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1. Ueyama T, Kasamatsu K, Hano T, Tsuruo Y, Ishikura F: Catecholamines and estrogen are involved in the pathogenesis of emotional stress-induced acute heart attack. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2008 Dec;1148:479-85
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  • It also downregulated c-fos mRNA expression in the adrenal gland and the heart, suggesting an increase of estrogen attenuated the stress-induced hypothalamo-sympathoadrenal outflow from the central nervous system to the target organs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Animals. Arginine Vasopressin / genetics. Arginine Vasopressin / metabolism. Brain / anatomy & histology. Brain / metabolism. Efferent Pathways / metabolism. Electrocardiography. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Heart / drug effects. Heart / physiology. Humans. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / metabolism. Ovariectomy. Postmenopause. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Rats. Restraint, Physical

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  • (PMID = 19120144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin
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2. Elsayes KM, Narra VR, Lewis JS Jr, Brown JJ: Magnetic resonance imaging of adrenal angiomyolipoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2005 Jan-Feb;29(1):80-2
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of adrenal angiomyolipoma.
  • Angiomyolipoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm that typically occurs in the kidney sporadically or in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Other sites reported include the bone, colon, heart, lung, parotid gland, skin, spermatic cord, gynecologic regions, and retroperitoneum.
  • A case of an angiomyolipoma involving the right adrenal gland in a 49-year-old female patient with tuberous sclerosis is reported.
  • Only 2 cases describing adrenal angiomyolipoma were found in the English literature.
  • Neither of these 2 cases was documented in the radiology literature or discussed the MR features of adrenal angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15665688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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3. Alsayali MM, Atkin C, Rahim R, Niggemeyer LE, Doody O, Varma D: Traumatic adrenal gland injury: epidemiology and outcomes in a major Australian trauma center. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg; 2010 Dec;36(6):567-72
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  • [Title] Traumatic adrenal gland injury: epidemiology and outcomes in a major Australian trauma center.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal gland injury (ADGI) is quite rare and mostly associated with other organ injuries secondary to blunt thoracoabdominal trauma.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients presenting with thoracoabdominal trauma to the Alfred Hospital who had been diagnosed with adrenal gland injury between July 2001 and July 2007.
  • Right adrenal injuries occurred in 72.9%, left adrenal injuries in 22.9%, and bilateral ADGI in 4.2%.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan findings revealed 82.2% of acute injuries to be hyperdense hematoma expanding and distorting the adrenal gland.
  • Periadrenal stranding and hemorrhagic changes around the adrenal limbs were seen in 12.5%.
  • Patients with left adrenal gland injury had higher rates of mortality and morbidity, and length of stay.
  • Acute adrenal insufficiency should be considered and investigated in case of unexplained hypotension in uni- or bilateral ADGI.

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  • (PMID = 26816312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-9933
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal injuries / CT scan / Clinical presentation / Retroperitoneal hematoma
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4. Jeong SH, Kim BY, Kang HG, Ku HO, Cho JH: Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole on the development and functions of reproductive system in rats. Toxicology; 2005 Mar 1;208(1):49-62
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  • Organ weights of liver, adrenal gland and thyroid gland of F0 rats were increased by BHA 500 mg/kg but those of spleen and ventral prostate were decreased without significant difference in terminal body weight.
  • The weights of liver and adrenal gland were increased while those of spleen, vagina, testes and ventral prostate were decreased in F1 rats exposed to BHA 100 or 500 mg/kg for 13 weeks.
  • This study elucidates that high dose of BHA induce weak dysfunction and underdevelopment of reproductive system of male and female rats with the change of T4 and testosterone levels, sex organ weights and sexual maturation and histological lesions of thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Female. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Spermatozoa / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 15664432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 25013-16-5 / Butylated Hydroxyanisole
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5. Sharma D, Chaturvedi CM: Effects of thyroid status on arginine vasotocin receptor VT2R expression and adrenal function in osmotically stimulated domestic fowl. J Comp Physiol B; 2009 Oct;179(7):811-9
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  • [Title] Effects of thyroid status on arginine vasotocin receptor VT2R expression and adrenal function in osmotically stimulated domestic fowl.
  • The role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of adrenal function during stress has been documented in mammals, but only limited reports are available in avian species.
  • The present study was undertaken to analyze the effect of hyper- or hypothyroidism on the adrenal activity under control (hydrated) and osmotically stressed (water deprived, WD) conditions, with special emphasis on the expression of arginine vasotocin receptor VT2 (VT2R) in pituitary corticotrophs.
  • Hyperthyroidism stimulated adrenal steroidogenic activity compared to euthyroid control birds, but no change was observed in the expression of VT2R.
  • On the other hand, TU-induced hypothyroidism however showed no effect on adrenal gland, but a significant increase in the expression of VT2R was observed.
  • Following osmotic stress, no effect was observed either on the adrenal gland or on the VT2R expression in hyperthyroidic birds, but in hypothyroidic birds, osmotic stress stimulated adrenal steroidogenic activity and decreased VT2R expression in comparison to its respective controls (T4 or TU).
  • Although exact mechanism is not clear, the data indicate that high plasma T4 level stimulates adrenal activity and may also modulate function of the pituitary-adrenal axis during dehydration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Chickens / physiology. Dehydration / physiopathology. Hyperthyroidism / metabolism. Hypothyroidism / metabolism. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Animals. Ascorbic Acid / analysis. Cholesterol / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / ultrastructure. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / metabolism. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood. Water-Electrolyte Balance

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  • (PMID = 19381646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-136X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 0 / vasotocin receptor; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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6. Kameyama S, Okada R, Kikuchi T, Omura T, Nakase I, Takeuchi T, Sugiura Y, Futaki S: Distribution of immunoglobulin Fab fragment conjugated with HIV-1 REV peptide following intravenous administration in rats. Mol Pharm; 2006 Mar-Apr;3(2):174-80
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  • In the whole-body ARG at 4 h after administration, (125)I-REV-Fab produced remarkably higher radioactivity in the adrenal gland, spleen, and liver, compared to (125)I-nFab.
  • Regarding urinary excretion rates, approximately 70% of the radioactive dose was excreted in the form of a low-molecular-weight component by 24 h after administration for both samples. (125)I-REV-Fab may penetrate quickly from blood to adrenal gland, spleen, liver, and other tissues after intravenous administration to rats, and then did not stay in situ and was digested and excreted mostly via the renal route by 24 h.

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  • (PMID = 16579646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-8384
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, rev; 0 / Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
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7. Romano G, Cocchiara G, Calderone F, Buscemi G, Gioè FP, Alongi G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):228-31
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento laparoscopico del mielolipoma surrenalico: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign, non-functioning tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic tissues.
  • In January 2005 we had observed an adrenal myelolipoma in 70 year old man.
  • During the follow-up for bladder urothelioma, an abdominal CT revaled a well delineated 4x4 cm homogeneous fatty mass in the right suprarenal area with negative attenuation values.
  • The functional study of adrenal gland was normal.
  • The istological diagnosis showed adrenal myelolipoma.
  • We conclude that videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered the gold standard treatment for benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16857113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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8. Beshay VE, Carr BR, Rainey WE: The human fetal adrenal gland, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and parturition. Semin Reprod Med; 2007 Jan;25(1):14-20
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  • [Title] The human fetal adrenal gland, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and parturition.
  • Studying these signals may prove important in the prediction, diagnosis, and possible intervention in preterm labor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Parturition / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17205420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8004
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; FB33469R8E / Estriol; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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9. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.

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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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10. Nguyen P, Peltsch H, de Wit J, Crispo J, Ubriaco G, Eibl J, Tai TC: Regulation of the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in the adrenal gland of the spontaneous hypertensive rat. Neurosci Lett; 2009 Sep 25;461(3):280-4
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  • [Title] Regulation of the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in the adrenal gland of the spontaneous hypertensive rat.
  • Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is the terminal enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, responsible for epinephrine biosynthesis, and is primarily localized in the adrenal gland.
  • In hypertensive rats, adrenal PNMT mRNA, protein and enzyme activity are elevated along with elevated levels of epinephrine, suggesting that increased expression of PNMT in the adrenal gland results in the increased adrenergic function associated with hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the dysregulation of adrenal PNMT in a genetic model of hypertension, by examining expression of transcriptional regulators in the spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) in comparison to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive controls.
  • Results demonstrate changes in key transcription factors regulating PNMT expression within the SHR adrenal gland, coincident with elevated adrenal PNMT expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Hypertension / enzymology. Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19539715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7972
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.28 / Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase
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11. Vuković S, Lucić H, Zivković A, Duras Gomercić M, Gomercić T, Galov A: Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea. Anat Histol Embryol; 2010 Feb;39(1):59-66
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  • [Title] Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.
  • The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba).
  • In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones.
  • The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells.
  • The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior.
  • In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Bottle-Nosed Dolphin / anatomy & histology. Stenella / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Animals. Cerebral Cortex / cytology. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Croatia. Epinephrine / secretion. Oceans and Seas. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19912161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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12. Terry NE, Senkowski CK, Check W, Brower ST: Retroperitoneal foregut duplication cyst presenting as an adrenal mass. Am Surg; 2007 Jan;73(1):89-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal foregut duplication cyst presenting as an adrenal mass.
  • An adrenal mass was found on CT scanning.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed, and the patient was found to have a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst adherent to the adrenal gland.
  • The workup of an adrenal mass is discussed as well as the pathophysiology of bronchogenic cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17249466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Pozo J, Muñoz MT, Martos G, Argente J: Sporadic phaeochromocytoma in childhood: clinical and molecular variability. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;18(6):527-32
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  • Sporadic phaeochromocytoma is an infrequent tumour during paediatric age and may or may not be associated with specific autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) type 2 or neurofibromatosis (NF) type 1.
  • We report two cases of benign, adrenal, and unilateral phaeochromocytoma that clearly demonstrate the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of this disease during the paediatric period.
  • The second patient, an incidental finding, was practically asymptomatic and had a de novo germline point mutation in the VHL gene (Arg167Trp).
  • The frequency of de novo mutations in susceptible genes (especially the VHL gene) in paediatric patients with sporadic phaeochromocytoma and the elevated mortality of these cancer syndromes suggest that screening for mutations should be performed even in cases of non-familial sporadic phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16042317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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14. Fenichel P, Bstandig B, Roger C, Chevallier D, Michels JF, Sadoul JL, Hieronimus S, Brucker-Davis F: Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Nov;69(5):453-8
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  • [Title] Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.
  • Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour.
  • High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty.
  • The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest.
  • However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis.
  • To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR.
  • No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells.
  • For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential.
  • However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / genetics. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Azoospermia / etiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / genetics. Gonadotropins / blood. Humans. Infertility, Male / etiology. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Testis / pathology


15. Las Heras F, Pritzker KP, Colgan TJ: Chordoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(6):467-71
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  • Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MCTO) is the most common type of ovarian teratoma and also the most frequent tumor originating from germ cells.
  • Unusual types of tissues can be found in MCTO, such as kidney, adrenal, and prostatic tissues.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in these otherwise benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chordoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Chromosomes, Human, X. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mosaicism. Mucin-1 / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17418959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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16. Cheren'ko SM, Larin AS, Tovkaĭ AA: [Potentialities of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in treatment of patients with adrenal tumors]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(2):41-4
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  • [Title] [Potentialities of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in treatment of patients with adrenal tumors].
  • The authors emphasize the advantages of the transperitoneal approach and good perspectives of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in almost all cases of benign and non-invasive adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16752638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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17. Lendvai G, Monazzam A, Velikyan I, Eriksson B, Josephsson R, Långström B, Bergström M, Estrada S: Non-hybridization saturable mechanisms play a role in the uptake of (68)Ga-Labeled LNA-DNA mixmer antisense oligonucleotides in rats. Oligonucleotides; 2009 Sep;19(3):223-32
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  • In addition, the blockade by poly-I was statistically significant in the pancreas, adrenal gland, bone marrow, intestine, testis, urinary bladder, muscle, parotid gland, and heart, whereas poly-A also caused significant reduction in pancreas, adrenal gland, and bone marrow but not as much as in kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Gallium Radioisotopes / metabolism. Humans. Male. Poly A / metabolism. Poly A / pharmacology. Poly I / metabolism. Poly I / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19732020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] Oligonucleotides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oligonucleotides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Scavenger; 0 / chromogranin A, rat; 0 / locked nucleic acid; 24937-83-5 / Poly A; 25249-22-3 / Poly I
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18. Moon SB, Shin HB, Seo JM, Lee SK: Clinical features and surgical outcome of a suprarenal mass detected before birth. Pediatr Surg Int; 2010 Mar;26(3):241-6
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  • [Title] Clinical features and surgical outcome of a suprarenal mass detected before birth.
  • PURPOSE: With the widespread use of the obstetrical ultrasound, identification of a fetal suprarenal mass has become more common.
  • Most of these masses prove to be congenital neuroblastomas (CNB), but the diagnosis is often confused with other benign lesions and the postnatal management remains to be controversial.
  • METHODS: The medical records of 18 patients that underwent primary surgical excision for an antenatally detected suprarenal mass, between January 1995 and April 2009, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: There were 13 cases of CNB, 1 adrenal cyst, 2 adrenal hemorrhages, and 2 pulmonary sequestrations.
  • The differential diagnosis was impossible before surgery.
  • Four patients (3 stage I and 1 stage IV-S) had more than one copy of N-myc gene.
  • The five benign lesions were cured with excision alone.
  • CONCLUSION: For early diagnosis and treatment, surgical excision should be considered as the primary therapy for an antenatally detected suprarenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / congenital. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnostic imaging. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gestational Age. Hemorrhage / congenital. Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging. Hemorrhage / surgery. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19908050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Popescu I, Tomulescu V, Hrehoret D, Popescu A, Herlea V: Laparoscopic hand-assisted adrenalectomy for a 20 cm benign tumor. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2007 Jan-Feb;102(1):75-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic hand-assisted adrenalectomy for a 20 cm benign tumor.
  • Since its introduction in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the technique of choice in the surgical treatment of both secreting or non-secreting benign adrenal pathology.
  • Although traditionally, laparoscopic approach was recommended only for tumor sizes less than 6-8 cm--as larger tumors were known to have an increased risk of malignancy--the currently growing experience and improvement of surgical techniques has allowed for an extension of the therapeutic indication, as shown by the recent case report of LA use for a benign 22 cm tumor (1).
  • We report the case of a young patient operated in our Department for a benign 20 cm adrenal tumor for which laparoscopic "hand-assisted" adrenalectomy yielded a good postoperative outcome and minimal complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17410734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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20. Ye L, Wu XL, Xu L, Huang Q, Sun L, He Y, Yang KX: [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):516-20
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  • [Title] [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • METHODS: Light microscopy and immunohistochemical study was carried out in 8 cases of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS.
  • RESULTS: The 7 cases of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS were composed mainly of polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and larger cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • They resembled the architecture of normal adrenal gland, with formation of cell nests and trabeculae.
  • The single case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor had evidence of significant cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage and coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed calretinin and alpha-inhibin.
  • Differential diagnosis included oxyphilic granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli cell tumor and clear cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment options of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS was local excision or ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the malignant counterpart should be treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, including administration of GnRH agonist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, is the most common type of ovarian steroid cell tumors.
  • Most of which are associated with a benign clinical outcome.
  • Immunohistochemistry is an important adjunct for diagnosis.
  • The treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS depend on its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Inhibins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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21. Chui MH, Ozbey NC, Ezzat S, Kapran Y, Erbil Y, Asa SL: Case report: Adrenal LH/hCG receptor overexpression and gene amplification causing pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(4):256-61
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  • [Title] Case report: Adrenal LH/hCG receptor overexpression and gene amplification causing pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome.
  • Ectopic LH/hCG-receptors (LHCGR) in the adrenal gland have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition.
  • The adrenals exhibited bilateral adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR revealed a 2-fold increase in LHCGR and progesterone receptor mRNA expression and decreased estrogen receptor-beta expression in the patient's adrenal tissue relative to normal adrenals.
  • Quantitative PCR revealed a LHCGR-to-beta-actin ratio of 1.5 in genomic DNA from adrenal and peripheral leukocytes, suggesting the presence of a germline duplication of the LHCGR gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Gene Expression. Pregnancy Complications. Receptors, LH / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Pathol. 2010 Jun;21(2):148. Herman Chui, Michael [corrected to Chui, Michael Herman]
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  • (PMID = 19705299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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22. Montoliu I, Martin FP, Collino S, Rezzi S, Kochhar S: Multivariate modeling strategy for intercompartmental analysis of tissue and plasma 1H NMR spectrotypes. J Proteome Res; 2009 May;8(5):2397-406
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  • Here, we applied unsupervised chemometric methods for integrating 1H NMR metabolic profiles from mouse plasma, liver, pancreas, adrenal gland and kidney cortex matrices in order to infer intercompartments functional links.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Amino Acids / blood. Amino Acids / metabolism. Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glycogen / metabolism. Kidney / metabolism. Lactates / metabolism. Lipids / analysis. Liver / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Models, Biological. Multivariate Analysis. Pancreas / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19317465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lactates; 0 / Lipids; 9005-79-2 / Glycogen; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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23. Benetti E, Murer L, Bordugo A, Andreetta B, Artifoni L: 10p12.1 deletion: HDR phenotype without DGS2 features. Exp Mol Pathol; 2009 Feb;86(1):74-6
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  • GATA3 gene encodes a transcription factor expressed during thymus, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, central and peripheral nervous systems, placenta and T lymphocytes embryonic development.
  • Mutations of GATA3 cause Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural Deafness and Renal dysplasia syndrome (HDR).
  • The girl developed chronic renal failure during the first year of life, associated with sensorineural hearing loss, facial dysmorphic features and psychomotor development.
  • She underwent renal transplantation at the age of 11.

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  • (PMID = 19022243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex; 0 / adhesion receptor
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24. Glenn ST, Jones CA, Pan L, Gross KW: In vivo analysis of key elements within the renin regulatory region. Physiol Genomics; 2008 Nov 12;35(3):243-53
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  • Transgenic lines were generated for each of these BAC constructs and GFP expression was analyzed throughout a spectrum of tissues positive for renin expression including the kidney, adrenal gland, gonadal artery, and submandibular gland.

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  • (PMID = 18780761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiological genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Genomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA-121212-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016056; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-48459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2585016
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25. Nishiyama S, Hirota Y, Udagawa Y, Kato R, Hayakawa N, Tukada K: Efficacy of selective venous catheterization in localizing a small androgen-producing tumor in ovary. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Feb;14(2):CS9-12
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  • [Title] Efficacy of selective venous catheterization in localizing a small androgen-producing tumor in ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Androgen-producing tumors, originating mostly in the ovary or adrenal gland, induce hirsutism.
  • It sometimes is difficult to localize the tumor precisely even with modern imaging technology.
  • We used selective venous catheterization and hormonal sampling (SVCHS) to localize an androgen-producing ovarian tumor.
  • Eleven blood samples were collected from both the adrenal and the ovarian veins bilaterally.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was a Leydig cell tumor.
  • A rapid decrease in free and total T followed tumor removal, and she became pregnant by in vitro fertilization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SVCHS is highly effective in confirming the presence of a small androgen-producing ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / biosynthesis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18227769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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26. Tanaka T, Tsutamoto T, Sakai H, Fujii M, Yamamoto T, Horie M: Comparison of the effects of efonidipine and amlodipine on aldosterone in patients with hypertension. Hypertens Res; 2007 Aug;30(8):691-7
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  • Aldosterone production in the adrenal gland is mediated mainly by the T-type calcium channel in vitro.

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  • (PMID = 17917316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Calcium Channels, L-Type; 0 / Calcium Channels, T-Type; 0 / Dihydropyridines; 0 / Nitrophenols; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 40ZTP2T37Q / efonidipine; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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27. Bruder ED, Henderson LM, Raff H: Adrenal lipid profiles of chemically sympathectomized normoxic and hypoxic neonatal rats. Horm Metab Res; 2006 Dec;38(12):807-11
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  • [Title] Adrenal lipid profiles of chemically sympathectomized normoxic and hypoxic neonatal rats.
  • The present study sought to characterize the effects of sympathectomy on the adrenal lipid profile, since previous work suggested that augmented plasma corticosterone during hypoxia may be due to changes in adrenal lipid metabolism.
  • Hypoxia alone increased the concentration of cholesterol esters in the adrenal gland; this increase was due to increases in cholesterol ester-associated oleic (18:1n9), docosahexaenoic (22:6n3), arachidonic (20:4n6), and adrenic (22:4n6) acids.
  • The results support the idea that the ACTH-independent corticosterone response to hypoxia in the neonatal rat is mediated by specific, sympathetically driven alterations in the adrenal lipid profile.

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  • (PMID = 17163355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK054685; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK54685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; ZTI6C33Q2Q / Guanethidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS10443; NLM/ PMC1764635
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28. Toti P, Regoli M, Nesi G, Occhini R, Bartolommei S, Fonzi L, Bertelli E: Nestin expression in normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical tumors. Histol Histopathol; 2005 10;20(4):1115-20
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  • [Title] Nestin expression in normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical tumors.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein that is mainly expressed in the developing nervous system and that has been recently reported in rat adrenal gland as well.
  • Using immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, the present study demonstrates that nestin is constantly expressed in situ in the cortex of normal human adrenal glands.
  • In contrast, adrenal carcinomas displayed a variable number of nestin-immunoreactive cells that in some cases were virtually absent.
  • Samples of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis in the adrenals were also examined which did not show nestin-immunoreactivity.
  • We propose that a positive nestin-immunoreaction could be useful in differential diagnosis of clear cell tumors in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16136494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin
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29. Kmiec Z, Pokrywka L, Kotlarz G, Mysliwski A: The effects of fasting and refeeding on adrenal cortex morphometry and serum concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone in young and old male rats. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2006 Nov;57 Suppl 6:77-84
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  • [Title] The effects of fasting and refeeding on adrenal cortex morphometry and serum concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone in young and old male rats.
  • Because fuel metabolism is partially controlled by corticosteroids we decided to determine the effects of refeeding on adrenal gland morphometry, ACTH, and corticosterone serum levels in young (5 mo) and (20 mo) old male Wistar rats.
  • The relative weight of adrenal gland (% of body weight) did not change significantly with age (p=0.05).
  • Fasting for 48 h induced in old rats but not in young ones increase of relative adrenal weight, and the volume of the reticular zone.
  • Refeeding reduced adrenal volume, fascicular zone and reticular zone.
  • Refeeding for 24 h decreased the total volume of adrenal gland of old rats due to a decline of the volumes of fascicular and reticular zones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / anatomy & histology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Corticosterone / blood. Eating / physiology. Fasting / blood

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  • (PMID = 17228089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-1505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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30. Morrison JF, Shehab S, Sheen R, Dhanasekaran S, Shaffiullah M, Mensah-Brown E: Sensory and autonomic nerve changes in the monosodium glutamate-treated rat: a model of type II diabetes. Exp Physiol; 2008 Feb;93(2):213-22
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  • Diabetic MSG-treated animals at 65 and 70 weeks of age had significantly reduced noradrenaline concentrations in the heart, tail artery and ileum, while concentrations in the adrenal gland and corpus cavernosum were significantly increased.
  • There was also a significant increase in adrenal adrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, largely attributable to changes in weight of the adrenal gland in the MSG-treated animals.

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  • (PMID = 17911358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0958-0670
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Receptors, Neurokinin-1; 33507-63-0 / Substance P; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide; W81N5U6R6U / Sodium Glutamate
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31. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


32. Ito K, Mizuguchi Y, Sato A, Kuroda K, Horiguchi A, Kimura F, Sumitomo M, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Clinical evaluation for adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a single institute]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 May;99(4):584-92
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  • [Title] [Clinical evaluation for adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a single institute].
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinicopathogical features and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) concomitant with adrenal involvement (metastasis or invasion) were evaluated in a single institute.
  • METHODS: In 380 patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy 18 patients had adrenal involvement (13 ipsilateral adrenal involvement).
  • RESULTS: Patients with ipsilateral adrenal involvement had significantly higher percentage of tumor>5.5 cm, upper pole tumor, pathological stage (pT) 3< or =, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis outside ipsilateral adrenal gland, histological grade 3 and microvascular invasion than control patients (p<0.05).
  • Therefore, large tumor (especially 5.5 cm<), upper pole tumor, clinical T3 (especially patients with tumor thrombus), lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were candidates for risk factors of ipsilateral adrenal involvement.
  • 76.9% of ipsilateral adrenal metastasis could be diagnosed by computed tomography (CT).
  • Thus, preoperative adrenal finding by CT is very important to determine the indication of ipsilateral adrenalectomy.
  • All 3 patients with small ipsilateral adrenal metastasis that could not be detected preoperative CT died within one and half year postoperatively.
  • Patients with solitary adrenal metastasis appeared to have better prognosis compared to those with both adrenal and other metastases.
  • In 4 patients who survived more than 2 years after the presentation of adrenal metastasis, 3 patients had solitary adrenal metastasis and underwent adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: From the results in a single institute, radiological finding of adrenal grand, tumor size, tumor location, T stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis outside ipsilateral adrenal gland are possible important factors to determine the indication of ipsilateral adrenalectomy preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18536308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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33. Karteris E, Machado RJ, Chen J, Zervou S, Hillhouse EW, Randeva HS: Food deprivation differentially modulates orexin receptor expression and signaling in rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;288(6):E1089-100
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  • [Title] Food deprivation differentially modulates orexin receptor expression and signaling in rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex.
  • Although starvation-induced biochemical and metabolic changes are perceived by the hypothalamus, the adrenal gland plays a key role in the integration of metabolic activity and energy balance, implicating feeding as a major synchronizer of rhythms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
  • Given that orexins are involved in regulating food intake and activating the HPA axis, we hypothesized that food deprivation, an acute challenge to the systems that regulate energy balance, should elicit changes in orexin receptor signaling at the hypothalamic and adrenal levels.
  • Interestingly, adrenal OX1R and OX2R levels were significantly reduced in food-deprived animals, whereas there was no expression of prepro-orexin in the adrenal gland in either state.
  • However, in the adrenal cortex of the food-deprived animal, there was decreased coupling of orexin receptors to Gs, Go, and Gq and increased coupling to Gi.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Food Deprivation / physiology. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cholera Toxin / metabolism. Corticosterone / blood. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Male. Orexin Receptors. Pertussis Toxin / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15687100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hcrtr1 protein, rat; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 9012-63-9 / Cholera Toxin; EC 2.4.2.31 / Pertussis Toxin; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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34. Schreinemakers JM, Kiela GJ, Valk GD, Vriens MR, Rinkes IH: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and effective. Br J Surg; 2010 Nov;97(11):1667-72
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  • This is the procedure of choice for adrenal tumours at this institution.
  • Thirty-nine patients with unilateral adrenal disease had a phaeochromocytoma, of whom 16 had multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2, 21 patients had Cushing's disease and 20 had Conn's disease.
  • Median tumour size was 3.1 (2.0-4.4) cm.
  • CONCLUSION: REA appears to be a safe and effective surgical technique for adrenal gland tumours up to 6 cm in diameter, with a minimal complication rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Endoscopy / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2010 Nov;97(11):1672-3 [20890917.001]
  • (PMID = 20665481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Jiménez Peláez M, Bouvy BM, Dupré GP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of unilateral adrenocortical carcinomas: technique, complications, and results in seven dogs. Vet Surg; 2008 Jul;37(5):444-53
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  • After dissection and hemostatic control of the phrenicoabdominal vein, the adrenal gland was carefully dissected or when there was capsule fragility, necrotic content was partially aspirated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18986311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Czermak BV, Akhan O, Hiemetzberger R, Zelger B, Vogel W, Jaschke W, Rieger M, Kim SY, Lim JH: Echinococcosis of the liver. Abdom Imaging; 2008 Mar-Apr;33(2):133-43
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  • Direct spread of infected tissue may result in cysts in the peritoneal cavity, kidneys, adrenal gland or bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Echinococcosis, Hepatic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17912581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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37. Ueyama T, Ishikura F, Matsuda A, Asanuma T, Ueda K, Ichinose M, Kasamatsu K, Hano T, Akasaka T, Tsuruo Y, Morimoto K, Beppu S: Chronic estrogen supplementation following ovariectomy improves the emotional stress-induced cardiovascular responses by indirect action on the nervous system and by direct action on the heart. Circ J; 2007 Apr;71(4):565-73
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  • In the OVX + E, the levels of c-fos mRNA were significantly decreased in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, adrenal gland and left ventricle, suggesting that an increase of estrogen attenuates the emotional stress-induced hypothalamo-sympatho-adrenal outflow from the central nervous system to the target organs.

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  • (PMID = 17384461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-9843
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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38. Yevtodiyenko A, Schmidt JV: Dlk1 expression marks developing endothelium and sites of branching morphogenesis in the mouse embryo and placenta. Dev Dyn; 2006 Apr;235(4):1115-23
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  • In embryonic day 12.5 (e12.5) embryos, high levels of Dlk1 were found in the developing pituitary, pancreas, lung, adrenal, and many mesodermally derived tissues.
  • At e16.5, Dlk1 expression is down-regulated in most tissues but remains in the pituitary, the adrenal gland, and in skeletal muscle.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16456855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 042013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Dlk1 protein, mouse; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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39. Suleyman H, Guvenalp Z, Kizilkaya M, Demirezer LO: Sedative effect of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus in rats and the influence of adrenalectomy on its effect. Yakugaku Zasshi; 2007 Aug;127(8):1263-5
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  • Sedative effect of the aqueous extract of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus (Cle-1) on intact and adrenalectomized rats was investigated using a thiopental sleeping test to clarify the relationship of this effect on adrenal gland hormones, particularly glucocorticoids.
  • Adrenal gland hormones were found to play an important role in inhibiting the sedative effect of the investigated drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Adrenalectomy. Hypnotics and Sedatives / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Sleep / drug effects. Valerianaceae

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  • (PMID = 17666879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-6903
  • [Journal-full-title] Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yakugaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Plant Extracts; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 76-75-5 / Thiopental
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40. Lutterbach J, Pagenstecher A, Weyerbrock A, Schultze-Seemann W, Waller CF: Early-stage penile carcinoma metastasizing to brain: case report and literature review. Urology; 2005 Aug;66(2):432
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  • Further in the disease course, the patient developed metastases in the kidney, adrenal gland, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lung, and brain.
  • Forty months after the first diagnosis, the patient died of thromboembolic complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16098372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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41. Peters J, Wanka H, Peters B, Hoffmann S: A renin transcript lacking exon 1 encodes for a non-secretory intracellular renin that increases aldosterone production in transgenic rats. J Cell Mol Med; 2008 Aug;12(4):1229-37
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  • Four transgenic lines were obtained expressing the transcript in various tissues including the heart and the adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of aldosterone to renin concentrations in plasma (PAC/PRC) was elevated in all transgenic lines except line 307, which also did not exhibit elevated cytoplasmatic renin levels in the adrenal gland (PAC/PRC in controls: 2.8+/-2.3; line 307: 1.9+/-0.8; n. s.; line 284: 5.8+/-1.9; P<0.02; line 294: 5.0+/-2.3; P<0.001; line 276: 10.3+/-5.1; P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Blood Pressure. Electrolytes. Gene Expression Regulation. Myocardium / cytology. Myocardium / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Subcellular Fractions / metabolism. Systole. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 18782187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-1838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3865667
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42. Stelow EB, Debol SM, Stanley MW, Mallery S, Lai R, Bardales RH: Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Jul;33(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has proven to be a valuable modality for the primary diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal, and perigastrointestinal malignancy.
  • Aside from assessing thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the liver for metastases, EUS can assess and sample the adrenal glands, which are frequently involved by metastatic disease, but can also harbor benign primary neoplasms.
  • The cytology files at our institution were reviewed for all cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal glands.
  • Results were compared with overall EUS-guided FNA performance and the performance of non-EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal.
  • Between 1/1/00 and 5/15/04 there were 24 cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland from 22 different patients (13 men; 9 women) at our institution.
  • This represented 1.4% of overall EUS-guided FNA and 77% of adrenal gland FNA.
  • Almost all FNAs were of the left adrenal gland (23 of 24).
  • Final diagnoses were as follows: cortical tissue consistent with cortical adenoma (19), metastatic adenocarcinoma (3), pheochromocytoma (1), and adrenal cortical carcinoma (1).
  • EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland is primarily used in the staging of other malignancies when lesions of the left adrenal are recognized sonographically.
  • Diagnostic tissue is easily obtained, including material for cell block IHC, which allows definitive diagnosis in cases that present difficult differential diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15945088.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Clark LS, Cowan DF, Pfeiffer DC: A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland. Anat Histol Embryol; 2008 Apr;37(2):153-9
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  • [Title] A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.
  • The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood.
  • Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris).
  • For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity.
  • 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself.
  • No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity.
  • Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Stenella / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Medulla / anatomy & histology. Animals. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Male. Microscopy, Electron / veterinary. Sex Characteristics. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18070242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Castillo SS: Possible autocrine regulation of chromaffin cell activity in adrenal glands of the frog by endothelin-1-induced serotonin release. Acta Histochem; 2005;107(1):11-22
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  • [Title] Possible autocrine regulation of chromaffin cell activity in adrenal glands of the frog by endothelin-1-induced serotonin release.
  • The aim of the present study was the demonstration of mechanisms of regulation of activity of chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland of Rana ridibunda (Anura-Amphibia).
  • Previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 is an important factor for the maintenance of adrenal gland function.
  • The adrenal glands were removed at 5, 20, and 60 min after injection and fixed, embedded in paraffin wax and stained by histological and immunohistochemical means, applied on adjacent 4-microm-thick sections.
  • In conclusion, these findings suggest that [Ala(1,3,11,15)]-endothelin-1 stimulates chromaffin cell activity in frog adrenal glands.
  • This is the first report providing data on the effects of endothelin-1 on chromaffin cells in frog adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Autocrine Communication / physiology. Chromaffin Cells / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / pharmacology. Serotonin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15866282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1281
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 1.14.17.1 / Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase
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45. Bertolini G, Furlanello T, Drigo M, Caldin M: Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2008 Sep-Oct;49(5):449-53
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  • [Title] Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether multidetector computed tomography (CT) could be of value for adrenal gland assessment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Adrenal gland attenuation and volume values of 49 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were recorded and age, body weight, and gender were examined to determine if a relationship existed between these variables and adrenal gland morphology.
  • There was not a statistically significant difference in mean X-ray attenuation of the left vs. right adrenal gland in normal dogs (35.3 +/- 6.1 HU), or in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • The mean adrenal X-ray attenuation (+/- standard deviation [SD]) in dogs with microadenoma was 33.1 +/- 6.8 vs. 31.8 +/- 12.7 HU for dogs with macroadenoma, and these values were not statistically different.
  • The mean volume of the left adrenal gland in normal dogs (0.59 +/- 0.17 cm3) was greater than that of the right adrenal gland (0.54 +/- 0.19 cm3) (P < 0.05).
  • The mean CT volume (+/- SD) of the adrenal glands in dogs with microadenoma vs. macroadenoma were 1.60 +/- 1.25 vs. 2.88 +/- 1.60 cm3, respectively.
  • There was no effect of age or gender on adrenal gland morphology or X-ray attenuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Dog Diseases / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Female. Male. Pedigree. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18833952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Jana S, Zhang T, Milstein DM, Isasi CR, Blaufox MD: FDG-PET and CT characterization of adrenal lesions in cancer patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Jan;33(1):29-35
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  • [Title] FDG-PET and CT characterization of adrenal lesions in cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal lesions.
  • In this study, standardized uptake values (SUVs), visual interpretation, and computed tomography (CT) data were correlated with the final diagnosis to determine the contribution of adrenal FDG-PET in patients with known non-adrenal cancer.
  • METHODS: Ninety-two patients with adrenal lesions on CT underwent FDG-PET.
  • Eighty adrenals in 74 patients met the inclusion criteria (PET scan within 4 weeks of CT plus >1 year of follow-up after PET scan with repeat CT or biopsy for final diagnosis).
  • Lesions with <2 cm, with HU <20, and showing no enhancement were considered benign (CT-).
  • Visually, adrenal uptake exceeding liver uptake was considered PET positive (PET+).
  • Diagnosis of metastases was based on biopsy or interval CT growth (unchanged >1 year=benign).
  • CONCLUSION: PET accurately characterized adrenal lesions.
  • FDG-PET was most useful in the 52.5% of cancer patients with inconclusive adrenal lesions on CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16193311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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47. Barrows M: Toxoplasmosis in a colony of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2006 Sep;9(3):617-23
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  • Histopathologic examination revealed a protozoal infection with tachyzoites present in multiple organs, including the intestine, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, and kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Marsupialia. Toxoplasmosis, Animal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16931382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Kirschner LS, Kusewitt DF, Matyakhina L, Towns WH 2nd, Carney JA, Westphal H, Stratakis CA: A mouse model for the Carney complex tumor syndrome develops neoplasia in cyclic AMP-responsive tissues. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1;65(11):4506-14
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  • [Title] A mouse model for the Carney complex tumor syndrome develops neoplasia in cyclic AMP-responsive tissues.
  • Carney complex is an autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, myxomatosis, endocrine tumors, and schwannomas.
  • Although genotype-specific cardiac and adrenal lesions were not seen, benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias were observed in older mice.
  • Genetic analysis indicated that allelic loss occurred in a subset of tumor cells, suggesting that complete loss of Prkar1a plays a key role in tumorigenesis.
  • These observations confirm the identity of PRKAR1A as a tumor suppressor gene with specific importance to cyclic AMP-responsive tissues and suggest that these mice may be valuable tools not only for understanding endocrine tumorigenesis but also for understanding inherited predispositions for schwannoma formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Neurilemmoma / genetics. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Animals. Bone Neoplasms / enzymology. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Male. Mice. Osteoblasts / cytology. Osteoblasts / physiology. Schwann Cells / cytology. Schwann Cells / physiology. Syndrome. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15930266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16058; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD01323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Prkar1a protein, mouse; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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49. Chudobiński C, Kubiak R, Kuzdak K, Kaurzel Z, Kołomecki K: [Comparison of power Doppler technique, microscopic examination and VEGF levels for the assessment of adrenal tumors vascularization]. Wiad Lek; 2005;58(7-8):371-4
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  • [Title] [Comparison of power Doppler technique, microscopic examination and VEGF levels for the assessment of adrenal tumors vascularization].
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of the color Doppler vascularity index (CDVI) in patients with adrenal masses before surgery.
  • Twenty-four patients with adrenal masses were examined.
  • The CDVI was significantly higher in the patients with malignant or hormonally active tumors than in patients with benign non-hyperfunctioning lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood supply. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16425785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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50. Millard RP, Pickens EH, Wells KL: Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Feb 15;234(4):505-8
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  • [Title] Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass in the region of the right adrenal gland.
  • Results of adrenal hormonal analyses revealed considerable increases in serum concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: A mass associated with the right adrenal gland was found during exploratory laparotomy.
  • Adrenalectomy of the right adrenal gland was performed, and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adrenal gland tumors can produce a variety of hormones other than cortisol.
  • An adrenal gland tumor should be considered in neutered cats with newly developed physical and behavioral changes of a sexual nature.
  • In the absence of debilitating conditions that are often associated with hyperadrenocorticism, cats undergoing adrenalectomy for an adrenal gland tumor that is producing sex hormones may have resolution of clinical signs and a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Androstenedione / blood. Cat Diseases / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19222361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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51. Chen S, Zeng ZP, Li HZ, Tong AL, Lu L, Song AL, Li M, Liang W, Man N, Cao CX: [Relationship between plasma level of leptin and the expression of leptin receptor in human adrenal tissues and tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 19;90(38):2667-70
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  • [Title] [Relationship between plasma level of leptin and the expression of leptin receptor in human adrenal tissues and tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the mRNA, protein expression of long leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in human adrenal tissues and tumors and observe the plasma level of leptin in primary aldosteronism (PA), cortisol-secreting tumors (CS) and pheochromocytomas (PHEO).
  • METHODS: Total RNA and protein were extracted from 6 normal human adrenal glands, 10 CS, 20 PHEO; and 14 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) (RNA), 10 APA (protein); plasma samples were drawn from 20 controls, 15 PHEO, 29 PA and 11 CS.
  • RESULTS: The mRNA and protein of Ob-Rb were widely expressed in human adrenal glands and tumors.
  • The mRNA (0.32±0.12) and protein (1.31±0.26) expressions of Ob-Rb were higher in normal human adrenal cortex (C) than all other tissues (P<0.05) while the mRNA expression of Ob-Rb in APA (0.15±0.10) was higher than CS (0.05±0.02) (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ob-Rb is widely expressed in adrenal tissues and tumors.
  • Further studies are warranted to understand the relationship between leptin and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Leptin / blood. Pheochromocytoma. Receptors, Leptin / metabolism


52. Yildirim A, Sahin YN, Suleyman H, Yilmaz A, Yildirim S: The role of prednisolone and epinephrine on gastric tissue and erythrocyte antioxidant status in adrenalectomized rats. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2007 Mar;58(1):105-16
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  • Thus, the present study provides a physiological regulatory role of adrenal gland in the maintenance of oxidant/antioxidant balance in gastric tissue and erythrocyte.

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  • (PMID = 17440230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-5910
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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53. Matsuu M, Shichijo K, Ikeda Y, Ito M, Naito S, Okaichi K, Nakashima M, Nakayama T, Sekine I: Sympathetic hyperfunction causes increased sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to whole-body X irradiation. Radiat Res; 2005 Feb;163(2):137-43
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  • Epinephrine levels in the adrenal gland of spontaneously hypertensive rats decreased at 4, 8 and 24 h, unlike the Wistar-Kyoto rats.

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  • (PMID = 15658888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Connelly MA: SR-BI-mediated HDL cholesteryl ester delivery in the adrenal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):83-8
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  • [Title] SR-BI-mediated HDL cholesteryl ester delivery in the adrenal gland.
  • The relevance of SR-BI to adrenal steroidogenesis is evident by the impairment of glucocorticoid-mediated stress response in the absence of SR-BI-mediated HDL-CE uptake in mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Antigens, CD36 / metabolism. Cholesterol Esters / metabolism. Lipoproteins, HDL / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18840501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD36; 0 / Cholesterol Esters; 0 / HDL cholesteryl ester; 0 / Lipoproteins, HDL
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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55. van Merkesteyn JP, Gortzak RA, Allard RH: [Using corticosteroids to prevent postoperative oedema]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2005 Sep;112(9):322-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Gebruik van corticosteroïden ter preventie van postoperatief oedeem.
  • Corticosteroids are produced in the adrenal gland cortex and are subdivided in mineralocorticosteroids and glucocorticosteroids.
  • Usually, corticosteroids are prescribed as drugs to replace natural corticosteroids in case of insufficient functioning adrenal glands and in numerous diseases because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Edema / prevention & control. Oral Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16184907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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56. Sharma R, Ganpule A, Veeramani M, Sabnis RB, Desai M: Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter. Urol J; 2009;6(4):254-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, of whom 19 had tumors larger than 5 cm in diameter, having a median tumor size of 7.0 cm.
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were smaller than 5 cm.
  • Histopathology of large tumors revealed 16 benign tumors (8 pheochromocytomas, 4 adenomas, 2 ganglioneuromas, 1 pseudocyst, and 1 myelolipoma) and 3 malignancies, of which 1 was primary adrenocortical carcinoma and 2 were metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and feasible for large functioning adrenal tumors.
  • Large adrenal tumors suspicious of harboring malignancy with no peri-adrenal involvement can be tackled laparoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20027553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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57. Ishimoto H, Ginzinger DG, Jaffe RB: Adrenocorticotropin preferentially up-regulates angiopoietin 2 in the human fetal adrenal gland: implications for coordinated adrenal organ growth and angiogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1909-15
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  • [Title] Adrenocorticotropin preferentially up-regulates angiopoietin 2 in the human fetal adrenal gland: implications for coordinated adrenal organ growth and angiogenesis.
  • CONTEXT: ACTH is the key tropic hormone for the human fetal adrenal (HFA).
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Studies were conducted involving RNA, frozen sections, and primary cell cultures from HFAs (14-24 wk) and human adult adrenal RNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Angiopoietin-2 / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16492693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD08478
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, TIE-2
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58. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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59. Pham TH, Moir C, Thompson GB, Zarroug AE, Hamner CE, Farley D, van Heerden J, Lteif AN, Young WF Jr: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in children: a review of medical and surgical management at a tertiary care center. Pediatrics; 2006 Sep;118(3):1109-17
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  • Fourteen patients (47%) had malignant disease, whereas 16 (53%) had benign disease.
  • Logistic analysis showed that statistically significant risk factors for malignancy were (1) paraganglioma, (2) apparently sporadic, as opposed to familial, pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, and (3) tumor size of > 6 cm.
  • All patients with benign disease appeared cured after resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma was high in children (47%), particularly those with apparently sporadic disease, paraganglioma, and tumor diameters of > 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis


60. Faria JF, Goldman SM, Szejnfeld J, Melo H, Kater C, Kenney P, Huayllas MP, Demarchi G, Francisco VV, Andreoni C, Srougi M, Ortiz V, Abdalla N: Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience. Radiology; 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the accuracy of in vivo proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in distinguishing adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and metastases, with histologic or computed tomographic findings and follow-up data as the reference standards.
  • Sixty consecutive patients (24 male and 36 female patients; mean age, 53 years) harboring adrenal tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (mean diameter, 4.6 cm +/- 3.4 [standard deviation]) entered the study and were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging system and point-resolved multivoxel (1)H MR spectroscopy.
  • Metabolite ratios (choline-creatine, choline-lipid, lipid-creatine, and 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine) and cutoff values (obtained by using receiver operating characteristic analyses) were obtained and compared for each type of adrenal mass, which was identified previously on the basis of clinical, hormonal, and pathologic evidence.
  • CONCLUSION: (1)H MR spectroscopy can be used to characterize adrenal masses on the basis of spectral findings for benign adenomas, carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2007.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956 [19244058.001]
  • (PMID = 18024453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. McBride SM, Culver B, Flynn FW: Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2008 Sep;295(3):R899-905
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  • Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl;.
  • Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured.
  • In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring.
  • In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring.
  • ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring.

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  • (PMID = 18614766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS57823; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR15640; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK50586
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amphetamines; 0 / Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2536856
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62. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Inoue S, Cho BH, Song CH, Fujimiya M, Murakami G, Matsubara A: Migration and distribution of neural crest-derived cells in the human adrenal cortex at 9-16 weeks of gestation: an immunohistochemical study. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn; 2010 May;87(1):11-6
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  • [Title] Migration and distribution of neural crest-derived cells in the human adrenal cortex at 9-16 weeks of gestation: an immunohistochemical study.
  • Neural crest-derived cells are believed to migrate into the fetal adrenal cortex from the medially-located hilus.
  • In sagittal as well as horizontal sections of human fetuses between 9 and 16 weeks of gestation, we identified chromaffin, ganglion and Schwann-like cells in the developing adrenal gland using immunohistochemistry.
  • Cells showing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (i.e., candidate ganglion cells) entered the fetal cortex mainly from the medial half of the adrenal, but the path of entry also included the ventral, dorsal and caudal aspects.
  • These cells displayed linear arrangements, forming a connection between the peripheral and central areas of the gland.
  • Chromogranin A-positive cells were observed around the aorta as well as in the adrenal.
  • Some of the TH-positive cells very likely express chromogranin A before entry into the adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Fetal Development / physiology. Neural Crest / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / embryology. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Movement / physiology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20715567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-154X
  • [Journal-full-title] Okajimas folia anatomica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
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64. Grignon D, Paner GP: Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):63-8
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus.
  • Renal sinus fat invasion was incorporated as one of the parameters for pT stage definition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) only in the latest 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/tumor-node-metastasis staging protocol.
  • The current pT3a subcategory (in addition to adrenal gland involvement) groups 2 modes of extrarenal extension by RCC, either by peripheral perinephric fat extension or by renal sinus fat invasion.
  • Recent prospective studies have shown that with more directed gross sampling and histologic evaluation, renal sinus invasion is actually more commonly diagnosed than previously reported, or when compared with retrospectively sampled RCC nephrectomy specimens.
  • These studies have demonstrated that renal sinus invasion is the principal pathway for extrarenal extension for clear cell RCC; the incidence of which is related to size (tumors greater than 4 cm more frequently involve the renal sinus).
  • More significantly, a recent retrospective study of pT3a clear cell RCC nephrectomy specimens showed that tumors invading the renal sinus fat portend a more aggressive outcome than tumors invading only the peripheral perinephric fat.
  • Clear cell RCCs invading the renal sinus are more likely to have higher nuclear grade, regional lymph node involvement and sarcomatoid transformation than tumors invading only the perinephric fat.
  • Given the importance of renal sinus invasion, sampling strategies for nephrectomy specimens should be modified to focus in this region as appropriate and pathologists should be familiar with the histologic criteria for staging renal sinus invasion.

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  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1218-21 [16145373.001]
  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1199-202; discussion 1202 [16145369.001]
  • (PMID = 17471114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Imaging by CT-scan or MRI shows a large heterogeneous tumor with a low fat content.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • Tumor removal by a specialized team is crucial for treatment and should always aim at complete removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Oncogenes / genetics


66. Gumbs AA, Gagner M: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;20(3):483-99
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) was first described in the literature in 1992, and has become the preferred method for the removal of benign functioning and non-functioning tumors of the adrenal gland <12 cm.
  • The objectives of the present study are to review the experience of LA gained since it was first done in 1992 and to critically evaluate its effectiveness for the surgical management of endocrine hypertension; specifically pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma and Cushing's syndrome and disease, as opposed to open adrenalectomy.
  • The benefits of minimally invasive techniques for the removal of the adrenal gland include decreased requirements for analgesics, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay and recovery time when compared to open surgery.
  • LA can be performed safely for bilateral disease and may become the standard of care for malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Convalescence. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Humans. Length of Stay. Patient Satisfaction. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16980207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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67. Masi G, Lavezzo E, Iacobone M, Favia G, Palù G, Barzon L: Investigation of BRAF and CTNNB1 activating mutations in adrenocortical tumors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Jul;32(7):597-600
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  • At variance, activating mutations of another oncogene, CTNNB1, which encodes beta-catenin, have been shown to be common events in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating BRAF somatic mutations may be occasionally found in advanced adrenocortical carcinomas, while CTNNB1 activating mutations are early and common events in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19498322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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68. Turányi E, Dezso K, Paku S, Nagy P: DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Sep;455(3):295-9
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  • [Title] DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors.
  • Delta-like protein (DLK) is expressed in fetal and adult adrenal glands.
  • We have investigated if this expression is maintained in adrenal gland-derived tumors.
  • Thus, DLK is a very sensitive marker for adrenal tumors of cortical and medullary origin.
  • Renal cell carcinomas, presenting the major differential diagnostic problem for cortical tumors, were all negative, as well as melanomas, which are similar to high portion of adrenocortical tumors that react with melan-A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19685073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / delta protein
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69. Romero DG, Plonczynski MW, Gomez-Sanchez EP, Yanes LL, Gomez-Sanchez CE: RGS2 is regulated by angiotensin II and functions as a negative feedback of aldosterone production in H295R human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology; 2006 Aug;147(8):3889-97
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  • Angiotensin (Ang) II interacts with its G protein-coupled receptor in zona glomerulosa adrenal cells and triggers a cascade of intracellular signals that regulates steroidogenesis and proliferation.
  • We studied Ang II-mediated regulation of RGS2, the role of RGS2 in steroidogenesis, and the intracellular signal events involved in H295R human adrenal cells.
  • We report that both H295R cells and human adrenal gland express RGS2 mRNA.
  • RGS2 alterations in expression levels or functionality could be implicated in deregulations of Ang II signaling and abnormal aldosterone secretion by the adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 16627589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL027255; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL27255; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL75321
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calmodulin; 0 / RGS Proteins; 0 / RGS2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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70. Tjalma WA: Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):613-4
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  • Myelolipomas are benign tumours composed of haematopoietic tissue and mature adipocytes.
  • They occur predominantly in the adrenal glands although rarely extra adrenal sites have been described.
  • Their presentation and location can cause them to be easily confused with a malignant tumour.
  • The purpose of the present report is to raise awareness for this unusual tumour type in this location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17290595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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71. McFarlane D, Cribb AE: Systemic and pituitary pars intermedia antioxidant capacity associated with pars intermedia oxidative stress and dysfunction in horses. Am J Vet Res; 2005 Dec;66(12):2065-72
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  • SAMPLE POPULATION: Blood samples from 20 horses with PPID and 20 healthy client-owned horses, archived paraffin-embedded adrenal gland and substantia nigra tissues from 20 horses, and pituitary gland tissue from 16 horses.
  • Accumulation of a systemic marker of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) was assessed in plasma and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded adrenal gland and substantia nigra tissues.
  • In pituitary gland tissues, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in horses with oxidative stress, whereas total glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Horse Diseases / metabolism. Oxidative Stress / physiology. Pituitary Diseases / veterinary. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16379648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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72. Keller A, Bierbach U, Mieke J, Pfäffle R, Kratzsch J, Kiess W, Keller E, Körholz D: [Results of an endocrinological follow-up of patients with childhood-or adolescent-onset malignancies]. Klin Padiatr; 2007 Nov-Dec;219(6):333-8
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  • According to the therapy protocol or tumor entity we divided this population in 5 subgroups (group 1 leukemia with 17 patients, group 2 lymphoma with 11 patients, group 3 tumor of CNS with 10 patients, group 4 bone and soft tissue tumors with 8 patients, group 5 different tumors with 7 patients).
  • METHOD: Anthropometrical and laboratory parameters were analyzed in intervals of 6 months over 2 years from the time point of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: We found differences in body height in children affected by cerebral tumors at the time of diagnosis and therefore before any therapy was started.
  • Additionally, the thyroid function was affected, shown as an increase of TSH with a concomitant decrease of the free thyroxin in 91% of all patients independent from the diagnosis (start TSH 1.8, fT4 15.6, after first year TSH 2.8, fT4 15.0).
  • Endocrine testing was initiated in 4 children, in 2 patients affection of the adrenal gland could be excluded, a suspected pituitary dysfunction after radiation was confirmed in 2 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: We could represent that children and adolescents with malignant diseases showed affection of the endocrine system due to the tumour and the intensive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Glands / physiopathology. Endocrinology. Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Anthropometry. Body Height. Body Mass Index. Body Weight. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Disorders / etiology. Humans. Male. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18050043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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73. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Shen SJ, Cheng HM, Chiu AW, Chou CW, Chen JY: Perioperative hypertensive crisis in clinically silent pheochromocytomas: report of four cases. Chang Gung Med J; 2005 Jan;28(1):44-50
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  • Improvements in imaging have resulted in an increase in incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • The adrenal incidentalomas have been identified in at least 2%-3% of patients receiving abdominal computed tomography (CT), and pheochromocytomas are reported to occur in about 5.1%-23.0% of those patients.
  • Herein we present 4 cases of pheochromocytomas as unforeseen adrenal masses on abdominal images.
  • The characteristics of these tumors were that they (1) were noted to have no particular symptoms, (2) were confirmed biochemically and pathologically with immunophenotypic staining, (3) were benign in nature, and (4) produced apparent blood-pressure fluctuations during the operation.
  • Two cases suffered from dramatic hypotension after the tumor had been excised, and intravenous fluid expanders and ephedrine were necessary to maintain adequate blood pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications


75. Suzuki S, Uchida D, Koide H, Tanaka T, Noguchi Y, Saito Y, Tatsuno I: Hyper-responsiveness of adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol in patients with adrenal nodule(s). Peptides; 2008 Oct;29(10):1767-72
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  • [Title] Hyper-responsiveness of adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol in patients with adrenal nodule(s).
  • Hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has been demonstrated in ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) and some adrenal adenomas with Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • However, the clinical significance of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has not been investigated systematically in adrenal nodule(s).
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin (vasopressin responder) and their clinical characteristics in terms of hormonal secretion using vasopressin-loading test in the patients with adrenal nodule(s) except pheochromocytomas.
  • A vasopressin-loading test was performed on 61 consecutive patients with adrenal nodules (CS: 33, aldosterone-producing adenoma: 10, non-functional tumor: 18).
  • Vasopressin responders were observed in 36.1% of adrenal nodule(s), 42.4% of CS and 28.5% of non-CS.
  • Hyper-responsiveness of the adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol was frequently observed among patients with adrenal nodule(s).
  • The vasopressin responders among the patients with adrenal nodule(s) frequently had CS with low autonomous cortisol secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands. Hydrocortisone / blood. Vasopressins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18620013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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76. Allemann P, Perretta S, Asakuma M, Dallemagne B, Marescaux J: NOTES new frontier: Natural orifice approach to retroperitoneal disease. World J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 May 27;2(5):157-64
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  • RESULTS: In the animal model, 37 interventions were done on the kidney, adrenal gland and pancreas.
  • Two major (5%) intraoperative complications occurred: one hemorrhage on the aorta and one tearing of the right renal vein.

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  • (PMID = 21160866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-9366
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999234
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Natural orifice / Natural orifice translumenal surgery / Nephrectomy / Pancreatectomy / Retroperitoneum
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77. Sarabdjitsingh RA, Conway-Campbell BL, Leggett JD, Waite EJ, Meijer OC, de Kloet ER, Lightman SL: Stress responsiveness varies over the ultradian glucocorticoid cycle in a brain-region-specific manner. Endocrinology; 2010 Nov;151(11):5369-79
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  • Glucocorticoid hormones are released in rapid hourly hormone bursts by the adrenal gland.
  • These ultradian oscillations are fundamental to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity and transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid responsive genes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Immunoradiometric Assay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Pituitary-Adrenal System / drug effects. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocrinology. 2012 Dec;153(12):6159
  • (PMID = 20861228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/H015779/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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78. Margulis V, McDonald M, Tamboli P, Swanson DA, Wood CG: Predictors of oncological outcome after resection of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2044-51
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  • [Title] Predictors of oncological outcome after resection of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Local renal cell carcinoma recurrence is rare after radical nephrectomy with curative intent.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an institutional database of 4,800 patients with renal cell carcinoma, of whom 2,945 underwent radical nephrectomy with curative intent, 54 were subsequently found to have isolated local recurrence in the renal fossa, ipsilateral adrenal gland or ipsilateral retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which was managed by surgical resection.
  • A positive surgical margin after resection of local recurrence, recurrent tumor size, sarcomatoid features in the recurrence specimen, abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase and increased lactate dehydrogenase at local recurrence were adverse risk factors associated with an increased risk of cancer specific death after resection for recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive resection of isolated local recurrence offers durable local tumor control and cancer specific survival in a significant proportion of patients with renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19286220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Mai K, Bobbert T, Kullmann V, Andres J, Rochlitz H, Osterhoff M, Weickert MO, Bähr V, Möhlig M, Pfeiffer AF, Diederich S, Spranger J: Free fatty acids increase androgen precursors in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1501-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study effects of FFAs on adrenal production of androgen precursors in vivo.
  • DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We investigated eight healthy young men, because male individuals produce the androgen precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione predominantly in the adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal androgen precursors DHEA and androstenedione showed a circadian decline during saline/heparin infusion (P < 0.05 vs. baseline, respectively), whereas no significant changes were observed during lipid/heparin infusion (P = not significant vs. baseline, respectively).
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Androstenedione / blood. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Cross-Over Studies. Dehydroepiandrosterone / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Glucose Clamp Technique. Humans. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Lipids / blood. Male. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • (PMID = 16434463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0 / Lipids; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone
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80. Kaliszewski K, Bednarz W, Łukieńczuk T, Rzeszutko M, Boryń M, Olewiński R, Dawiskiba T, Spodzieja J, Dawiskiba J: Retroperitoneal tumours--analysis of own clinical material--a six-year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Jan-Feb;57(97):47-51
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  • All cases were subjected to laparotomy with an aim to resect the tumour completely.
  • RESULTS: In the present study we observed primary retroperitoneal tumours like malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, cavernous haemangioma and mucinous cystadenoma.
  • In adrenal glands we observed benign and malignant lesions like pheochromocytoma and fibrosarcoma.
  • The clinical manifestations of all retroperitoneal tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20422870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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81. Muhammad S, Aller MI, Maser-Gluth C, Schwaninger M, Wisden W: Expression of the kcnk3 potassium channel gene lessens the injury from cerebral ischemia, most likely by a general influence on blood pressure. Neuroscience; 2010 May 19;167(3):758-64
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  • As the TASK-1 gene is expressed in adrenal gland, heart and possibly blood vessels, the higher infarct volumes in the TASK-1 knockout mice could be due to TASK-1 regulating blood vessel tone and hence blood pressure or influencing blood vessel microarchitecture and blood flow rate.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20167264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / TASK3 protein, mouse; 0 / potassium channel subfamily K member 3
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82. Brum PC, Rolim NP, Bacurau AV, Medeiros A: Neurohumoral activation in heart failure: the role of adrenergic receptors. An Acad Bras Cienc; 2006 Sep;78(3):485-503
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  • However, chronic exposure of the heart to elevated levels of catecholamines released from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal gland may lead to further pathologic changes in the heart, resulting in continued elevation of sympathetic tone and a progressive deterioration in cardiac function.

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  • (PMID = 16936938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-3765
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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83. Fadda G, Rossi ED, Mulè A, Miraglia A, Vecchio FM, Capelli A: Diagnostic efficacy of immunocytochemistry on fine needle aspiration biopsies processed by thin-layer cytology. Acta Cytol; 2006 Mar-Apr;50(2):129-35
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  • RESULTS: The 113 cytologic cases were grouped as follows: 32 thyroid nodules with 16 histologic controls (HCs), 24 lymph nodes (regardless of location) with 15 HCs, 18 liver and pancreatic lesions (3 HCs), 11 lung nodules (6 HCs), 5 kidney and adrenal gland lesions (1 HC), 6 abdominal (2 HCs) and 4 mediastinal masses (1 HC), 6 salivary gland tumors (3 HCs), 4 bone masses (2 HCs) and 3 subcutaneous lesions (1 HC).
  • ICC contributed to the diagnosis in 104 cases (92%), whereas it was inconclusive in 9.
  • CONCLUSION: ICC can be successfully applied on TLC slides with better results than on CSs, and its yield can be useful in making the correct diagnosis on fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16610678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Nougaret S, Jung B, Aufort S, Chanques G, Jaber S, Gallix B: Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study. Eur Radiol; 2010 Oct;20(10):2348-57
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  • [Title] Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry.
  • METHODS: Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients.
  • RESULTS: The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 ± 2.0 cm(3) in control subjects and 13.3 ± 4.7 cm(3) for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001).
  • The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care.
  • CONCLUSION: The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly.
  • Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Shock, Septic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20521055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Kerkebe M, Parma P, Pinto I, Diaz M: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected metastasis of adrenal glands: our experience. Urology; 2007 Apr;69(4):637-41
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected metastasis of adrenal glands: our experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: To present our experience in laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: A total of 34 adrenalectomies were performed in 32 patients for incidental adrenal masses discovered at primary tumor diagnosis or during follow-up.
  • The primary tumors diagnosed were 13 cases of lung carcinoma, 9 of renal cell carcinoma, 2 of colorectal carcinoma, 2 of bladder carcinoma, and 1 each of ovarian carcinoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, and melanoma.
  • Two patients had no history of a primary tumor.
  • The mean tumor size was 4.3 cm (range 1.5 to 9).
  • The microscopic analysis revealed 22 malign lesions (64.7%) and 12 cases of benign pathologic features (35.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17445640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Vilar L, Freitas Mda C, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Moura e Silva L, Coelho CE, Casulari LA, Naves LA: Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cause and the clinical and laboratory features of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) in 52 patients and to assess the evolution of nonsurgically treated lesions during long-term follow-up.
  • Carcinomas were the largest adrenal masses (mean diameter, 11.7 +/- 1.3 cm).
  • During follow-up of 21 patients with nonsurgically treated AI for 6 to 36 months (mean, 24.8 +/- 8.9), no patient had tumor reduction or disappearance.
  • After 12 months of follow-up, however, a 45-year-old woman had adrenal mass enlargement from 3.2 cm to 4.4 cm; the excised lesion proved to be an adenoma.
  • Moreover, evidence of cortisol hypersecretion developed after 24 months of follow-up in a 30-year-old man with a 3.5-cm adenoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that most AI are nonfunctioning benign lesions and emphasize the need for long-term follow-up of patients with conservatively managed lesions, in light of the potential for evolution to hormonal hypersecretion or tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Brazil. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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87. Horn PC, Harder J, Lohmann CP, Lanzl I: [Optic neuropathy in Schmidt-Carpenter syndrome]. Ophthalmologe; 2010 Jul;107(7):656-9
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  • Failure of the adrenal gland, thyroid and pancreatic islet cells (Schmidt-Carpenter syndrome) likely formed the basis of the ocular pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Optic Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Diseases / therapy. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / therapy. Vision Disorders / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20376461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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88. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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89. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


90. Dinleyici EC, Dogruel N, Acikalin MF, Tokar B, Oztelcan B, Ilhan H: An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Nov;30(10):870-2
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  • Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left adrenal mass.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and histopathological examinations showed benign adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18075291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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91. Yoshida T, Saito J, Takao T, Ichimaru N, Takaha N, Nonomura N, Okuyama A, Tsujimoto Y, Aozasa K, Kondo M: [Adrenal ganglioneuroma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Feb;51(2):93-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal ganglioneuroma: a case report].
  • A patient with an incidentally diagnosed adrenal ganglioneuroma is reported.
  • A 37-year-old man who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) in the course of evaluating liver dysfunction was found to have a right adrenal tumor.
  • With a preoperative diagnosis of non-functioning right adrenal tumor, resection was performed.
  • The tumor specimen was noncystic weighing 150 g and measuring 10 x 8 x 3 cm.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was ganglioneuroma originating from the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal ganglioneuroma is relatively rare, 147 cases including ours have been reported in Japan.
  • Ganglioneuroma is a benign tumor, and disagreement exists concerning diagnosis and indications for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15773360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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92. Marcelino M, Nobre E, Conceição J, Lopes L, Vilar H, França Martins M, Carvalho A, André S, Horta A, De Castro JJ: [A rare case of hyperandrogenism: bilateral Leydig cell tumor of the ovary]. Acta Med Port; 2010 Jan-Feb;23(1):113-8
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  • [Title] [A rare case of hyperandrogenism: bilateral Leydig cell tumor of the ovary].
  • [Transliterated title] Um caso raro de hiperandrogenismo tumor ovárico bilateral de células de Leydig.
  • Leydig cell tumor is one of the most common of this type of lesion and it is usually benign, small and unilateral.
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography and abdomen-pelvic CT scan didn't show any signs of adrenal or ovarian tumors.
  • In this case report we present a rare case of bilateral Leydig cell tumor.
  • Only five cases have been reported in the literature.The clinical history and the elevated levels of testosterone had suggested the presence of an androgen-producing tumor, despite the difficulty of the diagnosis on imaging techniques.
  • The histopathologic disclosed the diagnosis and allowed the patient's cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Hirsutism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20353714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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93. Stolle H, Jonetz-Mentzel L, Krautschick-Wilkens AW: [Spontaneous rupture of an adrenal angiomyolipoma]. Aktuelle Urol; 2006 Nov;37(6):443-4; quiz 421-2
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  • [Title] [Spontaneous rupture of an adrenal angiomyolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Spontan rupturiertes Angiomyolipom der Nebenniere.
  • Further potential sources of retroperitoneal hematoma are benign and malignant tumours of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Hematoma / etiology. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 17099833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. Zhou H, Liu LH, Zhang H, Lei Z, Lan ZJ: Expression of zinc finger protein 105 in the testis and its role in male fertility. Mol Reprod Dev; 2010 Jun;77(6):511-20
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  • Whole-mount LacZ analyses of adult Zfp105(LacZ/+) tissues showed robust LacZ staining in the testis, very weak staining in the ovary, and no staining in the spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung, thymus, adrenal gland, uterus, or oviduct.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20186958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2795
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular reproduction and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Reprod. Dev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5R01 HD57501-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057501-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD057501-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 2P20-RR/DE17702-06; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057501
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / ZNF35 protein, human; 0 / Zfp 105 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS280271; NLM/ PMC3062163
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95. Hotchkiss JA, Andrus AK, Johnson KA, Krieger SM, Woolhiser MR, Maurissen JP: Acute toxicologic and neurotoxic effects of inhaled 1,2-dichloroethane in adult Fischer 344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Feb;48(2):470-81
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  • Exposure to 2000 ppm EDC altered adrenal gland, kidney, and liver weights, and resulted in morphologic alterations in the kidney and liver.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19887099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ethylene Dichlorides; 0 / Neurotoxins; 55163IJI47 / ethylene dichloride
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96. Ong KL, Lam KS, Cheung BM: Urotensin II: its function in health and its role in disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther; 2005 Jan;19(1):65-75
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  • It is expressed in the central nervous system as well as other tissues, such as kidney, spleen, small intestine, thymus, prostate, pituitary, and adrenal gland and circulates in human plasma.
  • The plasma U-II level is elevated in renal failure, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension and portal hypertension caused by liver cirrhosis.
  • U-II is also a neuropeptide and may play a role in tumour development.

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  • (PMID = 15883758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-3206
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular drugs and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / UTS2R protein, human; 0 / Urotensins; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 9047-55-6 / urotensin II
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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97. Al-Harthy M, Al-Harthy S, Al-Otieschan A, Velagapudi S, Alzahrani AS: Comparison of pheochromocytomas and abdominal and pelvic paragangliomas with head and neck paragangliomas. Endocr Pract; 2009 Apr;15(3):194-202
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  • Compared with patients with head and neck paraganglioma, patients with pheochromocytoma or abdominal and pelvic paraganglioma were younger (35.7 +/- 16 years vs 43 +/- 17 years, P = .042) and were more likely to have the classic triad associated with catecholamine hypersecretion of palpitation, excessive sweating, and headache (40% vs 0%, P<.001); hypertension (70% vs 37%, P = .005); and benign tumors (65% vs 43%, P = .03).
  • Patients with head and neck paraganglioma and patients with pheochromocytoma/abdominal and pelvic paraganglioma were not different in female to male ratios (27:19 vs 29:11, respectively, P = .18), tumor size (5.8 +/- 2.7 cm vs 5.7 +/- 3 cm, respectively; P = .85), or remission rate (43% vs 60%, respectively, P = .13).
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paraganglioma / epidemiology. Pelvic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Comorbidity. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19364686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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99. Brown JL, Somerville M, Riddle HS, Keele M, Duer CK, Freeman EW: Comparative endocrinology of testicular, adrenal and thyroid function in captive Asian and African elephant bulls. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2007 Apr;151(2):153-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative endocrinology of testicular, adrenal and thyroid function in captive Asian and African elephant bulls.
  • Concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (free and total T4), triiodothyronine (free and total T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured to assess adrenal and thyroid function as they relate to testicular activity and musth in captive elephants.
  • Based on keeper logs, seven Asian and three African bulls exhibited behavioral and/or physical (temporal gland secretion, TGS, or urine dribbling, UD) signs of musth, which lasted 2.8+/-2.5 months in duration.
  • Cortisol and testosterone were correlated in most bulls exhibiting musth, indicating a possible role for the adrenal gland in modulating or facilitating downstream responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Elephants / blood. Testis / physiology. Thyroid Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17336304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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100. Roberge C, Carpentier AC, Langlois MF, Baillargeon JP, Ardilouze JL, Maheux P, Gallo-Payet N: Adrenocortical dysregulation as a major player in insulin resistance and onset of obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;293(6):E1465-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cross talk among adipose tissue, the hypothalamo-pituitary complex, and adrenal gland activity plays a major role in the control of food intake, glucose metabolism, lipid storage, and energy balance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiopathology. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Obesity / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17911338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 207
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