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1. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • GLUT1 and -3 were expressed in 33 and 17% of ACC samples respectively, but in none of the benign tumours or normal adrenals glands.
  • When analysing patients in their early stages and advanced disease separately, similar results were obtained.
  • HR for survival was 5.31 (1.80-15.62) in patients with metastatic ACC and in patients after radical resection the HR for disease-free survival was 6.10 (2.16-16.94).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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2. Kawabata G, Shimogaki H, Yamanaka K, Matsushita K, Takechi Y: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: troublesome cases. Int J Urol; 2009 May;16(5):431
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  • Problems occurred due to the condition of the adrenal tumors themselves in six patients, whereas problems occurred due to the operative history in four patients.
  • In patients with bleeding in the adrenal tumors, large adrenal tumors, or tumors impacted in the liver, methods such as changing the sequence of separation procedures were required.
  • In patients with a history of renal subcapsular hematomas due to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), it was not possible to understand the conditions of adrenal or perinephritic adhesion in preoperative imaging diagnosis, but resection was possible by changing the order of separation procedures and by using optimal instruments and devices.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Interactive Tutorial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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3. Kola B, Grossman AB: Dynamic testing in Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary; 2008;11(2):155-62
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  • CS can be ACTH-dependent, caused by ACTH-secreting pituitary or ectopic tumours, or ACTH-independent, caused by cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours.
  • CS can be an extremely difficult diagnosis to make, and assessment will include clinical, biochemical and radiological evaluation.
  • We have reviewed the current literature on the diagnosis of CS, and based on these data and our own experience, suggest the most useful tests and diagnostic criteria to be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Function Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Saliva / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18034306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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4. Ito T, Imai T, Kikumori T, Shibata A, Horiba T, Kobayashi H, Sawaki M, Watanabe R, Nakao A, Kiuchi T: Adrenal incidentaloma: review of 197 patients and report of a drug-related false-positive urinary normetanephrine result. Surg Today; 2006;36(11):961-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: review of 197 patients and report of a drug-related false-positive urinary normetanephrine result.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and importance of functioning tumors among incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • METHODS: We defined adrenal incidentaloma as a tumor detected during abdominal imaging for adrenal-unrelated reasons, and we reviewed 197 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentaloma diagnosed since we started laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • One patient, a 21-year-old woman taking mesalamine for ulcerative colitis, had a remarkably elevated urinary normetanephrine level, which resulted in the initial misdiagnosis of a 10-cm right adrenal incidentaloma as a pheochromocytoma.
  • Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy resulted in a pathological diagnosis of ganglioneuroma.
  • We found that other patients medicated with mesalamine, without adrenal tumors, had elevated urinary normetanephrine levels, confirming that mesalamine metabolites interfere with urinary normetanephrine measurements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to diagnose the functional potential of adrenal incidentaloma preoperatively, and not to perform laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma without careful evaluation first.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Mesalamine / pharmacokinetics. Normetanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacokinetics. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colitis, Ulcerative / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Incidence. Laparoscopy. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17072715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine
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5. Eto M, Harano M, Koga H, Tanaka M, Naito S: Clinical outcomes and learning curve of a laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 103 consecutive cases at a single institute. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):671-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical outcomes and the learning curve for a laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in 103 consecutive cases performed by three surgeons at our institute, according to the type of adrenal disorder.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and three patients with adrenal tumors, including 38 cases of primary aldosteronism, 33 cases of Cushing syndrome (including preclinical Cushing syndrome), 15 cases of pheochromocytoma, and nine cases of non-functioning adenoma were evaluated, while focusing on the approaches, intraoperative and postoperative data, and the learning curve of LA, according the type of adrenal disorder.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the operation time, estimated blood loss, incidence of conversion to open surgery and blood transfusion, or postoperative recovery among the patients treated by LA for aldosteronoma, Cushing adenoma, pheochromocytoma, and non-functioning adenoma.
  • On the other hand, in the cases treated by LA for pheochromocytoma, no trends in either the operation time or blood loss were observed.
  • However, there has been neither any conversion to open surgery nor blood transfusion in cases treated by LA since 1998 (our 42nd case), even after the changes in the operators.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicate that LA is becoming safer than before, probably due to improvements in the technique, education, and training of surgeons, in addition to the increased number of cases now treated by LA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / education. Education, Medical, Continuing. Laparoscopy. Medical Staff, Hospital / education

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  • (PMID = 16834640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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6. Hoff AO, Hauache OM: [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1): clinical, biochemical and molecular diagnosis and treatment of the associated disturbances]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):735-46
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  • [Title] [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1): clinical, biochemical and molecular diagnosis and treatment of the associated disturbances].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia endócrina múltipla tipo 1: diagnóstico clínico, laboratorial e molecular e tratamento das doenças associadas.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes include types 1 (MEN 1) and 2 (MEN 2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 and Carney complex.
  • MEN 1 is a hereditary syndrome, transmitted in an autosomic dominant fashion and caused by an inactivating mutation of the MEN 1 gene, characterized by the development of primary hyperparathyroidism, islet cell tumors and pituitary adenomas.
  • In addition, these patients can present with cutaneous manifestations such as angiofibromas and collagenomas, and can develop other neoplastic manifestations including carcinoids, thyroid tumors, adrenal adenomas, lipomas, pheochromocytomas and meningiomas.
  • The MEN 1 gene encodes a peptide which is a tumor suppressor gene called menin.
  • The discovery of the MEN 1 gene and the genetic analysis of MEN 1 patients have resulted in earlier diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic carriers which can potentially result in a longer survival of these patients.
  • Further investigation of the function and signaling pathways of the menin protein will hopefully offer therapeutic alternatives to patients with malignant progression of MEN 1-related tumors and also result in improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Islet Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Islet Cell / genetics. Adenoma, Islet Cell / therapy. Genetic Testing. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy


7. Skeie GO, Apostolski S, Evoli A, Gilhus NE, Hart IK, Harms L, Hilton-Jones D, Melms A, Verschuuren J, Horge HW: Guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorders. Eur J Neurol; 2006 Jul;13(7):691-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • References retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were considered and statements prepared and agreed on by disease experts and a patient representative.
  • The proposed practical treatment guidelines are agreed upon by the Task Force: (i) Anticholinesterase drugs should be the first drug to be given in the management of MG (good practice point). (ii) Plasma exchange is recommended as a short-term treatment in MG, especially in severe cases to induce remission and in preparation for surgery (level B recommendation). (iii) Intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) and plasma exchange are equally effective for the treatment of MG exacerbations (level A Recommendation). (iv) For patients with non-thymomatous autoimmune MG, thymectomy (TE) is recommended as an option to increase the probability of remission or improvement (level B recommendation). (v) Once thymoma is diagnosed TE is indicated irrespective of the severity of MG (level A recommendation). (vi) Oral corticosteroids is a first choice drug when immunosuppressive drugs are necessary in MG (good practice point). (vii) In patients where long-term immunosuppression is necessary, azathioprine is recommended together with steroids to allow tapering the steroids to the lowest possible dose whilst maintaining azathioprine (level A recommendation). (viii) 3,4-diaminopyridine is recommended as symptomatic treatment and IvIg has a positive short-term effect in LEMS (good practice point). (ix) All neuromyotonia patients should be treated symptomatically with an anti-epileptic drug that reduces peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (good practice point). (x) Definitive management of paraneoplastic neuromyotonia and LEMS is treatment of the underlying tumour (good practice point). (xi) For immunosuppressive treatment of LEMS and NMT it is reasonable to adopt treatment procedures by analogy with MG (good practice point).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome / therapy. MEDLINE / statistics & numerical data. Myasthenia Gravis / therapy. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Plasma Exchange / methods. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16834699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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8. Svajdler Mm, Bohus P, Závacký P, Vol'anská M, Repovský A, Juskanicová E: Paraganglioma of the mesenterium: a case report. Cesk Patol; 2007 Oct;43(4):153-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Extra-adrenal paragangliomas constitute 10 % or less of phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas.
  • We report a case of extra-adrenal paraganglioma occurring in the small intestine mesentery in a 65-year-old man.
  • Histologically, the tumour had a typical organoid "zellballen" pattern, showed immunohistochemical positivity for synaptophysin, neuron specific enolase, CD-56, chromogranin, and focally vimentin, and was cytokeratin and EMA negative.
  • The patient was free from recurrence or metastasis three months after tumour resection.
  • Although rare, paraganglioma should be included in the preoperative differential diagnosis of solid mesenteric tumours, to prevent any potential life-threatening event peroperatively in the case of a catecholamines-producing tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery. Paraganglioma / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18188923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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9. Iżycka-Świeszewska E, Drożyńska E, Rzepko R, Kobierska-Gulida G, Grajkowska W, Perek D, Balcerska A: Analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway in high risk neuroblastic tumours. Pol J Pathol; 2010;61(4):192-8
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  • [Title] Analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway in high risk neuroblastic tumours.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) represents one of the most common paediatric tumours.
  • PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway which is involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression of many tumours, in parallel constitutes the target for the biologically based oncological therapy.
  • In this study we analyzed the status of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling route in the primary tumour tissue samples from a group of 39 high-risk NB.
  • We found that most of tumours were positive for PI3Kp85 and PI3Kp110, as well as for p-AKT, p-mTOR and its downstream effectors p-p70S6K and p-4EBPI.
  • Furthermore, high expression of p-4EBP1 was significantly associated with p-p70S6K expression, high cyclin D1 and lower differentiation of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Oncogene Protein v-akt / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms. Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Signal Transduction


10. Ozben B, Papila N, Tanrikulu MA, Bayalan F, Fak AS, Oktay A: Inferior vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium in a patient with pancreatic cancer. J Thromb Thrombolysis; 2007 Dec;24(3):317-21
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  • [Title] Inferior vena caval tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium in a patient with pancreatic cancer.
  • While deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are the most common thrombotic conditions in patients with malignant disease, tumor thrombus may be seen in inferior vena cava, mainly in patients with renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, testicular tumors or adrenal carcinoma.
  • We report a female patient with pancreatic cancer associated with tumor thrombus extending from the inferior vena cava to the right atrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Venous Thromboembolism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17483876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-5305
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thromb. Thrombolysis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Komai Y, Kawakami S, Yoshida S, Sakai Y, Kobayashi T, Kageyama Y, Kihara K: [A case of cystic ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland presenting as a huge retroperitoneal mass]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Jul;52(7):549-51
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  • [Title] [A case of cystic ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland presenting as a huge retroperitoneal mass].
  • Imaging studies demonstrated a bulky tumor with cyst formation measuring 22 cm.
  • Preoperative differential diagnoses included an adrenal tumor, extra-adrenal retroperitoneal tumor and pancreatic mucinous tumor.
  • A tight adhesion of the tumor to the left kidney necessitated an en bloc resection of the tumor with the left kidney.
  • Pathologically, the tumor was ganglioneuroma originating from the left adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16910588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Leow MK, Loh KC: Accidental provocation of phaeochromocytoma: the forgotten hazard of metoclopramide? Singapore Med J; 2005 Oct;46(10):557-60
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  • Despite the rarity of phaeochromocytoma, clinicians should exercise caution in the use of metoclopramide among hypertensives and those with labile blood pressures, given the potentially life-threatening crisis it can readily evoke in those with this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Metoclopramide / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 16172777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiemetics; L4YEB44I46 / Metoclopramide
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13. Ziaja J, Chudek J, Król R, Stańczyk A, Pawlicki J, Gasińska T, Kajor M, Wiecek A, Cierpka L: [Long-term consequences of surgical excision of cortisol producing adrenocortical adenoma]. Endokrynol Pol; 2007 May-Jun;58(3):207-12
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  • INTRODUCTION: Surgical excision of adrenocortical tumour in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome gives a chance for their entire cure.
  • 46.7% of patients required supplementation with adrenal steroids.
  • 40% of patients reported a subjective withdrawal of all symptoms of the disease after surgery and 46.7% only partial remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17940986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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14. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


15. Flores-Hernández SS, Ahumada Mendoza H, Santana-Montero BL, González Flores Mde L: [Early diagnosis of a newborn with a mediastinal mass]. Gac Med Mex; 2005 Nov-Dec;141(6):535-8
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  • [Title] [Early diagnosis of a newborn with a mediastinal mass].
  • Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour that evolves from the neural crest cell.
  • This neoplasm may arise at any site in the sympathetic nervous system, including the brain, the cervical region, the posterior mediastinum, the para-aortic sympathetic ganglia, the pelvis, and the adrenal medulla.
  • The clinical presentation in neonatal age is rare and the differential diagnosis includes congenital lung malformations, pneumoniae, atelectasia, etc.
  • This case illustrates how a patient with an X-ray image compatible with a thoracic tumor should be studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn

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  • (PMID = 16381510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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16. Wang H, Zhou FJ, Qin ZK, Han H, Liu ZW: [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):76-8
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenalectomy is a standard treatment for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Conventional open operation usually results in bigger incisions, more blood loss, and long hospital stay to patients; while laparoscopic approaches could make up above shortcomings, which is used to resect benign adrenal tumors gradually.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 10 patients with benign adrenal tumors undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomy were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the experiences and techniques in laparoscopic surgery.
  • RESULTS: Of the 10 patients, 9 had tumors successfully resected by laparoscopic adrenalectomy with no severe postoperative complication; 1 switched to receive open surgery during operation, and had mild postoperative corticoadrenal insufficiency.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of benign adrenal tumors has the advantages of minimal invasion, safety, and efficiency, and may be a primary therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15642205.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Straub RH, Cutolo M, Buttgereit F, Pongratz G: Energy regulation and neuroendocrine-immune control in chronic inflammatory diseases. J Intern Med; 2010 Jun;267(6):543-60
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  • We can separate factors that provide energy-rich fuels to stores [parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, oestrogens, androgens and osteocalcin] and those that provide energy-rich substrates to consumers [sympathetic nervous system (SNS), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thyroid hormones, glucagon and growth hormone].
  • Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor or interleukins 1beta and 6, circulating activated immune cells and sensory nerve fibres signal immune activation to the rest of the body.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / metabolism. Anemia / metabolism. Anorexia / metabolism. Bone Diseases, Metabolic / metabolism. Cachexia / metabolism. Chronic Disease. Circadian Rhythm. Dyslipidemias / metabolism. Humans. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Obesity / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20210843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 142
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18. Thoren KL, Balingit AG, Billingsley J: Multiple pheochromocytomas in a patient with blurred vision. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Sep;33(9):597-601
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  • Multiple imaging was obtained because of concern for von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) after bilateral retinal angiomas were discovered on ophthalmologic consultation as a follow-up from the Emergency Department.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were able to localize the adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors; however, accurate differentiation between pheochromocytomas and other adrenal tumors was not possible.
  • I-123 MIBG was performed before surgery to confirm that the lesions were indeed pheochromocytomas and also to rule out metastatic disease.
  • He was presented in urology tumor board conference with recommendations for follow-up CT and laboratory tests after 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / complications. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18716506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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19. Husebye ES, Varhaug JE, Heimdal K: [Hereditary endocrine tumour diseases]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2964-7
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  • [Title] [Hereditary endocrine tumour diseases].
  • BACKGROUND AND METHOD: The paper reviews inheritable endocrine tumour syndromes based on recent literature and the experience of the authors.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A number of inheritable endocrine tumour syndromes are caused by mutations in proto-oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes.
  • These include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), familial non-MEN neoplasia, Von Hippel-Lindau's disease and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • These conditions are rare, but since inheritance is dominant with a near-complete penetrance, a number of carriers with a high risk of developing tumours are regularly found in the families of affected individuals.
  • Identification of carriers with a high risk of developing tumours gives the opportunity to cure disease manifestations at an early stage and to avoid life-threatening complications.
  • DNA analyses of the most common disease genes are now performed in genetic laboratories in Norway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Counseling. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Mutation. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16276382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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20. Humphrey R, Gray D, Pautler S, Davies W: Laparoscopic compared with open adrenalectomy for resection of pheochromocytoma: a review of 47 cases. Can J Surg; 2008 Aug;51(4):276-80
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  • OBJECTIVE: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine whether laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is a safe and effective therapy for the management of pheochromocytoma, as compared with open adrenalectomy (OA).
  • Perioperative outcomes of 30 LAs were compared with 14 OAs.
  • RESULTS: Median (and standard deviation [SD]) length of postoperative stay was shorter in the laparoscopic group (3.0, SD 3.3 d v. 6.0, SD 1.1 d; p < 0.05), and tumour size was smaller (3.9, SD 2.7 cm v. 5.0, SD 2.9 cm; p < 0.05).
  • There were no perioperative mortalities in this series, nor was there an increased risk of recurrent disease with the laparoscopic technique.
  • CONCLUSION: LA is safe and effective for the management of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18815650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2552944
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21. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60
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  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Significant modifications concern carcinomas of the oesophagus, oesophagogastric junction, stomach, appendix, biliary tract, lung, skin, prostate and ophthalmic tumours, which will be not addressed in this article.
  • For several tumour entities only minor changes were introduced which might be of importance in daily practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm Staging / trends. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Wang X, Liang L, Jiang Y: Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature. Acta Paediatr; 2007 Jun;96(6):930-4
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  • [Title] Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature.
  • AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and outcome of children adrenal tumors presenting with hypertension.
  • METHODS: The records of nine children under 16 years of age with adrenal tumours presenting with hypertension were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Abdominal mass was palpable only in one patient at diagnosis.
  • Abdominal computed topography showed adrenal mass in all patients.
  • Tumours were completely resected for each patient.
  • The median tumour weight was 73 g (11-530 g) and the size ranged from 1.5 x 1.5 to 12 x 14 cm2.
  • In one case, adrenal pheochromocytoma first occurred and non-functioning islet cell tumour successively occurred at pancreas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adrenal tumours presented with hypertension showed an atypical course, variable presentation.
  • We report a unique case of adrenal pheochromocytoma followed by the occurrence of non-functioning islet cell tumour.
  • Imaging techniques are important to detect adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vanilmandelic Acid / blood


23. Shibata H: [Corticosterone-producing adrenal tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:638-40
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  • [Title] [Corticosterone-producing adrenal tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Corticosterone / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Hyponatremia / etiology. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Spironolactone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16776236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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24. Just PA, Tissier F, Silvera S, Dousset B, Ballet S, Delattre O, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Goldwasser F, Bertagna X, De Pinieux G: Unexpected diagnosis for an adrenal tumor: synovial sarcoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;14(1):56-9
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  • [Title] Unexpected diagnosis for an adrenal tumor: synovial sarcoma.
  • A 39-year-old woman presented with an incidentally discovered mass of the left adrenal fossa.
  • Immunohistochemistry using anticytokeratin showed some epithelial cells within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of primitive synovial sarcoma of the left adrenal fossa was confirmed by the presence of the characteristic t(X;18) translocation.
  • Despite radiotherapy, several chemotherapies, and 2 other surgical resections, the patient died 30 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first described case of synovial sarcoma arising in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sarcoma, Synovial / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20123459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Evans JM, Collins M: Clinically diagnosed glomus vagale tumour treated with external beam radiotherapy: a review of the published reports. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2008 Dec;52(6):617-21
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  • [Title] Clinically diagnosed glomus vagale tumour treated with external beam radiotherapy: a review of the published reports.
  • The details of presentation, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of the patient are discussed.
  • A review of the published work was carry out using MEDLINE database with respect to aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and expected outcomes.
  • Glomus vagale tumours are a subtype of paragangliomas of the head and neck derived from extra-adrenal paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Glomus vagale tumours are rare and should be managed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic with both surgical and radiation oncology opinions offered.
  • [MeSH-major] Aortic Bodies / radiation effects. Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Carotid Body Tumor / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19178639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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26. Pomara G, Cappello F, Barzon L, Morelli G, Rappa F, Benvegna L, Giannarini G, Palù G, Selli C: Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents? Eur J Histochem; 2006 Apr-Jun;50(2):131-2
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents?
  • Molecular testing for viral infection demonstrated the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA sequences in the adrenal adenoma, but not in the myelolipoma (confirmed by immunohistochemistry).
  • Moreover, the adrenal adenoma was also positive for parvovirus B19, and both adrenal tumor samples were positive for polyomavirus BK (BKV) and adenovirus DNA sequences.
  • The role of these viruses in adrenal tumorigenesis was postulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. BK Virus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Polyomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16864124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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27. Spinazzé S, Schrijvers D: Metabolic emergencies. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2006 Apr;58(1):79-89
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  • Life-threatening metabolic complications observed in cancer patients are: hypercalcaemia, hyponatremia, hyperurcaemia, tumour lysis syndrome, hypoglycaemia, hyperuremia and hypercreatininemia secondary to renal failure, hyperammoniemia, lactic acidosis and adrenal failure.
  • They may be associated with any kind of neoplastic disease causing dysfunction of vital organs, which can be determined by neoplastic spread, anti-cancer treatment or, more rarely, by paraneoplastic phenomena.
  • The severity of consciousness impairment is related to both the rate of onset and the magnitude of the metabolic disorder.
  • The definitive diagnosis will be established by laboratory examination and radiological work-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolic Diseases / etiology. Metabolic Diseases / physiopathology. Metabolic Diseases / therapy. Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16337807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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28. Tobe M, Ito K, Umeda S, Sato A, Adaniya N, Tanaka Y, Hayakawa M, Asano T: Severe polyuria after the resection of adrenal pheochromocytoma. Int J Urol; 2010 Dec;17(12):1004-7
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  • [Title] Severe polyuria after the resection of adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • A 73-year-old male patient with hypertension and hyperglycemia was referred to our hospital because of a diagnosis regarding his left adrenal tumor.
  • Because the levels of urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine were elevated, and (131) I-MIBG scintigraphy showed intense uptake in the adrenal tumor, the tumor was diagnosed as a pheochromocytoma.
  • Because ADH levels in the tumor fluid were not elevated, the tumor was not an ADH-secreting tumor.
  • Urinary β2-microglobulin was significantly elevated after the operation, thus suggesting that renal tubule dysfunction might also have been involved in the polyuria.
  • However, the mechanism of polyuria after the resection of adrenal pheochromocytoma is not fully understood.
  • Polyuria after the resection of adrenal pheochromocytoma is extremely rare, and the present subject is the second case to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Polyuria / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.
  • (PMID = 20874817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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29. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage, leading to life-threatening, and multiple tumors in the liver.
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • Small "hot-spot" regions of interest comprising 4 pixels (SUVhs) and 1 pixel (SUVmax) were placed in the tumour area with the highest radioactivity concentration and their respective standardised uptake values (SUV) were recorded.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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31. Murphy CG, Scaramuzzi N, Winter DC, Thompson CJ, Broe PJ: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy, an initial experience of fifteen cases. Ir J Med Sci; 2005 Oct-Dec;174(4):39-41
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  • RESULTS: Fifteen glands were removed from fifteen patients.
  • The mean gland size was 3.4 cm.
  • CONCLUSION: Our initial experience demonstrates this approach to be the ideal technique for removal of benign adrenal tumours with significant advantages for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / diagnosis. Pain, Postoperative / epidemiology. Patient Satisfaction. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Prospective Studies. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16445159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-1265
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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32. Schwarte S, Brabant EG, Bastian L, Bruns F: Cortisol as a possible marker of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with 3-year follow-up. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):1917-20
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour, sometimes causing glucocorticoid hypersecretion.
  • CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with adrenal Cushing's disease.
  • Histological examination after a left adrenalectomy revealed a benign tumour.
  • Initial histological diagnosis was revised according to the increased proliferative changes.
  • An aggressive multimodal treatment, including repeated surgical approach with consolidating radiotherapy in cases of incomplete resection, might be indicated to provide symptom control and possible long-term survival in oligometastatic disease of ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnostic Errors. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17649795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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33. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • The most reliable indicator of malignancy in these tumors remains the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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34. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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35. Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Lehnert H, Mannelli M, Neumann H, Opocher G, Maher ER, Plouin PF, European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) Pheochromocytoma Working Group: Phaeochromocytoma, new genes and screening strategies. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Dec;65(6):699-705
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Following recent advances in the genetics of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, the members of the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) Phaeochromocytoma Working Group have decided to share their genotyping data and to propose European recommendations for phaeochromocytoma/functional paraganglioma (PH/FPGL) genetic testing.
  • In 166 patients (25.9%) the disease was familial and caused by germline mutations in VHL (56), SDHB (34), SDHD (31), RET (31) or NF1 (14), causing von Hippel-Lindau disease, SDHB- or SDHD-PH/FPGL syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) and type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), respectively.
  • In almost 60% of inherited cases it was possible to formulate a probable genetic diagnosis based on family history and/or typical syndromic presentation.
  • Several clinical characteristics, such as young age at onset, the presence of bilateral, extra-adrenal or multiple tumours or a malignant tumour, should be seen as indications for genetic testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Neoplasm. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Genetic Markers. Genetic Testing. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / genetics. Patient Selection

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  • (PMID = 17121518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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36. Teh SH, Ong GB: Early presentation of right adrenal mass, hepatoblastoma and hepatic cavernous haemangioma in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Oct;62(4):345-6
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  • [Title] Early presentation of right adrenal mass, hepatoblastoma and hepatic cavernous haemangioma in Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome.
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is associated with early development of embryonal tumours usually in the first four years of life.
  • We describe a patient who presented with a right adrenal cyst in the first month of life and hepatoblastoma in the third month of life.
  • A cavernous haemangioma was subsequently found in the resected tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hepatoblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Time Factors


37. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • The immunohistochemical study of the excised tumour showed strong positive staining of interleukin (IL)-6.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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38. Manz M, Schmeer T, Horcic M, Meier R, Maurer CA: [Bronchogenic cyst: a rare cause of a retroperitoneal mass]. Zentralbl Chir; 2009 Dec;134(6):570-2
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  • The histopathological definition consists of the presence of ciliated epithelium together with cartilage or bronchial mucous glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 49-year-old patient with the incidental finding of a large cystic mass between the diaphragm and the stomach.
  • Imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumour.
  • Histological examination revealed the surprising diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions.
  • Regardless of being asymptomatic most of the time, surgical resection is recommended to obtain definitive histological diagnosis and avoid future complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 19424941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Péter S, Rácz K, Tulassay Z, Igaz P: [Possible applications of functional genomics in the study of the pathogenesis of adrenal and pituitary tumors]. Orv Hetil; 2006 Jul 9;147(27):1267-71
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  • [Title] [Possible applications of functional genomics in the study of the pathogenesis of adrenal and pituitary tumors].
  • It is being more and more exploited in endocrinological research, as well, including studies on endocrine tumours.
  • By comparing gene expression profiles of different tumour tissues or to their healthy counterparts, large amounts of information can be obtained that was unfeasible even until recently.
  • There are only few data available on the pathogenesis of sporadic adrenal and pituitary tumours.
  • In this short review, the authors attempt to present a synopsis of the possible applications of functional genomics in the field of endocrine tumours by summarizing recent studies on adrenal and pituitary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Genomics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16927882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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40. Lo WK, vansonnenberg E, Shankar S, Morrison PR, Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Rabin M: Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic bilateral adrenal metastases in a single session. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2006 Jan;17(1):175-9
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  • [Title] Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic bilateral adrenal metastases in a single session.
  • Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been used in the palliative treatment of symptomatic bilateral adrenal tumors, often with each tumor addressed separately over the course of multiple treatment sessions.
  • In the present case, a 71-year-old man with a diagnosis of lung cancer and painful bilateral metastases to the adrenal glands underwent percutaneous CT-guided RF thermal ablation of both adrenal masses in a single session (left adrenal mass, 4.7 cm; right adrenal mass, 4.3 cm), without occurrence of blood pressure instability or other acute complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Pain / etiology. Pain / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16415149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Buziak-Bereza M, Fedorowicz A, Kuźniarz-Rymarz S, Stochmal E, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1270-5
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  • [Title] [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome].
  • In the last twenty years the introduction of new imaging techniques has caused increasing incidence of accidental detection of adrenal tumors, which are usually mild and in most cases are hormonally inactive adenomas.
  • Among hormonal disorders in patients with adrenal incidentalomas the hypercortisolism is often described, which, if not treated properly, leads to multiple organ complications, and further to the patient's death.
  • The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of the group of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, verified by histopathology for assessment of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Among the group of 225 patients: 62 men and 163 women with incidentally detected adrenal tumors in age from 19 to 81 years diagnosed and treated in the Department of Clinical Endocrinology, University Hospital in Krakow, 59 patients was sent to surgery: 15 men and 42 women.
  • Group A consisted of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma: 38 people (11 men and 27 women).
  • In group B there were people with so-called other hormonal inactive adrenal tumors - 17 people (4 men and 13 women).
  • A detailed analysis of the clinical signs, meticulously carried out and repeated hormonal diagnosis with the use of functional tests should be focused on the detection of subclinical hormonal disorders, which is crucial in preventing organ damage and making a decision of the right treatment of the patient, which is surgical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 21591352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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42. Kastelan D, Dusek T, Aganović I, Stern-Padovan R, Kuzmanić D, Kastelan Z, Knezević N, Crncević-Orlić Z, Kraljević I, Dzubur F, Pavlić-Renar I, Giljević Z, Jelcić J, Baretić M, Skorić T, Korsić M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma: the position statement of the Croatian referral center for adrenal gland disorders]. Lijec Vjesn; 2010 Mar-Apr;132(3-4):71-5
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  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma: the position statement of the Croatian referral center for adrenal gland disorders].
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are tumours of adrenal glands discovered during diagnostic workup for other clinical condition unrelated to adrenal glands.
  • Improvement in imaging techniques and their widespread use in everyday practice have increased detection of adrenal incidentalomas making their management one of the most important challenges of modern endocrinology.
  • Based on the relevant medical literature and guidelines of other international societies a panel of Croatian leading experts in adrenal gland disorders provide practical recommendations for the diagnostics and treatment of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 20540431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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43. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • VEGF blood concentrations before surgery did not differ in the patients with the cortical tumours as compared to the controls.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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44. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.
  • The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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45. Hill KE, Scott-Moncrieff JC, Koshko MA, Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Nelson RW, Blevins WE, Oliver JW: Secretion of sex hormones in dogs with adrenal dysfunction. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Feb 15;226(4):556-61
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  • [Title] Secretion of sex hormones in dogs with adrenal dysfunction.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adrenal sex hormone concentrations in response to ACTH stimulation in healthy dogs, dogs with adrenal tumors, and dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH).
  • ANIMALS: 11 healthy control dogs, 9 dogs with adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (adenocarcinoma [ACA] or other tumor); 11 dogs with PDH, and 6 dogs with noncortisol-secreting adrenal tumors (ATs).
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dogs with ACA secrete increased concentrations of adrenal sex hormones, compared with dogs with PDH, noncortisol-secreting ATs, and healthy dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Dog Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15742696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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46. Kondo K, Chijiiwa K, Nagano M, Hamasuna R, Yamashita A, Marutsuka K, Takahashi N, Akiyama Y: Two-stage operation for hepatocellular carcinoma with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(2):232-6
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  • [Title] Two-stage operation for hepatocellular carcinoma with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently metastasizes to the adrenal glands.
  • The surgical strategy for HCC associated with bilateral adrenal gland metastasis is complicated because of the possibility of both postoperative hepatic failure and adrenal insufficiency.
  • We herein report a patient with HCC with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis that was treated successfully with a two-stage operation.
  • A 58-year-old man with HCC (12 cm in diameter) in the right lobe of the liver and bilateral adrenal gland tumors (right, 4 cm in diameter; left, 5 cm in diameter) was admitted to our hospital.
  • Two-stage surgery is a safe treatment option for giant HCC with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18392722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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47. Nawar R, Aron D: Adrenal incidentalomas -- a continuing management dilemma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):585-98
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas -- a continuing management dilemma.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AI), adrenal tumors detected through an imaging procedure done for reasons unrelated to adrenal dysfunction, is becoming a common clinical problem with the more frequent utilization of different imaging techniques.
  • Most such tumors are benign and hormonally inactive.
  • The benefit of making a diagnosis of a clinically significant AI must be considered in the context of the patient's overall condition and preferences.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / etiology. Humans. National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. United States

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  • (PMID = 16172193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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48. Priesemann M, Davies KM, Perry LA, Drake WM, Chew SL, Monson JP, Savage MO, Johnston LB: Benefits of screening in von Hippel-Lindau disease--comparison of morbidity associated with initial tumours in affected parents and children. Horm Res; 2006;66(1):1-5
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  • [Title] Benefits of screening in von Hippel-Lindau disease--comparison of morbidity associated with initial tumours in affected parents and children.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by the association of retinal and CNS haemangioblastomas, phaeochromocytoma and renal cell carcinoma.
  • We report the clinical features in three parent-offspring pairs where the parents have presented clinically with renal cell carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, cerebellar haemangioblastoma and retinal haemangioma, and the children have undergone pre-symptomatic screening.
  • During the first screening a 13-year-old boy was diagnosed with bilateral phaeochromocytoma and later developed an endolymphatic sac tumour at 19 years.
  • All children were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis.
  • These families demonstrate that clinical screening of children at risk of VHL can detect tumours before the first symptoms arise with a consequent reduction in morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] von Hippel-Lindau Disease / diagnosis. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Pedigree. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16651847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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49. Bumbuliene Z, Alisauskas J: [Evaluation and treatment of adolescent girls with hirsutism]. Ginekol Pol; 2009 May;80(5):374-8
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  • The causes of hirsutism can be various, including familial, idiopathic, and those, caused by excess androgen secretion by the ovary (PCOS, tumors), or by adrenal glands (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, tumor), or exogenous pharmacologic sources of androgens.
  • The diagnosis and treatment of hirsutism remains quite problematic due to innumerous endocrinologic aspects and unsatisfactory treatment results.
  • [MeSH-major] Hirsutism / diagnosis. Hirsutism / drug therapy. Puberty
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adolescent Health Services / organization & administration. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Endocrine System Diseases / complications. Endocrine System Diseases / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hyperandrogenism / complications. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / complications. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19548458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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50. Kvacheniuk AN: [The choice of operative intervention in combined treatment of malignant tumors of the adrenal glands]. Klin Khir; 2005 Sep;(9):39-42
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  • [Title] [The choice of operative intervention in combined treatment of malignant tumors of the adrenal glands].
  • Comparative efficacy of various kinds of surgical treatment for malignant tumors of adrenal glands (MTAG) was studied.
  • An optimal surgical intervention constitutes the adrenal gland excision en bloc with the tumor and performance of systemic lymph nodes dissection (LND) of paranephral, paraaortal (left--sided) and paracaval (right-sided) collectors.
  • Performance of AE with the tumor excision en bloc with LND, foreseeing high efficacy of the treatment, is possible in I-II stages of tumor only, when its malignant character could not be confirmed pre- or intraoperatively.

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  • (PMID = 16445044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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51. Ramljak V, Ranogajec I, Novosel I, Knezević F, Velemir-Vrdoljak D, Janusić R, Dosen D: Thyroid tumour in a child previously treated for neuroblastoma. Cytopathology; 2006 Oct;17(5):295-8
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  • [Title] Thyroid tumour in a child previously treated for neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects


52. Ahmed A: Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma: anaesthetic implications. J Pak Med Assoc; 2007 Mar;57(3):140-6
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  • Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine producing tumour that can cause severe hypertension and other systemic disturbances.
  • In this article the perioperative management of pheochromocytoma is reviewed by first summarizing its pathophysiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis, then highlighting the preoperative optimization of the patient and finally describing the intraoperative and postoperative anaesthetic management in the light of the current information.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenalectomy. Adrenergic Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anesthesia / methods. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma. Preoperative Care / methods


53. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Genotype. HLA-DRB1 Chains. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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54. Barwick TD, Malhotra A, Webb JA, Savage MO, Reznek RH: Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging. Clin Radiol; 2005 Sep;60(9):953-9
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  • [Title] Embryology of the adrenal glands and its relevance to diagnostic imaging.
  • An understanding of the embryology of the adrenal glands is necessary to appreciate the location of adrenal ectopic, or rest, tissue which can occur anywhere along the course of gonadal descent.
  • This tissue usually has no clinical significance, but may become hyperplastic in patients with primary or secondary adrenal pathology.
  • In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperplastic rest tissue may present as a soft-tissue mass, particularly in the gonads and retroperitoneum, and may be mistaken for tumour.
  • The adrenal in the neonate is proportionately much larger than in the adult; in renal ectopy or agenesis the ipsilateral adrenal is normally sited and may be mistaken for a kidney because of its size.
  • This review article illustrates the embryology of the adrenal with particular emphasis on the relevance of embryology to pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Rest Tumor / radiography. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Kidney / abnormalities. Kidney / radiography. Male. Testicular Neoplasms / radiography. Testis / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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55. Noszczyk-Nowak A, Nowak M, Paslawska U, Atamaniuk W, Nicpon J: Cases with manifestation of chemodectoma diagnosed in dogs in Department of Internal Diseases with Horses, Dogs and Cats Clinic, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland. Acta Vet Scand; 2010;52:35
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  • In the period of 3 years, 9 tumours of chemodectoma were supravitally diagnosed and histopathologically verified in dogs.
  • This tumour is located in a typical place--at the base of the heart.
  • Most frequently the tumour manifested in older boxers.
  • Only in one case such a tumour was diagnosed in another breed of dogs.
  • The tumours ranged in size between 3 and 16 cm in diameter.
  • The principal sign accompanying tumours of cardiac base involved dyspnoea but in 3 cases the tumours yielded no clinical signs.
  • An immunohistochemical examination is vital for the diagnosis since it allows to differentiate histologically distinct types of neoplasia which may locate in the same site and may manifest a similar histological pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / veterinary. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / diagnosis. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Breeding. Chromogranin A / immunology. Dogs. Dyspnea / physiopathology. Myocardium / pathology. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / immunology. Poland. Synaptophysin / immunology. Universities. Veterinary Medicine

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  • [Cites] Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;482:193-203 [11192580.001]
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  • (PMID = 20492718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-0147
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta veterinaria Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Vet. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2886050
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56. Afuwape O, Ladipo JK, Ogun O, Adeleye J, Irabor D: Pheochromocytoma in an accessory adrenal gland: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:6271
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma in an accessory adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Very few cases of pheochromocytoma in functional accessory adrenal glands have been documented in literature.
  • Investigations revealed a suprarenal mass, which was diagnosed as an accessory gland adrenal tumour at surgery.
  • This shows that accessory adrenal glands can be a basis for development of pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 19918568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769278
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57. Collins BR: Endocrine diseases of rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2008 Jan;11(1):153-62, vii-viii
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  • The clinical diagnosis of endocrine diseases almost never occurs in free-ranging animals in their native habitat.
  • Feral animals that have clinical endocrine disease, such as neoplasia, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, or diabetes, would exhibit clinical signs of altered behavior that would result in their removal by predators.
  • The diagnosis of endocrine disease thus takes place in the relatively protective environment of captivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Animals, Domestic. Endocrine System Diseases / veterinary. Rodent Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cricetinae. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gerbillinae. Guinea Pigs. Male. Mice. Rats. Rodentia. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18165143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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58. Schindera ST, Soher BJ, Delong DM, Dale BM, Merkle EM: Effect of echo time pair selection on quantitative analysis for adrenal tumor characterization with in-phase and opposed-phase MR imaging: initial experience. Radiology; 2008 Jul;248(1):140-7
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  • [Title] Effect of echo time pair selection on quantitative analysis for adrenal tumor characterization with in-phase and opposed-phase MR imaging: initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the effect of two pairs of echo times (TEs) for in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on (a) quantitative analysis prospectively in a phantom study and (b) diagnostic accuracy retrospectively in a clinical study of adrenal tumors, with use of various reference standards in the clinical study.
  • Single-breath-hold IP and OP 3.0-T MR images in 21 patients (14 women, seven men; mean age, 63 years) with 23 adrenal tumors (16 adenomas, six metastases, one adrenocortical carcinoma) were reviewed.
  • However, with scheme B, no overlap in the adrenal gland SI-to-liver SI ratio between adenomas and nonadenomas was seen (P < .05).
  • With scheme B, no overlap in adrenal gland SI index-to-liver SI index ratio between adenomas and nonadenomas was seen (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSION: This initial experience indicates SI index is the most reliable parameter for characterization of adrenal tumors with 3.0-T MR imaging when obtaining OP echo before IP echo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18566172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Bandier PC, Hansen A, Thorelius L: [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Jan 26;171(5):306-8
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoid tumor i binyre.
  • An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman.
  • Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally.
  • A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific.
  • Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Mar 16;171(12):1015; author reply 1015 [19306484.001]
  • (PMID = 19176156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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60. Silva J, Cachulo Mdo C, Leitão-Marques A: Secondary hypertension to rare adrenal gland tumor. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2010 Dec;95(6):e144-7
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  • [Title] Secondary hypertension to rare adrenal gland tumor.
  • The ganglioneuroma is a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system and may be associated with hypersecretion of vasoactive substances responsible for various symptoms and signs such as hypertension.
  • The authors report a case of ganglioneuroma and a literature review, focusing on the most important aspects of diagnosis and therapy.
  • The patient had recurrent symptomatic hypertensive crises, having performed an imaging study that found a nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • As neuroblastic tumors are radiologically undistinguishable, the patient underwent excision, confirming the diagnosis by pathology analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Ganglioneuroma / complications. Hypertension / etiology


61. Hofland J, Timmerman MA, de Herder WW, van Schaik RH, de Krijger RR, de Jong FH: Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Dec;65(6):792-9
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  • [Title] Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in human adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The growth and differentiation factors activin and inhibin can affect tumour formation and steroid production in the adrenal cortex.
  • Expression of these activin-related mRNAs was measured in different types of adrenocortical tissues and tumours to study the relationship with tumorigenesis.
  • RESULTS: All genes studied were expressed in all tissues, with the exception of the inhibin alpha-subunit in one hyperplastic adrenal and three adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins is affected by tumour formation in the adrenal gland and may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Activins / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type II / genetics. Activin Receptors, Type II / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Follistatin / genetics. Follistatin / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Hyperplasia. Inhibin-beta Subunits / genetics. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Proteoglycans / genetics. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17121532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Follistatin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / inhibin beta A subunit; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 145170-29-2 / betaglycan; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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62. Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Burnichon N, Amar L, Favier J, Jeunemaitre X, Plouin PF: [Achievements of the COMETE program in the genetics of pheochromocytoma]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):105-15; discussion 115-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Apports de COMETE à la génétique du phéochromocytome.
  • Fundamental research work on the COMETE tumour collection shows that SDH genes are new tumour suppressor genes and that succinate dehydrogenase inactivation induces abnormal stimulation of the hypoxia-angiogenesis pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Societies, Medical

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  • (PMID = 18663985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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63. Leiva-Salinas C, Domingo ML, Flors L: Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour: a confusing diagnosis. Arch Bronconeumol; 2010 Feb;46(2):106-7
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  • [Title] Pulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour: a confusing diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Myofibroma / diagnosis. Plasma Cell Granuloma, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnosis. Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Inflammation. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Pneumonia / etiology. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19815324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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64. Nishiuchi T, Imachi H, Fujiwara M, Murao K, Onishi H, Kiguchi T, Takimoto H, Kushida Y, Haba R, Ishida T: A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma primary arising in both adrenal glands associated with adrenal failure. Endocrine; 2009 Feb;35(1):34-7
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  • [Title] A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma primary arising in both adrenal glands associated with adrenal failure.
  • It is known that adrenal insufficiency is one of the complications in primary adrenal lymphoma, especially those with bilateral adrenal involvement.
  • The patient was transferred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors and hyponatremia.
  • He was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with primaries arising in both adrenal glands.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare extra-nodal NHL.
  • Although an appropriate treatment of this disease has not been established, our case has demonstrated that the combination of rituximab and THP-COP chemotherapy could be administered, and that it improved clinical manifestations.
  • This case raises the suggestion that malignant lymphoma should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors that present with progressive adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19002613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Babińska A, Gnacińska A, Swiatkowska-Stodulska R, Sworczak K: Myocardial infarction in a 30-year-old patient with pheochromocytoma and type 1 neurofibromatosis. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2008 Sep;118(9):517-23
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  • Chromaffinoma of the adrenal medulla (pheochromocytoma--PHEO) is a rare cause of arterial hypertension which is diagnosed incidentally or run in a family as a component of disease syndromes of the genetic origin.
  • A correct diagnosis of PHEO allows the right treatment to be administered.
  • The evaluation of the secondary arterial hypertension led to the detection of the adrenal tumor.
  • Based on the clinical presentation and the tumor characteristics, on computed tomography, PHEO was suspected.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic, right-sided adrenalectomy, and the histopathological examination definitely concurred with the diagnosis of PHEO.
  • The diagnosis toward PHEO is recommended if the patient with NF1 shows arterial hypertension.
  • Proper diagnosis and treatment protects the patient against life-threatening cardiovascular complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications


66. Perrochia H, Delfour C: [An adrenal tumor]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Feb;28(1):49
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  • [Title] [An adrenal tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur de la surrénale.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18538716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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67. Fusai G, Steinberg R, Prachalias A, Heaton ND, Spitz L, Rela M: Ex vivo liver surgery for extraadrenal pheochromocytoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Mar;22(3):282-5
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  • Using ex vivo technique, the tumour was successfully resected on the bench, as a previous attempt to remove the tumour in situ had been abandoned.
  • The surgical aspects and implications of ex vivo surgery are discussed, highlighting the increased operative risk, perioperative mortality, and poor long-term results in patients with malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery


68. Baron M, Hamou L, Laberge S, Callonnec F, Tielmans A, Dessogne P: Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):523-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature.
  • Metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands due to gynaecological neoplasms is a relatively rare condition.
  • The aim of our study was to present four cases of metastases to the adrenal gland due to endometrial adenocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CT scan and MRI have been previously used in an attempt to define the nature of the adrenal mass but this approach is of limited value in diagnosis.
  • Image-guided pathological confirmation of an adrenal lesion may significantly change the staging or management of the primary neoplasm.
  • The authors suggest that isolated adrenal metastasis should be routinely considered for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


69. Pozo J, Muñoz MT, Martos G, Argente J: Sporadic phaeochromocytoma in childhood: clinical and molecular variability. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;18(6):527-32
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  • Sporadic phaeochromocytoma is an infrequent tumour during paediatric age and may or may not be associated with specific autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) type 2 or neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1.
  • We report two cases of benign, adrenal, and unilateral phaeochromocytoma that clearly demonstrate the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of this disease during the paediatric period.
  • The second patient, an incidental finding, was practically asymptomatic and had a de novo germline point mutation in the VHL gene (Arg167Trp).
  • The frequency of de novo mutations in susceptible genes (especially the VHL gene) in paediatric patients with sporadic phaeochromocytoma and the elevated mortality of these cancer syndromes suggest that screening for mutations should be performed even in cases of non-familial sporadic phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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70. Chung SD, Wang SM, Lai MK, Huang CY, Liao CH, Huang KH, Pu YS, Chueh SC, Yu HJ: Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis after nephroureterectomy. BJU Int; 2009 Apr;103(8):1047-51
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  • [Title] Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis after nephroureterectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma (UC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 76 patients with primary renal pelvic UC were treated by nephroureterectomy (NU).
  • Inclusion criteria included nonmetastatic renal pelvic UC with no previous history of bladder cancer, concomitant ureteric lesion, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • At follow-up, eight cancer-related deaths (10.5%) were censored, and 66 patients (85.9%) were alive and disease-free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal metastases from primary renal pelvic UCs were rare.
  • The present results suggest that ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not necessary during radical NU for treating patients with renal pelvic UCs.
  • LVI appears to be a better prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome of renal pelvic UC than pT stage or tumour grade when using the current tumour-nodes-metastases staging system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / mortality. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] BJU Int. 2009 Apr;103(8):1143 [19338572.001]
  • (PMID = 19076143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Cleary S, Brouwers FM, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K, Christie DL, Lipski J, McNeil AR, Phillips JK: Expression of the noradrenaline transporter and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in normal human adrenal gland and phaeochromocytoma. Cell Tissue Res; 2005 Dec;322(3):443-53
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  • [Title] Expression of the noradrenaline transporter and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in normal human adrenal gland and phaeochromocytoma.
  • Expression of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) was examined in normal human adrenal medulla and phaeochromocytoma by using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy.
  • In normal human adrenal medulla (n=5), all chromaffin cells demonstrated strong TH, PNMT and NAT immunoreactivity.
  • Unlike the expression seen in normal human adrenal medullary tissue, NAT expression was not consistently co-localized with PNMT.
  • PNMT also showed highly variable expression that was poorly correlated with tumour adrenaline content.
  • This co-localization was not consistent in phaeochromocytoma tumour cells (n=7).
  • The altered pattern of expression for both NAT and PNMT in phaeochromocytoma indicates a significant disruption in the regulation and possibly in the function of these proteins in adrenal medullary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Chromaffin Cells / metabolism. Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis. Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism


72. Schimmer BP, Cordova M, Cheng H, Tsao A, Morris Q: A genome-wide assessment of adrenocorticotropin action in the Y1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;265-266:102-7
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  • [Title] A genome-wide assessment of adrenocorticotropin action in the Y1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line.
  • This report summarizes the genome-wide effects of ACTH on transcript accumulation in mouse adrenal Y1 cells and the relative contributions of the cAMP-, protein kinase C- and Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways to these actions of the hormone.
  • Collectively, our results suggest that Y1 adrenal cells undergo extensive remodeling upon prolonged stimulation with ACTH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Genome
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Mice. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17207920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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73. Johanssen S, Fassnacht M, Brix D, Koschker AC, Hahner S, Riedmiller H, Allolio B: [Adrenocortical carcinoma. Diagnostic work-up and treatment]. Urologe A; 2008 Feb;47(2):172-81
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  • [Transliterated title] Das Nebennierenkarzinom. Diagnostik und Therapie.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • Preoperatively, a thorough hormonal work-up is mandatory, as the hormonal status may influence the perioperative management and may also provide marker hormones for monitoring of tumour recurrence.
  • CT and MRI are equally sensitive and specific imaging tools for adrenal tumours.
  • For discerning malignancy, assessment of the fat content of the tumour and contrast media wash-out after 10 min are of great value.
  • Complete surgical resection of the tumour offers the only chance for cure.
  • Intraoperative tumour spillage should be carefully avoided.
  • Even after R0 resection, recurrence of the disease is frequent and regular follow-up for a minimum of 5 years is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18030443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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74. Khochikar MV: Management of urological cancers during pregnancy. Nat Rev Urol; 2010 Apr;7(4):195-205
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  • As these tumors are very rare among pregnant women and their symptoms might mimic those of common pregnancy-related disorders, the diagnosis is often delayed.
  • Once a urological tumor is diagnosed in a pregnant patient, appropriate steps should be taken to treat her and the fetus at the same time.
  • Common urological cancers that might occur during pregnancy include renal cancer, bladder cancer and adrenal tumors, particularly pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Urologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Management. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Urol. 2010 Jul;7(7):doi:10.1038/nrurol.2010.25-c1 [20665982.001]
  • (PMID = 20212515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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75. Ferreira U, Nardi Pedro R, Matheus WE, Prudente A, Mendonça Borges G, Rodrigues Netto N Jr: Open surgical treatment of right-sided adrenal carcinomas &gt;15 cm. Urol Int; 2007;78(1):46-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Open surgical treatment of right-sided adrenal carcinomas >15 cm.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal carcinomas are rare and are associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a single-institution experience in excising right-sided giant adrenal carcinomas, discussing the difficulties and the usage of special surgical devices to facilitate the procedure.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During June 2001 to June 2003, 18 patients with right-sided adrenal tumors were treated at the State University of Campinas Hospital--UNICAMP.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal cortical carcinoma was the histological diagnosis according to the Weiss criteria; no positive surgical margin was detected, even in those patients with invasion of the hepatic capsule.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17192732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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76. Gonsior A, Pfeiffer H, Führer D, Liatsikos E, Schwalenberg T, Stolzenburg JU: [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment]. Urologe A; 2010 May;49(5):659-68; quiz 669-70
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren. Grundlagen der Diagnostik und operativen Therapie.
  • Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity.
  • Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge.
  • This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / instrumentation. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenogenital Syndrome / diagnosis. Adrenogenital Syndrome / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopes. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20449781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a solitary tumor mass, eight cm in size, of the right adrenal gland.
  • Laboratory tests showed it to be a hormonally active, androgen secreting tumor (elevated testosterone level), which was consistent with the clinical picture of the disease.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • The finding was verified by computerized tomography and the patient was reoperated on.
  • Cytologic opinion was recidive of primary malignant disease.
  • ACC is a rare malignant epithelial tumor of adrenal cortical cells, with high malignant potential.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • A combined evaluation of clinical features, size or weight, microscopic appearance, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic data is necessary to ensure a correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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78. Parmar J, Key RE, Rainey WE: Development of an adrenocorticotropin-responsive human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Nov;93(11):4542-6
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  • CONTEXT: The molecular mechanisms regulating adrenal steroidogenesis continue to be defined.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to develop a human adrenal cell line that retained both Ang II- and ACTH-regulated corticosteroid production.
  • DESIGN: Human adrenocortical carcinoma (HAC) cells were isolated from an adrenal tumor removed from a girl presenting with virilization and hypertension.
  • CONCLUSION: The current study describes the development and characterization of an ACTH- and Ang II-responsive human adrenal cell line.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Angiotensin II / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / genetics. Colforsin / pharmacology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18713819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582572
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79. Enberg U, Hennings J, Volpe C, Hellman P, Höög A, Hamberger B, Thorén M: Increased ratio of mRNA expression of the genes CYP17 and CYP11B1 indicates autonomous cortisol production in adrenocortical tumors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Nov;32(10):810-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased ratio of mRNA expression of the genes CYP17 and CYP11B1 indicates autonomous cortisol production in adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: Due to increased use of imaging techniques, adrenal incidentalomas are frequently detected.
  • The majority are non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors.
  • We have previously shown that expression of the gene CYP17, coding for the enzyme in the cortisol pathway, correlates with cortisol release from adrenocortical tumors in vitro.
  • The aim of this study was to compare clinical data with mRNA expression of CYP17 and CYP11B1 in adrenocortical tumors from patients with and without Cushing's syndrome and to identify adrenal tumors that may cause subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective study of 34 patients undergoing adrenalectomy due to an adrenal tumor.
  • In the adrenal gland the mRNA expression of the genes CYP17 and CYP11B1 was studied with in situ hybridisation technique.
  • RESULTS: The median ratio of CYP17/CYP11B1 expression in tumors from patients with Cushing's syndrome was significantly higher than the median ratio in the non-hyperfunctioning tumors.
  • Tumors from 2 patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome had ratios within the upper range for non-hyperfunctioning tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ratio between the expression of the genes CYP17 and CYP11B1 in tumors from patients with Cushing's syndrome is significantly higher than in the non-hyperfunctioning tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / urine. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19564722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.14.19 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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80. Karmisholt J: [Adrenal gland tumor biopsy]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Mar 16;171(12):1015; author reply 1015
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumor biopsy].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Jan 26;171(5):306-8 [19176156.001]
  • (PMID = 19306484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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81. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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82. Moreau F, Mittre H, Benhaim A, Bois C, Bertherat J, Carreau S, Reznik Y: Aromatase expression in the normal human adult adrenal and in adrenocortical tumors: biochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jan;160(1):93-9
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  • [Title] Aromatase expression in the normal human adult adrenal and in adrenocortical tumors: biochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies.
  • Its expression in the adrenal is poorly studied except for the rare estrogen-producing adrenocortical tumors.
  • In order to further characterize aromatase expression in the adrenal, we evaluated the aromatase enzyme activity, Cyp19a1 gene expression level, and promoter utilization in normal adrenal tissues and in adrenocortical secreting tumors.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Six normal adult adrenals (NA), 2 feminizing adrenal tumors (FT), 10 cortisol-producing adenomas with overt (CS, n=4) or sub-clinical Cushing syndrome (SCS, n=6) and 3 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) were studied.
  • Promoter regions PII and PI.4-derived transcripts were also studied in NA, FT, and other steroid-producing tumors by a semi-quantitative comparative RT-PCR.
  • Immunofluorescence analysis was performed in normal human adrenal tissues.
  • RESULTS: Aromatase activity was detected in NA tissues and in all tumor subtypes, at high levels in both FT.
  • In NA, aromatase immunofluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of steroidogenic cells, mainly from zona reticularis.
  • Compared with NA, aromatase transcript levels were similar in CS and APA, lower in SCS and similar or higher in FT.
  • Promoter analysis suggested predominant PII utilization in NA, APA, and SCS, but similar PII and PI.4 utilization in CS tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Aromatase is expressed at similar levels in normal adrenal and in adrenocortical tumors, but at variably high levels in FT.
  • Different promoter utilization patterns are found among tumor subtypes.

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  • (PMID = 18974231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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83. Sood SK, Balasubramanian SP, Harrison BJ: Percutaneous biopsy of adrenal and extra-adrenal retroperitoneal lesions: beware of catecholamine secreting tumours! Surgeon; 2007 Oct;5(5):279-81
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  • [Title] Percutaneous biopsy of adrenal and extra-adrenal retroperitoneal lesions: beware of catecholamine secreting tumours!
  • An increasing number of these patients are discovered to have incidental adrenal or retroperitoneal tumours.
  • Approximately 5% of all incidentally detected adrenal lesions are phaeochromocytomas and 25% of phaeochromocytomas are discovered during imaging studies for unrelated disorders.
  • 10% of phaeochromocytomas are extra-adrenal.
  • METHODS: Retrospective case notes review of three patients with adrenal/retroperitoneal lesions who had percutaneous biopsy before biochemical testing and tertiary referral.
  • FINDINGS: Adrenal/retroperitoneal lesions are still being biopsied without prior biochemical testing.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of a catecholamine secreting tumour should be considered in adrenal and extra-adrenal retroperitoneal lesions.
  • If a biopsy is planned, rarely required in adrenal lesions, phaeochromocytoma must be excluded by biochemical testing prior to the biopsy to avoid potential life threatening complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17958227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
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84. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • These tumors arise from tissues with distinct embryonic origins.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • The tumors are frequently large enough to provide material for biological studies in addition to diagnostic investigations.
  • In France many patients with hypersecretory tumors are referred to the Hypertension Unit of Georges Pompidou European Hospital, and to the Department of Endocrinology at Cochin Hospital, Paris.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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85. Chen HY: Ruptured pheochromocytoma presents as acute myocardial infarction. Am J Emerg Med; 2009 Oct;27(8):1018.e5-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pheochromocytomas are uncommon catecholamine-secreting tumors.
  • The diversity of presentation often delays the diagnosis and is sometimes with catastrophic outcome.
  • Abdominal computer tomogram demonstrated a large left adrenal tumor with fluid accumulation.
  • Finally, the patient underwent surgical treatment and pathology confirmed the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications


86. Kornberg A, Küpper B, Tannapfel A, Katenkamp K, Thrum K, Habrecht O, Wilberg J: Long-term survival after recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in liver transplant patients: clinical patterns and outcome variables. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;36(3):275-80
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  • Furthermore, patients were converted to a Sirolimus (SRL)-based immunosuppressive regimen after tumor relapse.
  • Sites of first tumor recurrence were lung (n = 5), liver (n = 4), bone (n = 4), cerebrum (n = 1), adrenal gland (n = 1) and peritoneum (n = 1).
  • Multivariate analysis identified late (>24 months) posttransplant tumor relapse (P = 0.039) and surgical therapy (P = 0.014) as independent predictors of long-term survival after tumor relapse.
  • Five patients are tumour-free alive for a median of 65 months after surgical resection of recurrent HCC and conversion to SRL.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19857941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Castilho LN, Simoes FA, Santos AM, Rodrigues TM, dos Santos Junior CA: Pheochromocytoma: a long-term follow-up of 24 patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Int Braz J Urol; 2009 Jan-Feb;35(1):24-31; discussion 32-5
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  • PURPOSE: Pheochromocytomas are tumors derived from chromaffin cells that often secrete catecholamines and cause hypertension.
  • The clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on the presence of excessive production of catecholamines.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1995 to September 2006, 24 patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • The inclusion criteria of patients in this retrospective study were laparoscopic approach, unilateral or bilateral adrenal tumor, pathological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and a minimum follow-up of 18 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Catecholamines / analysis. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19254395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines
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88. Vyvey M: Steroids as pain relief adjuvants. Can Fam Physician; 2010 Dec;56(12):1295-7, e415
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  • Ten years ago he was diagnosed with a pancreatic carcinoid tumour and underwent a Whipple procedure.
  • Since then, his symptoms have been well controlled with intermittent chemotherapy despite his known liver and multiple spinal metastases.One year ago, Mr. C. developed bony pain from his cervical spine disease and was started on hydromorphone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Analgesics / adverse effects. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / chemically induced. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / etiology. Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 21156893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng; fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Analgesics
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001922
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89. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • Surgical excision was performed for large left symptomatic mass, by open laparotomy, and biopsy for right minor adrenal lesion.
  • Histology confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma for both masses.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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90. Rodríguez Piñeiro MI, Benchekroun G, de Fornel-Thibaud P, Maurey-Guenec C, Garnier F, Rosenberg D: Accuracy of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoluminometric assay for differentiating ACTH-dependent from ACTH-independent hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. J Vet Intern Med; 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):850-5
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  • Dogs displaying feedback inhibition after the dexamethasone suppression test, adrenal symmetry, or both were considered to have ADHAC.
  • AIHAC was demonstrated by adrenal tumor histology.
  • The 95% confidence interval was 85-100% for sensitivity and 97-100% for specificity in AIHAC diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19496909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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91. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • [Title] [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Przydatność ultrasonograficznego środka kontrastujacego Levovist w diagnostyce róznicowej guzów nadnerczy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • Non hormone-secreting tumors provide the most complicated diagnostic difficulties.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to define the usefulness of contrasting agent Levovist in differential diagnostics of adrenal tumors and its influence on sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination and to establish patients qualification criteria for surgical procedures.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 3D ultrasound could be useful in cases of big adrenal tumors--over 3 cm diameter after application of ultrasound contrast agents.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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92. Kamari Y, Sharabi Y, Leiba A, Peleg E, Apter S, Grossman E: Peripartum hypertension from pheochromocytoma: a rare and challenging entity. Am J Hypertens; 2005 Oct;18(10):1306-12
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  • Cardiac function was normalized after surgical resection of a pheochromocytoma from her left adrenal;.
  • The patient underwent a laparosopic resection of the tumor;.
  • An ultrasound revealed a 5-cm mass in the left adrenal.
  • She underwent a left adrenalectomy at the 17th week of pregnancy, which confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma;.
  • Chemical studies were positive and imaging revealed a left adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • A healthy newborn was delivered and resection of the adrenal tumor confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Echocardiography. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / diagnosis. Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / surgery


93. Feng C, Li HZ, Yan WG, Luo YF, Cao JL: [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;27(8):486-8
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  • [Title] [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (Syn) for differential diagnosis of different kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • METHODS: The samples of 69 adrenal gland tumors and 4 normal adrenal glands were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin.
  • RESULTS: In the normal adrenal gland, CgA and Syn was exclusively detected in the medulla.
  • CgA was detected in all pheochromocytomas 25/25 (100%), and gave less or no expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Syn was detected in adrenocortical adenomas 27/28 (96.4%), adrenocortical carcinoma 7/8 (87.5%), pheochromocytoma 24/25 (96.0%) and adrenal metastatic carcinoma 6/8 (75.0%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: There is statistically significant difference of CgA expression between adrenalcortical and adrenal medullary tumors, and also between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • CgA and Syn are immunohistochemically reliable markers in the differential diagnosis of various kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16188147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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94. Bernichtein S, Peltoketo H, Huhtaniemi I: Adrenal hyperplasia and tumours in mice in connection with aberrant pituitary-gonadal function. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):164-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal hyperplasia and tumours in mice in connection with aberrant pituitary-gonadal function.
  • Gonadectomy induces in certain inbred stains of mice adrenal hyperplasia and tumorigenesis, originating from the putative subcapsular stem/progenitor cell layer.
  • This response is apparently triggered by the elevated post-gonadectomy levels of luteinising hormone (LH), followed by ectopic upregulation of adrenal LH/chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) receptors (Lhcgr).
  • The clear strain dependence of this adrenal response to gonadectomy prompted us to study its genetic basis.
  • Gonadectomy induced similar upregulation of adrenal Lhcgr in both parental strains and their crosses, irrespective of the tumour status, indicating that ectopic expression of this receptor is not the immediate cause of tumours.
  • Hence, post-gonadectomy adrenal tumorigenesis in DBA/2J mice is a dominant trait, not a direct consequence of adrenal Lhcgr expression, and is driven by a complex genetic architecture.
  • A promising candidate gene in the tumorigenesis linkage region is Sfrp1 (secreted frizzled-related protein 1), a tumour suppressor gene, which was down-regulated in the neoplastic tissue.
  • Our findings may have relevance to the human pathogenesis of macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and postmenopausal adrenocortical tumours.
  • A distinctly different adrenal response was observed in TG mice overexpressing LH or CG, or a constitutively activated form of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr).
  • The cause of this response is not related to direct LH/CG action, but merely to adrenal response to chronically elevated oestrogen levels.
  • This phenotype is reminiscent of the rare 'black adenomas' of the human adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Gonads / physiopathology. Hyperplasia. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19007852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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95. Duftner C, Dejaco C, Schirmer M: [Polymyalgia rheumatica]. Internist (Berl); 2009 Jan;50(1):51-7; quiz 58-9
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  • Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease with unknown aetiology, affecting predominately people of middle age and older.
  • Besides clinical symptoms and diagnostics, imaging techniques including sonography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide evidence of typical inflammatory lesions with bilateral bursitis subdeltoidea or subacromialis, tenosynovitis of the biceps tendon sheath and/or synovitis of the shoulder joints and thus may support the diagnosis of this disease in difficult cases.
  • Whether immunosuppressants, such as methotrexate and tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are effective in the therapy of PMR has still not yet been clarified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Polymyalgia Rheumatica / diagnosis. Polymyalgia Rheumatica / drug therapy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19099273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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96. Liu YQ, Zhang HX, Wang GL, Ma LL, Huang Y: A giant cystic adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a case report. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Feb 5;123(3):372-4
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  • [Title] A giant cystic adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20193264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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97. Gedik GK, Hoefnagel CA, Bais E, Olmos RA: 131I-MIBG therapy in metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Apr;35(4):725-33
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  • Response to (131)I-MIBG treatment was evaluated by objective as tumour response, biochemical and subjective response.
  • Objective tumour response was achieved in 47% of the patients.
  • Although complete tumour response was not observed, the palliation and control of tumour function by (131)I-MIBG therapy may be valuable for the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thoracic Neoplasms / mortality. Thoracic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18071700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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98. Tahrani AA, Macleod AF: A diagnostic dilemma in diagnosing and managing an incidental phaeochromocytoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Apr;114(4):204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Incidental adrenal tumours are a common radiological finding.
  • We report a patient who had a phaeochromocytoma presented as an incidental adrenal mass on abdominal CT during investigations for recurrent chest infections.
  • MIBG scan showed increased uptake in the adrenal mass.
  • Histological examination of the adrenal mass was consistent with phaeochromocytoma.
  • Removal of the adrenal mass resulted in normalisation of blood pressure and abolishing of the patient's symptoms.
  • This case highlights the difficulty in deciding on further management of patients presenting with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / administration & dosage. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Catecholamines / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16705554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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99. Mucha SA, Kunert-Radek J, Pomorski L: Positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) in the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma metastases. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):452-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The efficacy of these procedures has been limited by the aggressiveness of the disease and metastatic spread at the time of surgery.
  • Persistently elevated levels of calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or their increase postoperatively are indicative for residual or recurrent disease.
  • In five patients with postoperative calcitonin ranging from 164 to > 2000 ng/l (normal < 10 ng/l) no tumour lesions were found using other imaging methods.
  • PET detected tumour manifestations in the neck and the mediastinum in two patients, in the lung and the left adrenal gland in one case and in the neck and the liver in another patient.
  • As a result of surgery for the removal of a residual tumour or metastases the accuracy of diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in all four cases and a decrease in CT and CEA levels was observed in 3/4 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17006852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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100. Vuorenoja S, Mohanty BP, Arola J, Huhtaniemi I, Toppari J, Rahman NA: Hecate-CGbeta conjugate and gonadotropin suppression shows two distinct mechanisms of action in the treatment of adrenocortical tumors in transgenic mice expressing Simian Virus 40 T antigen under inhibin-alpha promoter. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):549-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hecate-CGbeta conjugate and gonadotropin suppression shows two distinct mechanisms of action in the treatment of adrenocortical tumors in transgenic mice expressing Simian Virus 40 T antigen under inhibin-alpha promoter.
  • Lytic peptide Hecate (23-amino acid (AA)) fused with a 15-AA fragment of human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (CG-beta), Hecate-CGbeta conjugate (H-CGbeta-c) selectively binds to and destroys tumor cells expressing LH/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (Lhcgr).
  • Transgenic mice (6.5 month old) expressing SV40 T-antigen under the inhibin-alpha promoter (inhalpha/Tag) presenting with Lhcgr expressing adrenal tumors were treated either with H-CGbeta-c, GnRH antagonist (GnRH-a), estradiol (E(2); only females) or their combinations for 1 month.
  • GnRH-a and H-CGbeta-c treatments were successful in males (adrenal weights 14 +/- 2.8 mg and 60 +/- 26 vs 237 +/- 59 mg in controls; P < 0.05).
  • Histopathologically, GnRH-a apparently destroyed the adrenal parenchyma leaving only the fibrotic capsule with few necrotic foci.
  • In females, H-CGbeta-c was totally ineffective, whereas GnRH-a (19 +/- 5 mg) or E(2) (77 +/- 50 mg) significantly reduced the adrenal weights compared with controls (330 +/- 70 mg).
  • Adrenal morphometry, cell proliferation markers, post-treatment suppression of serum progesterone, and quantitative RT-PCR of GATA-4, Lhcgr, and GATA-6 further supported the positive outcome.
  • H-CGbeta-c selectively killed the Lhcgr expressing tumor cells, whereas GnRH-a blocked tumor progression through gonadotropin suppression, emphasizing the gonadotropin dependency of these adrenocortical tumors.
  • If extrapolated to humans, H-CGbeta-c could be considered for the treatment of gonadotropin-dependent adrenal tumors in males, whereas in females gonadotropin suppression, but not H-CGbeta-c, would work better.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / metabolism. Gonadotropins / metabolism. Inhibins / genetics. Melitten / analogs & derivatives. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19261682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / hecate-chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit conjugate; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 20449-79-0 / Melitten; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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