Grossman AB: Imaging in Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1319-28
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  • Once the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) has been established, the main step is to differentiate between ACTH dependent and independent disease.
  • In adults, 80% of CS is due to ACTH-dependent causes and 20% due to adrenal causes.
  • These are usually anterior pituitary microadenomas, which result in the classic Cushing's disease.
  • Non-pituitary ectopic sources of ACTH, such as a small-cell lung carcinoma or carcinoid tumours, are the source of the remainder of ACTH-dependent disease.
  • Imaging is essential for determining the source of ACTH in ectopic ACTH production, locating the pituitary tumours and distinguishing adrenal adenomas, carcinomas and hyperplasias.
  • In our chapter we review the adrenal appearances in ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent CS.
  • We also include a discussion on the use of MRI and CT for the detection and management of pituitary ACTH secreting adenomas.
  • CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis with intravenous injection of contrast medium is the most sensitive imaging modality for the identification of the ectopic ACTH source and detecting adrenal pathology.
  • MRI is used for characterising adrenal adenomas, problem solving in difficult cases and for detecting ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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95. Tamura Y, Adachi J, Chiba Y, Mori S, Takeda K, Kasuya Y, Murayama T, Sawabe M, Sasano H, Araki A, Ito H, Horiuchi T: Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling. Intern Med; 2008;47(1):37-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal microadenoma in an elderly patient: efficacy of selective adrenal venous sampling.
  • Computed tomography imaging appeared normal for a long duration with a left-sided nodule appearing far later; adrenal scintigraphy was first normal, and the second test showed right-sided uptake.
  • However, a repeat selective adrenal venous sampling (SAVS) indicated a left-sided lateralization of the hypersecretion of aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 18176003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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96. Bouyahia O, Gharsallah L, Ouederni M, Boukthir S, Mrad SM, El Gharbi AS: Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma in a 5 year-old girl. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jan;22(1):79-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma in a 5 year-old girl.
  • Adrenocortical adenoma is a rare etiology of isosexual precocious puberty in girls.
  • We report the case of a 5 year-old girl with isosexual precocious puberty.
  • Pathological examination after complete surgical resection showed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The diagnosis of feminizing adrenocortical adenoma was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Puberty, Precocious / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19344078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Lim YJ, Lee SM, Shin JH, Koh HC, Lee YH: Virilizing adrenocortical oncocytoma in a child: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Jul;25(7):1077-9
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenocortical oncocytoma in a child: a case report.
  • Functioning adrenocortical oncocytomas are extremely rare and most reported patients are 40-60 yr of age.
  • To our knowledge, only 2 cases of functioning adrenocortical oncocytomas have been reported in childhood.
  • We report a case of functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma in a 14-yr-old female child presenting with virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20592902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2890887
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoma, Oxyphilic / Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / Child / Virilism
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98. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Four patients (two adrenocortical carcinomas, one metastatic hepatoma, and one lymphoma) died 24, 10, 9, and 3 months after surgery, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Cotesta D, Caliumi C, Alò P, Petramala L, Reale MG, Masciangelo R, Signore A, Cianci R, D'Erasmo E, Letizia C: High plasma levels of human chromogranin A and adrenomedullin in patients with pheochromocytoma. Tumori; 2005 Jan-Feb;91(1):53-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma CgA and AM in 21 patients with pheochromocytomas, 43 healthy subjects and 26 patients with solid non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • CgA and AM were measured by means of a novel solid-phase two-site immunoradiometric assay based on monoclonal antibodies (CgA-RIA CT, CIS bio international) and by a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA, Phoenix Pharm. Inc.
  • RESULTS: The mean plasma CgA level (+/- SD) in patients with pheochromocytomas (204 +/- 147.9 ng/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that in healthy subjects (41.6 +/- 10.7 ng/mL) and in patients with non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas (47.3 +/- 17.6 ng/mL).
  • The mean plasma AM concentration (+/- SD) in patients with pheochromocytomas (27.5 +/- 10.4 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that in HS (13.8 +/- 4.5 pg/mL) and in patients with non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas (16.6 +/- 7.3 pg/mL).
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that circulating CgA and AM levels are increased in pheochromocytoma patients compared with healthy subjects and patients with non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Moreover, at the time of diagnosis plasma CgA levels correlated with plasma AM levels and with plasma metanephrine levels in all patients with pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranins / blood. Peptides / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenomedullin. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Chromogranin A. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Radioimmunoassay. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15850005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Peptides; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin
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100. Bimpaki EI, Nesterova M, Stratakis CA: Abnormalities of cAMP signaling are present in adrenocortical lesions associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome despite the absence of mutations in known genes. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jul;161(1):153-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abnormalities of cAMP signaling are present in adrenocortical lesions associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome despite the absence of mutations in known genes.
  • CONTEXT: Bilateral adrenal hyperplasias (BAHs) may be caused by mutations of genes that code for molecules that participate in cAMP signaling.
  • Little is known about cAMP signaling in adrenal lesions associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (AICS) that do not harbor mutations in known genes.
  • DESIGN: Samples from 27 patients (ages 5-60 years) were studied and compared with normal adrenocortical tissue (n=4) and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA, n=5).
  • RESULTS: Cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs) and other lesions that were GNAS, PRKAR1A, PDE11A, and PDE8B gene mutation-negative were compared with PRKAR1A mutation-positive lesions, normal tissue, and APAs; abnormalities of the cAMP-signaling pathway were found in both BAHs and CPAs.
  • CONCLUSION: Lesions of the adrenal associated with AICS, independently of their GNAS, PRKAR1A, PDE11A, and PDE8B mutation status, have functional abnormalities of cAMP signaling.

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  • (PMID = 19429701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREBBP protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.3.1.48 / CREB-Binding Protein; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.17 / 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.17 / PDE8B protein, human; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS305405; NLM/ PMC3136809
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