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1. Velavan P, Morris JL: Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Oct-Dec;51(4):337-8

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  • [Title] Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnosis. Tachycardia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16388187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • TREATMENT: She underwent surgical removal of the tumour.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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3. Abma EM, Kluin PM, Dullaart RP: Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism. Neth J Med; 2008 Jun;66(6):252-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism.
  • We describe a case of hypokalaemic hypertension due to hyperaldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenocortical tumour with unfavourable histopathology suggestive of malignancy.
  • The patient's clinical course was uneventful, until she presented with extensive metastases of adrenal carcinoma four years later.
  • Although malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumours are very rare, the present case underscores that clinicians should be aware that primary hyperaldosteronism can occur in the context of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperkalemia / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18689909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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4. de Lloyd AC, Munigoti S, Davies JS, Scott-Coombes D: A rare and life-threatening cause of pseudo-obstruction in two surgical patients. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • An abdominal scan revealed an adrenal tumour (subsequently found to be a phaeochromocytoma) but no structural cause for obstruction.
  • An abdominal scan identified an infiltrative adrenal tumour but no mechanical cause for bowel obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 22797198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027567
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5. Wang X, Liang L, Jiang Y: Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature. Acta Paediatr; 2007 Jun;96(6):930-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature.
  • AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and outcome of children adrenal tumors presenting with hypertension.
  • METHODS: The records of nine children under 16 years of age with adrenal tumours presenting with hypertension were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Abdominal mass was palpable only in one patient at diagnosis.
  • Abdominal computed topography showed adrenal mass in all patients.
  • Tumours were completely resected for each patient.
  • The median tumour weight was 73 g (11-530 g) and the size ranged from 1.5 x 1.5 to 12 x 14 cm2.
  • In one case, adrenal pheochromocytoma first occurred and non-functioning islet cell tumour successively occurred at pancreas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adrenal tumours presented with hypertension showed an atypical course, variable presentation.
  • We report a unique case of adrenal pheochromocytoma followed by the occurrence of non-functioning islet cell tumour.
  • Imaging techniques are important to detect adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vanilmandelic Acid / blood


6. Afuwape O, Ladipo JK, Ogun O, Adeleye J, Irabor D: Pheochromocytoma in an accessory adrenal gland: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:6271

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma in an accessory adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Very few cases of pheochromocytoma in functional accessory adrenal glands have been documented in literature.
  • Investigations revealed a suprarenal mass, which was diagnosed as an accessory gland adrenal tumour at surgery.
  • This shows that accessory adrenal glands can be a basis for development of pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 19918568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769278
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7. Rajbabu K, Barber NJ, Rai SK, Rimington PD: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy - a cure for male pattern baldness. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2007 Jan;89(1):W9-11
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  • The diagnosis of an androgen-secreting adrenal tumour was made and she underwent a laparoscopic retroperitoneal right adrenalectomy with an uneventful speedy recovery, being discharged in less than 48 h, underlining the clear advantage of this approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Alopecia / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Testosterone / secretion. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17316512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963535
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8. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour.
  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • In some cases, however, these tumours have exhibited malignant behaviour.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection with subsequent imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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9. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • The immunohistochemical study of the excised tumour showed strong positive staining of interleukin (IL)-6.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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10. Onol FF, Baytekin F, Dikbas O, Ergönenç T, Tanidir Y: A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking adrenal tumour in an adult: is differential diagnosis truly possible? J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;62(2):187-9
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  • [Title] A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking adrenal tumour in an adult: is differential diagnosis truly possible?
  • This is a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst featuring uncommon histological findings, which raises the question whether these benign lesions can always be accurately differentiated from teratomatoid cystic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19181637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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12. Meyer-Rochow GY, Soon PS, Delbridge LW, Sywak MS, Bambach CP, Clifton-Bligh RJ, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for phaeochromocytoma. ANZ J Surg; 2009 May;79(5):367-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is now accepted as the procedure of choice for the resection of benign adrenocortical tumours, but few studies have assessed whether the outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal phaeochromocytoma are similar to that of other adrenal tumour types.
  • Clinical and operative data were obtained from an adrenal tumour database and hospital records.
  • Despite the greater size of the phaeochromocytomas compared to the remaining adrenal tumour types (44 mm vs 30 mm, P < 0.01), however, rate of conversion and morbidity were no different.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma is a safe procedure with similar outcomes to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for other adrenal tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19566519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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13. Keir JA, Wilbourn M, Anslow P, Milford CA: Case report of glomus jugulare tumour associated with a posterior fossa cyst. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 Jan;123(1):126-8
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  • [Title] Case report of glomus jugulare tumour associated with a posterior fossa cyst.
  • A subgroup of complex glomus jugulare tumours exists.
  • This includes: multiple, giant or neuropeptide-secreting lesions; those associated with other lesions, such as dural arterio-venous malformation or an adrenal tumour; and tumours in which there has been previous treatment with adverse outcome.
  • To our knowledge, we present the first case of a glomus jugulare tumour associated with a posterior fossa cyst.
  • This entity should be included in the subgroup of complex glomus jugulare tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachnoid Cysts / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hearing Loss, Sudden / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18047759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Reusch CE, Sieber-Ruckstuhl N, Wenger M, Lutz H, Perren A, Pospischil A: Histological evaluation of the adrenal glands of seven dogs with hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane. Vet Rec; 2007 Feb 17;160(7):219-24
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  • [Title] Histological evaluation of the adrenal glands of seven dogs with hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane.
  • The lesions in the adrenal glands of seven dogs with hyperadrenocorticism that had been treated with trilostane were studied histologically.
  • The glands of the six dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism had moderate to severe cortical hyperplasia that was either diffuse or nodular.
  • In the dog with a functional adrenal tumour the non-tumour bearing adrenal gland showed mild nodular hyperplasia.
  • Five of the seven dogs had variable degrees of adrenal necrosis, which was severe in two of them.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dihydrotestosterone / analogs & derivatives. Dog Diseases / pathology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17308018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4900
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary record
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Rec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; L0FPV48Q5R / trilostane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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15. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


16. Manz M, Schmeer T, Horcic M, Meier R, Maurer CA: [Bronchogenic cyst: a rare cause of a retroperitoneal mass]. Zentralbl Chir; 2009 Dec;134(6):570-2
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  • The histopathological definition consists of the presence of ciliated epithelium together with cartilage or bronchial mucous glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 49-year-old patient with the incidental finding of a large cystic mass between the diaphragm and the stomach.
  • Imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumour.
  • Histological examination revealed the surprising diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions.
  • Regardless of being asymptomatic most of the time, surgical resection is recommended to obtain definitive histological diagnosis and avoid future complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 19424941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Mitterberger M, Pinggera GM, Peschel R, Bartsch G, Pallwein L, Frauscher F: The use of three-dimensional computed tomography for assessing patients before laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery. BJU Int; 2006 Nov;98(5):1068-73
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  • [Title] The use of three-dimensional computed tomography for assessing patients before laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) in delineating the relationship of the adrenal mass to adjacent normal structures in preparation for laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multislice CT (1 mm slices, 0.5 s rotation time) was used to evaluate 12 patients before adrenal-sparing surgery for aldosterone-producing adenoma or phaeochromocytoma.
  • (ii) surface representations only of the interesting structures (kidney, adrenal tumour, vessels) represented in different colours and depicted together in a 3D scene using the software package 3DVIEWNIX.
  • RESULTS: In all, 14 adrenal masses in 12 patients were evaluated with 3D-CT; the number and location of lesions was accurate in all cases with both rendering techniques.
  • The coloured surface-rendered images showed a consistently better delineation of the adrenal tumour from the normal tissue than did the volume-rendering technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16945119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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18. Zacharakis E, Ribal MJ, Zacharakis E, Patel HR: Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metachronous contralateral adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):185

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metachronous contralateral adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of metachronous solitary metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the contralateral adrenal gland treated by laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old man presented to our institution for regular follow up, 2 years after a right radical nephrectomy with preservation of the ipsilateral adrenal gland, for a primary renal cell carcinoma.
  • The patient remained asymptomatic but an abdominal computed tomography scan on follow up revealed a 6.5 x 4 cm2 mass in the left adrenal gland.
  • A positron emission tomography scan was also performed to rule out other possible metastases, and a magnetic resonance imaging scan was used for accurate localization and determination of resectability of the adrenal tumour.
  • A bone scan, metabolic screen, liver and renal function tests were all within normal limits.
  • The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or adrenal insufficiency has been observed during 12 months follow up.
  • CONCLUSION: Metachronous contra lateral adrenal metastases from primary renal cell carcinoma are very rare but should always be suspected in any nephrectomised patient presenting with an adrenal tumour.

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  • [Cites] World J Surg. 1999 Apr;23(4):389-96 [10030863.001]
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  • (PMID = 18822119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2562357
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19. Lumachi F, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Cristina Marzola M, Cecchin D, Grassetto G, Bui F: Sensitivity and positive predictive value of CT, MRI and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in localizing pheochromocytomas: a prospective study. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Jul;27(7):583-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A series of 32 consecutive patients (16 men, 16 women; median age 43 years, range 15-71 years) with biochemically confirmed pheochromocytoma underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and meta-[I]iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) whole-body scintigraphy prior to adrenalectomy or excision of extra-adrenal tumour (paraganglioma).
  • The tumour was right-sided in 16 (50%) patients, left-sided in 13 (41%), extra-adrenal (sympathetic ganglia, upper abdomen) in two (6%) and bilateral in one (3%) patient.
  • Overall, the median greatest diameter (size) of the tumour was 35 mm (range, 15-90 mm).
  • The three patients with false negative scintigraphy had an intra-adrenal tumour, ranging from 20 to 50 mm in size.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16794519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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20. Vassiliadi D, Tsagarakis S: Unusual causes of Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1245-52
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  • Although in the majority of the patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), hypercortisolism is due to ACTH hypersecretion by a pituitary tumour or to ectopic ACTH secretion from an extrapituitary neoplastic lesion or to autonomous cortisol secretion by an adrenal tumour, in occasional patients a much rarer entity may be the cause of the syndrome.
  • (ii) ACTH hypersecretion due to ectopic CRH or CRH-like peptide secretion by various neoplasms;.
  • (iii) ACTH-independent cortisol hypersecretion from ectopic or bilateral adrenal adenomas;.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Female. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Megestrol Acetate / adverse effects. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Ritonavir / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18209862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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21. Vandwalle J, Spie R, Jarry G, Agaesse V, Petit J, Saint F: [Pheochromocytoma and cardiogenic failure: an indication for emergency adrenalectomy]. Prog Urol; 2010 Jul;20(7):498-502
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  • [Transliterated title] Phéochromocytome et défaillance cardiaque : une indication exceptionnelle de surrénalectomie en urgence ou semi-urgence.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify cardiogenic failure or cardiogenic shock associated with pheochromocytoma diagnosis and emergency adrenalectomy.
  • The first diagnosis was a viral myocarditis in those three cases.
  • The diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma was done in a second step by the association of adrenal tumour on abdominal CT scan and detection of significantly elevated plasma/urine catecholamine.
  • When diagnosis fails to be performed, patients have a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Emergency Treatment. Heart Failure / etiology. Heart Failure / prevention & control. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Shock, Cardiogenic / etiology. Shock, Cardiogenic / prevention & control

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 20656271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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22. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


23. Andía Melero VM, García Centeno R, Fernández JB, Vigovich C, Sánchez García-Cervigón P, Jara Albarrán A: [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Nov;56(9):470-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores suprarrenales feminizantes en España: aportación de un caso y revisión de los cinco pacientes descritos.
  • Feminizing adrenal tumours are very rare.
  • We report the clinical and hormonal study of a case, a 49 years old male, since his first consultation until his death 6 years after the initial diagnosis, and a review of the other 5 Spanish patients previously published.
  • His initial symptoms were gynecomastia and libido decrease, with increase of plasmatic and urinary oestrogen levels, plasma testosterone near low normal level and a right adrenal gland tumour that, after its removal, showed a benign histology and was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Three years after, initial symptoms returned, with oestrogen, glucocorticoid and androgen hypersecretion, tumour local relapse and peritoneal, liver and lung metastasis.
  • The main special feature of this case is the apparently benign initial adrenal tumour with only oestrogen hypersecretion, and its relapse 3 years later with secretion of several steroid hormones, generalized metastasis and no response to medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Feminization / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20096213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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24. Wiedmann MW, Mössner J, Stumvoll M, Führer D: Case report: extreme CgA elevation under PPI confounding assessment of adrenal mass. Z Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul;47(7):671-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report: extreme CgA elevation under PPI confounding assessment of adrenal mass.
  • Measurement of chromogranin A (CgA) level in blood can be used to monitor neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Here, we report on a patient with an incidental left-sided adrenal tumour and elevated CgA level.
  • Adrenalectomy did not confirm clinically suspected diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • Postoperative follow-up was remarkable for a persistently elevated CgA level suspecting another neuroendocrine tumour which could not be detected despite extensive investigations.
  • Finally, it was discovered that continuous proton-pump inhibitor administration for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease had caused a falsely elevated CgA level.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Chromogranin A / blood. Proton Pump Inhibitors / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19606410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
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25. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


26. Lumachi F, Basso SM, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Favia G: Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4559-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal masses (incidentalomas) are relatively frequent and unsuspected incidentalomas (AI) of more than 1 cm in size may be found in 1-5% of patients who have undergone abdominal or chest computed tomography (CT)-scan for unrelated reasons.
  • Once an AI is detected, the two major questions are whether the patient has biochemical evidence of adrenal hyperfunction, and whether the mass is an adrenal metastasis or a malignant adrenal tumour.
  • A single test for disease probabilities is not always more cost-effective than two-test approaches and it has been shown that the cumulative sensitivity and accuracy of both FNAC + magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FNAC + norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy reach 100%, at a similar cost-to-accuracy ratio (7.5 vs. 7.0), whilst the strategy CT-scan + MRI together is less sensitive at a lower cost-to-accuracy ratio.
  • However, image-guided FNAC in conjunction with MRI as the exclusive imaging test has the major role and cost-effectiveness in the management of patients with AL, and should be considered the strategy of choice in distinguishing between benign and malignant non-functioning adrenal masses of more than 2 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):446. Fabia, Gennaro [corrected to Favia, Gennaro]
  • (PMID = 16334141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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27. Lehmann TP, Biernacka-Łukanty JM, Saraco N, Langlois D, Li JY, Trzeciak WH: Temporal pattern of the induction of SF-1 gene expression by the signal transduction pathway involving 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Acta Biochim Pol; 2005;52(2):485-91
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  • The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of stimulation of the cAMP-dependent pathway on the expression of an orphan nuclear receptor, SF-1/Ad4BP in mouse adrenal tumour, Y-1 cells in culture.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Animals. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. CREB-Binding Protein / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / genetics. Colforsin / pharmacology. Cycloheximide / pharmacology. Dactinomycin / pharmacology. Histone Acetyltransferases / genetics. Mice. Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15912208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1734-154X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica Polonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Pol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Crebbp protein, mouse; 0 / Ncoa1 protein, mouse; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; EC 2.3.1.48 / CREB-Binding Protein; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1
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28. Gagliardi L, Hotu C, Casey G, Braund WJ, Ling KH, Dodd T, Manavis J, Devitt PG, Cutfield R, Rudzki Z, Scott HS, Torpy DJ: Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jun;70(6):883-91
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  • [Title] Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome due to familial ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) has been reported in small kindreds.
  • DESIGN: Clinical studies of three kindreds for adrenal tumours or early Cushing's and molecular studies of adrenal tumours (AIMAH-01).
  • PATIENTS: Thirty-three individuals, from three kindreds, were screened for perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or adrenal tumours.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Patients underwent clinical, biochemical and adrenal imaging investigations.
  • Adrenal VP receptor (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, AVPR2) expression (AIMAH-01) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • RESULTS: AIMAH-01 had three siblings with Cushing's, and four individuals with suppressed ACTH/aberrant VP responses and/or adrenal nodules.
  • RT-PCR showed adrenal overexpression of AVPR1A and AVPR1B.
  • The adrenal tumour from one patient also stained weakly for VP and AVPR2.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal nodules, suppressed ACTH and increased VP sensitivity may represent preclinical disease, allowing early detection, and treatment, of affected individuals.
  • In AIMAH-01, increased VP sensitivity may be due to adrenal VP receptor overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Pedigree. Vasopressins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Vasopressin / genetics. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19018784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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29. Kelly SN, McKenna TJ, Young LS: Coregulatory protein-orphan nuclear receptor interactions in the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol; 2005 Jul;186(1):33-42
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  • [Title] Coregulatory protein-orphan nuclear receptor interactions in the human adrenal cortex.
  • The capacity of the adrenal to produce steroids is controlled in part through the transcriptional regulation of steroid enzymes.
  • We hypothesised that, in the presence of secretagogues, SF-1 and nur77 may differentially interact with coregulatory proteins in the human adrenal cortex.
  • Both coregulatory proteins, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC-1) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormones (SMRT), were found to be expressed in the zona fasciculata and reticularis in the human adrenal cortex, but were largely absent from the zona glomerulosa.
  • In the H295R adrenal tumour cell line, SF-1 and nur77 transcripts were increased in cells in the presence of forskolin, whereas nur77 mRNA was also induced with angiotensin II (AII).
  • Orphan nuclear receptor-coregulatory protein interactions may have consequences for the regulation of key steroidogenic enzymes in the human adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / chemistry. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / analysis. Receptors, Steroid / analysis. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiotensin II / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Histone Acetyltransferases. Homeodomain Proteins. Humans. Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2. Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1. Protein Interaction Mapping / methods. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Stimulation, Chemical. Zona Fasciculata / chemistry. Zona Reticularis / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16002533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NCOR2 protein, human; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / NCOA1 protein, human; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1
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30. Pigny P, Cardot-Bauters C, Do Cao C, Vantyghem MC, Carnaille B, Pattou F, Caron P, Wemeau JL, Porchet N: Should genetic testing be performed in each patient with sporadic pheochromocytoma at presentation? Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Feb;160(2):227-31
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  • BACKGROUND: According to previous studies, around 15% of patients with an apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma and a negative family history had a hereditary disease.
  • Patients with extra-adrenal tumours were excluded.
  • Among them, six had a bilateral pheochromocytoma and only two had a unilateral tumour.
  • If the guidelines for genetic screening were age of onset less than 50 or bilateral pheochromocytoma, no patients with a hereditary tumour would be missed and a 24% cost reduction would be achieved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to these data, a genetic predisposition test for hereditary pheochromocytoma seems not recommended in patients with a unilateral adrenal tumour diagnosed after 50 in the absence of familial, clinical, biological or imaging features for a familial disease.


31. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Tancić-Gajić M, Vujović S, Tatić S, Stojanović M, Ivović M, Drezgić M: [Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2008 May-Jun;136(5-6):295-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1].
  • CASE OUTLINE: A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT).
  • Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy).
  • The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours with fatal outcome if not duly recognized and cured.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


33. Alamdari FI, Ljungberg B: Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2005;39(4):277-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of adrenal metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of all stages, its correlation with clinicopathological variables and its impact on survival.
  • The accuracy of the available preoperative radiological examinations was evaluated and any adrenal involvement was compared with other clinical and histopathological findings.
  • RESULTS: Ipsilateral adrenal tumour involvement was detected in 17/321 patients (5.3%).
  • In four of these patients, the adrenal gland was the only preoperatively found metastatic site.
  • Factors predicting the presence of ipsilateral adrenal metastases were male gender, tumour size, vein invasion, renal capsule and perirenal fat invasion.
  • Tumour location within the kidney and tumour side had no predictive value for the presence of adrenal metastasis.
  • The presence of ipsilateral adrenal involvement was a significant adverse prognostic variable, indicating a short survival time (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral adrenal metastasis is a highly adverse prognostic factor.
  • In the TNM staging system, adrenal gland involvement should be staged as M1a.
  • Ipsilateral adrenalectomy in conjunction with radical nephrectomy should be performed if an adrenal lesion cannot be cleared of suspicion after preoperative radiological imaging, as in locally advanced tumours.
  • The adrenal gland can be left in situ if the ipsilateral adrenal gland is assessed as normal at the preoperative investigation and perioperatively by the surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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34. Meinardi JR, Wolffenbuttel BH, Dullaart RP: Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: a clinical challenge. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):245-54
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  • Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder, characterized by repeated episodes of cortisol excess interspersed by periods of normal cortisol secretion.
  • Our review of 65 reported cases demonstrates that cyclic CS originates in 54% of cases from a pituitary corticotroph adenoma, in 26% from an ectopic ACTH-producing tumour and in about 11% from an adrenal tumour, the remainder being unclassified.
  • In cases of suspected ectopic ACTH production, specific biochemical testing for carcinoids or neuroendocrine tumours is required, including measurements of serotonin in platelets and/or urine, chromogranin A and calcitonin.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .
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  • (PMID = 17766705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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35. Schaefer S, Shipotko M, Meyer S, Ivan D, Klose KJ, Waldmann J, Langer P, Kann PH: Natural course of small adrenal lesions in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: an endoscopic ultrasound imaging study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 May;158(5):699-704
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  • [Title] Natural course of small adrenal lesions in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: an endoscopic ultrasound imaging study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenal lesion is one of the features of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
  • This study aimed to assess prevalence, natural course and clinical relevance of small adrenal lesions without clinical symptoms, endocrine activity, or mechanical problems and thus without clear indication for surgical therapy by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS).
  • Twenty-seven of these with adrenal lesions were detected by EUS and at least two performed EUS examinations were included into a subgroup where changes in adrenal morphology were studied by measuring changes in the largest diameter of the dominant adrenal tumour.
  • RESULTS: EUS detected adrenal lesions in 36 (73%) patients: 6 (12%) plump adrenals, 17 (35%) nodular hyperplasia, 12 (24%) adenomas and 1 (2%) cyst.
  • Bilateral adrenal lesions were detected in 17 patients and unilateral in 19 patients.
  • A change in the largest tumour diameter was found to be for nodular hyperplasia -0.02+/-1.41% per month (range -2.56 to 4.58%) and for adenomas -0.61+/-1.95% per month (range -6.25 to 1.15%).
  • One patient had an adrenal cyst with significant growth.
  • There was no evidence of carcinoma or metastatic disease during the study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adrenal lesions in MEN1 is higher than that reported earlier.
  • Except one cystic lesion, no significant change in the tumour size was observed over a mean observation period of more than 2 years.
  • In a typical situation, small adrenal lesions in MEN1 seem to be constant in their morphology.


36. Herd A, Harman R, Taylor E: Surgical outcomes following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) between 1999 and 2006. N Z Med J; 2010 Oct 15;123(1324):50-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a recognised cause of secondary hypertension with its aetiology most commonly due to a secreting aldosterone adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the adrenal tumour has now become the accepted form of intervention.

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  • (PMID = 20953222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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37. Tam V, Ng KF, Fung LM, Wong YY, Chan MH, Lam CW, Tam S, Lam CW: The importance of the interpretation of urine catecholamines is essential for the diagnosis and management of patient with dopamine-secreting paraganglioma. Ann Clin Biochem; 2005 Jan;42(Pt 1):73-7
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  • [Title] The importance of the interpretation of urine catecholamines is essential for the diagnosis and management of patient with dopamine-secreting paraganglioma.
  • This case illustrates its atypical presentation and the importance of interpretative reporting for urine catecholamines leading to the diagnosis and subsequent management of a patient with this condition.
  • Good communication between chemical pathologists and physicians prompted the arrangement of the whole body 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, which showed a large signal in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen corresponding to a large extra-adrenal tumour detected by both ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen.
  • Histological section of the tumour tissue revealed paraganglioma, which stained positive for chromogranin and neuron-specific enolase.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine / secretion. Epinephrine / urine. Norepinephrine / urine. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secretion. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15802039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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38. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20191330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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39. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage, leading to life-threatening, and multiple tumors in the liver.
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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41. Kim DJ, Chung JJ, Ryu YH, Hong SW, Yu JS, Kim JH: Adrenocortical oncocytoma displaying intense activity on 18F-FDG-PET: a case report and a literature review. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;22(9):821-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report on the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) findings in a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland with the literature review of other imaging findings including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19039562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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42. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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43. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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44. Miwa Y, Uchida K, Nakayama H, Asaki N: Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Sep;72(9):1229-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret.
  • The excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland, and some neoplastic cells were beta III-tubulin-, doublecortin- and neurofilament-positive.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was considered to be a neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20431253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17926102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Baldi C, Mazzoni G: Mebendazole inhibits growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines implanted in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(5):809-17
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland which requires new therapeutic approaches as its early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis poor despite therapies used.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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47. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Salem RR, Elefteriades J, Sosa JA: Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:109
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection.
  • Leiomyosarcomas arising from the adrenal vein are rare malignancies associated with delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 64-year old woman who presented with a 13 x 6.5 x 6.6 cm heterogeneous mass arising in the region of the right adrenal gland and extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium.
  • Biochemical evaluation excluded a functional tumor of the adrenal gland, and multiple tumor markers were negative.
  • We present the novel use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in the resection of an adrenal vein leiomyosarcoma extending into the right atrium.
  • The patient remains free of disease ten months after surgery.
  • DHCA afforded a bloodless operative field for optimal resection of disease from within the IVC.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas of the adrenal vein is one of exclusion and involves preoperative radiological imaging and biochemical evaluation to exclude other functional tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17910774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117013
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48. Tang JY, Pan C, Chen J, Xu M, Chen J, Xue HL, Gu LJ, Dong R, Ye H, Zhou M, Wang YP: [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;44(10):770-3
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  • [Title] [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to improve the prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB) stage III and IV in children through the comprehensive therapy including chemotherapy, delayed tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and inducing differentiation and to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis.
  • Comprehensive protocol included accurate staging, delayed and/or second tumor resection for stage III and IV patients, chemotherapy of different intensity mainly composed of cell cycle nonspecific drugs and 13-cis-retinoid for inducing cell differentiation.
  • Of them, 15 were found to have the tumor in adrenal gland, 12 had the tumor extended to the retro-peritoneal space, while in 15 cases the tumor was beside the spinal column in chest and in 3 the tumor was located in other places.
  • Nine cases had stage I, 1 case had stage II, 8 cases had III, 26 cases had stage IV and 1 case had stage IVs of the tumor.
  • Depending on the age and stage of the tumor, 26 cases were aligned into high risk protocol, 10 into medium risk and 9 into low risk groups.
  • During up to 21 months median following up period (range 14 to 64 months), 24 cases (62%) kept CR (median 22 months) and 4 survived with stable disease.
  • Eleven cases died of relapse and disease progression.
  • Statistical analysis showed that the age older than 18 months, and stage III and IV of the tumor were the factors predicting poor prognosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively).
  • Patients who had the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal space, who had incomplete tumor resection, and those who did not receive ASCT had poorer prognosis, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.092, 0.55 and 0.60, respectively).
  • The origin of the tumor, completeness of tumor resection, and use of ASCT had no significant impact on the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17229383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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49. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15708063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Pareja Megía MJ, Barrero Candau R, Medina Pérez M, Valero Puerta JA: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 May;58(4):362-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma adrenal gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland METHODS/RESULTS: A case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland, an uncommon non-functioning tumour of the adrenal cortex comprised of haematopoietic and adipose tissue, that had been detected incidentally during evaluation with CT because of its characteristic fatty composition.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15989103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Rodríguez Hermosa JI, Roig García J, Font Pascual JA, Recasens Sala M, Ortuño Muro P, Pardina Badía B, Codina Cazador A: [Evolution of laparoscopic adrenal surgery in a general surgery department]. Cir Esp; 2008 Apr;83(4):205-10
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  • [Title] [Evolution of laparoscopic adrenal surgery in a general surgery department].
  • [Transliterated title] Evolución de la cirugía laparoscópica adrenal en un servicio de cirugía general.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility, safety and short-term results of laparoscopic adrenal surgery during the first few years after its introduction in our department.
  • Demographic data, medical history, diagnosis, adrenal and tumour size, technique, conversions, complications and hospital stay were re-viewed.
  • The mean size of tumours excised was 4.6 cm (range, 1.5-12).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18358181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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52. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


53. Orlando R, Lumachi F, Lirussi F: Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4385-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies.
  • Though most of these anatomical variants have no clinical significance, an accessory spleen may simulate a tumor in the adrenal gland, pancreas, stomach or intestine.
  • Alternatively, a missed accessory spleen may be the site of the relapse of a hematological disorder.
  • We, therefore, assessed retrospectively: (i) the frequency of congenital anomalies of the spleen observed during 2650 consecutive laparoscopies and (ii) looked for possible misdiagnoses of the accessory spleen as hematological disorders or solid tumors located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • Among the 44 patients in whom an accessory spleen was discovered laparoscopically, the recognition of this anomaly prevented a relapse of a hematological disease in one case and avoided a useless exploratory laparotomy in the second, where the radiologist had interpreted this malformation as a space-occupying lesion.
  • In the third case, the accessory spleen was initially misdiagnosed as a solid tumor of the pancreas, but was eventually recognized as a congenital anomaly by a second laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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54. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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55. Nürnberg D: [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)]. Ultraschall Med; 2005 Dec;26(6):458-69
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographie von Nebennierentumoren--wann ist die Punktion indiziert?
  • The normal adrenal glands can be detected by high-resolution-sonography in a high percentage of cases.
  • Sonography is also highly sensitive in the diagnosis of tumours of the adrenal glands.
  • Only some of those tumours are hormonally active.
  • Amongst the benign tumours, adenomas are the most frequent (up to 8%).
  • Amongst the malignant tumours, metastases are more frequent than primary carcinomas (32.5% vs. 19.8% in uFNB-statistics).
  • The adrenal glands are the fourth most common location of metastases.
  • Bronchiogenic carcinomas, malignant melanomas, carcinomas of the breast and stomach as well as renal carcinomas metastasize into the adrenals most often.
  • Much less frequent are infiltrates of lymphomas in adrenal glands tumours (3.4%).
  • Incidentalomas are accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands without clinical symptoms.
  • Malignant tumours only represent a very small part of incidentalomas (0.2%).
  • In the case of an accidentally detected tumour, we propose a minimal laboratory profile (24-h-urinary-catecholamines, dexamethasone-test, electrolyte metabolism).
  • The uFNB of the adrenal glands has a high sensitivity (90-95%).
  • Considering the excellent imaging methods and laparoscopic surgery methods on hand, the indication of FNP is restricted to the following cases: 1. the presence of a metastasis leading to therapeutical consequences; 2. suspected lymphoma 3. undefined lesion (3-5 cm), hormonally inactive, without typical signs of a tumour 4. patients refusing surgery.
  • 5. uFNB in case of tumours of undefined dignity is only justified in specific cases.
  • Recommendations for this procedure in accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands: < 3 cm and hormonally inactive --> US-follow up, > 5 cm + suspected tumour --> surgery, 3-5 cm uFNB after laboratory diagnostics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16453217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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56. Agha A, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):233-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der Nebennierenrinden-Adenome.
  • Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours.
  • The decision to use one of the available techniques depends on tumour size, body mass index, previous abdominal surgery and the experience of the surgeon.
  • Conventional surgery should be used if malignancy is suspected, especially for tumours larger than 6 cm.
  • In individual cases, even tumours up to 10 cm can be operated laparoscopically if there is no suspicion of invasive growth or lymphatic metastases.
  • The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent.
  • The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart , New York.
  • (PMID = 20549586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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57. Jurczyńska J, Zieleniewski W, Stepień H, Komorowski J: Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in adrenal tumours. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Nov-Dec;57(6):633-40
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  • [Title] Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in adrenal tumours.
  • It appears that neoangiogenesis is an important factor in tumour invasion and the formation of metastases in several human cancers, and studies on pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors are therefore of considerable interest to researchers.
  • In this review we present pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors and other growth factors and their role in the formation of new blood vessels in adrenal tumours.
  • Assessment of the angiogenic status of adrenal tumours and their vascular pattern may be useful for discriminating benign from malignant lesions and knowledge of their angiogenesis may be essential to the drawing up of promising treatment strategies for patients with malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / metabolism. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17253437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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58. Krsek M: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Vnitr Lek; 2007 Jul-Aug;53(7-8):821-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomy nadledvin.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are called as a disease of modern technology because increased availability and accuracy of imaging techniques lead to increased incidence of incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are found in about 0.35-4.36% of abdominal CT scans performed for purpose other than suspicion of adrenal diseases.
  • However, in autoptic studies the percentage of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours in much higher, in some of then being even more than 20%.
  • Important component of differential diagnosis is endocrinological examination aimed to reveal potential autonomous hormonal overproduction.
  • Approximately more than 10% of adrenal incidentalomas is characterized by autonomous cortisol production, 5-10% is phaeochromocytomas and 5-7% is aldosteron producing adenomas.
  • Vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning tumours, mainly adenomas.
  • Rational ways and recommendations for screening of hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas is discussed.
  • Particular characteristics of particular adrenal tumours are discussed.
  • From the relationship between the tumour size and probability of malignancy, current recommendations are derived, that non-functioning tumours smaller than 4 cm are indicated for further follow-up, size over 6 cm is indication for adrenalectomy and in tumours between 4-6 cm decision process is complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17915426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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59. Walz MK: [Adrenal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Nov;79(11):1087-94; quiz 1095-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal tumors can be primary or secondary entities.
  • Primary tumors are able to secrete hormones which may cause significant effects clinically.
  • Typical tumor-related adrenal diseases are Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and pheochromocytoma (catacholamine excess).
  • Primary adrenal tumors are rarely malignant, but adrenocortical neoplasias show a relation between tumor size and rate of malignancy.
  • Diagnostic methods for adrenal tumors include hormone tests and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Endoscopy. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18941729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
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60. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years).
  • Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent in distinguishing nephrogenic rests from Wilms' tumour and the current recently altered approach regarding small lung nodules in children with Wilms' tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17339140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1828369
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61. Tica I, Tica VI, Mihailov C: Rare association of adrenal tumors. Rom J Intern Med; 2007;45(1):107-11
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  • [Title] Rare association of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas represent a true problem both in the clinical diagnosis and in their treatment.
  • A great variety of pathologies may be found under the umbrella of this concept: benign adenomas - functioning or not, myelolipomas, hamartomas, or granulomatous infiltrations of the adrenal.
  • The possibility of malignancy should be considered in each case, especially in patients with a known extra-adrenal primary.
  • We present an interesting case because of the surprising association of two adrenal tumors, with a long time lapse between them, with ascites and pleurisy and because of the difficulty of treatment in a patient refusing surgery.
  • Investigations were performed including hormonal tests, ultrasound investigation, hepatic tests, and CT scan but no specific tumour markers.
  • A right adrenal incidentaloma of 21/15 mm - in association with ascites and pleurisy - was found at CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ascites / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pleurisy / complications

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  • (PMID = 17966451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-4749
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Intern Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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62. Kotzampassakis N, Maweja S, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Apr;105(2):156-60
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  • [Title] Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review our personal experience of the last 10 years with adrenal surgery in order to define the indications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) and open adrenalectomy (OA), respectively.
  • In 78 patients (80%), LA was performed and 84 adrenal glands were resected.
  • In 19 patients (20%), OA was considered the best modality of resection and 21 adrenal glands were resected.
  • The average tumour size was 37.2 mm (range 25-90) in LA group and 82.6 mm (30-260) in the OA group.
  • All the LA were performed using a trans-peritoneal approach.
  • Conversion from LA to open surgery was necessary in two patients.
  • Mean operating time was 110 minutes for LA and 135 minutes for OA.
  • Two (2.6%) patients suffered complications after LA and 4 (19%) after OA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, trans-peritoneal LA proved to be a safe and reliable procedure for benign adrenal disease.
  • In our institution, it has become the gold standard technique for the resection of adrenal tumours, except for those suspected or proven malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Belgium. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15906906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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63. Unger N, Serdiuk I, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schulz S, Saeger W, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jun;68(6):850-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Somatostatin mediates its action through five receptor subtypes (sst1-5) that are widely distributed in various endocrine tissues and tumours.
  • In contrast to their well-established use in neuroendocrine and pituitary tumours, little is known about their potential use in adrenal tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined somatostatin receptor protein expression in adrenal tumours of various aetiologies.
  • DESIGN: Seven benign and eight malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), eight aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), nine cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), seven nonfunctioning adrenal tumours (NFAs) and 25 adrenal carcinomas (CAs) as well as eight normal adrenal glands were investigated.
  • However, in the majority of these tumours, less than 30% of cells were positively stained.
  • The majority presented with more than 60% of tumour cells stained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtypes are expressed in PHEOs as well as in tumours of the adrenal cortex with tumour-specific distribution patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / classification. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18031328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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64. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Myelolipoma nadnerczy.
  • This paper is a review of the literature about adrenal myelolipoma.
  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually small (< 4 cm), unilateral and causes no clinical disorders.
  • This tumour is discovered during autopsy or USG, CT MRI of the abdomen usually by chance and because of that is included in the group of tumors called incidentaloma.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • Surgical treatment is called for when the diameter of tumor reaches more than 4 cm, tumour shows tendency to fast growth or causes clinical disorders.
  • In cases of small lesions, that show no progression, it is advised to observe the tumor using imaging techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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65. Sandgren J, Andersson R, Rada-Iglesias A, Enroth S, Akerstrom G, Dumanski JP, Komorowski J, Westin G, Wadelius C: Integrative epigenomic and genomic analysis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Exp Mol Med; 2010 Jul 31;42(7):484-502
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  • Epigenomic and genomic changes affect gene expression and contribute to tumor development.
  • Furthermore, genomic aberrations such as DNA copy number changes are common events in tumors.
  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare endocrine tumor of the adrenal gland that mostly occurs sporadic with unknown epigenetic/genetic cause.
  • The integrated analysis of the tumor expression levels, in relation to normal adrenal medulla, indicated that either histone modifications or chromosomal alterations, or both, have great impact on the expression of a substantial fraction of the genes in the investigated sample.
  • Candidate tumor suppressor genes identified with decreased expression, a H3K27me3 mark and/or in regions of deletion were for instance TGIF1, DSC3, TNFRSF10B, RASSF2, HOXA9, PTPRE and CDH11.
  • Our approach to associate histone methylations and DNA copy number changes to gene expression revealed apparent impact on global gene transcription, and enabled the identification of candidate tumor genes for further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genome, Human / genetics. Genomics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Dosage / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Lysine / metabolism. Methylation. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20534969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912476
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66. Napolitano LM, Iacovetta D, Cellini C, Waku M, Innocenti P: [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal tumours: indications and techniques]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):336-8
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal tumours: indications and techniques].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgia laparoscopica dei tumori del surrene: indicazioni e tecniche.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a gold standard in the treatment of the majority of adrenal lesions.
  • The following data were evaluated: demographic data of the patients, type of operation, the operative time, the rate of conversion to laparotomic procedure, post-operative complications, histologic diagnosis and the dimensions of the lesions.
  • The only contraindication to laparoscopic procedure is the involvement of surrounding tissue and vascular invasion by tumour cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20646387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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68. Owecki M, Majewska KA, Stawny B, Nikisch E, Drews M, Sowiński J: [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Jun;20(120):678-81
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material].
  • [Transliterated title] Guzy nadnerczy w wybranym 10-letnim materiale operacyjnym.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the number and proportions of different adrenal tumours resected during the last 10 years in our centre.
  • Besides, we seek correlations between the size of tumours and the age and body mass indexes (BMI) of the examined patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The tumours where measured on CT and MRI before surgery, and on pathological examination after resection.
  • In 45 (65.22%) cases the right adrenal was affected, in 21 (30.43%)--the left, in 3 (4.35%)--both.
  • RESULTS: 12 adrenocortical cancers, 20 phaeochromocytomas, 9 cortisol-secreting adenomas, 4 aldosteronomas, 18 hormonally inactive adenomas, 6 miscellaneous tumours were found.
  • Malignant tumours where significantly larger than benign (12.20 +/- 6.81 vs 6.71 +/- 5.62 cm, p < 0.005).
  • We observed no correlation between the age and preoperative tumor size (p = 0.1756), between the age and pathological tumor size (p = 0.3601), and between BMI and the preoperative and histopathologic size (p = 0.4204, and p = 0.6478, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common tumour was phaeochromocytoma.
  • Most tumours where found in the right adrenal.
  • The malignant tumours where larger than benign ones.
  • No correlations between age and BMI, and tumour size where demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17007266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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69. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • Her diabetes progressively regressed after the removal of tumour and glucose tolerance remained normal up to 1 year of follow-up after surgery and there was no recurrence of tumour.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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70. Tessonnier L, Sebag F, Palazzo FF, Colavolpe C, De Micco C, Mancini J, Conte-Devolx B, Henry JF, Mundler O, Taïeb D: Does 18F-FDG PET/CT add diagnostic accuracy in incidentally identified non-secreting adrenal tumours? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Nov;35(11):2018-25
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  • [Title] Does 18F-FDG PET/CT add diagnostic accuracy in incidentally identified non-secreting adrenal tumours?
  • PURPOSE: The widespread use of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the investigation of the abdomen is associated with an increasing detection of incidental adrenal masses.
  • We evaluated the ability of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to distinguish benign from malignant adrenal masses when CT or MRI results had been inconclusive.
  • The visual interpretation, maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) and adrenal compared to liver uptake ratio were correlated with the final histological diagnosis or clinico-radiological follow-up when surgery had not been performed.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with 41 adrenal masses were prospectively evaluated.
  • The final diagnosis was 12 malignant, 17 benign tumours, and 12 tumours classified as benign on follow-up.
  • The visual interpretation was more accurate than SUVmax alone, tumour diameter or unenhanced density, with a sensitivity of 100% (12/12), a specificity of 86% (25/29) and a negative predictive value of 100% (25/25).
  • The use of 1.8 as the threshold for tumour/liver SUVmax ratio, retrospectively established, demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: FDG PET/CT accurately characterises adrenal tumours, with an excellent sensitivity and negative predictive values.
  • Thus, a negative PET may predict a benign tumour that would potentially prevent the need for surgery of adrenal tumours with inconclusive conventional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 18566816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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71. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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72. Gibbs KE, White A, Kaleya R: Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature. JSLS; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic management of adrenal masses has been well described.
  • We describe a case of an enlarging smooth muscle tumor of the adrenal gland in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and review the sparse literature available on this subject.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old female with AIDS complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was found to have a left adrenal mass.
  • Pathological review found the mass to be a rare adrenal leiomyoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Benign, smooth muscle tumors arising from the adrenal glands are rare.
  • A review of the literature does reveal a propensity for these tumors to occur in the immunocompromised population.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability to manage these tumors laparoscopically is of significant benefit to patients.

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  • (PMID = 16121885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015615
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73. Joubert M, Louiset E, Rego JL, Contesse V, Kong LC, Benhaim A, Mittre H, Lefebvre H, Reznik Y, REHOS Study Group: Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):692-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors?
  • OBJECTIVE: Abnormal responsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was previously observed in cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumours but the mechanism remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of AVP on cortisol secretion from adrenocortical tumours compared to normal human adrenal gland.
  • DESIGN: A multicentre study based on pharmacological, molecular and immunohistochemical experiments performed in adenomatous and normal adrenal tissues.
  • MEASUREMENTS: In vivo and in vitro cortisol response to vasopressin, vasopressin receptor subtype mRNA measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical localization of AVP and its V1a receptor in tumour and normal adrenal tissues.
  • In vitro cortisol response to AVP was observed in nine tumours studied, with enhanced efficacy and/or potency of AVP in three SCCS tumours compared to normal tissues.
  • AVP receptor subtype mRNA levels were similar in SCCS, CS cells and normal adrenal cells.
  • Some SCCS tumour steroidogenic cells showed AVP and V1a receptor immunoreactivity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SCCS and CS adrenocortical tumours often exhibit in vivo and in vitro hyper-responsiveness to AVP, which is not related to vasopressin receptor overexpression, but may be explained by more efficient coupling pathways or by the indirect action of AVP through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Receptors, Vasopressin / biosynthesis. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology


74. Fenichel P, Bstandig B, Roger C, Chevallier D, Michels JF, Sadoul JL, Hieronimus S, Brucker-Davis F: Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Nov;69(5):453-8
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  • [Title] Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.
  • Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • These ACTH-dependent tumours cannot be easily distinguished histologically from Leydig-cell tumours.
  • We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour.
  • High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty.
  • The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest.
  • However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis.
  • To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR.
  • No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells.
  • For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential.
  • However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / genetics. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Azoospermia / etiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / genetics. Gonadotropins / blood. Humans. Infertility, Male / etiology. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Testis / pathology


75. Haouas N, Sahraoui W, Saidi R, Lefi M, Saad H: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):532-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign, non-secreting tumour, which can be complicated by pain or retroperitoneal haemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis is based on CT or preferably MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16097167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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76. Kuwata T, Inadome A, Matsumoto K, Yoshida M, Ueda S: [Case report of calcifying fibrous pseudotumor of the adrenal grand]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Jan;99(1):48-51
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  • [Title] [Case report of calcifying fibrous pseudotumor of the adrenal grand].
  • Calcifying fibrous (pseudo) tumour (CFP) is an uncommon and distinct pathological entity, which is usually occurring in the soft tissue of the extremities, trunk, axilla, pleura, mediastinum and peritoneum.
  • We report a case of CFP of the adrenal gland.
  • A solid mass was found on computed tomography on the left adrenal gland.
  • Pathological findings of the left adrenal tumor showed dense hyalinized fibrous tissue containing bland spindle-shaped cells, calcifications, and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Calcinosis / surgery. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / surgery. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18260349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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77. Bandier PC, Hansen A, Thorelius L: [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Jan 26;171(5):306-8
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoid tumor i binyre.
  • An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman.
  • Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally.
  • A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific.
  • Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Mar 16;171(12):1015; author reply 1015 [19306484.001]
  • (PMID = 19176156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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78. Husebye ES, Varhaug JE, Heimdal K: [Hereditary endocrine tumour diseases]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2964-7
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  • [Title] [Hereditary endocrine tumour diseases].
  • BACKGROUND AND METHOD: The paper reviews inheritable endocrine tumour syndromes based on recent literature and the experience of the authors.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A number of inheritable endocrine tumour syndromes are caused by mutations in proto-oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes.
  • These include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), familial non-MEN neoplasia, Von Hippel-Lindau's disease and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • These conditions are rare, but since inheritance is dominant with a near-complete penetrance, a number of carriers with a high risk of developing tumours are regularly found in the families of affected individuals.
  • Identification of carriers with a high risk of developing tumours gives the opportunity to cure disease manifestations at an early stage and to avoid life-threatening complications.
  • DNA analyses of the most common disease genes are now performed in genetic laboratories in Norway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Counseling. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Mutation. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16276382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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79. Bhatia KS, Ismail MM, Sahdev A, Rockall AG, Hogarth K, Canizales A, Avril N, Monson JP, Grossman AB, Reznek RH: 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy for the detection of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytomas: CT and MRI correlation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Aug;69(2):181-8
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  • [Title] 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy for the detection of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytomas: CT and MRI correlation.
  • This comprised 60 adrenal tumours in 55 patients and 33 extra-adrenal tumours in 23 patients (2 patients had both adrenal and extra-adrenal tumours).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): [(123)I]MIBG studies were independently reviewed and correlated with CT and MRI examinations, as well as tumour functional status, to identify features that may predict a false negative [(123)I]MIBG result.
  • Tumour detection was lower for extra-adrenal (58%) vs. adrenal (85%) phaeochromocytomas (P = 0.005).
  • For extra-adrenal tumours, [(123)I]MIBG demonstrated 8 of 14 carotid body, 2 of 2 intrathoracic, 8 of 14 retroperitoneal and 2 of 3 pelvic phaeochromocytomas.
  • Tumour size correlated with [(123)I]MIBG uptake for adrenal (P = 0.009) but not extra-adrenal tumours.
  • When tumours were adjusted for size, no other imaging feature or functional status correlated with [(123)I]MIBG negativity, although two large [(123)I]MIBG negative adrenal tumours contained large areas of necrosis or haemorrhage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extra-adrenal and small adrenal phaeochromocytomas are more likely to result in false negatives on [(123)I]MIBG.
  • Tumoural necrosis or haemorrhage do not consistently relate to [(123)I]MIBG uptake, although adrenal phaeochromocytomas containing minimal solid tissue due to extensive necrosis may predict a negative [(123)I]MIBG result.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Retrospective Studies. Thoracic Neoplasms / radiography. Thoracic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Feb;5(2):76-7 [19165218.001]
  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Jun;70(6):968; author reply 968-9 [18811722.001]
  • (PMID = 18394016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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80. Krona C, Carén H, Sjöberg RM, Sandstedt B, Laureys G, Kogner P, Martinsson T: Analysis of neuroblastoma tumour progression; loss of PHOX2B on 4p13 and 17q gain are early events in neuroblastoma tumourigenesis. Int J Oncol; 2008 Mar;32(3):575-83
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  • [Title] Analysis of neuroblastoma tumour progression; loss of PHOX2B on 4p13 and 17q gain are early events in neuroblastoma tumourigenesis.
  • Neuroblastomas are biologically and clinically heterogeneous tumours that most often occur sporadically in children at median age of 2 years.
  • The PHOX2B gene is implicated in the development of the autonomic nervous system and has been found to be infrequently mutated in sporadic neuroblastoma tumours and in some patients with hereditary neuroblastoma.
  • We have screened a selected series of 36 paediatric tumours with presumed genetic predisposition, 34 of them neuroblastomas, for mutations in PHOX2B.
  • A constitutional heterozygous missense mutation was found in a boy who developed bilateral adrenal tumours and stage 4 disease during infancy.
  • The second allele of the PHOX2B locus was lost in the tumour DNA.
  • Histopathological evaluation of the tumours suggested growth of two primary tumours, one with diploid DNA content and the other with tetraploid DNA content, i.e. a case of neuroblastoma stage 4M (multifocal tumour).
  • However, array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) data performed on both tumour masses from the patient instead supported a model where a common malignant precursor gave rise to the diploid tumour and subsequently the tetraploid tumour have progressed from the common precursor or by metastasis from the diploid tumour with additional genetic changes.
  • The whole genome dosage analysis showed that the remaining alleles of PHOX2B had been lost in both tumours together with a specific 17q gain pattern.
  • The tetraploid tumour had these features together with additional whole chromosomal loss of chromosomes 3, 9, 14 and 15.
  • We also propose investigators to re-analyze the rare cases of multifocal neuroblastomas with the array CGH technique for better understanding of the origin of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Gene Duplication. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / physiology. Models, Biological. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation, Missense. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 18292934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NBPhox protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors
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81. Gillams AR: Image guided tumour ablation. Cancer Imaging; 2005;5:103-9
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  • [Title] Image guided tumour ablation.
  • Five-year survival rates of 26% from the time of first ablation and 30% from the diagnosis of liver metastases for patients with limited (<6, <5 cm) liver disease who are not surgical candidates compares well with post resection series where 5-year survival rates vary between 29% and 39% in operable candidates.
  • Sufficient experience has now been gained in lung and renal ablation to show that these are minimally invasive techniques which can produce effective tumour destruction with a limited morbidity.
  • More novel areas for ablation such as adrenal or pelvic recurrence are being explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / therapy. Animals. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Cryotherapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Laser Therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Microwaves. Radio Waves. Ultrasonic Therapy

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  • [Copyright] International Cancer Imaging Society.
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  • (PMID = 16305946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1665233
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82. Crivellato E, Finato N, Ribatti D, Beltrami CA: Piecemeal degranulation in human tumour pheochromocytes. J Anat; 2005 Jan;206(1):47-53
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  • [Title] Piecemeal degranulation in human tumour pheochromocytes.
  • Piecemeal degranulation (PMD) has been recognized in two cases of human pheochromocytoma from the adrenal medulla, which were studied by transmission electron microscopy.
  • Tumour pheochromocytes presented a highly characteristic cytoplasmic admixture of normal resting granules, swollen granules with eroded matrices and enlarged empty containers.
  • This is the first description of PMD in human adrenal chromaffin cells and, in addition, is the first report of PMD in tumour secretory cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Cell Degranulation. Pheochromocytoma / secretion

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
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83. Mirzaei MR, Rezvanian H, Siavash M, Parham M, Mahzouni P: A patient with refractory testicular adrenal rest tumour in the setting of cyp11b1 deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A patient with refractory testicular adrenal rest tumour in the setting of cyp11b1 deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Testicular adrenal rest tumour (TART) due to CYP11B1 deficiency is a very rare clinical finding.
  • The most important differential diagnosis of his latter presentation is Leydig cell tumour (LCT).
  • It was found that positive family history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hypertension, bilaterality, hypokalaemia and multiple hypoechoic masses on ultrasonography of the testes are in favour of a diagnosis of TART.
  • Conversely, high titres of tumour markers and presence of Reinke crystalloids are supportive of a diagnosis of LCT.

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  • (PMID = 21686875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
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84. Delis SG, Bakogiannis A, Ciancio G, Soloway M: Surgical management of large adrenal tumours: the University of Miami experience using liver transplantation techniques. BJU Int; 2008 Nov;102(10):1394-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of large adrenal tumours: the University of Miami experience using liver transplantation techniques.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in the surgical management of patients with large adrenal masses and describe the key steps in performing radical resections, which are especially demanding where thrombi extend into the inferior vena cava (IVC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2003 to 2007, 14 patients presented with large adrenal mass, and underwent surgical extirpation.
  • The excision was radical with negative tumour margins in all cases.
  • All patients were alive and free of disease at a median follow-up of 12 (5-42) months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical extirpation of large adrenal masses requires technical experience to optimize outcome.
  • Total tumour excision is the only therapeutic option in such cases and provides acceptable results in survival and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Budd-Chiari Syndrome / surgery. Thrombosis / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Liver Transplantation / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Quality of Life. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18540934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Djeffal C, Fourmarier M, Bracq A, Saint F, Petit J: [Tumour diameter: Predictive criterion of intraoperative haemodynamic variations in adrenal phaeochromocytoma surgery]. Prog Urol; 2008 Sep;18(8):507-11
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  • [Title] [Tumour diameter: Predictive criterion of intraoperative haemodynamic variations in adrenal phaeochromocytoma surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] La taille tumorale : critère prédictif des variations hémodynamiques peropératoires dans la chirurgie du phéochromocytome surrénalien.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between tumour diameter and intraoperative haemodynamic variations during adrenalectomy based on a series of 15 operated cases of adrenal phaeochromocytoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen adrenalectomies for adrenal phaeochromocytomas were performed between January 1997 and March 2007.
  • RESULTS: The median diameter of unilateral tumours was 6cm (range: 3-11) and the median diameter of bilateral tumours (two cases) was less than 6cm.
  • The mean operating time was 135minutes (range: 120-170) for tumours greater than or equal to 6cm versus 105minutes (range: 90-145) for tumours less than 6cm.
  • Operating time was increased by an average of 30minutes for tumours greater than or equal to 6cm.
  • Hypertensive peaks were recorded in seven out of eight cases (87.5%) for adrenal phaeochromocytomas greater than or equal to 6cm, and in three out of seven cases (29%) for adrenal phaeochromocytomas less than 6cm (P=0.04).
  • CONCLUSION: Tumour diameter is a decisive predictive factor of intraoperative haemodynamic variations in adrenal phaeochromocytoma surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hemodynamics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18760740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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86. Singh PK, Buch HN: Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;61(11):1168-73
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered incidental to imaging studies performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • Although most adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning benign adenomas, their increasing prevalence presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • The assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at deciding whether or not the tumour should be surgically removed.
  • Adrenalectomy is indicated for phaeochromocytoma, other symptomatic hormone-secreting tumours and those with a high risk of malignancy.
  • Biochemical screening for tumour hypersecretion is mandatory in all adrenal incidentalomas, since hormone secreting tumours may be clinically silent.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is of paramount importance because of its life-threatening complications.
  • Non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas need assessment for risk of malignancy, and this is based on the size of the tumour and its imaging characteristics.
  • The duration and frequency of reassessment remains unclear, as the natural history of adrenal incidentalomas has yet to be clearly defined, and there is a lack of controlled studies comparing surgical intervention with observation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Long-Term Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18955573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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87. Wagner RA, Piché CA, Jöchle W, Oliver JW: Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Am J Vet Res; 2005 May;66(5):910-4
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  • [Title] Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and endocrine responses of ferrets with adrenocortical disease (ACD) to treatment with a slow-release implant of deslorelin acetate.
  • Plasma estradiol, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were measured before and after treatment and at relapse of clinical signs; at that time, the adrenal glands were grossly or ultrasonographically measured and affected glands that were surgically removed were examined histologically.
  • In 5 ferrets, large palpable tumors developed within 2 months of clinical relapse; 3 of these ferrets were euthanatized because of adrenal gland tumor metastasis to the liver or tumor necrosis.
  • Deslorelin may not decrease adrenal tumor growth in some treated ferrets.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / veterinary. Ferrets. Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage. Triptorelin Pamoate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15934621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; TKG3I66TVE / deslorelin
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88. Koren J, Cunderlík P: [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):111-4
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoidný tumor pravej nadoblicky: kazuistika.
  • Adenomatoid tumor of adrenal gland is a very rare primary tumor with favourable prognosis.
  • The mesothelial origin of this tumor was confirmed by multiple studies of various authors.
  • In our case report, we present an interesting case of the adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 55-year-old woman.
  • Our case is the second well-documented case of this tumor occurring in a female adult patient.
  • We emphasize the presence of an intraluminal thread-like bridging strands, generally considered to be a characteristic histologic feature of this tumor, which have not yet been reported in literature in adenomatoid tumor located in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16161457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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89. Beland MD, Mayo-Smith WW: Ablation of adrenal neoplasms. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Sep-Oct;34(5):588-92
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  • [Title] Ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • Adrenal tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms that include multiple etiologies, each with a different prognosis, malignant potential, and recommended treatment.
  • Percutaneous techniques to treat adrenal neoplasms have been described including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and chemical ablation.
  • This article reviews the various adrenal neoplasms and the techniques of adrenal ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Cryosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Contrast Media. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18830736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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90. Harding B, Lemos MC, Reed AA, Walls GV, Jeyabalan J, Bowl MR, Tateossian H, Sullivan N, Hough T, Fraser WD, Ansorge O, Cheeseman MT, Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 knockout mice develop parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours with hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypercorticosteronaemia. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1313-27
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 knockout mice develop parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours with hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypercorticosteronaemia.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized in man by parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours.
  • The MEN1 gene encodes a 610-amino acid protein (menin) which is a tumour suppressor.
  • To investigate the in vivo role of menin, we developed a mouse model, by deleting Men1 exons 1 and 2 and investigated this for MEN1-associated tumours and serum abnormalities.
  • Men1(+/-) mice developed, by 9 months of age, parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic tumours which were mostly insulinomas, by 12 months of age, pituitary tumours which were mostly prolactinomas, and by 15 months parathyroid adenomas and adrenal cortical tumours.
  • Loss of heterozygosity and menin expression was demonstrated in the tumours, consistent with a tumour suppressor role for the Men1 gene.
  • Men1(+/-) mice with parathyroid neoplasms were hypercalcaemic and hypophosphataemic, with inappropriately normal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations.
  • Pancreatic and pituitary tumours expressed chromogranin A (CgA), somatostatin receptor type 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A.
  • Adrenocortical tumours, which immunostained for 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, developed in seven Men1(+/-) mice, but resulted in hypercorticosteronaemia in one out of the four mice that were investigated.
  • Thus, these Men1(+/-) mice are representative of MEN1 in man, and will help in investigating molecular mechanisms and treatments for endocrine tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Corticosterone / blood. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypophosphatemia / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Female. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Knockout. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19620250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Multiple Sclerosis Society / / 913; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501780; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9825289; United Kingdom / Department of Health / / 913; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U142670371
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Men1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4439740
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91. Han SJ, Kim TS, Jeon SW, Jeong SJ, Yun M, Rhee Y, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee EJ, Lee HC, Lim SK: Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 May;61(5):802-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning.
  • This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of adrenal masses visible in the computerised tomography (CT) scans which have been also evaluated by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), and to characterise the features of 18F-FDG PET scans associated with various adrenal endocrine tumours, especially benign functional tumours.
  • 18F-FDG PET scans of 105 patients with adrenal masses on the CT scan were analysed.
  • Positive uptakes in the 18F-FDG PET scans were seen in 60 malignant tumours (54 metastasic lesions, six primary adrenal cancers) and seven benign tumours.
  • The positive predictive value of 18F-FDG PET imaging to characterise an adrenal mass as a malignant tumour was 90%; the corresponding negative predictive value to rule out malignancy was also 90%.
  • Benign adrenal tumours were smaller than that of malignant lesions (p<0.05).
  • The mean standardised uptake value max (SUVmax) of the metastatic lesions [8.4+/-6.5 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg] was significantly higher than that of the benign adrenal tumours [2.4+/-1.2 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg, p<0.001].
  • Examination of only the primary adrenal lesions revealed that all adrenocortical carcinomas, two of three cases of pheochromocytomas, three of five neuroblastomas and two of four cases of primary aldosteronism showed positive 18F-FDG uptake.
  • In conclusion, for patients presenting adrenal masses with a high probability of malignancy, 18F-FDG PET can be used to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal lesions.
  • However, the 18F-FDG PET uptake did not show an always consistent pattern for endocrine tumours, which was probably due to the variability inherent in 18F-FDG uptake.
  • This study suggests that 18F-FDG PET scanning can offer supporting data to localise and characterise adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17343665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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92. Kennelly R, Aziz R, Toner M, Young V: Right atrial paraganglioma: an unusual primary cardiac tumour. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2008 Jun;33(6):1150-2

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  • [Title] Right atrial paraganglioma: an unusual primary cardiac tumour.
  • We present a case of an unusual presentation of a rare primary cardiac tumour.
  • Diagnosis is difficult and surgical management is varied and complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18406162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Fung MM, Viveros OH, O'Connor DT: Diseases of the adrenal medulla. Acta Physiol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;192(2):325-35
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  • [Title] Diseases of the adrenal medulla.
  • The adrenal glands are vital in the organism's response to environmental stress.
  • Pathology within the adrenal medulla and the autonomic nervous system is primarily because of neoplasms.
  • The most common tumour, called phaeochromocytoma when located in the adrenal medulla, originates from chromaffin cells and excretes catecholamines, but may be referred to as secreting paragangliomas when found in extra-adrenal chromaffin cells.
  • Neoplasms, such as neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas, may also be of neuronal lineage.

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  • (PMID = 18021328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-1716
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Physiol (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-090004; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-090004
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS57919; NLM/ PMC2576282
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94. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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95. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Cites] Internist (Berl). 2006 Sep;47(9):953-9 [16823578.001]
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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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96. Lai P, Bomanji JB, Mahmood S, Nagabhushan N, Syed R, Gacinovic S, Lee SM, Ell PJ: Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2007 Feb;16(1):90-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging.
  • Tumour thrombus is a rare complication of many solid cancers including renal cell carcinoma, Wilms' tumour, testicular tumour, adrenal cortical carcinoma, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.
  • We describe six patients who harboured occult tumour thrombus detected by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computerized tomography (CT) imaging as part of the staging investigations.
  • Recognition of this rare complication by PET/CT can change the management plan and prevent unnecessary long-term anti-coagulation treatment because of wrong diagnosis of cancer-related venous thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / complications. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17220710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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97. Claahsen-van der Grinten HL, Duthoi K, Otten BJ, d'Ancona FC, Hulsbergen-vd Kaa CA, Hermus AR: An adrenal rest tumour in the perirenal region in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to congenital 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Oct;159(4):489-91
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  • [Title] An adrenal rest tumour in the perirenal region in a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to congenital 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.
  • BACKGROUND: In contrast to the high incidence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) in adult male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), ovarian adrenal rest tumours in female CAH patients are very rare and other locations of adrenal rest tumours have never been reported.
  • Here, we report on an adult patient with CAH due to 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) deficiency with bilateral TART and additionally a large perirenal adrenal rest tumour.
  • Intensifying glucocorticoid medication did not result in decrease in POMC concentrations and shrinkage of size of the tumours.
  • At the age of 23 years, abdominal ultrasound was performed because of abdominal complaints, showing a round inhomogeneous structure with a diameter of 4 cm near the left renal hilus.
  • Histological investigation after removal of the tumour showed sheets of large polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, separated by dense fibrous tissue strands.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical profile resulted in a diagnosis of an adrenal rest tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: In adult CAH patients, ectopic adrenal rest tumours can be present outside the testicular region.
  • Further investigations are necessary to determine whether regularly screening for these tumours is useful.


98. Koetz K, Kienitz T, Quinkler M: Management of steroid replacement in adrenal insufficiency. Minerva Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;35(2):61-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of steroid replacement in adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenal insufficiency is caused by either primary adrenal failure, mostly due to autoimmune adrenalitis, or by hypothalamic-pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis, predominantly by long-term pharmacodynamic glucocorticoid treatment or by pituitary tumour growth and related treatment.
  • Despite optimized life-saving glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy, health-related quality of life in adrenal insufficiency is more severely impaired than previously thought and patients with adrenal insufficiency are also threatened by an increased mortality.
  • Thus, long-term management of patients with adrenal insufficiency remains a continuous challenge asking for the experienced specialist.
  • However, diagnosis and management of suspected acute adrenal failure is an important task for all physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Mineralocorticoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20595936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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99. Zieker D, Königsrainer I, Miller S, Vogel U, Sotlar K, Steurer W, Königsrainer A, Lehmann TG: Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumours.
  • Other soft tissue tumours such as well-differentiated liposarcomas appear morphological almost identical.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a very seldom case of a simultaneous myelolipoma of the adrenal gland in association with an extra-adrenal myelolipoma in an 75-year-old man.
  • With a review of the literature we describe and discuss the aetiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of patients with respect to adrenal and extra-adrenal lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The appearance of a simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a rare incident.
  • We conclude that such lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a fat-containing tumour in the retroperitoneal tissue/compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18601731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 22
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2474838
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100. El-Daly H, Rao P, Palazzo F, Gudi M: A rare entity of an unusual site: adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature. Patholog Res Int; 2010;2010:702472
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare entity of an unusual site: adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • This is a case report of a 51 year old male who was found to have an incidental left sided non-functioning adrenal mass on routine medical examination and which was confirmed by CT and MRI scans.
  • On gross examination the tumour was a solitary well circumscribed solid-cystic mass with a homogenous pinkish white cut surface.
  • On microscopic examination, the tumour was composed of variably sized tubules and fenestrated channels lined by bland cuboidal cells to epithelioid cells.
  • There was focal extension to capsule and peri-adrenal fat.
  • Immunohistochemically the tumour cells stained with calretinin, Cam5.2, CK7, vimentin and focally with EMA.
  • A diagnosis of an adenomatoid tumour as made.
  • Adenomatoid tumours are rare benign tumours of mesothelial derivation.
  • The adrenal gland is devoid of a mesothelial lining and the most accepted hypothesis for an adenomatoid tumour originating in the adrenal gland is derivation from mesothelial rests.
  • As the adrenal gland is an extremely rare site of occurrence for an adenomatoid tumour, it is frequently mistaken for adrenocortical tumours or a pheochromocytoma clinically and radiologically.

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  • (PMID = 21151721.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-003X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology research international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Patholog Res Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990199
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