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1. Skarsgard ED, Albanese CT: The safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children. Arch Surg; 2005 Sep;140(9):905-8; discussion 909
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become standard therapy for benign adrenal masses in adults.
  • The utility of LA in children with adrenal masses is less well defined because of the infrequency and pathologic variability of pediatric adrenal masses, and body size and instrumentation considerations that exist in small children.
  • Evaluation of a case series of children undergoing lateral, transperitoneal LA will reflect the safety and efficacy of this procedure in pediatric patients and identify preferred patient selection criteria.
  • PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: All children with pathologic adrenal masses undergoing LA were included.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary study outcome measures included operative duration, conversions to open adrenalectomy, complications, length of hospital stay, and freedom from recurrence of the original pathologic adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: A total of 21 LAs (including a staged, bilateral LA) were performed in 20 patients (13 girls, 7 boys) with a mean age of 6.4 years (range, 14 months to 18 years).
  • Operative duration averaged mean +/- SD 101 +/- 48 minutes, and there was a single conversion to open adrenalectomy in a patient with a left adrenal carcinoma and tumor thrombus extending into the renal vein.
  • At a mean +/- SD follow-up of 31 +/- 17 months, all patients remained clinically (radiologically and/or biochemically) free of their original adrenal disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy can be used to safely treat suspected benign and selected malignant adrenal masses in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16175699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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3. Hsiao CC, Huang CC, Sheen JM, Tai MH, Chen CM, Huang LL, Chuang JH: Differential expression of delta-like gene and protein in neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma. Mod Pathol; 2005 May;18(5):656-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Neuroblastoma is an extremely malignant solid tumor in children, characterized by spontaneous differentiation and regression.
  • Three adrenal tissues from children died of diseases other than adrenal tumors and one from an adult with pheochromocytoma were severed as normal and disease controls.
  • Furthermore, higher dlk protein expression in the tumor endothelium than in the endothelium of normal adrenal gland implies that dlk may regulate the endothelial function in neuroblastic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Glycoproteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15605081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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4. Khorram-Manesh A, Ahlman H, Nilsson O, Friberg P, Odén A, Stenström G, Hansson G, Stenquist O, Wängberg B, Tisell LE, Jansson S: Long-term outcome of a large series of patients surgically treated for pheochromocytoma. J Intern Med; 2005 Jul;258(1):55-66
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of a large series of patients surgically treated for pheochromocytoma.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of patients with PC/PG regarding presenting symptoms, tumour characteristics, clinical management and long-term outcome after treatment.
  • Four patients with sporadic disease died of malignant PC and six with hereditary disease of associated neuroectodermal tumours.
  • At diagnosis 85% of the patients were hypertensive; one year after surgery more than half were still hypertensive.
  • Death of malignant PC/PG was unusual, but the patients as a group had an increased risk of death.
  • We recommend life-long follow-up of patients treated for PC/PG with screening for recurrent tumour in sporadic cases and for associated tumours in hereditary cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adult. Aged. Blood Pressure / physiology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Hypertension / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / surgery. Postoperative Period. Preoperative Care / methods. Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15953133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6820
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha
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5. Foo SH, Chan SP, Ananda V, Rajasingam V: Dopamine-secreting phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas: clinical features and management. Singapore Med J; 2010 May;51(5):e89-93
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  • We present a case of a dopamine-secreting paraganglioma from our institution and review 14 case reports of dopamine-secreting phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas published between 1984 and 2008.
  • As observed in the literature, 80% of the tumours were extra-adrenal.
  • Five patients had malignant tumours and 12 patients underwent surgical resection of the primary tumours.
  • Unlike noradrenaline/adrenaline-secreting phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas, dopamine-secreting tumours lack a classical presentation, are extra-adrenal and have a higher malignant potential.
  • A routine inclusion of urinary or plasma dopamine as part of catecholamine screening in all suspected phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Dopamine / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Catecholamines / urine. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secretion. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / secretion. Paraganglioma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20593136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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6. Chang BH, Koch T, Hopkins K, Malempati S: Neuroblastoma found in a 4-year-old after rituximab therapy for opsoclonus-myoclonus. Pediatr Neurol; 2006 Sep;35(3):213-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus, a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that may occur in patients with neuroblastoma, is thought to be a humorally mediated immune reaction to malignant cells that cross-react with autoantigens.
  • Although no mass was evident on previous imaging at an interval of 10 months, a computed tomographic scan 4 months after rituximab treatment and 20 months after presentation revealed a new left adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16939863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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7. Mansouri D, Dimet S, Couanet D, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Vasiliu V, Khalifa C, Suciu V, Vielh P: Renal cell carcinoma with an Xp11.2 translocation in a 16-year-old girl: a case report with cytological features. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Nov;34(11):757-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with an Xp11.2 translocation in a 16-year-old girl: a case report with cytological features.
  • We report a case of a 16-year-old girl with a left renal tumor discovered by her family practitioner.
  • Cytological analysis revealed highly cellular smears with malignant cells arranged in large clusters or rarely isolated, sometimes surrounding hyaline nodules with numerous psammoma bodies.
  • The diagnosis of a special type of renal cell carcinoma was suspected, and was then confirmed after examination of the biopsy sample and the corresponding surgical specimen.
  • The histomorphologic features were those of a renal cell carcinoma associated with an Xp11.2 translocation.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed this translocation by showing nuclear positivity in tumor cells for an antibody raised against the TFE3 protein.
  • The clinical outcome was marked several months later by metastases in lymph nodes, bone, lung, and adrenal gland as well as a local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] (C) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17121199.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Benn DE, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Reilly JR, Bertherat J, Burgess J, Byth K, Croxson M, Dahia PL, Elston M, Gimm O, Henley D, Herman P, Murday V, Niccoli-Sire P, Pasieka JL, Rohmer V, Tucker K, Jeunemaitre X, Marsh DJ, Plouin PF, Robinson BG: Clinical presentation and penetrance of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):827-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected on patients with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas with respect to onset of disease, diagnosis, genetic testing, surgery, pathology, and disease progression.
  • RESULTS: SDHB mutation carriers were more likely than SDHD mutation carriers to develop extraadrenal pheochromocytomas and malignant disease, whereas SDHD mutation carriers had a greater propensity to develop head and neck paragangliomas and multiple tumors.
  • For the index cases, there was no difference between 43 SDHB and 19 SDHD mutation carriers in the time to first diagnosis (34 vs. 28 yr, respectively; P = 0.3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: For clinical follow-up, features of SDHB mutation-associated disease include a later age of onset, extraadrenal (abdominal or thoracic) tumors, and a higher rate of malignancy.
  • In contrast, SDHD mutation carriers, in addition to head and neck paragangliomas, should be observed for multifocal tumors, infrequent malignancy, and the possibility of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics


9. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Diederich S, Padge B, Vossas U, Hake R, Eidt S: Application of a single needle type for all image-guided biopsies: results of 100 consecutive core biopsies in various organs using a novel tri-axial, end-cut needle. Cancer Imaging; 2006;6:43-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of a single needle type for all image-guided biopsies: results of 100 consecutive core biopsies in various organs using a novel tri-axial, end-cut needle.
  • RESULTS: Biopsies were obtained of liver (n = 32), lymph nodes (n = 17), thyroid (n = 11), lung (n = 9), adrenal (n = 9), pelvis (n = 6), chest wall/pleura (n = 6), mediastinum (n = 4), lytic bone lesions (n = 2), retroperitoneum (n = 1), muscle (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1).
  • In 77 cases a malignant (40 metastases, 37 primary tumours) and in 23 a benign lesion was diagnosed.
  • Of the 23 benign lesions a specific diagnosis was possible in 22.
  • CONCLUSION: Percutaneous image-guided biopsy using the described full-core end-cut needle resulted in a specific diagnosis in 99/100 consecutive biopsies in various organs with a low complication rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Equipment Design. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / pathology. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright International Cancer Imaging Society.
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  • (PMID = 16766268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1693774
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11. Seeber J, Reimer D, Müller-Holzner E, Spizzo G, Sepp N, Wiesbauer P, Marth C, Zeimet AG: Fallopian tube cancer associated with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis -- asymptomatic multivisceral exacerbated dermatomyositis mimicking recurrent widespread malignant disease: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(2):168-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fallopian tube cancer associated with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis -- asymptomatic multivisceral exacerbated dermatomyositis mimicking recurrent widespread malignant disease: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report an uncommon case of a recurrent episode of primarily paraneoplastic dermatomyositis which was completely disconnected from the initially triggering malignancy and manifested as a silent pure multivisceral exacerbation.
  • CASE: A 70-year-old woman presented with a pure multivisceral episode of dermatomyositis without characteristic musculo-cutaneous symptoms one year after successful treatment of fallopian tube carcinoma with complete resolvement of a concomittant paraneoplastic dermatomyositis.
  • The uncommon manifestation of recurrent dermatomyositis involving the lungs, spleen and liver, both adrenal glands and abdominal lymph nodes, mimicked a highly disseminated recurrence of the fallopian tube cancer.
  • Physicians participating in the interdisciplinary tumor board were misled to opt for reinductive chemotherapy.
  • Only histologic diagnosis obtained from multiple biopsies uncovered the inflammatory nature of the disease and spared the patient unneeded chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic multivisceral dermatomyositis may mimic metastatic spread of the initially underlying malignancy and may misdirect therapeutic strategies towards inadequate antineoplastic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Dermatomyositis / physiopathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Aged. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia / etiology. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia / radiography. Female. Humans. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18459555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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12. Seefelder C, Sparks JW, Chirnomas D, Diller L, Shamberger RC: Perioperative management of a child with severe hypertension from a catecholamine secreting neuroblastoma. Paediatr Anaesth; 2005 Jul;15(7):606-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perioperative management of a child with severe hypertension from a catecholamine secreting neuroblastoma.
  • We report the perioperative management of a 5 year old child with stage III adrenal neuroblastoma who presented with malignant hypertension and high norepinephrine and dopamine levels.
  • After blood pressure control using phenoxybenzamine and enalapril, doxazosin was used successfully as the preoperative alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist for surgical tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Catecholamines / metabolism. Catecholamines / physiology. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / complications. Neuroblastoma / metabolism


13. Grossrubatscher E, Dalino P, Vignati F, Gambacorta M, Pugliese R, Boniardi M, Rossetti O, Marocchi A, Bertuzzi M, Loli P: The role of chromogranin A in the management of patients with phaeochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Sep;65(3):287-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS: The patients studied included 22 cases with phaeochromocytoma at initial presentation or at relapse some years after surgical cure or during follow-up of a malignant phaeochromocytoma.
  • Combining the results of CgA and urinary catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), the sensitivity for diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma was 100%.
  • Urinary catecholamines, metabolites (metanephrine and normetanephrine) and CgA levels in patients with malignant phaeochromocytoma did not differ significantly from those of patients with benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 16918946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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14. Bilen MA, Waguespack SG, Tannir NM, Pravinkumar SE, Tamboli P, Tu SM: Multisystem crisis in a patient with presumptive renal cell carcinoma. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2008 Sep;6(2):128-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multisystem crisis in a patient with presumptive renal cell carcinoma.
  • We describe the case of a patient who presented with a kidney lesion, lymphadenopathy, and bone metastasis.
  • Initially, he was diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • Eventually, he was found to have malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a malignant pheochromocytoma with multisystem crisis.
  • Because of its atypical presentation and unusual findings, a high index of suspicion is necessary for the timely diagnosis of this clinical entity.
  • Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatments could improve the performance status and quality of life of such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Diseases / complications. Fever / complications. Humans. Male. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology


15. Fan N, Yang GS, Lu JH, Yang N: Classification of right hepatectomy for special localized malignant tumor in right liver lobe. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jul 28;11(28):4321-5
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  • [Title] Classification of right hepatectomy for special localized malignant tumor in right liver lobe.
  • METHODS: According to positions, 91 patients with malignant hepatic tumor in the right liver lobe were divided into six groups: tumors in the right posterior lobe and (or) the right caudate lobe compressing the right portal hilum (n = 14, 15.4%), tumors in the right liver lobe compressing the inferior vena cava and (or) hepatic veins (n = 11, 12.9%), tumors infiltrating diaphragmatic muscle (n = 7, 7.7%), tumors in the hepatorenal recess (infiltrating the right fatty renal capsule, transverse colon and right adrenal gland, n = 8, 8.8%), tumors deeply located near the vertebral body (n = 3, 3.3%), tumors at other sites in the right liver lobe (the control group, n = 48, 52.75%).
  • The values of intraoperative blood loss (IBL), tumor's maxim cross-section area (TMCSA), and time of hepatic hilum clamping (THHC) and incidence of postoperative complications were compared between five groups of tumor and control group, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The site of tumor is the key factor that determines IBL.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / classification. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Adult. Aged. Diaphragm. Female. Hepatic Veins. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 16038028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4434656
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16. Botsios D, Blouhos K, Vasiliadis K, Asimaki A, Tsalis K, Betsis D: Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(7):612-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case.
  • We report a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma diagnosed by pathological examination of an extirpated right adrenal mass in a young woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17593485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Eder F, Halloul Z, Meyer F, Huth C, Lippert H: Surgery of inferior vena cava associated malignant tumor lesions. Vasa; 2008 Feb;37(1):68-80
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  • [Title] Surgery of inferior vena cava associated malignant tumor lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor lesions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) can originate from the vein or can develop by malignant tumor infiltration from the surrounding tissue.
  • In this context, particular attention should be paid to tumor lesions with pegs into or within the IVC.
  • The aim of this series of a single surgical center was to analyze the perioperative management, the individual-specific and -adapted surgical technique, as well as the outcome including prognostic considerations in IVC-associated malignant tumor lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 6-year time period, all consecutive patients with IVC-associated malignant tumor lesions and their patient- and finding-specific characteristics were registered, data and parameters of the diagnostic and therapeutic management were documented, and both the short- and long-term outcomes (complication rate, perioperative morbidity/mortality, tumor recurrence rate, survival) were assessed with periodic follow-up investigations.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 12 patients were enrolled in the study from 1/1/2001-31/12/2006:6 primary IVC-tumors (leiomyosarcomas, 50%) and 6 secondary IVC-tumors (2 retroperitoneal tumor lesions, 16.7%, 3 renal cell carcinomas 25% and 1 carcinoma of the adrenal gland, 8.3%).
  • Three patients experienced recurrent tumor growth (27.5% out of n = 11).
  • While the overall mortality through the follow up observation period was 27.5%, the tumor-specific mortality was 16%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The primary surgical aim is RO resection to provide a long-term outcome with no tumor recurrence including the reconstruction of the IVC based on a reasonable risk-to-benefit ratio.
  • The favorable outcome of this case series demonstrates that IVC-associated tumor lesions can be approached if there is an appropriate expertise of the surgical team, a sufficient perioperative management and an adequate financial background with a reasonable survival rate.
  • The variable prognosis of the various tumor lesions depends on tumor entity, stage, resection status and individual risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18512544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1526
  • [Journal-full-title] VASA. Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten
  • [ISO-abbreviation] VASA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Masi G, Stefani AL, Fincati K, Palù G: Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors. Oncology; 2005;68(4-6):414-21
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  • RESULTS: Ghrelin and GHS-R transcripts are expressed in normal adrenal cortex, with GHS-R1b mRNA levels being 5- to 10-fold higher than GHS-R1amRNA.
  • GHS-R1a was undetectable in about 60% of both benign and malignant tumor samples, except for cortisol-producing adenomas, which showed increased receptor expression.
  • At variance, GHS-R1b was overexpressed in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Downregulation ofGHS-R1a in adrenal tumors and the presence of high levels of GHS-R1b transcripts in adrenocortical tissue suggest a role for these receptors in adrenal function and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Ghrelin. Growth Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger. Receptors, Ghrelin. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16020971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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19. Laigle-Donadey F, Sanson M: [Pattern of care of high-grade gliomas]. Rev Prat; 2006 Oct 31;56(16):1779-86
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  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des gliomes de haut grade.
  • High grade gliomas are the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumours in adults.
  • Associated with symptomatic treatments, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy represent the main weapons of the specific multidisciplinary therapy of malignant gliomas.
  • Surgery is necessary for histological diagnosis.
  • In malignant gliomas, surgery may improve survival in case of complete removal, and debulking provides an improvement of the quality of life and a symptomatic relief.
  • Radiation therapy has been shown to improve survival in malignant glioma.
  • This effect was particularly clear for patients with MGMT inactivation in the tumour, confirming here also the impact of molecular biology for future management of gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Epilepsy / prevention & control. Forecasting. Genetic Markers. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Analysis. Thromboembolism / prevention & control. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17315503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Genetic Markers; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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20. Liatsikos EN, Papathanassiou Z, Voudoukis T, Repanti M, Sklavou C, Filos KS, Stolzenburg JU, Athanasopoulos A, Perimenis P, Barbalias GA: Case report: laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a patient with primary adrenal malignant melanoma. J Endourol; 2006 Feb;20(2):123-6
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  • [Title] Case report: laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a patient with primary adrenal malignant melanoma.
  • We report a case of laparoscopic management of a primary malignant melanoma of the left adrenal gland.
  • A 42-year-old male presented a 55 x 60-mm round, inhomogeneous, noninvasive mass of the left adrenal gland.
  • The mass was removed laparoscopically en bloc along with the left adrenal gland, and its histopathologic evaluation was consistent with the features of a malignant melanocytic tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16509796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Baldisserotto M, Peletti AB, Angelo de Araújo M, Pertence AP, Dora MD, Maciel EO, Gaiger AM: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma: sonography and MRI findings. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Nov;35(11):1132-4
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  • [Title] Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma: sonography and MRI findings.
  • The association of this syndrome with malignant tumors is well documented.
  • We report a child with this syndrome associated with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neuroblastoma / diagnostic imaging. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Radiography. Severity of Illness Index. Ultrasonography / methods


22. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • [Title] [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy].
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal pheochromocytoma are diagnosed the most often in patients with arterial hypertension or with thyroid medullar cancer and suspicion of MEN II syndromes.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • In 1 cases malignant form of pheochromocytoma was diagnosed on the basis of lymph nodes metastases.
  • Among 35 patients operated on more than 12 months ago 2 patients died: 1 patient with malignant pheochromocytoma (PASS=8 points) and 1 patient with MEN IIA syndrome (due to disseminated thyroid medullar cancer).
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • The only unquestionable criterion of pheochromocytoma's malignancy remain metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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24. Atwell TD, Wass CT, Charboneau JW, Callstrom MR, Farrell MA, Sengupta S: Malignant hypertension during cryoablation of an adrenal gland tumor. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2006 Mar;17(3):573-5
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension during cryoablation of an adrenal gland tumor.
  • The authors report a case of hypertensive crisis during cryoablation of an adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cryosurgery / adverse effects. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006 Aug;17(8):1367-8 [16923989.001]
  • (PMID = 16567684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Thouennon E, Pierre A, Yon L, Anouar Y: Expression of trophic peptides and their receptors in chromaffin cells and pheochromocytoma. Cell Mol Neurobiol; 2010 Nov;30(8):1383-9
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  • Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal location.
  • Along with catecholamines, tumoral cells produce and secrete elevated quantities of trophic peptides which are normally released in a regulated manner by the normal adrenal medulla.
  • Here, we review the expression levels of NPY, PACAP, and AM and theirs receptors in chromaffin cells and pheochromocytomas, and address their possible implication in the adrenal medulla tumorigenesis and malignant development of pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromaffin Cells / metabolism. Neuropeptides / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21046451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide
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26. Takizawa I, Nishiyama T, Hara N, Isahaya E, Hoshii T, Takahashi K: Serum prostate-specific antigen levels reflect the androgen milieu in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy: Tumor malignant potential and androgen milieu. Prostate; 2010 Sep 15;70(13):1395-401
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  • [Title] Serum prostate-specific antigen levels reflect the androgen milieu in patients with localized prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy: Tumor malignant potential and androgen milieu.
  • BACKGROUND: Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has a marked impact on the androgen milieu in vivo and outcomes of prostate cancer (PCa), it remains unclear which parameters reflect the androgen milieu during ADT or whether the milieu is associated with PCa aggressiveness.
  • The androgen milieu in men with high Gleason score PCa is probably less affected by conventional ADT than that in men with low score cancer, which was suggested to be associated with adrenal androgen levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


27. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81
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  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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28. Balogova S, Huchet V, Kerrou K, Nataf V, Gutman F, Antoine M, Ruppert AM, Prignon A, Lavolée A, Montravers F, Mayaud C, Cadranel J, Talbot JN: Detection of bronchioloalveolar cancer by means of PET/CT and 18F-fluorocholine, and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Nucl Med Commun; 2010 May;31(5):389-97
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  • [Title] Detection of bronchioloalveolar cancer by means of PET/CT and 18F-fluorocholine, and comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose.
  • AIM: Bronchioloalveolar (BAC) cancer is a source of false-negative F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) results.
  • We carried out this prospective pilot study to evaluate whether FCH PET/CT could detect lung cancer with a BAC component and could be more sensitive than FDG in this aim.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients (12 lesions) presented BAC or adenocarcinoma with BAC features, two patients presented adenocarcinoma without BAC features (five lesions) and four patients presented benign lesions (15 non-malignant sites).
  • For both FCH and FDG, patient-based sensitivity was 78% for detecting cancer with a BAC component and 82% for detecting malignancy.
  • Site-based sensitivity for detecting malignancy was 76 and 75% for detecting cancer with BAC features, for both radiopharmaceuticals.
  • In these early-stage cancers, only one adrenal metastasis was observed that took up FCH and FDG.
  • CONCLUSION: In this population of patients with ground-glass opacities selected on CT suggestive of BAC or with a history of BAC and a recent lung anomaly on CT, FCH detected all malignant lesions with at least a 2.0 cm short axis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biological Transport. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20145579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5628
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / fluorocholine; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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29. Ansquer C, Scigliano S, Mirallié E, Taïeb D, Brunaud L, Sebag F, Leux C, Drui D, Dupas B, Renaudin K, Kraeber-Bodéré F: 18F-FDG PET/CT in the characterization and surgical decision concerning adrenal masses: a prospective multicentre evaluation. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Aug;37(9):1669-78
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET/CT in the characterization and surgical decision concerning adrenal masses: a prospective multicentre evaluation.
  • PURPOSE: This prospective multicentre study assesses the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in characterizing and making the therapeutic decision concerning adrenal tumours that are suspicious or indeterminate in nature after conventional examinations (CE).
  • METHODS: Seventy-eight patients (37 men, 41 women, 81 adrenal lesions) underwent FDG PET/CT after CE including CT scan, biological tests and optionally (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and/or (131)I-norcholesterol scans.
  • FDG adrenal uptake exceeding that of the liver was considered positive.
  • RESULTS: Following the gold standard (histology analysis or >or=9 months follow-up), 49 lesions potentially qualified for surgery (malignant = 27, benign secreting = 22) and 32 benign non-secreting lesions did not.
  • PET was negative in 97% of non-surgical lesions and positive in 73% of potentially surgical ones which included all the malignant lesions, except 3 renal cell metastases, and 12 of 22 benign secreting lesions.
  • The negative predictive value for malignancy was 93% (41/44) and positive predictive value for detecting surgical lesions was 97% (36/37).
  • A high FDG uptake (maximum standardized uptake value >or= 10) was highly predictive of malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal FDG uptake is a good indicator of malignancy and/or of secreting lesions and should lead one to discuss surgery.
  • If there is no prior history of poorly FDG-avid cancer, the absence of FDG uptake should avoid unnecessary removal of benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20490488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • Ileal ET's, even if small, are malignant, frequently multiple, and complicated in 30-50% of cases by bowel obstruction, mesenteric invasion, or bleeding.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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31. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2005 Jan;(513):1-316
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  • Decalin was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its chemical structure, its potential for consumer exposure, and a lack of adequate testing of the chemical.
  • Male NBR rats do not produce alpha2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of alpha2u-globulin and renal lesion induction.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed in male F344/N and NBR rats.
  • Exposure-related hyaline droplet accumulation, degeneration and regeneration of renal cortical tubules, and granular casts occurred in the kidney of exposed F344/N male rats.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 25 male and 20 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 2 (five male renal toxicity rats), 6 (10 male and 10 female clinical pathology rats), or 14 (10 core study rats) weeks.
  • Urinalysis results indicated that decalin exposure caused increases in urine glucose and protein concentrations and enzyme activities that were consistent with the renal lesions observed microscopically.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed on rats sacrificed at 2 and 6 weeks and at the end of the study.
  • Incidences of renal tubule regeneration and granular casts in the medulla of the kidney in exposed male rats were increased, and the severities of hyaline droplets generally increased with increasing exposure concentration.
  • Incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in 100 and 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • There was a significant association between nephropathy severity and adrenal pheochromocytoma incidence.
  • Increased incidences of hepatocellular neoplasms occurred in 25 and 400 ppm female mice, and the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy, necrosis, syncytial alteration, and erythrophagocytosis of the liver in 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of these studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms.
  • The increased incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in male rats were also considered to be exposure related.
  • There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in female B6C3F(1) mice based on marginally increased incidences of hepatocellular and uterine neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 15891779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Naphthalenes; 88451Q4XYF / decalin
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32. Oller AR, Kirkpatrick DT, Radovsky A, Bates HK: Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2008 Dec 1;233(2):262-75
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  • Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies).
  • No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed.
  • Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure.
  • Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands.
  • The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemically induced. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Male. Models, Animal. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / chemically induced. Powders. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / etiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18822311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Powders; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel
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33. Lai EW, Joshi BH, Martiniova L, Dogra R, Fujisawa T, Leland P, de Krijger RR, Lubensky IA, Elkahloun AG, Morris JC, Puri RK, Pacak K: Overexpression of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha2 in neuroendocrine malignant pheochromocytoma: a novel target for receptor directed anti-cancer therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2952-7
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  • [Title] Overexpression of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha2 in neuroendocrine malignant pheochromocytoma: a novel target for receptor directed anti-cancer therapy.
  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic tissues.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify and characterize overexpression of IL-13 receptor-alpha2 (IL-13Ralpha2) gene expression in human and murine tumors and verify xenograft mouse pheochromocytoma cell (MPC)-derived tumor's response to a selective cytotoxin.
  • INTERVENTION: The function of IL-13Ralpha2 in these tumor cells was examined by evaluating tumor sensitivity to a recombinant IL-13-Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL-13PE).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: IC(50) and tumor size were measured.
  • Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in tumor size as early as 3 d after initial treatment and further suppressed growth of MPC tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19491224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / pseudomonas exoprotein A protein, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2730867
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34. Boland GW, Blake MA, Holalkere NS, Hahn PF: PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Apr;192(4):956-62
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  • [Title] PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients with PET/CT to determine whether qualitative (visual) assessment, quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV), or standardized uptake ratio (SUR) techniques should be used when attempting to characterize adrenal masses in patients with cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 150 consecutive patients (78 men, 72 women; mean age, 60 years; range, 24-88 years) with documented adrenal lesions.
  • All patients were known to have an underlying primary malignancy and were referred for PET/CT to evaluate the underlying primary and metastatic tumor burden.
  • Definitive lesion characterization was determined by evaluating all histologic adrenal specimens and all relevant prior and follow-up CT scans, including unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and delayed contrast-enhanced washout studies.
  • All 26 malignant lesions were characterized by PET: All showed qualitative and quantitative signal intensity greater than the liver.
  • By combining unenhanced and qualitative CT data with the retrospective PET data, the analysis yielded a sensitivity of 100% for the detection of malignancy, a specificity of 99%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, and an accuracy of 99% (Table 1).
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT is a highly accurate method for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses particularly when using qualitative, rather than quantitative, PET data.
  • Occasional benign lesions do show mild to moderate increased FDG uptake compared with that of the liver and may mimic some malignant lesions.
  • Without evidence that these lesions are benign by unenhanced CT densitometry or adrenal mass stability or growth from previous CT scans, we recommend that these lesions be characterized using contrast-enhanced washout tests and that if those tests are inconclusive, using percutaneous biopsy if early lesion characterization is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19304700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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35. Metser U, Miller E, Lerman H, Lievshitz G, Avital S, Even-Sapir E: 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses. J Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;47(1):32-7
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT, using data from both the PET and the unenhanced CT portions of the study, in characterizing adrenal masses in oncology patients.
  • METHODS: One hundred seventy-five adrenal masses in 150 patients referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT were assessed.
  • Final diagnosis was based on histology (n = 6), imaging follow-up (n = 118) of 6-29 mo (mean, 14 mo), or morphologic imaging criteria (n = 51).
  • Each adrenal mass was characterized by its size; its attenuation on CT, expressed by Hounsfield units (HU); and the intensity of (18)F-FDG uptake, expressed as standardized uptake value (SUV).
  • Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn to determine the optimal cutoff values of HU and SUV that would best discriminate between benign and malignant masses.
  • RESULTS: When malignant lesions were compared with adenomas, PET data alone using an SUV cutoff of 3.1 yielded a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 98.5%, 92%, 89.3%, 98.9%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG PET/CT improves the performance of (18)F-FDG PET alone in discriminating benign from malignant adrenal lesions in oncology patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16391184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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36. Gockel I, Heintz A, Domeyer M, Trinh TT, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Indications for conventional adrenalectomy]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Jun;133(3):255-9
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  • RESULTS: Indications for conventional adrenalectomy were - as compared with the minimally invasive procedure - significantly more frequent adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), especially in the context of multivisceral resections, as well as adrenal metastases (synchronous and metachronous).
  • In contrast, adrenal Cushing's disease (including 19 patients with bilateral tumours), pheochromocytoma, incidentaloma and Conn's syndrome constituted a more frequent indication for minimally invasive adrenalectomy.
  • Conventionally operated adrenal pathologies with on average 6.0 (range: 1.2-19.0) cm diameter were significantly larger than the endoscopically removed tumours with on average 3.3 (range: 0.2-9.2) cm diameter (p < 0.0001).
  • The side localisation and the frequency of bilateral adrenal tumours did not differ significantly in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Since the establishment of the minimally invasive technique in 1994, conventional adrenalectomy has been selected for 26 % of all resected adrenal pathologies at our clinic and, therefore, still plays an important role even in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • The benefit of the laparoscopic procedure in the case of malignant pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and isolated adrenal metastases at a locally confined stage is still unclear and requires prospective, randomised studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / utilization. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18563692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Scharmach M, Neumann V, Müller KM, Fischer M: [Comparison of patterns of metastasis between malignant pleural mesotheliomas and pulmonary carcinomas]. Pneumologie; 2006 May;60(5):277-83
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  • [Title] [Comparison of patterns of metastasis between malignant pleural mesotheliomas and pulmonary carcinomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Vergleich der Metastasierungsmuster maligner Pleuramesotheliome und pulmonaler Karzinome.
  • The spectrum of metastatic sites is very large in malignant pulmonary carcinomas (n = 148) as well as in malignant pleural mesotheliomas (n = 62).
  • There is no significant difference in the TMN-staging between both tumor groups at the time of death.
  • Carcinomas metastasized more frequently into the skeleton, the kidneys and the adrenal glands, while metastases of mesotheliomas were more often found in the peritoneum.
  • As of the moment there is no significant difference in the pattern of metastasis between both tumor groups discernible.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mesothelioma / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadaver. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16703480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-8387
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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39. Ballian N, Adler JT, Sippel RS, Chen H: Revisiting adrenal mass size as an indication for adrenalectomy. J Surg Res; 2009 Sep;156(1):16-20
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  • [Title] Revisiting adrenal mass size as an indication for adrenalectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests that can accurately differentiate between benign and malignant adrenal lesions are lacking.
  • Mass size is currently utilized as an indication for adrenalectomy in patients with adrenal masses.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of using mass size as the only indication for adrenalectomy and the ideal size threshold for distinguishing malignant primary adrenal tumors from lesions that do not require surgical resection.
  • Patients undergoing adrenalectomy for adrenal mass lesions were identified.
  • There were no differences in age or gender distribution between patients with malignant and benign lesions.
  • Adrenal mass size in these patients ranged from 3.3 to 14 cm (mean 5.9+/-0.6 cm).
  • Only three of these lesions (18.8%) proved malignant.
  • In total, eight malignant tumors were identified in this series (7.5%, size range 4-14 cm, mean 8.0+/-1.3 cm).
  • Benign and non-neoplastic lesions accounted for the remaining masses (92.5%, size range 0.7-9.3 cm, mean 3.6+/-0.2 cm) and were significantly smaller than malignant lesions (P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal mass size is the only indication for adrenalectomy in a substantial number of patients.
  • A size cut-off of 4 cm would have led to resection of all primary malignant adrenal tumors in this series and reduced the number of adrenalectomies for benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy


40. Hirai K, Ota J, Miura T: [Case of recurrent retroperitoneal malignant paraganglioma 25 years after surgery]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Oct;53(10):703-6
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  • [Title] [Case of recurrent retroperitoneal malignant paraganglioma 25 years after surgery].
  • A 41-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a left renal mass detected by screening computed tomography for hypertension.
  • The left renal mass positioned in the upper pole and inside of the kidney had invaded the pancreas, colon and spleen.
  • Surgical resection was done under a diagnosis of recurrent pheochromocytoma, and the tumor was removed with other organs, including normal left adrenal gland that was confirmed histologically.
  • Histologically and immunohistochemically, the resectioned tumor was invasive malignant paraganglioma and diagnosed as the local recurrence or metastasis of previously resectioned retroperitoneal paraganglioma, which was believed to have grown slowly.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraganglioma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18018586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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41. Vassilatou E, Vryonidou A, Michalopoulou S, Manolis J, Caratzas J, Phenekos C, Tzavara I: Hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas: results from a long-term follow-up study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 May;70(5):674-9
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  • [Title] Hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas: results from a long-term follow-up study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural course of apparently benign adrenal incidentalomas with no overt hyperfunction at diagnosis, as their clinical significance and appropriate management are still controversial.
  • DESIGN: Prospective long-term follow-up study of patients with adrenal incidentalomas with periodic hormonal and morphological evaluation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 77 patients with incidental adrenal masses, diameter 1.0-6.0 cm (median 2.5 cm), were submitted to a hormonal assessment of adrenal function at diagnosis.
  • This was repeated, together with an adrenal CT scan, 12 months later and then every 12-24 months, for a period of 12-154 months (mean 62.7 +/- 31.9, median 60.0).
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, 57 patients had normal adrenal function and 20 had subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • During follow-up, adrenal function remained normal in 49 patients, subclinical Cushing's syndrome was confirmed in 12, whilst intermittent subclinical autonomous cortisol hypersecretion was found in 12 patients.
  • A change in mass size (> or = 0.5 cm) was observed in 26 patients (enlargement in 20--including patients who developed overt hyperfunction--with no signs of malignancy and reduction in size in 6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical autonomous cortisol hypersecretion is the most frequent hormonal abnormality in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, and may be intermittent in a significant percentage of cases.
  • A growth tendency is observed in some adrenal incidentalomas without evidence of malignant transformation and occasionally can be related to development of overt hyperfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / secretion. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


42. Gimm O: Pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes: genes, proteins and functions of RET, VHL and SDHx. Fam Cancer; 2005;4(1):17-23
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  • Historically, pheochromocytoma have been described as 10 tumor, i.e. about 10 were believed to be malignant, 10 were found to be extra-adrenal, and 10 were meant to be bilateral.
  • In these instances, they were most often part of either the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) syndrome or the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Tumor Suppressor Proteins. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 15883706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9600
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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43. Tömböl Z, Eder K, Kovács A, Szabó PM, Kulka J, Likó I, Zalatnai A, Rácz G, Tóth M, Patócs A, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: MicroRNA expression profiling in benign (sporadic and hereditary) and recurring adrenal pheochromocytomas. Mod Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(12):1583-95
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  • [Title] MicroRNA expression profiling in benign (sporadic and hereditary) and recurring adrenal pheochromocytomas.
  • A total of 21 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples (sporadic benign, multiple endocrine neoplasia 2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, sporadic recurring) were subjected to microRNA expression profiling using microarrays.
  • Furthermore, microRNA expression profiles of a malignant pheochromocytoma and a pair of primary and recurrent tumors were studied by TaqMan Human MicroRNA Cards.
  • Significantly higher expression of miR-885-5p and miR-1225-3p was found in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and sporadic recurring pheochromocytomas, respectively.
  • Pathway analysis revealed the possible involvement of Notch- and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling in tumor recurrence.
  • MicroRNA expression profiles in the primary recurrent and recurring malignant comparisons have been similar.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. MicroRNAs / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20818339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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44. Lu Y, Xie D, Huang W, Gong H, Yu J: 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses in lung cancer patients. Neoplasma; 2010;57(2):129-34
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses in lung cancer patients.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of integrated (18)F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating benign from metastatic malignant adrenal masses in patients with lung cancer.
  • One hundred and ten adrenal masses (size range, 0.5 - 6.3 cm, mean size, 1.9 cm) were evaluated retrospectively in 87 lung cancer patients.
  • PET findings were interpreted as positive if the (18)F-FDG uptake of the adrenal mass was greater than or equal to that of the liver.
  • PET findings were interpreted as negative if the 18F-FDG uptake of the adrenal mass was less than that of the liver.
  • PET/CT findings were positive in 77 adrenal masses.
  • Seventy-four of these were eventually considered to be metastatic adrenal disease.
  • In the end, histopathological examinations of the adrenal lesions demonstrated the presence of adenomas.
  • PET/CT findings were negative in 33 adrenal masses, of which 31 eventually proved to be benign.
  • The 2 adrenal masses that were false-negative, underwent PET/CT twice with a two-month interval.
  • Both adrenal masses were interpreted as metastasis.
  • Integrated (18)F-FDG PET-CT is an accurate, noninvasive technique for differentiating benign from metastatic adrenal lesions detected on CT or MRI in patients with lung cancer.
  • It allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Large Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Large Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / radiography. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / secondary


45. Villar JM, Moreno P, Ortega J, Bollo E, Ramírez CP, Muñoz N, Martínez C, Domínguez-Adame E, Sancho J, del Pino JM, Couselo JM, Carrión A, Candel M, Cáceres N, Octavio JM, Mateo F, Galán L, Ramia JM, Aguiló J, Herrera F: Results of adrenal surgery. Data of a Spanish National Survey. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):837-43
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  • [Title] Results of adrenal surgery. Data of a Spanish National Survey.
  • High-volume centers had a greater proportion of laparoscopically treated cases (p = 0.008), more malignant lesions treated (p = 0.03), a shorter overall stay (p < 0.0001), and a shorter stay after laparotomic adrenalectomy (p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Hospital Mortality / trends. Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparotomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Hospitals, Public / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Male. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Population Surveillance. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Risk Assessment. Spain. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 20658299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Kimura N, Watanabe T, Noshiro T, Shizawa S, Miura Y: Histological grading of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and relationship to prognosis: a clinicopathological analysis of 116 adrenal pheochromocytomas and 30 extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas including 38 malignant tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):23-32
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  • [Title] Histological grading of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and relationship to prognosis: a clinicopathological analysis of 116 adrenal pheochromocytomas and 30 extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas including 38 malignant tumors.
  • Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas show varied histological patterns, and it is difficult to diagnose malignancy or predict the clinical course using current histological criteria.
  • In the present study, we reviewed 146 sympathetic paragangliomas including 116 adrenal (102 unilateral, 14 bilateral) and 30 extra-adrenal tumors including 38 metastatic tumors.
  • The frequency of these tumor types were 113 WD (77%), 27 MD (19%), and 6 PD (4%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Catecholamines / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16000843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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47. Lumachi F, Basso SM, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Favia G: Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4559-62
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  • [Title] Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal masses (incidentalomas) are relatively frequent and unsuspected incidentalomas (AI) of more than 1 cm in size may be found in 1-5% of patients who have undergone abdominal or chest computed tomography (CT)-scan for unrelated reasons.
  • Once an AI is detected, the two major questions are whether the patient has biochemical evidence of adrenal hyperfunction, and whether the mass is an adrenal metastasis or a malignant adrenal tumour.
  • In most cases (>90%) AI are non-functioning, with a low (<10%) risk of being malignant, and an estimated cumulative risk of malignant transformation of less than 1:1000.
  • A single test for disease probabilities is not always more cost-effective than two-test approaches and it has been shown that the cumulative sensitivity and accuracy of both FNAC + magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FNAC + norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy reach 100%, at a similar cost-to-accuracy ratio (7.5 vs. 7.0), whilst the strategy CT-scan + MRI together is less sensitive at a lower cost-to-accuracy ratio.
  • However, image-guided FNAC in conjunction with MRI as the exclusive imaging test has the major role and cost-effectiveness in the management of patients with AL, and should be considered the strategy of choice in distinguishing between benign and malignant non-functioning adrenal masses of more than 2 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):446. Fabia, Gennaro [corrected to Favia, Gennaro]
  • (PMID = 16334141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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48. Geli J, Kiss N, Lanner F, Foukakis T, Natalishvili N, Larsson O, Kogner P, Höög A, Clark GJ, Ekström TJ, Bäckdahl M, Farnebo F, Larsson C: The Ras effectors NORE1A and RASSF1A are frequently inactivated in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):125-34
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  • NORE1A (RASSF5) and RASSF1A are newly described Ras effectors with tumour suppressor functions.
  • Both molecules are frequently inactivated in various cancers.
  • Significantly suppressed NORE1A and RASSF1A mRNA levels were detected in primary tumours compared with normal adrenal medulla (P<0.001).
  • Methylation of the RASSF1A promoter was significantly associated with malignant behaviour (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17395981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / RASSF5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sulfites; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins; OJ9787WBLU / hydrogen sulfite
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49. Karasavvidou F, Potamianos SP, Barbanis S, Stathakis E, Psychos A, Kapsoritakis AN, Koukoulis G: Malakoplakia of the colon associated with colonic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in colonic biopsies. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6109-11
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  • It has also been found in many other sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, lymph nodes, skin, respiratory tract, adrenal gland, vagina and brain.
  • We present a case of a 64-year-old man referred to our hospital with cachexia and radiologic evidence of metastatic tumor of the liver.
  • Colonoscopy revealed a large malignant - appearing polypoid mass of the ascending colon and multiple distinct polyps throughout the rest of the colon.
  • Biopsies of the ascending colon mass confirmed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Malacoplakia / complications

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  • (PMID = 18023111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250902
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50. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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51. Siddiqui NH, Jani J: Osteosarcoma metastatic to adrenal gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):201-4
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma metastatic to adrenal gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.
  • Osteosarcoma, a primary malignant tumor of the long bones, frequently metastasizes to the lungs.
  • We report an unusual case of osteosarcoma metastatic to the right adrenal gland in a 37-yr-old male who presented 8 yr after remission with an adrenal mass.
  • A preoperative diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.
  • FNA biopsy revealed pleomorphic oval cells with prominent nucleoli, spindle cells, and giant tumor cells.
  • Immunocytochemical stains revealed positivity of tumor cells for vimentin and osteonectin.
  • The cytologic diagnosis of metastatic Osteosarcoma was made, which was later confirmed upon resection of tumor by histology.
  • Although the role of FNA in the diagnosis of primary bone tumors, including osteogenic sarcoma (OGS), remains controversial, this case, however, demonstrates the value of FNA biopsy combined with immunocytochemistry performed on the aspirated material in diagnosing osteosarcoma from an unusual location such as the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / secondary


52. Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Wängberg B, Nilsson O, Tisell LE, Ahlman H: Mortality associated with pheochromocytoma: increased risk for additional tumors. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:444-8
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  • The main causes of death in this regional series were cardiovascular diseases and tumor in a ratio of 1.3 versus 2.0 in the general Swedish population.
  • Analysis of the mortality in all patients with clinically diagnosed PC (n=481, 259 women and 222 men) based on the National Cancer Registry (1957-1997) showed that the number of deaths in this cohort was 196 versus 153.4 expected (P<0.001).
  • These patients had almost four times higher risk of dying of a tumor than did the general population (similar risk for females and males).
  • A second tumor diagnosed subsequent to PC occurred in 68 versus 31 expected.
  • In men tumors of the liver and biliary tract and central nervous system and in women malignant melanoma and cervix carcinoma were most frequent.
  • The results from the national series thus confirm an increased risk of a second tumor and increased tumor-related mortality in patients with PC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Pheochromocytoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17102113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Powari M, Rajesh L, Joshi K: Clinically unsuspected bilateral malignant pheochromocytoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):313-4
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  • [Title] Clinically unsuspected bilateral malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • Pheochromocytoma is an uncommon tumor and occurrence of bilateral malignant tumor is extremely rare.
  • Herein we describe one such case ofbilateral malignant pheochromocytoma, which was clinically silent except for pain and mass in hypochondrium.
  • Histopathology showed features of malignancy along with hyaline globules, which are less described with malignant tumors.
  • Electron microscopy showed neurosecretory granules in tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


54. Tsurumi H: [Steroid therapy in oncology]. Nihon Rinsho; 2008 Jan;66(1):143-7
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  • Corticosteroid is widely used in the clinical practice of malignant neoplasmas.
  • Antitumor effect of corticosteroid is exceptional except lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and multiple myeloma.
  • In addition, corticosteroid may provide some improvements of quality of life, pain, appetite, and performance status in terminal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18193553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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55. Hamada S, Ito K, Tobe M, Otsuki H, Hama Y, Kato Y, Sugiura Y, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: Bilateral adrenal leiomyosarcoma treated with multiple local therapies. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug;14(4):356-60
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal leiomyosarcoma treated with multiple local therapies.
  • A 62-year-old woman presented with right flank pain, and computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral adrenal tumors (right, 8 cm; left, 4 cm).
  • There were no abnormal findings on physical examination, and adrenal hormone levels in serum and urine were within normal limits.
  • Radiological studies showed a right adrenal tumor with intratumoral hemorrhage, a cystic tumor in the left adrenal gland, and no sign of distant metastasis.
  • Because laboratory tests showed normal levels of adrenal hormones, we considered the tumors to be nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • The right adrenal tumor was surgically removed because it was thought to be malignant, and histological examination revealed that it was a leiomyosarcoma.
  • Because the left adrenal tumor grew rapidly despite two courses of the chemotherapy, it too was surgically removed.
  • Multiple local treatments including RFA, radiotherapy, and resection were effective for the local control of metastatic lesions of adrenal leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation. Leiomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
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56. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • They are a very heterogenous group of diseases and include benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions, metastases, pheochromocytomas and other entities.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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57. Kubisch CH, Flatz WH, Göke B: [Incidentaloma of the pancreas]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Mar;46(3):292-6
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  • Surgery is the adequate therapy for adrenal incidentalomas with increasing size, a size bigger than 4 cm at detection, hormone-activity or malignant histology.
  • Incidentalomas of the adrenal and thyroid gland are still often dismissed because they are common and mostly benign.
  • Only few clinical studies describe pancreatic incidentalomas, however these studies claim a malignant histology of up to 30 % and of up to 50 % for pre-malignant incidentalomas of the pancreas.
  • Thus, we recommend an early resection of pancreatic incidentalomas with a size of > 2 cm, in younger patients without concomitant diseases or increased operative risk, with a malignant histology, and with mucinous cells and increased tumour markers in blood samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / surgery. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18322885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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58. Sticchi D, Fassina A, Ganzaroli C, Pasqualetto C, Pessina AC, Nussdorfer GG, Rossi GP: Expression of telomerase (hTERT) in aldosterone-producing adrenocortical tumors. Int J Mol Med; 2006 Mar;17(3):469-74
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  • Telomerase was found in cancers and immortalized cell lines, but only occasionally in normal tissues, thus suggesting that measurement of its hTERT subunit might help distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • Therefore, we investigated whether hTERT expression may predict malignancy in aldosterone producing adrenocortical tumors.
  • We also studied two rare aldosterone-producing carcinomas (APCs), eight adrenocortical carcinomas (ACs), twelve normal adrenal cortexes, and two malignant cell lines (NCI-295H and SW-13).
  • Of interest, we detected hTERT mRNA in 58% of APAs at levels similar to those of malignant tumors, which all consistently showed hTERT expression.
  • In conclusion, RT-PCR measurement of hTERT mRNA is a hallmark of malignant adrenocortical tumors, but identifies also a subset of hTERT-expressing APAs that might show metastatic spread at long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion. Telomerase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16465394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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59. Van Der Horst-Schrivers AN, Jager PL, Boezen HM, Schouten JP, Kema IP, Links TP: Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in localising phaeochromocytomas--experience and meta-analysis. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2B):1599-604
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1992 and May 2002, the I-123 MIBG scans of consecutive patients suspected of a phaeochromocytoma were re-evaluated.
  • The sensitivity and specificity for tumours in the adrenal gland was 98% for both.
  • For tumours located outside the adrenal gland, the sensitivity was 98% and the sensitivity for malignancies was 79%.
  • CONCLUSION: 1-123 MIBG scintigraphy has an excellent sensitivity and specificity in localising phaeochromocytomas, except for malignant tumours.
  • 1-123 MIBG scintigraphy is superior in localising tumours outside the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16619578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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60. D'Antonio A, Caleo A, Caleo O, De Dominicis G, Boscaino A: Monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the adrenal gland: an unusual site for a rare extrarenal tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Oct;13(5):347-50
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  • [Title] Monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the adrenal gland: an unusual site for a rare extrarenal tumor.
  • Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (AML) is an uncommon renal mesenchymal tumor with malignant potential and is frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis.
  • Extrarenal AMLs are rare, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary monotypic epithelioid AML of adrenal gland in a patient without evidence of tuberous sclerosis.
  • The patient is a 42-year old man who presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage resulting from spontaneous rupture of adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the tumor showed a prominent component of epithelioid smooth muscle cells with slightly pleomorphic nuclei, sometimes with prominent nucleoli and eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling oncocytic tumors.
  • Differential diagnosis from renal cell carcinoma, adrenal gland carcinoma, and metastatic carcinoma is often challenging because of its epithelioid morphology.
  • Because primary and secondary malignant tumors are much more common and aggressive neoplasms, establishing the correct diagnosis has important therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelioid Cells / chemistry. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nephrectomy. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19751913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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61. Krsek M: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Vnitr Lek; 2007 Jul-Aug;53(7-8):821-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomy nadledvin.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are called as a disease of modern technology because increased availability and accuracy of imaging techniques lead to increased incidence of incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are found in about 0.35-4.36% of abdominal CT scans performed for purpose other than suspicion of adrenal diseases.
  • However, in autoptic studies the percentage of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours in much higher, in some of then being even more than 20%.
  • Important component of differential diagnosis is endocrinological examination aimed to reveal potential autonomous hormonal overproduction.
  • Approximately more than 10% of adrenal incidentalomas is characterized by autonomous cortisol production, 5-10% is phaeochromocytomas and 5-7% is aldosteron producing adenomas.
  • Vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning tumours, mainly adenomas.
  • Rational ways and recommendations for screening of hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas is discussed.
  • Very important issue is to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and between adenomas and non-adenomas.
  • Particular characteristics of particular adrenal tumours are discussed.
  • From the relationship between the tumour size and probability of malignancy, current recommendations are derived, that non-functioning tumours smaller than 4 cm are indicated for further follow-up, size over 6 cm is indication for adrenalectomy and in tumours between 4-6 cm decision process is complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17915426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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62. Adam P, Hahner S, Hartmann M, Heinrich B, Quinkler M, Willenberg HS, Saeger W, Sbiera S, Schmull S, Voelker HU, Ströbel P, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Epidermal growth factor receptor in adrenocortical tumors: analysis of gene sequence, protein expression and correlation with clinical outcome. Mod Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(12):1596-604
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but highly malignant neoplasm with still limited treatment options.
  • As EGFR is hardly expressed in adrenocortical adenomas, our results suggest that its expression in adrenocortical tumors indicates a malignant phenotype, which may be used in the differential diagnosis between adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20693985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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63. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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64. Ginat DT, Saad WE, Turba UC: Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):75-88
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  • [Title] Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that is increasingly used for the management of angiomyolipomas and to augment and/or palliate the management of malignant renal and adrenal neoplasms.
  • The most common indications for renal artery embolization include (1) prenephrectomy and preradiofrequency ablation infarction of renal tumors, (2) management of renal angiomyolipomas, (3) palliations of unresectable renal malignancy, and (4) malignant renal hemorrhage (life-threatening or chronic debilitating hematuria).
  • The increasing use of renal artery embolization for these conditions reflects the procedure's effectiveness and safety.
  • Although there is less extensive literature available regarding the use of transcatheter embolization of adrenal tumors, this technique appears to be effective and safe for palliation and preadrenalectomy of adrenal metastatic disease, adrenocortical carcinomas, as well as treatment of symptomatic aldosteronomas.
  • This article reviews the indications and techniques involved in performing transcatheter arterial embolization for renal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Catheterization. Embolization, Therapeutic. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Renal Artery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20540917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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65. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Karaman G, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: The change in the principle of performing laparoscopic adrenalectomy from small to large masses. Int J Surg; 2009 Jun;7(3):266-71
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in most patients with adrenal tumors.
  • It is unclear; however, at what size an adrenal neoplasm should be resected by means of an open or a laparoscopic approach.
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the tumor size.
  • RESULTS: Two of the 29 tumors in group 1 (6.8%) were malignant at final histology.
  • However, 11 of the 31 tumors in group 2 (35.4%) were malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a reasonable procedure for selected large adrenal tumors when a complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19410021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. de Krijger RR, van Nederveen FH, Korpershoek E, Dinjens WN: New developments in the detection of the clinical behavior of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):137-41
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  • Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing tumors that are, by definition, located in the adrenal medulla.
  • Extra-adrenal catecholamine-producing tumors are called paragangliomas (PGL), which should be distinguished from head and neck paragangliomas, which are of parasympathetic origin.
  • The relative rarity of PCC and PGL combined with a frequency of malignancy from as low as 2% up to 25% has hampered the power of past research and can only be overcome by multicenter collaborative efforts.
  • In this article, recent attempts at marker detection, such as those mentioned above, as well as emerging knowledge on the molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant PCC and PGL will be presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17159246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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67. Kercher KW, Novitsky YW, Park A, Matthews BD, Litwin DE, Heniford BT: Laparoscopic curative resection of pheochromocytomas. Ann Surg; 2005 Jun;241(6):919-26; discussion 926-8
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  • While the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy are relatively well documented, few studies with extended follow-up have been conducted to measure the success of the procedure for the most challenging of the adrenal tumors.
  • In addition, several reports question the applicability of a minimally invasive approach for sizeable pheochromocytomas.
  • Seventy-nine were found in the adrenal (42 left, 35 right, 1 bilateral); 2 were extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • Eight patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome.
  • Two lesions were malignant.
  • Mean tumor size was 5.0 cm (range, 2-12.1 cm); 41 of these lesions were 5 cm in size or larger.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15912041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357171
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68. Geli J, Kiss N, Karimi M, Lee JJ, Bäckdahl M, Ekström TJ, Larsson C: Global and regional CpG methylation in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas: association to malignant behavior. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;14(9):2551-9
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  • [Title] Global and regional CpG methylation in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas: association to malignant behavior.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to quantitatively assess promoter and global methylation changes in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas and its relation to tumor phenotypes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of 53 primary tumors (42 benign, 11 malignant) was analyzed by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing.
  • Based on methylation levels in the tumor suppressor genes, p16(INK4A), CDH1, DCR2, RARB, RASSF1A, NORE1A, TP73, APC, DAPK1, p14(ARF), and PTEN, a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was defined as concerted hypermethylation in three or more genes.
  • RESULTS: Five primary tumors (9.4%) exhibited a CIMP phenotype, four of which were malignant paragangliomas.
  • CIMP was significantly associated with malignant behavior (P = 0.005) and younger age at presentation (P < 0.007) but did not result from BRAF V600E mutation.
  • Global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements was observed in tumors compared with normal adrenal samples (P < 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: We here describe the identification of CIMP in abdominal paragangliomas and a strong association of this phenotype with malignant behavior, as well as young age at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics. Male. Middle Aged


69. Caso J, Seigne J, Back M, Spiess PE, Pow-Sang J, Sexton WJ: Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors. J Urol; 2009 Sep;182(3):887-93
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  • [Title] Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Circumferential vena caval resection is occasionally performed in patients with advanced malignancy.
  • We explored the oncological effectiveness of inferior vena caval resection, as determined by margin status, cancer recurrence and survival.
  • Primary tumor type was renal cell carcinoma in 7 patients, metastatic testicular cancer in 5, leiomyosarcoma in 3, and adrenal cortical carcinoma, primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumor and upper tract transitional cell carcinoma in 1 each.
  • Data reviewed included preoperative and postoperative sequelae of inferior vena caval obstruction, postoperative complications, pathological results, cancer recurrence, graft requirements and functional outcomes.
  • A total of 12 patients underwent simultaneous nephrectomy and/or left renal vein ligation in the same setting with acceptable alterations in postoperative renal function and no need for permanent dialysis.
  • Cancer recurred locally in 4 of 15 patients who underwent resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local cancer control and potentially increased cancer specific survival can be achieved with successful complete circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava as a component of multimodality care in select patients with locally advanced malignancy.
  • The most common postoperative complications are renal insufficiency and lower extremity edema, which are generally transient.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery. Venous Insufficiency / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19616230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values


71. Young WF Jr: Endocrine hypertension: then and now. Endocr Pract; 2010 Sep-Oct;16(5):888-902
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  • Since those prismatic case descriptions, the technological advances in laboratory-based diagnosis, radiology-based tumor localization, and surgical approaches to the adrenal glands have been truly remarkable.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The evolution in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma will continue to progress as we identify more genetic causes, develop biochemical markers for "preclinical" pheochromocytoma, identify better markers for malignant disease, and develop more effective treatment options for malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adult. Endocrine System / physiopathology. Female. History, 20th Century. History, 21st Century. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20713331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Temizoz O, Genchellac H, Demir MK, Unlu E, Ozdemir H: Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e198-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features.
  • Myelolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of adipose tissue and haematopoietic cells that are typically found in adrenal glands but have also appeared in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Distinguishing between extra-adrenal myelolipomas and malignant tumours, such as liposarcomas, is crucial to avoid an invasive procedure.
  • To this end, we present a comprehensive report of the CT imaging characteristics of a pathologically proven bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20846975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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73. Koh YH, Wu HY, Lim WP: Pain and nausea in malignant pheochromocytoma: a pharmacological minefield. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2008 Mar;35(3):239-41
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  • [Title] Pain and nausea in malignant pheochromocytoma: a pharmacological minefield.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Antiemetics / adverse effects. Metoclopramide / adverse effects. Nausea / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / complications


74. Wu D, Tischler AS, Lloyd RV, DeLellis RA, de Krijger R, van Nederveen F, Nosé V: Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):599-608
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  • [Title] Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score.
  • Morphologic determination of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytoma is a challenging problem in surgical pathology.
  • A multiparameter Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) was recently developed based on a comprehensive study of a single institutional cohort of 100 cases.
  • Assignment of a PASS was proposed to be useful for identifying pheochromocytomas with potential to metastasize, which defines malignancy according to the current World Health Organization terminology.
  • We further examined the utility of PASS by reviewing an independent single institutional cohort of adrenal pheochromocytomas as evaluated by 5 multi-institutional pathologists with at least 10 years experience in endocrine pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Young Adult


75. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173
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  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740268
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76. Dionne JM, Wu JK, Heran M, Murphy JJ, Jevon G, White CT: Malignant hypertension, polycythemia, and paragangliomas. J Pediatr; 2006 Apr;148(4):540-5
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension, polycythemia, and paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / complications. Polycythemia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Erythropoietin / blood. Female. Humans. Perioperative Care. Renal Artery Obstruction / complications

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  • (PMID = 16647420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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77. Kasliwal MK, Sharma MS, Vaishya S, Sharma BS: Metachronous pheochromocytoma metastasis to the upper dorsal spine-6-year survival. Spine J; 2008 Sep-Oct;8(5):845-8
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  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare neoplasm of chromaffin tissue.
  • Very few cases of malignant adrenal pheochromocytoma metastatic to vertebrae exist.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the prognosis of a patient with an excised adrenal pheochromocytoma and a single metachronous metastasis to the upper dorsal spine.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Case report METHODS: The authors report a patient who underwent total excision of an adrenal pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland in 2000 who developed a single metastasis to the second dorsal vertebra in 2002 with no evidence of abdominal recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adrenal pheochromocytomas must be screened periodically with whole body imaging despite normal abdominal imaging as there is a definite risk of metachronous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18024223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Raparia K, Ayala AG, Sienko A, Zhai QJ, Ro JY: Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):344-8
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare, and to our knowledge, only about 23 cases have been reported in the literature, including 13 carcinomas and 10 adenomas.
  • We recently experienced 4 cases of myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms (3 benign and 1 borderline malignancy) and studied the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of these neoplasms.
  • Histologically, the tumor cells were arranged in delicate arborizing cords or trabecula with myxoid areas varying from 30% to 70%.
  • The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, synaptophysin, and inhibin but negative for cytokeratin.
  • Myxoid changes in adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare but can be seen in both an adenoma and a tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The usual clinical and histological features can be applied to classify the lesions as benign, borderline tumor, or malignant.
  • In our series, there was no case with frank malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Inhibins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18774497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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79. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Erickson LA, Jenkins RB, Giannini C: Ectopic low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma in the spinal region: immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic study of a pediatric case. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jan;33(1):142-8
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  • [Title] Ectopic low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma in the spinal region: immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic study of a pediatric case.
  • Ectopic adrenocortical neoplasms arising in the nervous system are very rare.
  • We encountered an intradural, extramedullary case of an adrenocortical neoplasm of indeterminate malignant potential affecting a spinal nerve root in the distal lumbar region of a 5-month-old girl.
  • The tumor in both resections had increased mitotic activity (5/10 high power fields) and MIB-1 labeling indices of 23% and 33% at initial resection and recurrence, respectively.
  • Both tumors demonstrated gains of chromosomes 5 and 12 by interphase cytogenetics, whereas insulin growth factor 2 was identified in the recurrent tumor by immunohistochemistry.

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  • (PMID = 18941403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS396174; NLM/ PMC3427599
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80. Pawlu C, Bausch B, Reisch N, Neumann HP: Genetic testing for pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2005 Jun;66(3):178-85
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  • Various syndromes have been found to be associated with the development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2, susceptibility gene: RET), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL, susceptibility gene: VHL), neurofibromatosis 1 (NF 1), and paraganglioma syndromes type 1, 3, and 4 (susceptibility genes: succinate dehydrogenase gene, SDH, subunits D, C and B, respectively).
  • Mutational analysis of the susceptibility genes of these syndromes in patients presenting with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma may help to judge the risks of multifocality of the tumor as well as development of malignant pheochromocytoma or of other malignant tumors.
  • Based on tumor characteristics and prevalence data we give recommendations for an efficient genetic testing procedure in patients presenting with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1. Humans. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein

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  • (PMID = 15988378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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81. Havekes B, Romijn JA, Eisenhofer G, Adams K, Pacak K: Update on pediatric pheochromocytoma. Pediatr Nephrol; 2009 May;24(5):943-50
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  • Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors in children arising from chromaffin cells of adrenal medullary or extra-adrenal paraganglionic tissue.
  • In children, pheochromocytomas are more frequently familial, extra-adrenal, bilateral, and multifocal than in adults.
  • Because of a highly variable clinical presentation, pheochromocytoma is often referred to as the great mimic.
  • Measurements of plasma or urinary fractionated metanephrines are recommended as first-line biochemical tests for diagnosis, with optimum diagnostic sensitivity to be preferred over specificity.
  • The risk for development of malignant disease depends highly on the underlying mutation, which may also impact recommendations concerning screening and surgical or systemic treatment.
  • This article reviews recent advances in biochemistry, genetics, and imaging and outlines recommendations for improved evaluation and treatment of children with benign or malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18566838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-198X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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82. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • Due to the fact that malignancy cannot be excluded with certainty in some patients with cortical adenomas, it is expected that the rate of laparoscopic adrenalectomy will continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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83. Kume H, Nishimura S, Teramoto S, Niimi A, Tomita K, Kitamura T: An [123 I]MIBG-positive malignant lymphoma involving the adrenal gland with hypercatecholaminaemia. Clin Radiol; 2008 Apr;63(4):475-7
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  • [Title] An [123 I]MIBG-positive malignant lymphoma involving the adrenal gland with hypercatecholaminaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 18325369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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84. Blake MA, Kalra MK: Current status of imaging for adrenal malignant involvement. Cancer Treat Res; 2008;143:319-29
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  • [Title] Current status of imaging for adrenal malignant involvement.
  • CT, MRI, PET and PET/CT have all been shown to be clinically useful in differentiating benign from malignant adrenal involvement.
  • Image-guided adrenal biopsy should be considered if needed for treatment planning and for the now relatively uncommon lesions that remain indeterminate by imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Medical Oncology / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18619224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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85. Gao B, Meng F, Bian W, Chen J, Zhao H, Ma G, Shi B, Zhang J, Liu Y, Xu Z: Development and validation of pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score for predicting malignant pheochromocytomas. Urology; 2006 Aug;68(2):282-6
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  • [Title] Development and validation of pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score for predicting malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performances of the pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) proposed in a previous report and that of a logistic model developed in this investigation.
  • METHODS: In all 130 patients with malignant or assumed benign pheochromocytomas, 15 predictive variables were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ROC analysis indicated that the PASS could be used for the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


86. Tsubochi H, Isogami K, Sato N, Imai T: Successfully treated lingual tonsillar metastasis from bronchial adenocarcinoma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Aug;53(8):455-7
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  • Tonsillar metastasis from neoplasms, including lung cancer, are extremely rare, and the prognosis for patients with tonsillar metastases is rather poor.
  • Four months after surgery, a mass arising from the lingual tonsil was noted at the root of the tongue and was pathologically diagnosed as metastasis from lung cancer.
  • In addition, a computed tomography scan revealed a jugular lymphadenopathy, which was considered to be a metastasis from the tonsillar tumor.
  • This is the first report of successfully treated tonsillar metastasis from a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16164261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyobu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
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87. Altinova AE, Toruner F, Cimen AR, Karakoc A, Atasever T, Yetkin I, Ayvaz G, Cakir N, Arslan M: The association of neurofibromatosis, bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jul;115(7):468-70
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  • Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a hereditary disease and carries increased risk of both benign and malignant tumor development.
  • We report a case of a 37-year-old male with NF1, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Neurofibromatoses / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adult. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications


88. Elad S, Levitt M, M Y S: [Chronic graft-versus-host-disease involving the oral mucosa: clinical presentation and treatment]. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993); 2008 Nov;25(4):19-27, 72
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  • The chronic syndrome of GVHD (cGVHD) occurs in approximately 50% of patients post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and remains the leading cause of non-malignant mortality.
  • The oral tissues targeted by cGVHD are the mucosae, the salivary glands, the musculoskeletal apparatus and the periodontal structures.
  • In addition to impaired oral functions, cGVHD may lead to secondary malignancies in the form of solid cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity.
  • The NIH consensus paper referred to standard criteria for diagnosis, classification, and response to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Host Disease / diagnosis. Mouth Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Buccal. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Chronic Disease. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Lichenoid Eruptions / diagnosis. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Oral Ulcer / diagnosis. Phototherapy

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  • (PMID = 19263864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0792-9935
  • [Journal-full-title] Refuʼat ha-peh ṿeha-shinayim (1993)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993)
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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89. Eren S, Karaman A, Okur A: The superior vena cava syndrome caused by malignant disease. Imaging with multi-detector row CT. Eur J Radiol; 2006 Jul;59(1):93-103
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  • [Title] The superior vena cava syndrome caused by malignant disease. Imaging with multi-detector row CT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction by malignant diseases is either by direct invasion and compression or by tumour thrombus of the SVC.
  • Our aims are to describe collateral vessels of the superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) related with the malignant diseases and to assess the ability of multi-detector row CT with multiplanar and 3D volume rendering techniques in determining and describing collateral circulations.
  • While one case showed the portal-systemic shunt, V. cordis media and sinus coronarius with phrenic veins were enlarged in two cases, and the left adrenal vein was enlarged in a patient.
  • In one case, the azygos vein with reversed blood flow was drained into both inferior vena cava and hemiazygos vein with the left renal vein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Small Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Esophageal Neoplasms / complications. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiography. Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / radiography. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16476534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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90. Zografos GN, Farfaras A, Vasiliadis G, Pappa T, Aggeli C, Vassilatou E, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • It still remains to be clarified whether the laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) or potentially malignant tumors is appropriate or not due to technical difficulties and concern about local recurrence.
  • Tumor size ranged from 3.2 cm to 27 cm.
  • In the large adrenal tumor group, operative time for laparoscopic resection ranged from 150 minutes to 240 minutes.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) adrenal tumors is feasible and safe.

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  • (PMID = 21333189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041032
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91. Shen XC, Gu CX, Qiu YQ, Du CJ, Fu YB, Wu JJ: Estrogen receptor expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2009 Jan;10(1):1-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but highly malignant tumor, and its diagnosis is mostly delayed and prognosis is poor.
  • We report estrogen receptor (ER) expression in this tumor and our clinical experiences with 17 ACC cases.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to detect ER expression in tumor samples from the 17 patients.
  • RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, 4 tumors were classified as Stage I, 4 as Stage II, 3 as Stage III, and 6 as Stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19198016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613956
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92. Anchi T, Tamura K, Inoue K, Fukata S, Nishikawa H, Moriki T, Shuin T: [A case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Jul;55(7):401-3
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  • [Title] [A case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor].
  • Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a common neoplasm of the pleura and rarely arises from the retroperitoneal space.
  • A 54-year-old woman was admitted to the department of dermatology in our hospital for examination and treatment of malignant melanoma of the right lower leg.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) showed the left adrenal mass measuring 6.0 x 4.5 x 10 cm.
  • Because the tumor was thought to be left adrenal tumor or left adrenal metastasis of the malignant melanoma, she admitted to our department.
  • The tumor was not connected to the adrenal gland.
  • The immunohistochemical examination showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19673426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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93. Hanna-Moussa A, Kurukulasuriya LR, Sowers JR: Malignant pheochromocytoma presenting with uncontrolled hypertension after kidney transplant. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich); 2010 Feb 1;12(2):105-8
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  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytoma presenting with uncontrolled hypertension after kidney transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / diagnosis. Kidney Transplantation. Pheochromocytoma / complications


94. Kopetschke R, Slisko M, Kilisli A, Tuschy U, Wallaschofski H, Fassnacht M, Ventz M, Beuschlein F, Reincke M, Reisch N, Quinkler M: Frequent incidental discovery of phaeochromocytoma: data from a German cohort of 201 phaeochromocytoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Aug;161(2):355-61
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma are chromaffin cell-derived tumours that are discovered due to classical symptom triad with headache, sweating and palpitations combined with persistent or paroxysmal hypertension.
  • OBJECTIVE: To specify the exact circumstances of discovery of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma.
  • MEDICAL: records of 201 patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma who were diagnosed between 1973 and 2007 were analyzed.
  • In 24 patients (12.2%), phaeochromocytoma was malignant.
  • Patients with incidentally detected phaeochromocytoma were significantly older (53.1+/-1.9 vs 47.0+/-1.3 years; P<0.05) and often had less blood pressure peaks (37.0 vs 70.7%; P<0.001) than patients in whom the diagnosis was suspected on clinical grounds.
  • Of phaeochromocytomas 94.4% were intra-adrenal tumours, of which 12.9% were bilateral.
  • Bilateral tumours were significantly smaller than unilateral tumours (36.6+/-14.7 vs 52.5+/-34.3 mm; P<0.05), whereas extra-adrenal tumours had a mean diameter of 52.6+/-28.7 mm.
  • Every adrenal incidentaloma should be investigated for the presence of phaeochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 19497985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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96. Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Trofimiuk M, Sowa-Staszczak A, Gilis-Januszewska A, Wierzchowski W, Pach D, Budzyński A, Karcz D: [Somatostatin receptors expression (SSTR1-SSTR5) in pheochromocytomas]. Przegl Lek; 2008;65(9):405-7
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  • Confirmation of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) expression in neuroendocrine tumours has changed their modern diagnosis and therapy, and starts to influence the approach to pheochromocytomas.
  • Scintigraphy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogues is nowadays an approved complementary method of pheochromocytoma localization, particularly the malignant ones.
  • Cell culture studies have indicated that the commercially available somatostatin analogues are able to control tumour growth and secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19140390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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97. De Martino MC, van Koetsveld PM, Pivonello R, Hofland LJ: Role of the mTOR pathway in normal and tumoral adrenal cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:28-34
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  • [Title] Role of the mTOR pathway in normal and tumoral adrenal cells.
  • Presently, the role and functions of mTOR and its signaling pathway in the normal and pathological adrenal gland has not been clarified yet.
  • However, many growth factors and growth factor receptors, which are considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors, can at least in part exert their effects through the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas and malignant pheochromocytomas are aggressive tumors with poor prognosis and scant treatment options.
  • Moreover, mTOR inhibitors, interfering with the activation of several mitogenic and angiogenic factors, could be considered as a novel treatment opportunity for the management of malignant adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism


98. Vincent-Dejean C, Cazabat L, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Tissier F, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: Identification of a clinically homogenous subgroup of benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors characterized by alterations of the protein kinase A (PKA) subunits and high PKA activity. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):829-39
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  • [Title] Identification of a clinically homogenous subgroup of benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors characterized by alterations of the protein kinase A (PKA) subunits and high PKA activity.
  • METHODS: In this study, 35 ACT (10 non-secreting adrenocortical adenomas (ACA-NS), 13 cortisol-secreting adenomas (ACA-S), and 12 malignant s (ACC)) were studied.
  • RESULTS: A subgroup of ACA-S with a 96% R2B protein decrease by comparison with normal adrenal (4.1%+/-4 vs 100%+/-19, P<0.001) was identified, ACA-S2 (6/13).

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  • (PMID = 18505904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit; 0 / PRKAR2B protein, human; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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99. Gonçalves R, Linhares E, Albagli R, Valadão M, Vilhena B, Romano S, Ferreira CG: Occurrence of other tumors in patients with GIST. Surg Oncol; 2010 Dec;19(4):e140-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the presence of other tumors in cohort of patients with GIST treated at a cancer treatment referral center - INCA.
  • Immunohistological diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist specialized in sarcomas.
  • Age, sex, tumor location, risk groups (according to the National Institutes of Health criteria), characteristics of non-GIST tumors and treatment results were analyzed.
  • The mean size of lesions was 4.79 cm (0.3-15 cm), with malignant potential low/very low in 7 cases (50%), intermediate in 5 cases (35.7%) and high in 2 cases (14.3%).
  • The diagnosis of GIST was incidental in 6 cases and in one case the non-GIST tumor was incidental.
  • The other sites involved were breast (ductal carcinoma), kidney (clear cell carcinoma), prostate (adenocarcinoma), endometrium (adenocarcinoma), ovary (adenocarcinoma) and adrenal (neuroblastoma), with one case each.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Brazil / epidemiology. Child. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20675121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3320
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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100. Sèbe P, Rigaud J, Avancès C, Brunaud L, Caillard C, Camparo P, Carnaille B, Culine S, Durand X, Mathonnet M, Mirallie E, Soulié M, Oncology Committee of the French Association of Urology (CCAFU): [Malignant tumors of the adrenal: contribution to the repository CCAFU INCa]. Prog Urol; 2010 Nov;20 Suppl 4:S310-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant tumors of the adrenal: contribution to the repository CCAFU INCa].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs malignes de la surrénale: Contribution du CCAFU au référentiel INCa.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Follow-Up Studies. France. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.
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  • (PMID = 21129649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] France
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