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1. Bruynzeel H, Feelders RA, Groenland TH, van den Meiracker AH, van Eijck CH, Lange JF, de Herder WW, Kazemier G: Risk Factors for Hemodynamic Instability during Surgery for Pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Feb;95(2):678-85
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  • Parameters studied were catecholamine type and concentration, tumor diameter, mean arterial pressure (MAP) before and after (MAP(alpha)) pretreatment with alpha-antagonist, postural fall in blood pressure (BP) after pretreatment, type of alpha-blockade, type of operation, and presence of a familial polytumor syndrome.
  • RESULTS: A correlation was found between the intraoperative time periods of SBP above 160 mm Hg and plasma norepinephrine levels (r = 0.23; P < 0.05), tumor diameter (r = 0.36; P < 0.01), and postural BP fall (r = 0.30; P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Risk factors for HD instability during surgery for pheochromocytoma include a high plasma NE concentration, larger tumor size, more profound postural BP fall after alpha-blockade, and a MAP above 100 mm Hg (130/85 mm Hg).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hemodynamics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


2. Guller U, Turek J, Eubanks S, Delong ER, Oertli D, Feldman JM: Detecting pheochromocytoma: defining the most sensitive test. Ann Surg; 2006 Jan;243(1):102-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To define the most sensitive biochemical test to establish the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and also to assess the potential role of iodine 131-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy (I-MIBG) in the diagnosis of this tumor.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-producing tumor with preferential localization in the adrenal gland.
  • Despite its importance, the most sensitive test to establish the diagnosis remains to be defined.
  • Spells (defined as profuse sweating, tachycardia, and headache) and hypertension at diagnosis were present in 51.4% and 66.6%, respectively.
  • Bilateral disease was found in 12.5%, malignant pheochromocytoma in 29.6%, and hereditary forms in 23.0%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tests of choice to establish the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma are urinary normetanephrine and platelet norepinephrine.
  • We thus advocate performing an MIBG scan if the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is clinically suspected and catecholamine measurements are within the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Radionuclide Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16371743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1449983
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3. Kawabata G, Shimogaki H, Yamanaka K, Matsushita K, Takechi Y: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: troublesome cases. Int J Urol; 2009 May;16(5):431
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  • Problems occurred due to the condition of the adrenal tumors themselves in six patients, whereas problems occurred due to the operative history in four patients.
  • In patients with bleeding in the adrenal tumors, large adrenal tumors, or tumors impacted in the liver, methods such as changing the sequence of separation procedures were required.
  • In patients with a history of renal subcapsular hematomas due to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), it was not possible to understand the conditions of adrenal or perinephritic adhesion in preoperative imaging diagnosis, but resection was possible by changing the order of separation procedures and by using optimal instruments and devices.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Interactive Tutorial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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4. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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5. Nürnberg D: [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)]. Ultraschall Med; 2005 Dec;26(6):458-69
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  • [Title] [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographie von Nebennierentumoren--wann ist die Punktion indiziert?
  • The normal adrenal glands can be detected by high-resolution-sonography in a high percentage of cases.
  • Sonography is also highly sensitive in the diagnosis of tumours of the adrenal glands.
  • Only some of those tumours are hormonally active.
  • Amongst the benign tumours, adenomas are the most frequent (up to 8%).
  • Amongst the malignant tumours, metastases are more frequent than primary carcinomas (32.5% vs. 19.8% in uFNB-statistics).
  • The adrenal glands are the fourth most common location of metastases.
  • Bronchiogenic carcinomas, malignant melanomas, carcinomas of the breast and stomach as well as renal carcinomas metastasize into the adrenals most often.
  • Much less frequent are infiltrates of lymphomas in adrenal glands tumours (3.4%).
  • Incidentalomas are accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands without clinical symptoms.
  • Malignant tumours only represent a very small part of incidentalomas (0.2%).
  • In the case of an accidentally detected tumour, we propose a minimal laboratory profile (24-h-urinary-catecholamines, dexamethasone-test, electrolyte metabolism).
  • The uFNB of the adrenal glands has a high sensitivity (90-95%).
  • Considering the excellent imaging methods and laparoscopic surgery methods on hand, the indication of FNP is restricted to the following cases: 1. the presence of a metastasis leading to therapeutical consequences; 2. suspected lymphoma 3. undefined lesion (3-5 cm), hormonally inactive, without typical signs of a tumour 4. patients refusing surgery.
  • 5. uFNB in case of tumours of undefined dignity is only justified in specific cases.
  • Recommendations for this procedure in accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands: < 3 cm and hormonally inactive --> US-follow up, > 5 cm + suspected tumour --> surgery, 3-5 cm uFNB after laboratory diagnostics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16453217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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6. Fox T, Simon EL, Elder E, Riffenburgh RH, Johnstone PA: Free breathing gated delivery (FBGD) of lung radiation therapy: analysis of factors affecting clinical patient throughput. Lung Cancer; 2007 Apr;56(1):69-75
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  • The photon beam is on only during a particular prescribed percentage of the respiratory cycle where the target tumor volume is minimized.
  • The majority of patients had lung cancer (n=12) with single cases of adrenal metastasis, thymoma, and atypical carcinoid.
  • Even though this technology more accurately targets tumor volumes while sparing normal tissue, the patient throughput issue may deter this technology from being implemented into busy clinical practices.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / methods. Respiration

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  • (PMID = 17196299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 5P60-MD000525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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7. Rodríguez-Hermosa JI, Roig-García J, Gironès-Vilà J, Ruiz-Feliú B, Costa-Lima E, Recasens-Sala M, Codina-Cazador A: Retroperitoneal paragangliomas in obese patients. Obes Surg; 2010 Sep;20(9):1319-22
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  • Paraganglioma is a rare chromaffin cell tumor that develops from the neural crest cells of the neuroendocrine system.
  • The tumors (one interaortocaval and the other above the iliac artery) were completely excised by laparotomy without postoperative complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Obesity / complications. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / complications. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19255813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-0428
  • [Journal-full-title] Obesity surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obes Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Utriainen P, Voutilainen R, Jääskeläinen J: Continuum of phenotypes and sympathoadrenal function in premature adrenarche. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):657-65
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  • OBJECTIVES: Premature adrenarche (PA), the early rise in adrenal androgen (AA) production, can manifest with different clinical signs of androgen effect.
  • Secondly, we tested whether adrenomedullary function is altered in children with SAA, as it is in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) also causing adrenal hyperandrogenism.
  • Circulating adrenal steroid and catecholamine concentrations were measured and correlated with clinical parameters.
  • RESULTS: None of the children with SAA had CAH or virilizing tumor.
  • SAA children had similar plasma epinephrine but higher norepinephrine (NE) concentrations than their controls (mean (95% confidence interval) 1.61 (1.44, 1.77) versus 1.39 (1.30, 1.49) nmol/l, P=0.03).
  • The clinical significance of elevated NE concentrations associated with SAA needs to be confirmed in further studies.

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  • (PMID = 19151133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Steroids
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9. Hamanaka W, Yoneda S, Shirakusa T, Shirahama H, Tashiro Y, Iwasaki A, Shiraishi T, Tsuru H: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adrenocortical carcinoma--long survival with various therapeutic strategies including a lung resection: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(3):275-8
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  • Instead of a large metastatic lung tumor with hemothorax and the existence of metastases in other organs, combined therapy of repeated resections for metastases and adjuvant therapy allowed for almost a 36-month survival following the first recurrence and a good quality of life.
  • In addition, a blood and pathological study revealed that the tumor in this case was an alpha-fetoprotein-producing ACC, which is, as far as we could ascertain, the first case of its kind.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. alpha-Fetoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 18307006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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10. Pan CC, Lee WL: Vaginal obliteration in a woman with a history of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: the results of combined chemotherapy-induced gonadal toxicity and lymphoma relapse. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Mar;49(1):69-71
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  • In this case, vaginal obliteration was an early sign of tumor recurrence, although menopause may have contributed to the vaginal obliteration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Surgically-Created Structures. Vagina / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / adverse effects. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20466296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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11. Manna PR, Dyson MT, Jo Y, Stocco DM: Role of dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 in protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-mediated regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells: mechanism of action. Endocrinology; 2009 Jan;150(1):187-99
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  • [Title] Role of dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 in protein kinase A- and protein kinase C-mediated regulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells: mechanism of action.
  • Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (DAX-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has been demonstrated to be instrumental to the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein that regulates steroid biosynthesis in steroidogenic cells.
  • The present investigation was aimed at exploring the molecular involvement of DAX-1 in protein kinase A (PKA)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated regulation of StAR expression and its concomitant impact on steroid synthesis using MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.
  • Notably, the suppression of DAX-1 requires de novo transcription and translation, suggesting that the effect of DAX-1 in regulating StAR expression is dynamic.
  • These findings provide insight into the molecular events by which DAX-1 influences the PKA and PKC signaling pathways involved in the regulation of the StAR protein and steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig tumor cells.

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  • (PMID = 18787026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD017481; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R37 HD017481; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-17481
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630909
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12. Masamune T, Matsukawa T: [Pheochromocytoma]. Masui; 2010 Jul;59(7):883-6
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  • 0.1-0.2% of all cases of hypertension are caused by pheochromocytomas, or catecholamine-producing tumors derived from chromaffin tissue.
  • Adrenergic receptor blocking drugs probably reduce the complications of hypertensive crisis, the wide BP fluctuations during manipulation of the tumor (especially until venous drainage is obliterated), and the myocardial dysfunction that occurs perioperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications


13. Grippo AJ, Francis J, Beltz TG, Felder RB, Johnson AK: Neuroendocrine and cytokine profile of chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia. Physiol Behav; 2005 Apr 13;84(5):697-706
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  • A bidirectional relationship exists between depression and cardiovascular disease.
  • A feature common to both clinical syndromes is activation of proinflammatory cytokines and stress hormones, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
  • Humoral assays indicated increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and corticosterone in the CMS exposed rats.
  • Tissue TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were increased in the hypothalamus, and TNF-alpha was increased in the pituitary gland.
  • The findings provide a basis for examining more directly the interactions among the central, endocrine, and immune systems in depression associated with heart disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / blood. Animals. Body Weight / physiology. Brain Chemistry / physiology. Central Nervous System / physiopathology. Chronic Disease. Corticosterone / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Immune System / physiopathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Renin / blood. Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology. Sucrose. Taste / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15885245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9384
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-14388; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-57472; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH-65839
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 57-50-1 / Sucrose; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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14. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • Activating mutations of the Wnt signaling pathway have been observed in more frequent cancers, particularly digestive tract tumors.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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15. Tacon LJ, Soon PS, Gill AJ, Chou AS, Clarkson A, Botling J, Stalberg PL, Skogseid BM, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB, Clifton-Bligh RJ: The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;94(11):4591-9
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  • [Title] The glucocorticoid receptor is overexpressed in malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • The Weiss score is the most widely accepted method for distinguishing an ACC from an adrenocortical adenoma (ACA); however, in borderline cases, accurate diagnosis remains problematic.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study GR expression in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) and to assess its utility as an adjunct to the Weiss score.
  • This finding was validated in an external cohort of ACTs, such that 14 of 18 ACCs (78%) demonstrated positive nuclear staining whereas 32 of 33 ACAs (94%) were negative (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical finding of nuclear GR staining identified ACCs with high diagnostic accuracy.
  • We propose that GR immunohistochemistry may complement the Weiss score in the diagnosis of ACC in cases that display borderline histology.
  • The possibility that GR is transcriptionally active in these tumors, and may therefore be a therapeutic target, requires further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19820023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / NR3C1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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16. Kola B, Grossman AB: Dynamic testing in Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary; 2008;11(2):155-62
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  • CS can be ACTH-dependent, caused by ACTH-secreting pituitary or ectopic tumours, or ACTH-independent, caused by cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours.
  • CS can be an extremely difficult diagnosis to make, and assessment will include clinical, biochemical and radiological evaluation.
  • We have reviewed the current literature on the diagnosis of CS, and based on these data and our own experience, suggest the most useful tests and diagnostic criteria to be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Function Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Saliva / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18034306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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17. Botsios D, Blouhos K, Vasiliadis K, Asimaki A, Tsalis K, Betsis D: Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(7):612-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case.
  • We report a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma diagnosed by pathological examination of an extirpated right adrenal mass in a young woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17593485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Bussey KJ, Demeure MJ: Genomic and expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma: application to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Future Oncol; 2009 Jun;5(5):641-55
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  • [Title] Genomic and expression profiling of adrenocortical carcinoma: application to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive endocrine tumor with a poor 5-year survival rate of 10-20%.
  • Although ACC is extremely rare, recent advances in genomic and expression profiling, coupled with knowledge gained from the study of the inherited syndromes that increase ACC risk, are beginning to bring together a picture of a tumor type dependent on p53, the G2/M cell cycle transition and IGF2 stimulation.
  • Nevertheless, ACC remains a heterogeneous disease.
  • Only recently have sufficient tumors been characterized and results published to permit an exploration of this diversity.
  • Advances in treatment will depend on exploiting those pathways already implicated in ACC, along with those yet to be identified, and testing those treatments in better models of the disease than the three cell lines that currently exist and are widely available to the community.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19519204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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19. van Assche G: Emerging drugs to treat Crohn's disease. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2007 Mar;12(1):49-59
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  • [Title] Emerging drugs to treat Crohn's disease.
  • The advent of the anti-TNF agent infliximab has dramatically changed our concept of treating refractory inflammatory bowel disease, particularly Crohn's disease.
  • Although infliximab has proven to induce clinical response and remission with rapid onset of mucosal healing, to spare steroids, to improve perianal disease and to increase quality of life, there is an ongoing debate about optimizing infliximab therapy and a clear unmet medical need for patients losing their response to this agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Humans. Infliximab. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17355213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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20. Cîlţ C: [Pharmacologic treatment of sarcoidosis]. Pneumologia; 2005 Apr-Jun;54(2):66-71
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  • Sarcoidosis is still a mysterious disease since we don't know exactly what is the cause.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Pentoxifylline / therapeutic use. Thalidomide / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 16536004.001).
  • [ISSN] 2067-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumologia (Bucharest, Romania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumologia
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; SD6QCT3TSU / Pentoxifylline
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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21. Eto M, Harano M, Koga H, Tanaka M, Naito S: Clinical outcomes and learning curve of a laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 103 consecutive cases at a single institute. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):671-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical outcomes and the learning curve for a laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in 103 consecutive cases performed by three surgeons at our institute, according to the type of adrenal disorder.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and three patients with adrenal tumors, including 38 cases of primary aldosteronism, 33 cases of Cushing syndrome (including preclinical Cushing syndrome), 15 cases of pheochromocytoma, and nine cases of non-functioning adenoma were evaluated, while focusing on the approaches, intraoperative and postoperative data, and the learning curve of LA, according the type of adrenal disorder.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the operation time, estimated blood loss, incidence of conversion to open surgery and blood transfusion, or postoperative recovery among the patients treated by LA for aldosteronoma, Cushing adenoma, pheochromocytoma, and non-functioning adenoma.
  • On the other hand, in the cases treated by LA for pheochromocytoma, no trends in either the operation time or blood loss were observed.
  • However, there has been neither any conversion to open surgery nor blood transfusion in cases treated by LA since 1998 (our 42nd case), even after the changes in the operators.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicate that LA is becoming safer than before, probably due to improvements in the technique, education, and training of surgeons, in addition to the increased number of cases now treated by LA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / education. Education, Medical, Continuing. Laparoscopy. Medical Staff, Hospital / education

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  • (PMID = 16834640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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22. Giometto B, Grisold W, Vitaliani R, Graus F, Honnorat J, Bertolini G, PNS Euronetwork: Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome in the PNS Euronetwork database: a European study from 20 centers. Arch Neurol; 2010 Mar;67(3):330-5
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  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze various types of PNS, frequent tumor and antibody associations, clinical characteristics of individual syndromes, and possible therapeutic and prognostic strategies.
  • Tumors are the main cause of death, but some types of PNS (such as dysautonomia) have a poorer prognosis than malignant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antibodies / immunology. Blotting, Western. Brain / immunology. Cause of Death. Databases, Factual. Disease Progression. Europe. Humans. Immunoglobulins / therapeutic use. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Neurons / immunology. Plasma Exchange. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 20212230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Immunoglobulins
  • [Investigator] Antoine JC; Blaes F; Carpentier A; Evoli A; Fazio R; Lorusso L; Mazzeo A; Psimaras D; Rauer S; Rees J; Rodi Z; Ros T; Smitt PS; Stourac P; Tonali P; Vedeler C; Verschuuren J; Vigliani MC; Vincent A; Vita G; Voltz R
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23. Dimas S, Roukounakis N, Kafetzis I, Bethanis S, Anthi S, Michas S, Kyriakou V, Kostas H: Feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large pheochromocytomas. JSLS; 2007 Jan-Mar;11(1):30-3
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of surgeons consider large and potentially malignant pheochromocytomas an absolute contraindication for laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the risks and outcomes of LA in patients with this anomaly.
  • RESULTS: Patient's median age was 48 years, and the median tumor size was 10.8 cm.
  • All patients are disease free after a median follow-up of 13 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In experienced hands, LA can be proposed for large and potentially malignant pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 17651553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015790
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24. Kramer K, Hasel C, Aschoff AJ, Henne-Bruns D, Wuerl P: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and bilateral pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jun 28;13(24):3384-7
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  • [Title] Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and bilateral pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis.
  • The coincidence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is described only five times within the literature.
  • We report on a 63 year old Caucasian female with the rare condition of neurofibromatosis type 1 coinciding with recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor plus bilateral pheochromocytoma (PCC).
  • After a history of palpitations and dizziness that lasted for years, a left adrenal mass was detected by CT.
  • Laparotomy revealed a pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland while an ileoterminal GIST was found incidentally intraoperatively.
  • After four years the patient is doing well without any signs of further recurrent tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


25. Agemy L, Harmelin A, Waks T, Leibovitch I, Rabin T, Pfeffer MR, Eshhar Z: Irradiation enhances the metastatic potential of prostatic small cell carcinoma xenografts. Prostate; 2008 Apr 1;68(5):530-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare subset of prostate cancer (0.5-2% of all prostatic carcinomas), predominantly composed of neuroendocrine (NE) cells, with a very poor prognosis.
  • Irradiation is one of the mainstay options for SCCP local treatment, yet, little is known about the clinical response of these aggressive tumors to radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Using SCID mice, the response to fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) of two unique human NE xenografts of SCCP (WISH-PC2 and WM-4A) was investigated.
  • RESULTS: Fractionated irradiation of WISH-PC2 xenografts using total doses of >24 Gy induced a delay in tumor growth, while total doses of >36 Gy led to local tumor eradication.
  • Similarly, in the WM-4A xenograft, a total dose of 20 Gy led to tumor growth delay and some of the mice also developed metastases.
  • Non-irradiated local xenografts failed to disseminate, even following surgical excision of the main tumor mass; however, tumor cells administered intravenously did form metastases.
  • Metastases of both xenografts were located in the adrenal/kidney and inter-scapular regions, areas rich in brown adipose tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinically, this study raises the possibility that radiation to SCCP may promote metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18247403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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26. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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27. Sawazaki H, Okasyo K, Takahashi T, Taki Y, Takeuchi H: [Gluteal muscular metastasis from renal pelvic tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 May;54(5):361-3
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  • [Title] [Gluteal muscular metastasis from renal pelvic tumor].
  • We present a case of gluteal muscular metastasis from a renal pelvic tumor.
  • A 57-year-old man had undergone right nephroureterectomy and received 2 courses of adjuvant chemotherapy (MEC: methotrexate, epirubicin, cisplatin) for invasive renal pelvic tumor.
  • Five months after the operation, computed tomography (CT) revealed pulmonary metastasis and right adrenal gland recurrence.
  • Since the size of the pulmonary metastasis and right adrenal gland recurrence showed no change, the gluteal mass was excised.
  • Pathological diagnosis was metastatic urothelial carcinoma.
  • The common metastatic sites of renal pelvic tumor are lungs, liver, bone, and lymph nodes.
  • This is the 1st case of gluteal muscle metastasis from renal pelvic tumor in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Buttocks. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18546862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. Wójcik M, Dolezal-Ołtarzewska K, Kumorowicz-Czoch M, Kalicka-Kasperczyk A, Januś D, Zygmunt-Górska A, Wojtyś J, Korab-Chrzanowska E, Kwiatkowski S, Starzyk J: [Long-term endocrine complications after brain tumor treatment--own experience]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(11):1132-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term endocrine complications after brain tumor treatment--own experience].
  • THE AIM: The retrospective analysis of parameters of the endocrine system function up to 10 years after head radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) due to malignant solid tumor of the central nervous system.
  • A single endocrine disorder was seen in patients (28%), two independent disorders in six (20%), three in three children (10%), and four in two (6.7%).
  • The most common endocrine disorder was growth hormone deficiency (GHD) (13 patients, 46.6%).
  • Primary and secondary hypothyroidism were observed in seven (23%) and two patients (6.7%), respectively, secondary adrenal insufficiency in two (6.7%), hypogonadotropic or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in seven (23%) and two patients (6.7%), respectively.
  • Late endocrine complications after malignant brain tumor treatment affect 66% of patients followed for 1-10 years after completion of RT.
  • 2. The most common endocrinopathy is GHD, followed by hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Radiation Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 21442963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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29. Keating DJ, Rychkov GY, Giacomin P, Roberts ML: Oxygen-sensing pathway for SK channels in the ovine adrenal medulla. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol; 2005 Oct;32(10):882-7
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  • [Title] Oxygen-sensing pathway for SK channels in the ovine adrenal medulla.
  • The aim of the present study was to identify the oxygen-sensing pathway in the oxygen-sensitive sheep adrenal medullary chromaffin cell (AMCC).
  • 3. Diphenyliodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, had no effect on the hypoxia-evoked closure of K+ channels in primary AMCC, whereas the mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone abolished the hypoxia-evoked response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Chromaffin Cells / physiology. Potassium Channels / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biphenyl Compounds / pharmacology. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Dithiothreitol / pharmacology. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Membrane Potentials / drug effects. Membrane Potentials / physiology. Mice. Onium Compounds / pharmacology. Oxidants / pharmacology. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Plasmids / genetics. Rotenone / pharmacology. Sheep. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16173951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1870
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 0 / Onium Compounds; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Potassium Channels; 03L9OT429T / Rotenone; 10182-84-0 / diphenyliodonium; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; T8ID5YZU6Y / Dithiothreitol
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30. Valesini G, Cutolo M: [Effects of TNF antagonists on immune and neuroendocrine system]. Reumatismo; 2005;57(4 Suppl):3-7
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  • These biologic agents are employed in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative spondyloarthritides, as well as psoriasis and Crohn's disease.
  • Some studies showed that these agents also affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antirheumatic Agents / pharmacology. Immune System / drug effects. Immunoglobulin G / pharmacology. Neurosecretory Systems / drug effects. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic / biosynthesis. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Clinical Trials as Topic. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Etanercept. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infliximab. Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. Macrophage Activation / drug effects. Pituitary-Adrenal System / drug effects. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / antagonists & inhibitors. Rheumatic Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16385349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7449
  • [Journal-full-title] Reumatismo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reumatismo
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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31. Kiiveri S, Liu J, Arola J, Heikkilä P, Kuulasmaa T, Lehtonen E, Voutilainen R, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2005 Apr 15;233(1-2):47-56
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  • [Title] Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • Transcription factor GATA-6 is expressed in fetal and adult human adrenal cortex and has been suggested to have a role in adrenal androgen synthesis.
  • GATA-6 has been shown to be downregulated in mouse adrenocortical tumors, but has not been studied in human adrenocortical tumors in detail.
  • GATA-6 mRNA and protein expression was remarkably diminished in adrenocortical carcinomas as compared to normal adrenal cortex and adenomas (p<0.05).
  • In opposite to other tumor types GATA-6 expression was, however, high in virilizing carcinomas.
  • Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) has been functionally linked to GATA-6, and the expression of these two factors correlated in the adrenal tumors.
  • In contrast to GATA-6, we found upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and proliferation marker Ki67 in adrenocortical carcinomas indicating that GATA-6 is not linked to cell proliferation in human adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Female. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Homeodomain Proteins. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15767045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
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32. Kastelan D, Ravic KG, Cacic M, Stern-Padovanr R, Coric M, Jelcic J, Perkovic Z, Giljevic Z, Aganovic I, Korsic M: Severe postoperative hypoglycemia in a patient with pheochromocytoma and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Mar;13(3):CS34-7
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  • CASE REPORT: We report a 43-year-old woman with a very rare association of pheochromocytoma and preclinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS) in the same adrenal gland who developed severe postoperative hypoglycemia.
  • In the early postoperative period after surgical removal of right adrenal gland, the patient lapsed into a stuporous state.
  • Pathology revealed medullary pheochromocytoma and a cortical tumor of right adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report indicates the importance of close monitoring of blood glucose level in a patient with pheochromocytoma after removal of an adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hypoglycemia / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Postoperative Complications


33. Nouira K, Bedioui H, Belhiba H, Daghfous A, Baccar S, Menif E, Jouini M, Ben Safta Z, Slim R: [Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland, from radiologic diagnosis to laparoscopic treatment. A case report]. Tunis Med; 2007 Feb;85(2):160-2
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  • [Title] [Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland, from radiologic diagnosis to laparoscopic treatment. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphangiome kystique de la surrénale, du diagnostic radiologique au traitement laparoscopique. A propos d'une observation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland is a rare tumor, which is often asymptomatic.
  • Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult.
  • Surgical exploration is usually indicated due to uncertain diagnosis.
  • AIM: Report of a new case CASE: We report a new case of cystic lymphangioma of the left adrenal gland, in a 30 year-old female, treated with a laparoscopic excision and confirmed by anatomopathologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphangioma, Cystic / diagnosis. Lymphangioma, Cystic / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17665666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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34. Lichtenauer UD, Duchniewicz M, Kolanczyk M, Hoeflich A, Hahner S, Else T, Bicknell AB, Zemojtel T, Stallings NR, Schulte DM, Kamps MP, Hammer GD, Scheele JS, Beuschlein F: Pre-B-cell transcription factor 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 synergistically regulate adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis. Endocrinology; 2007 Feb;148(2):693-704
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  • A variety of transcription factors including Wilms tumor gene (Wt-1), steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf-1), dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita on the X-chromosome, Gene 1 (Dax-1), and pre-B-cell transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) have been defined as necessary for regular adrenocortical development.
  • However, the role of Pbx1 for adrenal growth and function in the adult organism together with the molecular relationship between Pbx1 and these other transcription factors have not been characterized.
  • We demonstrate that Pbx haploinsufficiency (Pbx1(+/-)) in mice is accompanied by a significant lower adrenal weight in adult animals compared with wild-type controls.
  • Accordingly, baseline proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels are lower in Pbx1(+/-) mice, and unilateral adrenalectomy results in impaired contralateral compensatory adrenal growth, indicating a lower proliferative potential in the context of Pbx1 haploinsufficiency.
  • Functionally, Pbx1(+/-) mice display a blunted corticosterone response after ACTH stimulation coincident with lower adrenal expression of the ACTH receptor (melanocortin 2 receptor, Mc2-r).
  • Taken together, these studies provide evidence for a role of Pbx1 in the maintenance of a functional adrenal cortex mediated by synergistic actions of Pbx1 and Sf-1 in the transcriptional regulation of the critical effector of adrenocortical differentiation, the ACTH receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / growth & development. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology. Steroids / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Corticosterone / metabolism. Drug Synergism. Gene Expression. Haplotypes. Hypertrophy. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Receptors, Corticotropin / genetics. Somatomedins / metabolism. Steroidogenic Factor 1

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  • (PMID = 17082260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK054480
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Pbx1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Somatomedins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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35. Ohno N, Terada N, Komada M, Saitoh S, Costantini F, Pace V, Germann PG, Weber K, Yamakawa H, Ohara O, Ohno S: Dispensable role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 in rodent adrenal medulla regarding generation of pheochromocytoma and plasmalemmal localization of TSLC1. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2009 Mar;1793(3):506-15
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  • [Title] Dispensable role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 in rodent adrenal medulla regarding generation of pheochromocytoma and plasmalemmal localization of TSLC1.
  • Protein 4.1B is a membrane skeletal protein expressed in various organs, and is associated with tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) in vitro.
  • Although involvement of 4.1B in the intercellular junctions and tumor-suppression was suggested, some controversial results posed questions to the general tumor-suppressive function of 4.1B and its relation to TSLC1 in vivo.
  • In this study, the expression of 4.1B and its interaction with TSLC1 were examined in rodent adrenal gland, and the involvement of 4.1B in tumorigenesis and the effect of 4.1B deficiency on TSLC1 distribution were also investigated using rodent pheochromocytoma and 4.1B-knockout mice.
  • Although plasmalemmal immunolocalization of 4.1B was shown in chromaffin cells of rodent adrenal medulla, expression of 4.1B was maintained in developed pheochromocytoma, and morphological abnormality or pheochromocytoma generation could not be found in 4.1B-deficient mice.
  • Furthermore, molecular interaction and colocalization of 4.1B and TSLC1 were observed in mouse adrenal gland, but the immunolocalization of TSLC1 along chromaffin cell membranes was not affected in the 4.1B-deficient mice.
  • These results suggest that the function of 4.1B as tumor suppressor might significantly differ among organs and species, and that plasmalemmal retention of TSLC1 would be maintained by molecules other than 4.1B interacting in rodent chromaffin cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


36. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.
  • Patients who have local invasion, tumors that are too large, or require organ resection require an open procedure.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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37. Bielinska M, Kiiveri S, Parviainen H, Mannisto S, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and laboratory mouse. Vet Pathol; 2006 Mar;43(2):97-117
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  • [Title] Gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and laboratory mouse.
  • Sex steroid-producing adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas occur frequently in neutered ferrets, but the molecular events underlying tumor development are not well understood.
  • Prepubertal gonadectomy elicits similar tumors in certain inbred or genetically engineered strains of mice, and these mouse models shed light on tumorigenesis in ferrets.
  • Tumorigenesis in mice is influenced by the inherent susceptibility of adrenal tissue to gonadectomy-induced hormonal changes.
  • Gonadectomy alters the plasma or local concentrations of steroid hormones and other factors that affect adrenocortical tumor development, including inhibins, activins, and Müllerian inhibiting substance.
  • Cases of human adrenocortical neoplasia have been linked to precocious expression of hormone receptors and to mutations that alter the activity of G-proteins or downstream effectors.
  • Whether such genetic changes contribute to tissue susceptibility to neoplasia in neutered ferrets and mice awaits further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Castration / veterinary. Ferrets

  • Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .
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  • (PMID = 16537928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL61006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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38. Fon WP, Li PH: Dexamethasone-induced suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene expression in mouse Y-1 adrenocortical cells is associated with reduced histone H3 acetylation. Endocrine; 2007 Oct;32(2):155-65
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  • In this study, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the acetylation of histone H3 in mouse Y-1 adrenocortical tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Glucocorticoids / pharmacology. Histones / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Acetylation / drug effects. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Mice. Progesterone / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18040891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Histones; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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39. Simi L, Malentacchi F, Luciani P, Gelmini S, Deledda C, Arvia R, Mannelli M, Peri A, Orlando C: Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:201
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  • [Title] Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer.
  • Adrenal glands show the highest levels of seladin-1 expression, which are significantly reduced in adrenal carcinomas (ACC).
  • Furthermore, to evaluate the presence of an epigenetic regulation also 'in vivo', seladin-1 methylation and its mRNA expression were measured in 9 ACC and in 5 normal adrenal glands.
  • In ACC, methylation density of seladin-1 promoter was higher (2682 +/- 686) than in normal adrenal glands (362 +/- 97; p = 0.02).
  • Seladin-1 mRNA expression in ACC (1452 +/- 196) was significantly lower than in normal adrenal glands (3614 +/- 949; p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20465827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2875219
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40. Manger WM: An overview of pheochromocytoma: history, current concepts, vagaries, and diagnostic challenges. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:1-20
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  • Tragically as many as 50% of pheochromocytomas are discovered at autopsy, mainly because the diagnosis of this neuroendocrine tumor was not considered.
  • Missing the diagnosis almost invariably results in devastating cardiovascular complications or death.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology


41. Poturnajova M, Altanerova V, Kostalova L, Breza J, Altaner C: Novel germline mutation in the transmembrane region of RET gene close to Cys634Ser mutation associated with MEN 2A syndrome. J Mol Med (Berl); 2005 Apr;83(4):287-95
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  • Two mutations on the same allele of RET gene were revealed in a family with predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A.
  • Two mutations were present in close proximity in both the patients' germline and tumor DNA and were absent in DNA isolated from healthy family members and control blood donors.
  • No parathyroid gland alterations were observed in patients with two RET gene mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Cysteine / genetics. Exons. Female. Gene Frequency. Genetic Linkage. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Serine / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15592804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-2716
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW01217-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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42. Grignon D, Paner GP: Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):63-8
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus.
  • Renal sinus fat invasion was incorporated as one of the parameters for pT stage definition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) only in the latest 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/tumor-node-metastasis staging protocol.
  • The current pT3a subcategory (in addition to adrenal gland involvement) groups 2 modes of extrarenal extension by RCC, either by peripheral perinephric fat extension or by renal sinus fat invasion.
  • Recent prospective studies have shown that with more directed gross sampling and histologic evaluation, renal sinus invasion is actually more commonly diagnosed than previously reported, or when compared with retrospectively sampled RCC nephrectomy specimens.
  • These studies have demonstrated that renal sinus invasion is the principal pathway for extrarenal extension for clear cell RCC; the incidence of which is related to size (tumors greater than 4 cm more frequently involve the renal sinus).
  • More significantly, a recent retrospective study of pT3a clear cell RCC nephrectomy specimens showed that tumors invading the renal sinus fat portend a more aggressive outcome than tumors invading only the peripheral perinephric fat.
  • Clear cell RCCs invading the renal sinus are more likely to have higher nuclear grade, regional lymph node involvement and sarcomatoid transformation than tumors invading only the perinephric fat.
  • Given the importance of renal sinus invasion, sampling strategies for nephrectomy specimens should be modified to focus in this region as appropriate and pathologists should be familiar with the histologic criteria for staging renal sinus invasion.

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  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1218-21 [16145373.001]
  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1199-202; discussion 1202 [16145369.001]
  • (PMID = 17471114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Claahsen-van der Grinten HL, Otten BJ, Sweep FC, Span PN, Ross HA, Meuleman EJ, Hermus AR: Testicular tumors in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency show functional features of adrenocortical tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Sep;92(9):3674-80
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  • [Title] Testicular tumors in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency show functional features of adrenocortical tissue.
  • CONTEXT: In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), testicular adrenal rest tumors are frequently found that may interfere with gonadal function.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine steroid-producing features of testicular adrenal rest tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Eight adult CAH patients with bilateral testicular adrenal rest tumors were treated with testis-sparing surgery.
  • INTERVENTIONS: In all but one patient, spermatic veins were cannulated during surgery and blood samples collected to measure the adrenal-specific steroid 21-deoxycortisol (21DF) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) and androstenedione (A).
  • The same parameters were measured in simultaneously taken peripheral blood. mRNA concentrations of adrenal-specific enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and ACTH and angiotensin II (AII) receptors were measured in tumor tissue.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adrenal-specific steroids/enzymes were assessed.
  • CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and ACTH and AII receptor mRNAs were detected in all tumors with a strong correlation between ACTH receptor mRNA in tumors and 21DF (r = 0.85; P = 0.015), 17OHP (r = 1; P = 0.01) and A (r = 0.89; P = 0.007) concentrations in peripheral blood.
  • CONCLUSION: Testicular adrenal rest tumors produce adrenal-specific steroids and express adrenal-specific enzymes and ACTH and AII receptors, confirming the strong resemblance with adrenal tissue.
  • Because AII receptors are present in tumor tissue, it can be hypothesized that AII may be an additional factor responsible for testicular adrenal rest tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiopathology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / physiopathology. Adrenal Rest Tumor / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology


44. Ahlborn GJ, Nelson GM, Grindstaff RD, Waalkes MP, Diwan BA, Allen JW, Kitchin KT, Preston RJ, Hernandez-Zavala A, Adair B, Thomas DJ, Delker DA: Impact of life stage and duration of exposure on arsenic-induced proliferative lesions and neoplasia in C3H mice. Toxicology; 2009 Aug 3;262(2):106-13
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  • [Title] Impact of life stage and duration of exposure on arsenic-induced proliferative lesions and neoplasia in C3H mice.
  • Previous experimental studies have demonstrated increased incidence of liver, lung, ovary, and uterine tumors in mice exposed to 85 ppm (approximately 8 mg/kg) inorganic arsenic during gestation.
  • To further characterize age susceptibility to arsenic carcinogenesis we administered 85 ppm inorganic arsenic in drinking water to C3H mice during gestation, prior to pubescence and post-pubescence to compare proliferative lesion and tumor outcomes over a one-year exposure period.
  • In contrast, inorganic arsenic significantly decreased the incidence of tumors in liver (0%) and adrenal glands (0%) of male mice continuously exposed from gestation through one year, as compared to levels in control (30 and 65%, respectively) and gestation only (33 and 55%, respectively) exposed mice.
  • Together, these results suggest that continuous inorganic arsenic exposure at 85 ppm from gestation through one year increases the incidence and severity of urogenital proliferative lesions in female mice and decreases the incidence of liver and adrenal tumors in male mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Arsenites / toxicity. Carcinogens / toxicity. Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced. Oviducts / drug effects. Sodium Compounds / toxicity. Urinary Bladder / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19450653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3185
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-22; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenites; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Sodium Compounds; 48OVY2OC72 / sodium arsenite
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS127111; NLM/ PMC3496158
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45. Feng R, Rios JA, Onishi T, Lokshin A, Gorelik E, Lentzsch S: Cell-based and cytokine-directed chemical screen to identify potential anti-multiple myeloma agents. Leuk Res; 2010 Jul;34(7):917-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / pharmacology. Anthelmintics / pharmacology. Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. B-Lymphocytes / secretion. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Cardiac Glycosides / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor / secretion. Humans. Microspheres. Osteoclasts / cytology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20116850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA117452
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anthelmintics; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cardiac Glycosides; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Growth Inhibitors
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46. Stewart JW, Koehler K, Jackson W, Hawley J, Wang W, Au A, Myers R, Birt DF: Prevention of mouse skin tumor promotion by dietary energy restriction requires an intact adrenal gland and glucocorticoid supplementation restores inhibition. Carcinogenesis; 2005 Jun;26(6):1077-84
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  • [Title] Prevention of mouse skin tumor promotion by dietary energy restriction requires an intact adrenal gland and glucocorticoid supplementation restores inhibition.
  • Our laboratory has demonstrated in the previous studies that dietary energy restriction (DER) inhibited the promotion of skin tumorigenesis and others have found that adrenalectomy may reverse that inhibition.
  • The purpose of the research reported here was to determine if circulating corticosterone (CCS) may be the adrenal hormone responsible for DER prevention of skin carcinogenesis.
  • DER was 60% of the AL calorie intake with the removal of energy from fat and carbohydrate.
  • CCS, the main glucocorticoid hormone secreted by the murine adrenal gland, was added to the drinking water of AL/ADX and DER/ADX groups to determine the role of CCS in the DER inhibition of tumor development.
  • In sham-operated groups, DER compared with AL-fed mice experienced significantly decreased papilloma incidence and multiplicity (P < 0.0001).
  • ADX did not alter papilloma incidence or multiplicity in AL-fed mice but ADX partially reversed the inhibition of papilloma multiplicity and incidence in DER mice.
  • CCS supplementation to both DER/ADX and AL/ADX mice resulted in reduced papilloma incidence and multiplicity.
  • In DER/ADX mice, CCS dramatically reduced papilloma rates while in AL/ADX mice CCS reduced the papilloma rates to those seen in the DER sham group.
  • DER significantly reduced carcinoma multiplicity mean counts per effective animal (P < 0.0001) compared with AL-fed groups in sham and ADX/CCS groups.
  • DER/ADX mice lost the carcinoma multiplicity protection seen in sham/DER mice.
  • ADX followed by CCS treatment in the DER mice resulted in the lowest carcinoma incidence and multiplicity.
  • Thus, DER-inhibition of skin tumorigenesis was mediated at least in part through CCS.
  • However, CCS was more effective in preventing papillomas and carcinomas in DER/ADX mice than in AL/ADX mice, suggesting that other factors may also be involved in the DER prevention of tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Carcinoma / prevention & control. Corticosterone / metabolism. Diet, Fat-Restricted. Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage. Papilloma / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 15746164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77451
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benz(a)Anthracenes; 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates; 2564-65-0 / 7,12-dihydroxymethylbenz(a)anthracene; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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47. Luk A, Ma RC, Lam CW, Tam WH, Lo AW, Ng EK, Kong AP, So WY, Chow CC: A 21-year-old pregnant woman with hypertension and proteinuria. PLoS Med; 2009 Feb 24;6(2):e1000037
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  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Proteinuria / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Cesarean Section. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Infant, Newborn. Iodine Radioisotopes. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Phenoxybenzamine / therapeutic use. Pre-Eclampsia / diagnosis. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19243216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-1676
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2646781
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48. Giatzakis C, Batarseh A, Dettin L, Papadopoulos V: The role of Ets transcription factors in the basal transcription of the translocator protein (18 kDa). Biochemistry; 2007 Apr 24;46(16):4763-74
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  • Promoter fragments extending 2.7 kb and 805 bp upstream of the transcription start site were able to direct enhanced green fluorescent protein expression to Leydig cells of the testis, theca cells of the ovary, and cells of the adrenal cortex in transgenic animals.
  • Functional characterization of the 515-805 bp region revealed the presence of one specificity protein 1/specificity protein 3 (Sp1/Sp3) and two v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologue (Ets) binding sites that are important for transcriptional activity in both MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells and NIH/3T3 whole mouse embryo fibroblasts.

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  • (PMID = 17402746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2960
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES007747; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES007747-11; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES07747; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES007747-12A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007747-12A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007747-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bzrp protein, mouse; 0 / GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor; 0 / Gabpa protein, mouse; 0 / Gabpb1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / Receptors, GABA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS61927; NLM/ PMC2529463
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49. Kubota K, Iida H, Fujisawa T, Ogawa M, Inamori M, Saito S, Kakuta Y, Oshiro H, Nakajima A: Clinical significance of swollen duodenal papilla in autoimmune pancreatitis. Pancreas; 2007 Nov;35(4):e51-60
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  • These findings in the AIP patients were compared with those in 12 patients with chronic alcoholic tumor-forming pancreatitis (CAP).
  • We suggest that these findings may be valuable adjuncts to the diagnosis of AIP as well as for selecting suitable candidates for corticosteroid therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Antigens, CD79 / analysis. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Plasma Cells / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Stromal Cells / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18090232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD79; 0 / CD79A protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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50. Motivala SJ, Khanna D, FitzGerald J, Irwin MR: Stress activation of cellular markers of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis: protective effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Arthritis Rheum; 2008 Feb;58(2):376-83
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  • [Title] Stress activation of cellular markers of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis: protective effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists.
  • OBJECTIVE: Psychological stress is thought to aggravate disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although the physiologic mechanisms are unclear.
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is an inflammatory cytokine involved in the exacerbation of RA, and TNFalpha antagonists have emerged as efficacious treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Stress, Psychological / complications. Stress, Psychological / immunology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / blood. Blood Pressure. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Female. Heart Rate. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / immunology. Interleukin-6 / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Monocytes / immunology. Monocytes / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18240230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Arthritis and rheumatism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arthritis Rheum.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-026364; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-10014152; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-079955; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-00827; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / T32-MH-18399
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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51. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, Curschmann J, Janzer RC, Ludwin SK, Gorlia T, Allgeier A, Lacombe D, Cairncross JG, Eisenhauer E, Mirimanoff RO, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor and Radiotherapy Groups, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group: Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med; 2005 Mar 10;352(10):987-96
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  • BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is usually rapidly fatal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / adverse effects. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):1036-8 [15758016.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):2350-3; author reply 2350-3 [15938011.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):2350-3; author reply 2350-3 [15938012.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):2350-3; author reply 2350-3 [15938013.001]
  • (PMID = 15758009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10CA11488-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10CA11488-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10CA11488-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10CA11488-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10CA11488-34
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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52. Nishikawa T, Matsuzawa Y, Saito J, Omura M: Is it Possible to Extirpate Cardiovascular Events in Primary Aldosteronism After Surgical Treatment. Jpn Clin Med; 2010;1:21-3
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  • Thus, the differential diagnosis between unilateral hyperaldosteronemia due to APA and bilateral hyperaldosteronemia due to idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) is crucial to decide surgical indication for treatment in PA patients.
  • Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) can diagnose the laterality of hypersecretion of aldosterone in those patients, while it is still impossible to differentiate bilateral hypersecretion of bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas (Blt-APAs) from that of bilateral hyperplasia of IHA.
  • To solve the problem, we try to develop a new method of supper-selective ACTH-stimulated adrenal venous sampling (SS-ACTH-AVS).
  • Adrenal effluents were sampled super-selectively at the central veins and at one or two tributaries of adrenal veins in each gland.
  • We would like to emphasize that SS-ACTH-AVS can precisely analyze the situation of hyperfunction of steroidogenesis in each side of adrenals as well as in some tiny lesions inside the adrenal cortex which are not visible in the CT images.
  • Thus, we should perform SS-ACTH-AVS especially in the case demonstrating the existence of bilateral adrenal lesions such as unilateral and bilateral tumors, or even no tumor in both sides in the patients with PA.

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  • (PMID = 23946677.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn Clin Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3738501
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal adenoma / adrenal hyperplasia / adrenal vein sampling / hypertension
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53. Awazawa R, Yamamoto Y, Gushi M, Taira K, Yagi N, Asato Y, Hagiwara K, Uezato H: Case of pemphigus foliaceus that shifted into pemphigus vulgaris after adrenal tumor resection. J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;34(8):549-55
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  • [Title] Case of pemphigus foliaceus that shifted into pemphigus vulgaris after adrenal tumor resection.
  • The diagnosis at first was made as pemphigus foliaceus (PF).
  • Systemic examinations on admission revealed a right adrenal tumor that had caused Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of the removed tumor was a functional adrenal adenoma.
  • To date, there have been no reports of pemphigus complicated with an adrenal tumor that caused Cushing's syndrome in Japan.
  • The present case is particularly interesting in that the symptoms became worse after the tumor resection and that the first diagnosis of PF shifted into PV after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Pemphigus / complications. Skin / pathology


54. Muro Toledo GE, Losada Guerra JL, Martín Pérez A, Pérez Marín IR: [Giant adrenal carcinoma. Case report]. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Mar;62(2):134-6
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal carcinoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarenal gigante. Presentación de un caso.
  • Pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of suprarenal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The big dimensions of the tumor determined a wide excision surgery which didn't stop the progression of the disease and the death of the patient 6 months after being operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19448281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Chen ML, Xu PZ, Peng XD, Chen WS, Guzman G, Yang X, Di Cristofano A, Pandolfi PP, Hay N: The deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to suppress tumor development in Pten+/- mice. Genes Dev; 2006 Jun 15;20(12):1569-74
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  • [Title] The deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to suppress tumor development in Pten+/- mice.
  • The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently inactivated in human cancers.
  • Here we showed that the deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to dramatically inhibit tumor development in Pten+/- mice.
  • Akt1 deficiency had a profound effect on endometrium and prostate neoplasia, two types of human cancer, in which PTEN is frequently mutated, and also affected thyroid and adrenal medulla tumors and intestinal polyps.
  • Even haplodeficiency of Akt1 was sufficient to markedly attenuate the development of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and endometrial carcinoma.


56. Rashid-Farokhi F, Cheraghvandi A, Masjedi MR: Pheochromocytoma crisis due to glucocorticoid administration: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Iran Med; 2009 Mar;12(2):190-4
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  • The first attack was associated with pulmonary edema, while the second attack was associated with high anion gap metabolic acidosis, renal failure, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia.
  • The attacks led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, which was confirmed by appropriate diagnostic tests.
  • The tumor was excised successfully and the patient is presently asymptomatic.We believe that these episodes were initiated by glucocorticoid injection, an event reported in a few cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Betamethasone / adverse effects. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Hypertension / chemically induced. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


57. Hickman PE, Leong M, Chang J, Wilson SR, McWhinney B: Plasma free metanephrines are superior to urine and plasma catecholamines and urine catecholamine metabolites for the investigation of phaeochromocytoma. Pathology; 2009 Feb;41(2):173-7
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  • AIM: To compare the relative diagnostic efficacy of several different tests used to establish a diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma, in patients with a proven diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma, and in hospital patients with significant disease of other types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Catecholamines / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19152190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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58. Hanamura M, Iwamoto T, Soga N, Sugimura Y, Okuda M: Risk factors contributing to the development of hypocalcemia after zoledronic acid administration in patients with bone metastases of solid tumor. Biol Pharm Bull; 2010;33(4):721-4
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  • [Title] Risk factors contributing to the development of hypocalcemia after zoledronic acid administration in patients with bone metastases of solid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcium / blood. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Hypocalcemia / chemically induced. Imidazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Odds Ratio. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20410614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-5215
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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59. Hofland J, van Weerden WM, Dits NF, Steenbergen J, van Leenders GJ, Jenster G, Schröder FH, de Jong FH: Evidence of limited contributions for intratumoral steroidogenesis in prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 1;70(3):1256-64
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  • Intratumoral androgen production might contribute to tumor progression despite suppressed serum androgen concentrations.
  • Overall, the majority of samples showed low or absent mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes required for de novo steroid synthesis.
  • We concluded that intratumoral steroid biosynthesis contributes less than circulating adrenal androgens, implying that blocking androgen production and its intraprostatic conversion into DHT, such as via CYP17A1 inhibition, may represent favorable therapeutic options in patients with CRPC.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / genetics. 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase / genetics. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / genetics. Progesterone Reductase / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androgens / metabolism. Androstenedione / metabolism. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Dihydrotestosterone / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Experimental / enzymology. Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Orchiectomy. Pregnenolone / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Testosterone / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 15;70(20):8247-9; author reply 8249-50 [20940409.001]
  • (PMID = 20086173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 73R90F7MQ8 / Pregnenolone; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C3 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase; EC 1.3.99.5 / steroid-5alpha-reductase type 1
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60. Chevalier N, Carrier P, Piche M, Chevallier A, Wagner K, Tardy V, Benchimol D, Fénichel P: Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):56-9
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Large adrenal tumors are rarely associated with adrenal enzymatic deficiency, except in 11-ss-hydroxylase insufficiency.
  • These tumors are exceptionally malignant.
  • His evaluation at 36 years of age showed a four-centimeter mass in the left adrenal gland, with most characteristics suggestive of malignancy (CT and positron emission tomography [PET] scan).
  • We performed a surgical resection that established the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor of uncertain prognosis (Weiss's score: 3).
  • Even though malignant tumors are unusual in adrenal deficiency, our observation shows the need for a replacement therapy during adulthood, with a regular CT scan follow up in order to diagnose early isolated adrenal adenoma and remove it in case of malignancy suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; EC 1.14.99.10 / CYP21A2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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61. Abbott MA, Nathanson KL, Nightingale S, Maher ER, Greenstein RM: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) germline mutation V84L manifests as early-onset bilateral pheochromocytoma. Am J Med Genet A; 2006 Apr 1;140(7):685-90
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  • Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a heritable tumor susceptibility syndrome caused by germline mutations in the VHL gene.
  • The types of tumor that can occur in affected individuals include retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and others.
  • The pattern of tumor types that develops in a VHL-affected family defines the clinical subtype (1, 2A, 2B, 2C).
  • In each of these four families, the major clinical manifestation of VHL disease is multiple early-onset pheochromocytomas (VHL type 2C).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Germ-Line Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics


62. Meyer-Rochow GY, Soon PS, Delbridge LW, Sywak MS, Bambach CP, Clifton-Bligh RJ, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for phaeochromocytoma. ANZ J Surg; 2009 May;79(5):367-70
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is now accepted as the procedure of choice for the resection of benign adrenocortical tumours, but few studies have assessed whether the outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal phaeochromocytoma are similar to that of other adrenal tumour types.
  • Clinical and operative data were obtained from an adrenal tumour database and hospital records.
  • Despite the greater size of the phaeochromocytomas compared to the remaining adrenal tumour types (44 mm vs 30 mm, P < 0.01), however, rate of conversion and morbidity were no different.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma is a safe procedure with similar outcomes to laparoscopic adrenalectomy for other adrenal tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19566519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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63. Tong AL, Zeng ZP, Li HZ, Yang D, Lu L, Li M: Expression and effect of transforming growth factor-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:277-83
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  • [Title] Expression and effect of transforming growth factor-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human pheochromocytoma.
  • This study observed the expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in pheochromocytoma (PHEO) tissue and examined their effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of human PHEO cells.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF-alpha and TNF-alpha were higher in PHEO tissues than in normal adrenal medullary tissues, and their expressions varied with pathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17102096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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64. Baumann A, Heitmann S, Bubendorff V, Himmerich H: [Laboratory changes in anorexia nervosa]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2010 May 26;99(11):661-7
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  • The hormones leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), triiodothyronine (T3), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and oestrogen are usually below the normal range, whereas ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cortisol levels are reported to be typically elevated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anorexia Nervosa / diagnosis. Anorexia Nervosa / physiopathology. Blood Chemical Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Appetite / physiology. Body Mass Index. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Ghrelin / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Leptin / blood. Male. Neuropeptide Y / blood. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology. Thinness / diagnosis. Thinness / physiopathology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood. Weight Gain / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20506091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Neuropeptide Y; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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65. Eisenhofer G, Huynh TT, Elkahloun A, Morris JC, Bratslavsky G, Linehan WM, Zhuang Z, Balgley BM, Lee CS, Mannelli M, Lenders JW, Bornstein SR, Pacak K: Differential expression of the regulated catecholamine secretory pathway in different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Nov;295(5):E1223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) differ in the types and amounts of catecholamines produced and the resulting signs and symptoms.
  • We hypothesized the presence of different processes of catecholamine release reflecting differential expression of components of the regulated secretory pathway among the two types of hereditary tumors.
  • Differences in catecholamine secretion from tumors in patients with VHL syndrome (n = 47) and MEN 2 (n = 32) were examined using measurements of catecholamines in tumor tissue, urine, and plasma, the last of which was under baseline conditions in all subjects and in a subgroup of patients who received intravenous glucagon to provoke catecholamine release.
  • Microarray and proteomics analyses, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting were used to assess expression of tumor tissue secretory pathway components.
  • The rate constant for baseline catecholamine secretion was 20-fold higher in VHL than in MEN 2 tumors (0.359 +/- 0.094 vs. 0.018 +/- 0.009 day(-1)), but catecholamine release was responsive only to glucagon in MEN 2 tumors.
  • Compared with tumors from MEN 2 patients, those from VHL patients were characterized by reduced expression of numerous components of the regulated secretory pathway (e.g., SNAP25, syntaxin, rabphilin 3A, annexin A7, calcium-dependent secretion activator).
  • The mutation-dependent differences in expression of secretory pathway components indicate a more mature regulated secretory pathway in MEN 2 than VHL tumors.
  • These data provide a unique mechanistic link to explain how variations in the molecular machinery governing exocytosis may contribute to clinical differences in the secretion of neurotransmitters or hormones and the subsequent presentation of a disease.

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  • (PMID = 18854424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A7; 0 / CADPS protein, human; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / RPH3AL protein, human; 0 / SNAP25 protein, human; 0 / Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25; 0 / Syntaxin 1; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2584809
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66. Gaisa NT, Klöppel G, Brehmer B, Neulen J, Stephan P, Knüchel R, Donner A: [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours]. Pathologe; 2009 Sep;30(5):407-10
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Virilisierendes Ganglioneurom der Nebenniere : Eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose testosteronproduzierender Nebennierentumoren.
  • Testosterone secreting tumours of the adrenal glands are usually adrenal carcinomas or adenomas.
  • Here we report the rare case of an adrenal ganglioneuroma with ectopic Leydig cells, a so-called virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / secretion. Testosterone / secretion. Virilism / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Choristoma / pathology. Choristoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Inhibins / analysis. Laparoscopy. Leydig Cells. Male. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19396442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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67. Rose SA, Kyles AE, Labelle P, Pypendop BH, Mattu JS, Foreman O, Rodriguez CO Jr, Nelson RW: Adrenalectomy and caval thrombectomy in a cat with primary hyperaldosteronism. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2007 Jul-Aug;43(4):209-14
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  • A 13-year-old, castrated male, domestic longhaired cat was diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism from an adrenal gland tumor and a thrombus in the caudal vena cava.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Cat Diseases / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary. Thrombectomy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17615401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Fujii H, Kamide K, Miyake O, Abe T, Nagai M, Nakahama H, Horio T, Takiuchi S, Okuyama A, Yutani C, Kawano Y: Primary aldosteronism combined with preclinical Cushing's syndrome in an elderly patient. Circ J; 2005 Nov;69(11):1425-7
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  • Pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome (pre-CS) is sometimes seen with adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The tumor consisted of mostly light clear cells and scattered dark compact cells resembling islands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Cushing Syndrome. Hyperaldosteronism. Hypokalemia
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenalectomy / methods. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16247222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-9843
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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69. Maizlin ZV, Strauss S: Testicular adrenal rest tumors. Isr Med Assoc J; 2005 Mar;7(3):206-7
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  • [Title] Testicular adrenal rest tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15792275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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70. Bergamaschi S, Ronchi CL, Giavoli C, Ferrante E, Verrua E, Ferrari DI, Lania A, Rusconi R, Spada A, Beck-Peccoz P: Eight-year follow-up of a child with a GH/prolactin-secreting adenoma: efficacy of pegvisomant therapy. Horm Res Paediatr; 2010;73(1):74-9
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  • Basal adrenal, gonadal and thyroid functions were normal.
  • The adenoma was surgically removed and histological characterization confirmed the diagnosis of GH/PRL-secreting adenoma.
  • The patient was admitted to our Endocrine Unit when 7.9 years old, because of the persistence of elevated GH, IGF-I and PRL levels, although there was a slight height velocity reduction and absence of tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20190543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1663-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research in pædiatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Res Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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71. Mrak RE, Griffin WS: Potential inflammatory biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis; 2005 Mar;8(4):369-75
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  • [Title] Potential inflammatory biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Proinflammatory cytokines elaborated by this system, in particular activated microglia-derived interleukin-1 (IL-1), drive a cascade of neurotoxic changes that are important for the development and progression of both the neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.
  • For instance, inheritance of certain IL-1 gene variants is associated with Alzheimer's disease.
  • The potential for using blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines as biomarkers of disease progression, however, remains unrealized.
  • The interpretation of cytokine levels in the blood is complicated by the fact, for example, that the overexpression of IL-1 in Alzheimer brain may act to increase adrenal cortisol production through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which acts to limit macrophage activation and peripheral cytokine production.
  • [MeSH-major] Alzheimer Disease / cerebrospinal fluid. Biomarkers / metabolism. C-Reactive Protein / cerebrospinal fluid. Interleukin-1 / cerebrospinal fluid. Nerve Growth Factors / cerebrospinal fluid. S100 Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 16556968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1387-2877
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Alzheimers Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG12411; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG19606; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD37989
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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72. Meinardi JR, Wolffenbuttel BH, Dullaart RP: Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: a clinical challenge. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):245-54
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  • Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder, characterized by repeated episodes of cortisol excess interspersed by periods of normal cortisol secretion.
  • Our review of 65 reported cases demonstrates that cyclic CS originates in 54% of cases from a pituitary corticotroph adenoma, in 26% from an ectopic ACTH-producing tumour and in about 11% from an adrenal tumour, the remainder being unclassified.
  • In cases of suspected ectopic ACTH production, specific biochemical testing for carcinoids or neuroendocrine tumours is required, including measurements of serotonin in platelets and/or urine, chromogranin A and calcitonin.

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  • (PMID = 17766705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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73. Mokhtari M, Kumar PV, Talei AR: Gaucher-like cells in retroperitoneal extramedullary hematopoietic tumor diagnosed by fine needle aspiration: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):903-6
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  • [Title] Gaucher-like cells in retroperitoneal extramedullary hematopoietic tumor diagnosed by fine needle aspiration: a case report.
  • However, EMH has also been seen at unusual sites, including adrenal glands, breast, thymus, thyroid, kidney, epididymis, lung, pleura, peripheral nerves and dura mater.
  • The diagnosis of this lesion on fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears has rarely been described.
  • CASE: A 20-year-old man with Cooley's anemia presented with a retroperitoneal tumor for the past 3 months that was clinically diagnosed as malignant.
  • Ultrasonographically guided FNA cytology showed bone marrow cells composed of myelocytes, lymphocytes, erythroblasts and megakaryocytes, which were consistent with an extramedullary hematopoietic tumor.
  • Histologic sections of the excised tumor confirmed the FNA diagnosis.
  • Clinical history can be helpful for interpreting FNA findings in an EMH diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / pathology. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Andrews D: Pheochromocytoma induced hypertension. J Natl Black Nurses Assoc; 2010 Dec;21(2):44-8
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  • Pheochromocytoma (Pheo) is a rare tumor that develops in the core of a chromaffin cell.
  • Because the signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those of the sympathetic nervous system, this tumor is hard to detect and might not be considered early on.
  • In addition, there are many common deferential diagnoses that may lead to a delay of the correct diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma.
  • This tumor is difficult to detect and its effects often mimic many other diagnoses, which often leads to this tumor being a late consideration.
  • Nurses need to be aware of the key signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma, and to know when testing for this tumor what symptoms should be considered.
  • Patients who suffer from a diagnosis of this tumor need a lot of emotional support and they must follow a strict diet and medication regimen.
  • Nurses can play a vital role in raising awareness in our community about this tumor as well as being a patient advocate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications


75. Park SK, Kim YS, Kim SG, Jang JY, Moon JH, Lee MS, Kim BS, Koh ES, Park JM: Detection of distant metastasis to skeletal muscle by 18F-FDG-PET in a case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Korean J Hepatol; 2010 Sep;16(3):325-8
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  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma can metastasize in lymphatic chains, including the hepatoduodenal ligament, and it often invades adjacent organs or metastasizes to other visceral organs such as the lungs, bones, adrenal glands, and brain.
  • Moreover, a metastatic skeletal muscle tumor rarely shows specific symptoms, making it difficult to identify in a routine examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20924217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3304591
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76. Ichikawa N, Yamanaka H: [Maintenance therapy for rheumatoid arthritis after remission following successful treatment using biologics]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Jul;65(7):1293-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • No consensus has been established concerning this important clinical question until now, however, it may be possible to discontinue the injection in patients with early disease who successfully introduced into remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antirheumatic Agents / administration & dosage. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Immunoglobulin G / administration & dosage. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etanercept. Humans. Infliximab. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Remission Induction. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

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  • (PMID = 17642246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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77. Pavy S, Allanore Y, Kahan A: [Spondylarthropathies and anti-TNFalpha drugs]. Rev Med Interne; 2005 Sep;26(9):717-24
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  • PURPOSE: Spondylarthropathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders including ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and undifferentiated spondylarthropathies.

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  • (PMID = 16154026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / HLA-B27 Antigen; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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78. Bertini R, Roscigno M, Freschi M, Strada E, Petralia G, Pasta A, Matloob R, Sozzi F, Da Pozzo L, Colombo R, Guazzoni G, Doglioni C, Montorsi F, Rigatti P: Renal sinus fat invasion in pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma affects outcomes of patients without nodal involvement or distant metastases. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2027-32
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  • [Title] Renal sinus fat invasion in pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma affects outcomes of patients without nodal involvement or distant metastases.
  • PURPOSE: According to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, perinephric and renal sinus fat invasion are classified as pT3a renal cell carcinoma.
  • We analyzed the impact of sinus fat invasion on cancer specific survival in a cohort of patients with pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data on 115 consecutive patients treated with open radical nephrectomy for unilateral, sporadic pT3a clear cell renal cell carcinoma at our department from 1989 to 2006.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients had direct ipsilateral adrenal invasion and were excluded from analysis.
  • A total of 105 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma were evaluated.
  • In the overall population sinus fat invasion did not reach independent predictive status in terms of cancer specific survival on multivariate Cox regression analysis after adjusting for age, performance status, tumor dimension, tumor grade, synchronous metastases, nodal involvement, sarcomatoid differentiation and coagulative necrosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sinus fat invasion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma significantly affects cancer specific survival in patients without nodal or distant metastases.
  • However, sinus fat invasion is not associated with worse cancer specific survival in cases of metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kidney Pelvis / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


79. Murphy CG, Scaramuzzi N, Winter DC, Thompson CJ, Broe PJ: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy, an initial experience of fifteen cases. Ir J Med Sci; 2005 Oct-Dec;174(4):39-41
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  • RESULTS: Fifteen glands were removed from fifteen patients.
  • The mean gland size was 3.4 cm.
  • CONCLUSION: Our initial experience demonstrates this approach to be the ideal technique for removal of benign adrenal tumours with significant advantages for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / diagnosis. Pain, Postoperative / epidemiology. Patient Satisfaction. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Prospective Studies. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16445159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-1265
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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80. Estrada-Sánchez G, Ochoa-Carrillo FJ, Altamirano-Ley J: [(18)FDG PET/CT imaging in primary breast lymphoma and breast cancer]. Cir Cir; 2008 Jul-Aug;76(4):279-86
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  • [Transliterated title] (18)FDG PET/CT en linfoma primario de mama y cáncer de mama.
  • SUVmax for the primary tumor was 4.2 +/- 2.6 SD.
  • Sites of metastases were lymph nodes in the neck (4.4% SUVmax 2.7), internal mammary lymph nodes (5% SUVmax 5.3), mediastinum (8.3% SUVmax 5.0), retroperitoneal (6 % SUVmax 5.4), ipsilateral axilla (94% SUVmax 4.5), contralateral axilla (4.4% SUVmax 2.8), pectoral muscle (10.2% SUVmax 2.6), pleura (4.4% SUVmax 3.9), lung (32.3% SUVmax 2.9), liver (19.1% SUVmax 4.5), bone (36.7%), adrenal gland (4.4% SUVmax 2.4), brain (4.4%), spleen and contralateral breast, one case each.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mean SUVmax for the primary tumor was similar to that reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radionuclide imaging. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiography. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Male. Mammography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18778536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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81. Marvin ML, Bradford CR, Sisson JC, Gruber SB: Diagnosis and management of hereditary paraganglioma syndrome due to the F933&gt;X67 SDHD mutation. Head Neck; 2009 May;31(5):689-94
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of hereditary paraganglioma syndrome due to the F933>X67 SDHD mutation.
  • BACKGROUND: The hereditary paraganglioma syndromes (PGLs) are autosomal dominant conditions with an increased risk for tumors of the sympathetic and parasympathetic neuroendocrine systems.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, radiological, biochemical, and family history findings of a 15-year-old boy patient with a glomus vagale versus glomus jugulare tumor.
  • RESULTS: Evaluation of the family history and the patient's history led to the identification of a familial succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene mutation (F933>X67), consistent with a diagnosis of hereditary PGL1.
  • Although this family had all head and neck tumors, this SDHD mutation has previously been described in a family with primarily functional pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19072999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097248; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA/DE97248
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS597263; NLM/ PMC4758329
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82. Ide H, Terado Y, Nakagawa T, Saito K, Kamiyama Y, Muto S, Okada H, Imamura T, Horie S: Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;12(5):379-81
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  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon, nonfunctioning tumors that tend to be discovered incidentally on imaging.
  • Such tumors are composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements, but their etiology is still unknown.
  • We report a case of adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with hyperthyroidism; this benign tumor expressed both thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Incidental Findings. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17929121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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83. Yang EV, Sood AK, Chen M, Li Y, Eubank TD, Marsh CB, Jewell S, Flavahan NA, Morrison C, Yeh PE, Lemeshow S, Glaser R: Norepinephrine up-regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2006 Nov 1;66(21):10357-64
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  • [Title] Norepinephrine up-regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor cells.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if the stress hormone norepi can influence the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumors by using three NPC tumor cell lines.
  • The data suggest that catecholamine hormones produced by the sympathetic-adrenal medullary axis may affect NPC tumor progression, in part, through modulation of key angiogenic cytokines.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Receptors, Adrenergic, beta / physiology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17079456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100243; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA10929801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11079301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16058; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL067176
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, beta; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.80 / MMP14 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.80 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 14; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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84. Perrier ND, Kennamer DL, Bao R, Jimenez C, Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Evans DB: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases. Ann Surg; 2008 Oct;248(4):666-74
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  • [Title] Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) is a minimally invasive approach to removal of the adrenal gland.
  • This anatomically direct approach, popularized by Walz, minimizes dissection and affords early access to the adrenal vein.
  • Indications for adrenalectomy were functional tumors in 43 patients (20 pheochromocytomas, 13 Cushing disease or syndrome, and 10 others), nonfunctional cortical adenomas in 4, and isolated adrenal metastases in 15.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm.
  • PRA may be the preferred technique for removing benign adrenal tumors and isolated metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


85. Vital C, Bonnin A, Dumas P, Vital A: Acute sarcoid neuropathy developed 4 months after the occurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis; 2009 Jul;26(1):69-72
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  • [Title] Acute sarcoid neuropathy developed 4 months after the occurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).

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  • (PMID = 19960791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-0490
  • [Journal-full-title] Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases : official journal of WASOG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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86. Kaliaperumal S, Gupta A, Nongrum B, Rao VA, Srinivasan R: Case reports of three patients showing optic nerve head melanocytoma and systemic hypertension. Ophthalmologica; 2007;221(1):62-4
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  • After clinical examination and radiological evaluation a diagnosis of optic disk melanocytoma was made.
  • MRI showed diffuse adrenal hyperplasia while a (131)I-MIBG scan showed increased uptake in 1 case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Optic disk melanocytoma is a benign tumor though the lesion may increase in size with the resultant decrease in visual acuity over few years.
  • It may be associated with systemic hypertension secondary to increased levels of catecholamines in the body, which is related to the common neural crest origin of melanocytes, adrenal medullary cells and chromaffin cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypertension / complications. Nevus, Pigmented / etiology. Optic Disk / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17183204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid
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87. Marini F, Falchetti A, Del Monte F, Carbonell Sala S, Gozzini A, Luzi E, Brandi ML: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2006;1:38
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution.
  • The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours) within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours.
  • Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described.
  • MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene.
  • Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions) is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiofibroma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Child. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Male. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / blood. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / secretion. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17014705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 64
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1594566
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070618
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88. Guillemot J, Anouar Y, Montero-Hadjadje M, Grouzmann E, Grumolato L, Roshmaninho-Salgado J, Turquier V, Duparc C, Lefebvre H, Plouin PF, Klein M, Muresan M, Chow BK, Vaudry H, Yon L: Circulating EM66 is a highly sensitive marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of pheochromocytoma. Int J Cancer; 2006 Apr 15;118(8):2003-12
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  • [Title] Circulating EM66 is a highly sensitive marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of pheochromocytoma.
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize EM66 in plasma and urine of healthy volunteers and pheochromocytoma patients, in order to further evaluate the usefulness of this peptide as a circulating marker for the management of the tumors.
  • In patients with pheochromocytoma, plasma EM66 levels were 10-fold higher than those of healthy volunteers (26.9 (7.3-44) ng/ml), and returned to normal values after removal of the tumor.
  • Pheochromocytes in primary culture secreted high levels of EM66, suggesting that the chromaffin tumor was actually responsible for the increased plasma peptide concentrations in the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranins / blood. Chromogranins / urine. Peptide Fragments / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Secretogranin II / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male. Metanephrine. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16287097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / EM66 peptide; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Secretogranin II; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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89. Marcol W, Kiwic G, Malinowska-Kolodziej I, Kotulska K, Kotas A, Adamek D, Wysokinski T: Paraganglioma of the cauda equina presenting with erectile and sphincter dysfunction. J Chin Med Assoc; 2009 Jun;72(6):328-31
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  • Paragangliomas of the cauda equina are rare neuroepithelial tumors, usually manifesting clinically as sciatica.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed intradural tumor at the L2/L3 level.
  • The patient underwent gross tumor resection, and the diagnosis of paraganglioma was based on neuropathologic examination.
  • The symptoms completely resolved after tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina. Erectile Dysfunction / etiology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / complications. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Urination Disorders / etiology


90. Nakamura Y, Aoki S, Xing Y, Sasano H, Rainey WE: Metastin stimulates aldosterone synthesis in human adrenal cells. Reprod Sci; 2007 Dec;14(8):836-45
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  • [Title] Metastin stimulates aldosterone synthesis in human adrenal cells.
  • In addition, they examine the effects of metastin on steroidogenesis and steroidogenic enzyme mRNA levels in fetal adrenal cells and in the H295R adrenocortical cell line using enzyme immunoassay and RT-PCR techniques.
  • Metastin increases aldosterone production (approximately 2-fold) in both fetal neocortex adrenal cells and H295R adrenal cells, with a maximal increase seen at 100 nM.
  • These results suggest that the high fetal/maternal levels of metastin seen during pregnancy may affect adrenal production of aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Female. Fetus. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Kisspeptins. Pregnancy. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18089602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-7205
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD11149
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / KISS1R protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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91. Hellel M, Khouni H, Ghozzi S, Khiari R, Drid M, Ben Mansour O, M'sakni I, Bougrine F, Bouziani A, Ben Rais N: [Ectopic adrenal tissue: differential diagnosis of a testicular tumor]. Tunis Med; 2008 Dec;86(12):1090-1
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  • [Title] [Ectopic adrenal tissue: differential diagnosis of a testicular tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tissu surrénalien ectopiqne: diagnostic différentiel d'une tumeur testiculaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Choristoma / diagnosis. Testicular Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19213522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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92. Liu YJ, Wang GM, Zhang YK, Zhang L, Sun LA, Lin ZM, Zhu TY: [The clinical characteristic of adrenal metastatic tumor]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan 15;45(2):124-7
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  • [Title] [The clinical characteristic of adrenal metastatic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: From January 1993 to December 2004, 103 cases of adrenal metastasis were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Lung and hepatocellular carcinoma were the most common primary tumor of adrenal metastatic tumor, which about 36.9% (38/103) and 42.7% (44/103) of all cases, followed by renal carcinoma 6.8% (7/103), colorectal carcinoma 4.9% (5/103), stomach carcinoma 3.9% (4/103), breast cancer 1.9% (2/103), unknown primary tumor 2.9% (3/103).
  • The mean diameter of adrenal metastasis was 3.9 cm.
  • The mean interval from detection of primary tumor to adrenal metastasis was 9.5 months.
  • All of patients were treated with synthetic methods, 16 cases (15.5%) who had undergone adrenalectomy for metastasis disease had a improved survival compared with those non-adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no particular presentation of clinic and imaging, diagnosis depending on history, follow-up and the pathological presentation of primary tumor.
  • When the primary tumor could be resected or be well controlled, and there is no other evidence of metastasis, adrenalectomy is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17418043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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93. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 210 LAs performed in 6 yr, 39 patients had potentially malignant tumors greater than 5 cm in diameter.
  • RESULTS: All 39 patients had successful LAs without perioperative mortality, conversion to open surgery, or capsular disruption during dissection.
  • The mean tumor size was 6.2 cm (range, 5-12 cm), operative time 207 min (115-315 min), and blood loss 75 ml (minimal-1400 ml).
  • Preoperatively there were 27 nonfunctioning tumors, seven pheochromocytomas, three cortisol-secreting tumors, and two virilizing tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Only the tumor size was larger and length of postoperative hospital stay longer for those in the hand-assisted group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Mocciaro F, Orlando A, Scimeca D, Cottone M: [Infliximab in moderate to severe steroid-dependent or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis]. Recenti Prog Med; 2007 Nov;98(11):560-4
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  • Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha plays a main role in ulcerative colitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18044405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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95. Sugiyama N, Suzuki Y, Okamoto A, Yamamoto H, Kudo S, Hatakeyama S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Kamimura N, Ohyama C: [Experience of laparoscopic surgery of pheochromocytoma found on induction for hemodialysis]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Oct;56(10):565-7
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  • A left adrenal mass, 2.5 cm in diameter, was incidentally found by screening computed tomography at the initiation of hemodialysis.
  • In the scintiscan using ¹²³I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), accumulation of the radionuclide in the left adrenal tumor region was confirmed.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed without peri-operative complications under the diagnosis of left pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 21063160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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96. Karaman E, Yilmaz M, Isildak H, Hacizade Y, Korkut N, Devranoğlu I, Enver O, Sekercioglu N: Management of jugular paragangliomas in otolaryngology practice. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Jan;21(1):117-20
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  • Paragangliomas of the head and neck are highly vascular lesions originating from paraganglionic tissue located at the carotid bifurcation (carotid body tumors), along the vagus nerve (vagal paragangliomas), and in the jugular fossa and tympanic cavity and should be considered in the evaluation of all lateral neck masses.
  • Coupled with the residual tumors in 2 patients, the surgical control achieved was 82%.
  • All patients were subjected to digital subtraction angiography to define the vascular supply of the tumor.
  • The primary therapeutic option for jugular paragangliomas is complete excision of tumor with preservation of vital neurovascular structures.
  • The combined therapeutic approach with preoperative selective embolization followed by surgical resection is the safe and effective method for complete excision of tumors with a reduced morbidity rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Jugular Veins. Otolaryngology / methods. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20061964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Lan MS, Breslin MB: Structure, expression, and biological function of INSM1 transcription factor in neuroendocrine differentiation. FASEB J; 2009 Jul;23(7):2024-33
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  • Further, deletion of INSM1 severely impairs catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion from the adrenal gland that results in early embryonic lethality.
  • Genetically, INSM1 acts as a downstream factor of Mash 1 and Phox2b in the differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal lineage.
  • INSM1 is highly expressed in tumors of neuroendocrine origin.
  • Hence, its promoter could serve as a tumor-specific promoter that drives a specific targeted cancer gene therapy for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19246490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK061436; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-61436
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 147955-03-1 / INSM1 protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 55
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2704596
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98. Braham E, Mrad K, Driss M, Abbes I, Sassi S, Dhouib R, Hechiche M, Romdhane KB: [A neuroendocrine tumor in the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Dec;28(6):529-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A neuroendocrine tumor in the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur neuroendocrine dans la surrénale.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19084728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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99. Wills H, Kast R, Stewart C, Rabah R, Pandya A, Poulik J, Auner G, Klein MD: Raman spectroscopy detects and distinguishes neuroblastoma and related tissues in fresh and (banked) frozen specimens. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Feb;44(2):386-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Raman spectroscopy has been shown to accurately distinguish different neural crest-derived pediatric tumors.
  • This study tests the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately identify cryopreserved tissue specimens using a classification algorithm designed from fresh tumor data and vice versa.
  • METHODS: Fresh specimens of neuroblastoma and other pediatric neural crest tumors were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy.
  • RESULTS: We collected 1114 spectra (862 fresh and 252 frozen) from 62 tissue samples, including 8 normal adrenal glands, 29 neuroblastomas, 14 ganglioneuromas, 8 nerve sheath tumors, and 3 pheochromocytomas.
  • At the tissue level, frozen neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, nerve sheath tumor, and pheochromocytoma were distinguished from normal adrenal tissue with 100% sensitivity and specificity.
  • Fresh tissue had the same results except for the misclassification of one specimen of nerve sheath tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19231540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Wagner B, Patard JJ, Méjean A, Bensalah K, Verhoest G, Zigeuner R, Ficarra V, Tostain J, Mulders P, Chautard D, Descotes JL, de la Taille A, Salomon L, Prayer-Galetti T, Cindolo L, Valéri A, Meyer N, Jacqmin D, Lang H: Prognostic value of renal vein and inferior vena cava involvement in renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol; 2009 Feb;55(2):452-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic value of renal vein and inferior vena cava involvement in renal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of venous tumor thrombus extension in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a matter of many controversies in the current literature.
  • Age, gender, clinical symptoms, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, TNM stage, tumor size, adrenal invasion, perinephric fat invasion, histological type, and Fuhrman grade were reviewed.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Overall survival and prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with RCC extending to the renal vein (RV) or to the IVC.
  • The mean tumor size was 8.9 cm.
  • Group 1 (Gr 1) included 933 patients with a renal vein tumor thrombus (78.3%), Group 2 (Gr 2) included 196 patients with a subdiaphragmatic IVC tumor thrombus (16.4%), and Group 3 (Gr 3) included 63 patients with a supradiaphragmatic IVC tumor thrombus (5.3%).
  • Prognostic factors for overall survival in univariate analysis were clinical symptoms (p<0.001), tumor size (p<0.001), perinephric fat invasion (p<0.001), Fuhrman grade (p<0.001), histological type (p=0.021), lymph node invasion (p<0.001), and distant metastasis (p<0.001).
  • Independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were tumor size (p=0.013), perinephric fat invasion (p=0.003), lymph node invasion (p<0.001), distant metastasis (p<0.001), and IVC invasion (p=0.008).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The level of tumor thrombus in the IVC does not significantly affect long-term overall survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
  • The overall survival was statistically different for patients with a tumor thrombus in the RV compared to those with IVC involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Thrombosis / complications. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2009 Feb;55(2):459 [18692952.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2009 Feb;55(2):460 [18692949.001]
  • (PMID = 18692951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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