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1. Eto M, Hamaguchi M, Harano M, Yokomizo A, Tatsugami K, Naito S: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant tumors. Int J Urol; 2008 Apr;15(4):295-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: The treatment of malignant adrenal tumors using laparoscopic surgery remains controversial.
  • We thus compared the perioperative outcome of the laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the treatment of malignant tumors with the outcome for benign tumors.
  • The median adrenal tumor size was 3 cm.
  • Seven patients had no evidence of a systemic metastatic disease, whereas two patients with a metastatic renal cell carcinoma had systemic metastatic disease at the time of the operation.
  • There was no significant difference between laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant and benign tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicate that a laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the treatment of a metastatic adrenal malignancy can be performed with an acceptable outcome as a minimally invasive method in carefully selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18380814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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2. Bruna J, Martínez-Yelamos S, Alonso E, Romagosa V, Arruga J, Arruga J, Domingo A, Rojas-Marcos I, Petit J, Rubio F: Meningeal lymphomatosis as the first manifestation of splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Int J Hematol; 2005 Jul;82(1):63-5
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  • The bone marrow section also showed lymphocytes with an immunophenotype identical to that of the peripheral blood.A splenectomy confirmed the SMZL diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Meninges / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16105762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Nychytaĭlo ME, Diachenko VV, Litvinenko AN, Gul'ko ON, Bulik II, Lukecha II: [Experience of performance of laparoscopic adrenalectomy using lateral transabdominal approach]. Klin Khir; 2008 Sep;(9):41-4
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  • In 2002-2008 yrs. in the Department of Laparoscopic Surgery and Cholelithiasis in 52 patients laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) was accomplished, performed for different diseases of suprarenal glands.
  • Incidentaloma was diagnosed in 8, fibroma--in 4, pheokhromocytoma--in 10, aldosteroma--in 11, adrenocortical cancer--in 3, corticosteroma--in 13, suprarenal gland cyst--in 3 patients.
  • The operation time in right-sided and left-sided LA had constituted accordingly 85 and 118 minutes.
  • In 1 (2.4%) observation hemoperitoneum had occurred as a result of traumatic damage of spleen during performance of left-sided LA.

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  • (PMID = 19278040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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4. Chong S, Lee KS, Kim HY, Kim YK, Kim BT, Chung MJ, Yi CA, Kwon GY: Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls. Radiographics; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):1811-24; discussion 1824-6
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  • [Title] Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls.
  • Integrated fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for adrenal gland imaging in cancer patients allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • However, false-positive findings are encountered at integrated PET-CT in approximately 5% of adrenal lesions identified as positive at PET, including adrenal adenomas, adrenal endothelial cysts, and inflammatory and infectious lesions.
  • Moreover, false-negative findings may be seen in adrenal metastatic lesions with hemorrhage or necrosis, small-sized (<10-mm) metastatic nodules, and metastases from pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or carcinoid tumors.
  • An awareness of the potential pitfalls of integrated PET-CT enhances the diagnostic efficacy of this modality by allowing differentiation of metastatic adrenal lesions from other abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2006
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6):1594
  • (PMID = 17102052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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5. Mostaghel EA, Nelson PS: Intracrine androgen metabolism in prostate cancer progression: mechanisms of castration resistance and therapeutic implications. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;22(2):243-58
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  • Residual tissue androgens are consistently detected within the prostate tumors of castrate individuals and are thought to play a critical role in facilitating the androgen receptor-mediated signaling pathways leading to disease progression.
  • The source of residual tumor androgens is attributed in part to the uptake and conversion of circulating adrenal androgens.
  • Whether the de novo biosynthesis of androgens from cholesterol or earlier precursors occurs within prostatic tumors is not known, but it has significant implications for treatment strategies targeting sources of androgens exogenous to the prostate versus 'intracrine' sources within the prostatic tumor.
  • Moreover, increased expression of androgen-metabolizing genes within castration-resistant metastases suggests that up-regulated activity of endogenous steroidogenic pathways may contribute to the outgrowth of 'castration-adapted' tumors.
  • These observations suggest that a multi-targeted treatment approach designed to simultaneously ablate testicular, adrenal and intracrine contributions to the tumor androgen signaling axis will be required to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 18471783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 K23 CA 122820-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 97186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122820-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA122820-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA122820
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 62
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS52369; NLM/ PMC2474812
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6. Lynch HT, Silva E, Snyder C, Lynch JF: Hereditary breast cancer: part I. Diagnosing hereditary breast cancer syndromes. Breast J; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):3-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • More rarely, it occurs in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, caused by a p53 germline mutation, in which markedly early-onset BC is found in association with brain tumors, sarcomas, leukemia, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • We postulate that increasing knowledge about the genetics of BC may have partially contributed to the identification of high-risk patients who thereby may have benefited significantly from early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / diagnosis. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18086272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1U01 CA 86389
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BLID protein, human; 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA1 protein, human; 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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7. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. De Padua M, Rajagopal V: Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern. Indian J Med Sci; 2008 May;62(5):199-203
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors.
  • A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors.
  • We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor.
  • Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells.
  • Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18579979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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9. Toniato A, Boschin IM, Opocher G, Guolo A, Pelizzo M, Mantero F: Is the laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma the best treatment? Surgery; 2007 Jun;141(6):723-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for removing adrenal masses, but several authors still debate the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in pheochromocytoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for pheochromocytomas and to compare the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for neoplasms that are smaller than 6 cm versus those that are larger than 6 cm.
  • The analysis of tumor size (<or=6 vs >6 cm) in laparoscopic adrenalectomy showed that none of the variables differed significantly, except for intraoperative blood loss, which was greater for the larger neoplasms (P = .007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy, when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons, is preferable to open adrenalectomy for the majority of pheochromocytomas, and as long as there is no evidence of invasion of surrounding structures, tumor size does not appear to have a profound effect on surgical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


10. Lo WK, vansonnenberg E, Shankar S, Morrison PR, Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Rabin M: Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic bilateral adrenal metastases in a single session. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2006 Jan;17(1):175-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic bilateral adrenal metastases in a single session.
  • Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been used in the palliative treatment of symptomatic bilateral adrenal tumors, often with each tumor addressed separately over the course of multiple treatment sessions.
  • In the present case, a 71-year-old man with a diagnosis of lung cancer and painful bilateral metastases to the adrenal glands underwent percutaneous CT-guided RF thermal ablation of both adrenal masses in a single session (left adrenal mass, 4.7 cm; right adrenal mass, 4.3 cm), without occurrence of blood pressure instability or other acute complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Pain / etiology. Pain / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16415149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Ermetici F, Malavazos AE, Corbetta S, Eller-Vainicher C, Cannavò S, Corsi MM, Ambrosi B: Soluble adhesion molecules levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome before and after cure. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 May;31(5):389-92
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were evaluated in 28 patients with active CS and in 12 patients with Cushing's disease (CD), 6-12 months after disease remission.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Body Mass Index. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Solubility. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood

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  • (PMID = 18560255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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12. Hamanaka W, Yoneda S, Shirakusa T, Shirahama H, Tashiro Y, Iwasaki A, Shiraishi T, Tsuru H: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adrenocortical carcinoma--long survival with various therapeutic strategies including a lung resection: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(3):275-8
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  • Instead of a large metastatic lung tumor with hemothorax and the existence of metastases in other organs, combined therapy of repeated resections for metastases and adjuvant therapy allowed for almost a 36-month survival following the first recurrence and a good quality of life.
  • In addition, a blood and pathological study revealed that the tumor in this case was an alpha-fetoprotein-producing ACC, which is, as far as we could ascertain, the first case of its kind.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. alpha-Fetoproteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumonectomy

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
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13. Debevec L, Erzen J, Debeljak A, Crnjac A, Kovac V: Exploratory thoracotomy and its influence on the survival of patients with lung cancer. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2006 Aug;118(15-16):479-84
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  • The reasons for ET were: diagnosis of preoperatively unverified tumor in one patient, necessity for pneumonectomy in the case of poor pulmonary function in 11 patients, and unresectability in 119 (due to invasion of the mediastinum in 98 patients, thoracic wall in three and vertebral body in one, and due to pleural metastases in 17 patients).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Thoracotomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiography, Thoracic. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16957979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
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14. Kola B, Grossman AB: Dynamic testing in Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary; 2008;11(2):155-62
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  • CS can be ACTH-dependent, caused by ACTH-secreting pituitary or ectopic tumours, or ACTH-independent, caused by cortisol-secreting adrenal tumours.
  • CS can be an extremely difficult diagnosis to make, and assessment will include clinical, biochemical and radiological evaluation.
  • We have reviewed the current literature on the diagnosis of CS, and based on these data and our own experience, suggest the most useful tests and diagnostic criteria to be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Function Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Saliva / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18034306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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15. Haberal M, Ozcay F, Sevmis S, Karakayali H, Moray G, Torgay A, Coskun M, Demirhan B, Sarialioglu F, Arslan G: Liver transplant in an infant with bilateral cystic neuroblastoma complicated by hepatic metastases and life-threatening consumption coagulopathy. Pediatr Transplant; 2008 May;12(3):358-62
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  • Here we report a patient with stage-4 bilateral cystic adrenal neuroblastomas with disseminated liver metastases and consumption coagulopathy who underwent liver transplant.
  • Our patient was initially diagnosed with infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma and bleeding into the adrenal glands secondary to consumption coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome).
  • Liver transplant was performed as a life-saving procedure under this diagnosis.
  • We discuss this unique patient because of the diagnostic pitfalls of this rare disease and the successful clinical outcome after LT and subsequent chemotherapy for neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Transplantation / methods. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Living Donors. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome


16. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


17. Vasinanukorn P, Rerknimitr R, Sriussadaporn S, Wisedopas N, Kongkam P, Chaopapsomkul B, Snabboon T: Adrenal hemorrhage as the first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Intern Med; 2007;46(21):1779-82
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  • [Title] Adrenal hemorrhage as the first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Imaging studies revealed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the right lobe of the liver with bilateral adrenal metastases and recent hemorrhage in the left adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Hemorrhage / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17978534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Gullu S, Gursoy A, Erdogan MF, Dizbaysak S, Erdogan G, Kamel N: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A/localized cutaneous lichen amyloidosis associated with malignant pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Sep;28(8):734-7
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A/localized cutaneous lichen amyloidosis associated with malignant pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma.
  • We hereby present a rare variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) associated with a rare skin disease primary cutaneous lichen amyloidosis and discrete malignant pheochromocytoma in both adrenal glands and pancreatic tail, and interestingly accompanied ganglioneuroma located in retroperitoneum in a 34-yr-old female.
  • The presence of composite tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma arising in the adrenal glands has been described previously in MEN2A and in sporadic cases.
  • Computed tomography revealed multiple mass lesions in both adrenal glands.
  • It also showed a large heterogeneous mass that clearly discriminated from right adrenal gland in retroperitoneal location.
  • After surgical exploration, both adrenal glands and the suspicious mass in pancreatic tail were removed successfully together with subtotal resection of the retroperitoneal tumor.
  • Histopathologic examinations confirmed the presence of pheochromocytoma in both adrenal glands as well as pancreatic lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology


19. Nakagawa T: The natural history of untreated sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: an autopsy report. Med Princ Pract; 2009;18(6):490-2
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  • [Title] The natural history of untreated sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: an autopsy report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of an autopsy that disclosed an untreated sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a 9-year natural history.
  • Ultrasonography revealed an incidental left renal mass measuring 2 x 3 cm.
  • After 9.0 years, the tumor had increased by 3.5 cm from the initial size, and multiple lung metastases were also detected.
  • After 9.1 years, the patient developed multiple metastases and died from progressive disease at the age of 95.
  • On autopsy, metastases were found in both lungs, bilateral hilar lymph nodes of the lung, the liver, both adrenal glands and the bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / physiopathology. Kidney Neoplasms / physiopathology. Liver Neoplasms / physiopathology. Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Autopsy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Treatment Refusal

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19797928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0151
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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20. Leão LM, Duarte MP, Farias ML: [Female androgen insufficiency and potential risks of therapeutic replacement]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Apr;49(2):205-16
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  • [Transliterated title] Insuficiência androgênica na mulher e potenciais riscos da reposição terapêutica.
  • If there is a past history of bilateral oophorectomy, hypopituitarism, androgen adrenal suppression and/or free testosterone serum levels are low, it is probable that these signs and symptoms could be relieved by a discerning androgen administration, which has been largely accepted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Body Composition / drug effects. Bone Density / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / chemically induced. Cardiovascular Diseases / chemically induced. Female. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism. Humans. Sexual Behavior / drug effects. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16184248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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21. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to document the types of malignant tumors that metastasize to canine, feline, equine, and bovine adrenals, and the rate at which they do so.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • In dogs, 26 different tumor types metastasized to the adrenals.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • One dog had developed Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) secondary to lymphoma.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Brau-Javier CN, Sánchez JL: Cutaneous adrenal cortical carcinoma metastasis in a 6 year-old boy. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Sep;29(3):330-1
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  • [Title] Cutaneous adrenal cortical carcinoma metastasis in a 6 year-old boy.
  • We report the case of a six year-old boy with a history of adrenal cortical carcinoma presenting with cutaneous metastasis.
  • Due to the low incidence of cutaneous metastasis arising from adrenal cortical carcinoma, its diagnosis can be challenging based solely on histological analysis.
  • Yet, the clinical history in combination with an immunohistochemical panel consisting of melan-A, alpha inhibin, D11, caretinin, neuron specific enolase, synatophysin, and chromogranin, can be useful in differentiating it from other tumors with similar cytomorphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20799523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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23. Brain KL, Kay J, Shine B: Measurement of urinary metanephrines to screen for pheochromocytoma in an unselected hospital referral population. Clin Chem; 2006 Nov;52(11):2060-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Despite the rarity of pheochromocytoma, diagnosis is important because of the dangers of uncontrolled severe hypertension and the availability of very effective surgical treatment.
  • Urinary or plasma catecholamines or catecholamine derivatives are commonly used to screen for pheochromocytomas before imaging, but data from 24-h urinary metanephrine results, patient age, and sex may better predict tumors in populations with a low pretest probability.
  • We then compared pheochromocytoma prediction by the use of products of these normalized measures with the gold standard of biopsy-confirmed tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Mass Screening / methods. Metanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / urine

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  • (PMID = 16990424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 074128; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2640466; NLM/ UKMS2425
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24. Gao B, Meng F, Bian W, Chen J, Zhao H, Ma G, Shi B, Zhang J, Liu Y, Xu Z: Development and validation of pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score for predicting malignant pheochromocytomas. Urology; 2006 Aug;68(2):282-6
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  • [Title] Development and validation of pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score for predicting malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performances of the pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) proposed in a previous report and that of a logistic model developed in this investigation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ROC analysis indicated that the PASS could be used for the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


25. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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26. Yao L, Barontini M, Niederle B, Jech M, Pfragner R, Dahia PL: Mutations of the metabolic genes IDH1, IDH2, and SDHAF2 are not major determinants of the pseudohypoxic phenotype of sporadic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Mar;95(3):1469-72
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  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are genetically heterogeneous tumors of neural crest origin.
  • Approximately half of these tumors activate a pseudohypoxic transcription response, which is due in a minority of the cases to germline mutations of the VHL gene or the genes encoding subunits of the metabolic enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD.
  • However, the genetic basis of the hypoxic-like profile of the remaining tumors is undetermined.
  • DESIGN: We examined the sequence spanning the mutation-susceptible codons 132 of IDH1 and 172 of IDH2, and the entire coding region of SDHAF2, in 104 pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, including tumors with a pseudohypoxic expression profile.
  • RESULTS: We did not find mutations in IDH1, IDH2, or SDHAF2 in any of the tumors in this cohort.
  • The molecular basis for activation of a hypoxic response in the majority of tumors without VHL or SDH mutations remains to be defined.

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  • (PMID = 20130071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA054174; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / SDH5 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841540
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27. Doghman M, Cazareth J, Douguet D, Madoux F, Hodder P, Lalli E: Inhibition of adrenocortical carcinoma cell proliferation by steroidogenic factor-1 inverse agonists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):2178-83
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  • SF-1 amplification and overexpression are found in most cases of childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACTs).

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  • (PMID = 19318454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH084512; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 1U54MH084512
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(heptyloxy)phenol; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Quinolones; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Steroids
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2690427
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28. Fan N, Yang GS, Lu JH, Yang N: Classification of right hepatectomy for special localized malignant tumor in right liver lobe. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jul 28;11(28):4321-5
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  • [Title] Classification of right hepatectomy for special localized malignant tumor in right liver lobe.
  • AIM: To describe a new classification method of right hepatectomy according to the different special positions of tumors.
  • METHODS: According to positions, 91 patients with malignant hepatic tumor in the right liver lobe were divided into six groups: tumors in the right posterior lobe and (or) the right caudate lobe compressing the right portal hilum (n = 14, 15.4%), tumors in the right liver lobe compressing the inferior vena cava and (or) hepatic veins (n = 11, 12.9%), tumors infiltrating diaphragmatic muscle (n = 7, 7.7%), tumors in the hepatorenal recess (infiltrating the right fatty renal capsule, transverse colon and right adrenal gland, n = 8, 8.8%), tumors deeply located near the vertebral body (n = 3, 3.3%), tumors at other sites in the right liver lobe (the control group, n = 48, 52.75%).
  • The values of intraoperative blood loss (IBL), tumor's maxim cross-section area (TMCSA), and time of hepatic hilum clamping (THHC) and incidence of postoperative complications were compared between five groups of tumor and control group, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The site of tumor is the key factor that determines IBL.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / classification. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Adult. Aged. Diaphragm. Female. Hepatic Veins. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 16038028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4434656
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29. Schwartz P, Kovak JR, Koprowski A, Ludwig LL, Monette S, Bergman PJ: Evaluation of prognostic factors in the surgical treatment of adrenal gland tumors in dogs: 41 cases (1999-2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2008 Jan 1;232(1):77-84
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  • [Title] Evaluation of prognostic factors in the surgical treatment of adrenal gland tumors in dogs: 41 cases (1999-2005).
  • Postoperative variables significantly associated with shorter survival times included pancreatitis and renal failure.
  • Dogs with adrenal masses that require concurrent nephrectomy and cause intraoperative hemorrhage have a guarded prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18167113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Rodriguez JM, Balsalobre M, Ponce JL, Ríos A, Torregrosa NM, Tebar J, Parrilla P: Pheochromocytoma in MEN 2A syndrome. Study of 54 patients. World J Surg; 2008 Nov;32(11):2520-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma occurs in nearly 50% of MEN 2A (multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2A) cases.
  • Many issues related to this tumor are still the subject of debate: the diagnostic management in patients who have had positive genetic study results (RET mutation), variations related to mutation, the best surgical option, and the real relapse rate during long-term follow-up.
  • The aim of this study is to present our experience with this unusual disease, looking for answers to some of these questions.
  • The diagnosis of pheocromocytoma was made after the diagnosis of MTC in 26 cases (48.2%), simultaneously in 21 (38.9%), and prior in the 7 remaining cases (12.9%).
  • At the time of diagnosis 28 patients (51.8%) were asymptomatic and 26 (48.2%) had clinical features related to pheochromocytoma.
  • The CT scan did not provide a correct diagnosis in 6 patients with bilateral lesions, and one patient with a bilateral tumor was not diagnosed by MIBG.
  • The pheochromocytoma was bilateral in 27 cases, with a total number of 81 pathological glands detected.
  • The mean tumor size was 4.5 cm (range: 1-18 cm).
  • Its diagnosis requires catecholamines determinations as well as a CT scan.
  • Correct diagnosis of bilaterality is established by CT and MIBG.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18795243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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31. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Clinical catecholamine neurochemistry: a legacy of Julius Axelrod. Cell Mol Neurobiol; 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4-6):695-702
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  • [MeSH-minor] Addison Disease / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Animals. Heart / innervation. Heart / physiopathology. Humans. Metanephrine / blood. Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol / analogs & derivatives. Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol / analysis. Models, Biological. Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / analysis. Parkinson Disease / physiopathology. Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16871444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-4340
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC6A2 protein, human; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 534-82-7 / Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol; CF5G2G268A / dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol; EC 2.1.1.28 / Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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32. Iwanami T, Uramoto H, Baba T, Takenaka M, Yokoyama E, Oka S, So T, Ono K, So T, Takenoyama M, Hanagiri T, Iwata T, Inoue M, Yasumoto K: [Treatment recommendations for adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Dec;63(13):1101-6; discussion 1106-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment recommendations for adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer].
  • To evaluate the optimum treatment strategy for metastatic adrenal tumors derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we retrospectively analyzed 17 consecutive cases (8 resection cases: 4 synchronous and 4 metachronous: 9 non-resection cases: 3 synchronous and 6 metachronous) who received surgical resection for NSCLC.
  • The mean interval after lung resection and treatment of metachronous adrenal metastasis was 9.9 months.
  • The mean time to progression from treatment of metachronous adrenal metastasis to disease progression was 8.9 months.
  • The 2-year survival of patients following resection versus those who did not undergo a resection for adrenal metastasis was 62.5 and 22.8%, respectively.
  • These data indicate that metastatic adrenal tumors should be resected if the patient can tolerate surgery after appropriate selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


33. Kasliwal MK, Sharma MS, Vaishya S, Sharma BS: Metachronous pheochromocytoma metastasis to the upper dorsal spine-6-year survival. Spine J; 2008 Sep-Oct;8(5):845-8
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  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare neoplasm of chromaffin tissue.
  • Very few cases of malignant adrenal pheochromocytoma metastatic to vertebrae exist.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the prognosis of a patient with an excised adrenal pheochromocytoma and a single metachronous metastasis to the upper dorsal spine.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Case report METHODS: The authors report a patient who underwent total excision of an adrenal pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland in 2000 who developed a single metastasis to the second dorsal vertebra in 2002 with no evidence of abdominal recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adrenal pheochromocytomas must be screened periodically with whole body imaging despite normal abdominal imaging as there is a definite risk of metachronous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18024223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Alexandraki KI, Michail OP, Nonni A, Diamantis D, Giannopoulou I, Kaltsas GA, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Syriou V, Michail PO: Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review. Endocr J; 2009;56(6):817-24
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review.
  • We report a 66-year-old woman with a mixed corticomedullary tumor of the left adrenal gland.
  • The patient was found to harbor an adrenal incidentaloma while investigated for a spigelian hernia.
  • Due to the atypical radiological features and the relatively large size of the adrenal lesion she underwent a left adrenalectomy following endocrine testing to exclude a functional lesion.
  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome was suggested by the failure to obtain adequate cortisol suppression (less than 1.8 microg/dL) following dexamethasone administration pre-operatively; cortisol suppression was restored postoperatively following the excision of the tumor.
  • The finding of this case highlights the importance of this extremely rare entity which should be included in the long list of causes of adrenal incidentaloma since cases with intra-operative complications have been described.
  • The previously reported reappearance of this tumor in the contralateral adrenal gland emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hernia, Abdominal / complications

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  • (PMID = 19461165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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35. Onoda N, Ishikawa T, Nishio K, Tahara H, Inaba M, Wakasa K, Sumi T, Yamazaki T, Shigematsu K, Hirakawa K: Cushing's syndrome by left adrenocortical adenoma synchronously associated with primary aldosteronism by right adrenocortical adenoma: report of a case. Endocr J; 2009;56(3):495-502
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  • Bilateral adrenal masses with clinical symptoms of CS and PA were found in a 43-year-old woman.
  • Venous sampling demonstrated excess secretion of cortisol, and aldosterone from right, and left tumor, respectively.
  • The right adrenal tumor (3 cm) was yellow in color with abundant lipofuscin granules, and was composed of both eosinophilic compact cells and clear cells.
  • In situ hybridization showed that both mRNAs for HSD3B2 and CYP17A1 were strongly expressed in the tumor, suggesting cortisol synthesis.
  • Left adrenal tumor (2.4 cm) was golden-yellow in color, and composed of clear cells only.
  • Expression of HSD3B2 and CYP11B mRNAs were observed in the tumor compatible with the aldosterone synthesis.
  • Furthermore, minute nodules were found at the surface of normal-appearing cortex on both sides of the adrenal glands, and the expression of HSD3B2 and CYP11B mRNAs was clearly demonstrated within the nodules, indicating aldosterone synthesis.
  • We diagnosed that the present case had 1) cortisol-producing right adrenocortical adenoma, 2) aldosterone producing left adrenocortical adenoma, and 3) cortical minute nodules with aldosterone production in both adrenal glands compatible with idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We reviewed the cases reported, and discussed the significance of the minute nodules in the adrenal cortex, often found in association with the adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19270420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.145 / 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
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36. Mazza A, Armigliato M, Zamboni S, Rempelou P, Rubello D, Pessina AC, Casiglia E: Endocrine arterial hypertension: therapeutic approach in clinical practice. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;33(4):297-312
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  • In mineralocorticoid-related hypertension, adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice for aldosterone-producing adenomas and monolateral primary aldosteronism, whereas pharmacologic blood pressure (BP) control is indicated for the other forms of primary aldosteronism such as bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Subjects with catecholamine-dependent hypertension due to a neuroendocrine neoplasm need to undergo preoperative alpha-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine or doxazozine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the procedure of choice for solitary intra-adrenal neoplasms <8 cm.
  • For malignant neoplasms, chemo- and radiopharmaceutical therapy may be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / therapeutic use. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18923367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Diuretics
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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37. Lucignani G, Bombardieri E: Progress and challenges in neuroendocrine and neural crest tumours: molecular imaging and therapy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Dec;36(12):2081-8
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  • [Title] Progress and challenges in neuroendocrine and neural crest tumours: molecular imaging and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Molecular Imaging / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Animals. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19844707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; Neural crest tumor
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38. Oishi Y, Nagai S, Yoshida M, Fujisawa S, Sazawa A, Shinohara N, Nonomura K, Matsuno K, Shimizu C: Mutation analysis of the SDHB and SDHD genes in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: identification of a novel nonsense mutation (Q168X) in the SDHB gene. Endocr J; 2010;57(8):745-50
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  • Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are tumors of the autonomic nervous system.
  • The former is a tumor that occurs in only adrenal glands, and the latter can be found in the head and neck or in the thorax and abdomen.
  • A number of studies have reported that SDHB mutation-associated disease demonstrates a higher rate of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 20505258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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39. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6
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  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • These tumours have a very slow but continued growth and their volume and weight vary significantly from small lesions of a few grams to huge masses weighing up to several kilograms.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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40. Michalakis K, Ilias I: Medical management of adrenal disease: a narrative review. Endocr Regul; 2009 Jul;43(3):127-35
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  • [Title] Medical management of adrenal disease: a narrative review.
  • Adrenal diseases comprise for a variety of medical endocrine issues, ranging from partial or complete gland insufficiency, to several kinds of adrenal hyperfunction, either of congenital or neoplastic etiology.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids to control androgen excess.
  • Most benign neoplastic adrenal diseases that cause hyperfunction of the gland are surgically treated, however this may not be always feasible or effective.
  • For neoplastic adrenomedullary disease surgery is the treatment of choice; medical treatment is used preoperatively (mainly alpha blockers) and in case of disease persistence and /or recurrence (mainly metyrosine).
  • For malignant adrenocortical disease, surgical removal remains the indicated treatment, but if the potential for surgical intervention is limited due to tumor extension, medical treatment can alleviate symptoms of hormone hypersecretion; mitotane in selected patients has good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19817507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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41. Okosieme OE, Suruliram P, Brade L, Campbell A, Evans LM: Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia in patients with hypertension. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Dec;60(12):1673-4
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  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenal adenoma, and normal blood pressure was restored after surgical removal of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16669823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics
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42. Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Bakan DA, Klaunberg B, Cleary S, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Abu-Asab M, Schimel D, Pacak K: MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice. Int J Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2236-41
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  • [Title] MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice.
  • Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy.
  • This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer.
  • We report a new mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma, generated using tail vein injection of the mouse pheochromocytoma cell (MPC) line that reproducibly generated multiple liver tumors in the animals.
  • Furthermore, we show that in vivo microCT imaging enhanced using a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent, glyceryl-2-oleyl-1,3-di-7-(3-amino-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)-heptanoate (DHOG), detected tumors as small as 0.35 mm as early as 4 weeks after the injection of the tumor cells.
  • This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16841334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 37685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43416; NLM/ PMC2288741
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43. Anagnostis P, Efstathiadou Z, Polyzos SA, Tsolakidou K, Litsas ID, Panagiotou A, Kita M: Long term follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentalomas--a single center experience and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Oct;118(9):610-6
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  • [Title] Long term follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentalomas--a single center experience and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) constitute an emerging clinical entity due to the increased use of abdominal imaging for diagnostic purposes.
  • The patients underwent basal and dynamic evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and adrenomedullary function.
  • Mass enlargement and adrenal hyperfunction were estimated at yearly intervals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 19856259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • This was characterized by right adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with homolateral ganglioneuroma and controlateral adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The three tumors, incidentally discovered, proved to be non-functioning (normal secretion of catecholamines and of other neuroendocrine peptides, glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids and androgens).
  • Accordingly, the patient showed no sign or symptom of endocrine disease.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a typical adenomatous lesion on the left adrenal gland with precocious uptake of the radiotracer on radioidine (131I)-norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy, while the controlateral gland showed hyperdensity on CT, hyperintensity on MR and no uptake at adrenal scintigraphy.
  • The right adrenal gland was surgically removed and, microscopically, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma areas appeared intermixed without a predominant component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Introns / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radionuclide Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16483185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Razifar P, Hennings J, Monazzam A, Hellman P, Långström B, Sundin A: Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography. BMC Med Imaging; 2009;9:6
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  • [Title] Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography.
  • METHODS: In this study, MVW-PCA was applied to 14 dynamic 11C-metomidate-PET (MTO-PET) examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours.
  • Time activity curves derived from "50% cut-off" ROIs based on an isocontour function whereby the pixels with SUVs between 50 to 100% of the highest radioactivity concentration were delineated, showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment.
  • This might improve the precision of PET measurements, for instance in therapy monitoring as well as for delineation of the tumour in radiation therapy planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Algorithms. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19386097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2342
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2680831
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47. Thoren KL, Balingit AG, Billingsley J: Multiple pheochromocytomas in a patient with blurred vision. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Sep;33(9):597-601
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  • Multiple imaging was obtained because of concern for von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) after bilateral retinal angiomas were discovered on ophthalmologic consultation as a follow-up from the Emergency Department.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were able to localize the adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors; however, accurate differentiation between pheochromocytomas and other adrenal tumors was not possible.
  • I-123 MIBG was performed before surgery to confirm that the lesions were indeed pheochromocytomas and also to rule out metastatic disease.
  • He was presented in urology tumor board conference with recommendations for follow-up CT and laboratory tests after 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / complications. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18716506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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48. Kristo C, Ueland T, Godang K, Aukrust P, Bollerslev J: Biochemical markers for cardiovascular risk following treatment in endogenous Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 May;31(5):400-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease has been reported to be more common in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) compared to the normal population.
  • In addition to altered lipid profile, inflammation seems to play an important pathogenic role in atherogenesis, but the role of inflammation in CS-associated cardiovascular disease is still not clear.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18560257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 883WKN7W8X / cortisone acetate; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone
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49. Waldmann J, Langer P, Habbe N, Fendrich V, Ramaswamy A, Rothmund M, Bartsch DK, Slater EP: Mutations and polymorphisms in the SDHB, SDHD, VHL, and RET genes in sporadic and familial pheochromocytomas. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):347-55
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  • The prevalence of germ line mutations within the RET-protooncogene and the tumor suppressor genes SDHB, SDHD, and VHL in pheochromocytomas (PC) varies in recent studies from 12 to 24%, if one look at them collectively.
  • DNA was extracted from frozen tumor tissue as well as from blood leukocytes of 36 PC (26 sporadic/10 MEN2).
  • Patients with wild type alleles in all assessed genes were older (53 vs. 37 years, P = 0.007) and presented with an increased tumor size (49 vs. 32 mm, P = 0.003) compared to patients with mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19399650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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50. Pianovski MA, Cavalli LR, Figueiredo BC, Santos SC, Doghman M, Ribeiro RC, Oliveira AG, Michalkiewicz E, Rodrigues GA, Zambetti G, Haddad BR, Lalli E: SF-1 overexpression in childhood adrenocortical tumours. Eur J Cancer; 2006 May;42(8):1040-3
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  • [Title] SF-1 overexpression in childhood adrenocortical tumours.
  • We have recently shown that SF-1 is amplified in childhood adrenocortical tumours (ACT).
  • Conversely, the SF-1 protein was found to be overexpressed in all cases, compared to normal age-matched adrenal glands.
  • Furthermore, no significant correlation existed with histological grade or with the clinical manifestation or evolution of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16574405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors
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51. Gupta M, Sood D, Singh A: Adrenal lipoma complicated by perinephric abscess. Urol J; 2009;6(3):162
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  • [Title] Adrenal lipoma complicated by perinephric abscess.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Lipoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 19711269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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52. Aliaev IuG, Akhvlediani ND, Blokhin PS: [Ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not obligatory in nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma]. Urologiia; 2008 Mar-Apr;(2):16-22
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  • [Title] [Ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not obligatory in nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma].
  • To analyse the necessity of obligatory ipsilateral adrenalectomy (IA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we made a study of 329 RCC patients operated from 2002 to 2007.
  • Nephrectomy was conducted in 208 (63.2%) patients, renal resection--in 121 (36.8%), adrenalectomy--in 19 (5.8%) patients.
  • Preoperative HCMCT detected adrenal lesions in 62 (18.84%) patients.
  • Adrenal adenoma was suspected in 39 (11.8%) patients: ipsilateral in 19 (48.77%), contralateral in 11 (28.23%), bilateral in 9 (23%) patients.
  • Adrenal hyperplasy was diagnosed in 11 (3.34%) patients.
  • The tumor invaded the ipsilateral adrenal in 4 (1.2%) patients.
  • A RCC metastasis into the adrenal was suspected in 8 (2.4%) patients.
  • RCC invaded the ipsilateral adrenal in 1.2% patients with RCC, its adrenal metastasis was detected in 1.5% RCC patients.
  • In preservation of the adrenal in adenoma or hyperplasy 5-year follow-up registered no changes.
  • Neither pathological processes were diagnosed for 5 years in preservation of unaffected adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18574876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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53. Kim YS, Kim N, Kim SY, Cho KS, Park MJ, Choi SH, Lim SH, Yim JY, Cho KR, Kim CH, Kim DH, Kim SS, Kim JH, Choi BI, Jung HC, Song IS, Shin CS, Cho SH, Oh BH: Extracolonic findings in an asymptomatic screening population undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography colonography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Jul;23(7 Pt 2):e49-57
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  • Computed tomography colonography missed eight potentially important extracolonic findings in eight subjects (0.4%, 8/2230): 0.8-cm early-stage prostatic cancer, six adrenal mass and one intraductal papillary mucinous tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / radiography. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiography. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Mass Screening / methods. Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biliary Tract / radiography. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Early Diagnosis. Esophagus / radiography. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Pancreas / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Stomach / radiography. Time Factors. Urogenital System / pathology


54. Pecina-Slaus N, Nikuseva-Martic T, Gall-Troselj K, Radic K, Hrascan R: Replication error-positive samples found in pheochromocytomas. In Vivo; 2005 Mar-Apr;19(2):359-65
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  • Adenomatous polyposis coli, (APC) and E-cadherin (CDH1) tumor suppressor genes were investigated in human pheochromocytoma.
  • Interestingly, another type of genomic instability was detected--replication error-positive samples (RER+).
  • Four out of 13 heterozygous samples were RER-positive (30.8%).
  • Immunohistochemistry showed increased levels of c-myc in comparison to normal adrenal tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Genes, APC. Genomic Instability. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15796198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
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55. Nadeau ME, Kaartinen MJ, Laguë MN, Paquet M, Huneault LM, Boerboom D: A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor. Comp Med; 2009 Dec;59(6):553-6
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  • [Title] A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor.
  • We recently described a genetically engineered mouse model that develops ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) that mimic many aspects of the advanced human disease, including distant dissemination.
  • However, because the primary tumors killed their hosts before metastases were able to form, the use of these mice to study metastatic disease required the development of a simple, reliable, and humane surgical protocol for the excision of large GCTs from debilitated mice.
  • Here we describe a protocol involving multimodal anesthesia, tumor removal through ventral midline celiotomy and perioperative fluid therapy, and analgesia that led to the postoperative survival of more than 90% of mice, despite the removal of tumors representing as much as 10% of the animal's body weight.
  • Intraabdominal recurrence of the GCT did not occur in surviving animals, but most developed pulmonary or adrenal metastases (or both) by 12 wk after surgery.
  • Furthermore, our results delineate anesthetic and surgical principles for the removal of large abdominal tumors from mice that will be applicable to other models of human cancers.

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  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798836
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56. Shen-Li H, Koujak S, Szablocs M, Parsons R: Reduction of Pten dose leads to neoplastic development in multiple organs of Pten (shRNA) mice. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Dec 1;10(11):1194-200
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  • To address the impact of partial reduction of Pten on tumor initiation, we generated PtenshRNA mice, in which PTEN expression was reduced below normal levels in various tissues.
  • Our observations support the notion that partial reduction of the dose of Pten with shRNA is sufficient to induce neoplastic disease in multiple organ systems.

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  • (PMID = 20980828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082783-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082783-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082783-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082783; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082783-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS254407; NLM/ PMC3018670
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57. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Miyazawa I, Wada A, Sugimoto T, Nitta N, Horie M: Emerging acute unilateral pulmonary edema in a patient with pheochromocytoma. Int J Cardiol; 2009 Apr 3;133(2):e50-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pulmonary Edema / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Female. Humans


59. Fournier JR, Baez-Trinidad L, Acosta A, Marrero M, Correa-Rivas M, Rodríguez-Becerra J, Nieves F: Bladder pheochromocytoma: case presentation and the use of OctreoScan for localization of extra-adrenal tumor sites in a pediatric patient. P R Health Sci J; 2008 Mar;27(1):107-11
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  • [Title] Bladder pheochromocytoma: case presentation and the use of OctreoScan for localization of extra-adrenal tumor sites in a pediatric patient.
  • An OctreoScan (111In-pentreotide) was used to rule out metastatic extension or other extra-adrenal locations of the pheochromocytoma.
  • OctreoScan data correlated well with other radiologic studies, operative findings and with the final diagnosis, validating its use on pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Indium Radioisotopes. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary


60. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • Literature of the diagnosis and therapy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis rates of ultrasonography and spiral or thin-cut computed tomography (CT) were 70.0% (7/10) and 84.6% (11/13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • No evidence of tumor invasion revealed by preoperative imaging studies, no adjacent lymphadenopathy and no extraladrenal metastasis are indications of adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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61. Wimpole JA, Adagra CF, Billson MF, Pillai DN, Foster DJ: Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma. J Feline Med Surg; 2010 Jun;12(6):435-40
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  • [Title] Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma.
  • Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats.
  • In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma.
  • Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group.
  • This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Cat Diseases / blood. Cats / blood. Metanephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / veterinary. Chronic Disease / epidemiology. Female. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Reference Values. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20159659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2750
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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62. Weyhe D, Belyaev O, Skawran S, Müller C, Bauer KH: A case of port-site recurrence after laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Jun;17(3):218-20
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  • [Title] A case of port-site recurrence after laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • The case of a patient with bilateral adrenal metastases from lung cancer is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17581473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Hara I, Kawabata G, Hara S, Yamada Y, Tanaka K, Fujisawa M: Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to tumor size. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1022-7
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to tumor size.
  • OBJECTIVES: In order to evaluate the indication and usefulness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, clinical outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for patients with adrenal tumors were examined.
  • Whether tumor size affects surgical outcome was analysed, along with the long-term clinical outcome for these patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 63 patients with adrenal tumor underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy in our institute between 1999 and 2003.
  • Tumor diameter was significantly smaller for primary aldosteronism than for Cushing syndrome, which in turn was significantly smaller than for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular hyperplasia (AIMAH).
  • No significant differences in surgical outcome and postoperative recovery were noted between large (>or=5 cm) and small (<5 cm) tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for benign tumor offers excellent surgical outcomes and convalescence.
  • This is true for both small and large tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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64. Luo LK, Shen HF, Zhou SY, Li JM, Xu WX: [Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of adrenal]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;35(4):252-3
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  • [Title] [Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of adrenal].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16776990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Salinas-Lara C, Rembao-Bojórquez D, de la Cruz E, Márquez C, Portocarrero L, Tena-Suck ML: Pituitary apoplexy due to mucormycosis infection in a patient with an ACTH producing pulmonary tumor. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Jan;15(1):67-70
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  • [Title] Pituitary apoplexy due to mucormycosis infection in a patient with an ACTH producing pulmonary tumor.
  • Isolated cases of mucormycosis are associated with solid tumors and Cushing's syndrome.
  • Also, a solitary adrenal corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing neuroendocrine tumor, 3 cm in diameter, was found in the left lung.
  • This patient illustrates the correlation between ACTH-producing ectopic pulmonary tumor, pituitary apoplexy and mucormycosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Mucormycosis / etiology. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17462904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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66. Fusai G, Steinberg R, Prachalias A, Heaton ND, Spitz L, Rela M: Ex vivo liver surgery for extraadrenal pheochromocytoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Mar;22(3):282-5
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  • Using ex vivo technique, the tumour was successfully resected on the bench, as a previous attempt to remove the tumour in situ had been abandoned.
  • The surgical aspects and implications of ex vivo surgery are discussed, highlighting the increased operative risk, perioperative mortality, and poor long-term results in patients with malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery


67. Kura N, Igarashi K, Sekine H: Asymptomatic adrenal medullary hyperplasia detected with intraoperative hypertension: a case report. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 May;51(5):321-3
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  • [Title] Asymptomatic adrenal medullary hyperplasia detected with intraoperative hypertension: a case report.
  • We report a rare case of asymptomatic adrenal medullary hyperplasia detected by chance with intraoperative hypertension during surgery for ipsilateral renal cell carcinoma.
  • Ultrasonogram and CT scan revealed a left renal tumor but did not showed any abnormal masses in the left adrenal gland.
  • The clinical diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma and we performed left total nephrectomy.
  • Pathological examination of the extirpated kidney revealed renalcell carcinoma, while the resected adrenal gland was diagnosed as adrenal medullary hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Intraoperative Complications. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Male. Nephrectomy


68. Lee JA, Zarnegar R, Shen WT, Kebebew E, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma. Arch Surg; 2007 Sep;142(9):870-3; discussion 73-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS: Forty-two consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas (defined as adrenal tumors identified during routine imaging for another condition) who were treated at the UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) Medical Center between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2005.
  • INTERVENTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma based on size criteria and preoperative hormonal test results.
  • MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Urine or plasma metanephrine and catecholamine levels, tumor size, and presence of pheochromocytoma.
  • Of patients with borderline elevations, mean +/- SD tumor size was 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 4.8 +/- 1.9 cm for patients with and without pheochromocytoma, respectively (P = .37).
  • In these 10 patients, no clinical factors (age, sex, hypertension, presence of symptoms, number of antihypertensive medications, preoperative hemodynamics, or size of tumor on computed tomographic scan) allowed differentiation between those with and without pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thirty percent of patients with adrenal incidentaloma and borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels had a pheochromocytoma.
  • In this group of patients, we advocate either routine alpha-blockade preoperatively or further diagnostic tests to better characterize the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Metanephrine / blood. Metanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / urine

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  • (PMID = 17875842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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69. Zeng ZP, Liu DM, Li HZ, Fan XR, Liu GQ, Yan WG, Tong AL, Zheng X: Expression and effect of adrenomedullin in pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:270-6
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  • The mRNA expression of ADM and its receptor RAMP2/CRLR was present in normal adrenal medulla and pheochromocytoma tissues.
  • ADM inhibits the proliferation of human pheochromocytoma cells and exerts a possible autocrine or paracrine effect in the adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenomedullin / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17102095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALCRL protein, human; 0 / Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RAMP2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2; 0 / Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Calcitonin; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin
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70. Jaroenporn S, Furuta C, Nagaoka K, Watanabe G, Taya K: Comparative effects of prolactin versus ACTH, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone on cortisol release and proliferation of the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. Endocrine; 2008 Apr;33(2):205-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PRL may form a novel regulatory system for steroid hormone secretion and cell proliferation in the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / pharmacology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Prolactin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Dihydrotestosterone / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Estradiol / pharmacology. Humans. Progesterone / pharmacology. Radioimmunoassay. Testosterone / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18484195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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71. Muhlstein J, Rodriguez-Dahlhoff S, Marie B, Fouyssac F: Primary ovarian neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Oct;23(5):263-6
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  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of neuroblastoma is rare after the age of 15 years, and anatomical locations are essentially the adrenal glands and paraspinal sites.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 17-year-old young woman in whom the diagnosis of primary ovarian neuroblastoma associated with a mature teratoma was established.
  • A workup to assess disease extension was negative.
  • Due to the localized characteristic of this tumor and the absence of N-myc oncogene amplification, and in spite of the unfavorable characteristic of the patient's age, treatment consisted of surgical removal of the tumor followed by clinical, laboratory and radiographic monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010 Oct;23(5):261-2 [20813329.001]
  • (PMID = 20371194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Moch H, Artibani W, Delahunt B, Ficarra V, Knuechel R, Montorsi F, Patard JJ, Stief CG, Sulser T, Wild PJ: Reassessing the current UICC/AJCC TNM staging for renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol; 2009 Oct;56(4):636-43
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  • [Title] Reassessing the current UICC/AJCC TNM staging for renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: The outcome prediction for renal cell cancer (RCC) remains controversial, and although many parameters have been tested for prognostic significance, only a few have achieved widespread acceptance in clinical practice.
  • The TNM staging system defines local extension of the primary tumour (T), involvement of regional lymph nodes (N), and presence of distant metastases (M).
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search in English was performed using the National Library of Medicine database and the following keywords: renal cell cancer, kidney neoplasm, and staging.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The prognostic significance of tumour size for localized RCC has been investigated in a large number of studies.
  • As a consequence, many modifications of the TNM staging system were primarily made to the size cut points between stage I and II tumours.
  • In detail, perirenal fat invasion, direct infiltration of the ipsilateral adrenal gland, invasion of the urinary collecting system, infiltration of renal sinus fat, and vena cava and renal vein thrombosis are disputed.
  • Finally, staging of lymph node metastases and distant metastatic disease is discussed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Special emphasis should be put on renal sinus invasion for stage evaluation.
  • Retrospective studies relying on material collected at a time when no emphasis was placed on adequate sampling of the renal sinus should be treated with caution.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • (PMID = 19595500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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73. Haga H, Saito T, Okumoto K, Sugahara K, Takeda T, Saito K, Togashi H, Kawata S: Successful percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Nov;40(11):1075-6
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  • [Title] Successful percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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74. Yan QZ, Li HZ, Pan DL: [Causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and strategy therefore]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Nov 14;86(42):3002-4
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  • [Title] [Causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and strategy therefore].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and discuss corrective strategies.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 267 patients of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma confirmed by operation 1995 - 2005 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Confirmed diagnosis was made after a duration of (92 +/- 64) months (3 - 40 years) after the first visit.
  • 95.9% of the patients were diagnosed as with primary hypertension at the first visit without receiving relevant imaging examination of adrenal and endocrine examination.
  • Adrenal adenoma was discovered by computed tomography with thin coat screening in 267 patients and by ultrasonography in 151 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chymosin / blood. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17288816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.4 / Chymosin
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75. Gonias S, Goldsby R, Matthay KK, Hawkins R, Price D, Huberty J, Damon L, Linker C, Sznewajs A, Shiboski S, Fitzgerald P: Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 1;27(25):4162-8
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  • Additionally, 35% of patients achieved a CR or PR in at least one measure of response without progressive disease, and 8% of patients maintained stable disease for greater than 12 months.
  • Thirty-five percent of patients experienced progressive disease within 1 year after therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19636009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2MO1 RR0127
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734428
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76. Kantorovich V, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K: Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2008 Dec;1148:462-8
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder.
  • A pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Endocrine System Diseases / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Stress Disorders, Traumatic / physiopathology. Stress, Physiological. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19120142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS66489; NLM/ PMC2693284
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77. Sugito K, Kusafuka T, Hoshino M, Inoue M, Goto H, Ikeda T, Hagiwara N, Koshinaga T, Fukuzawa M, Nakamura M, Shichino H, Chin M, Mugishima H, Saito T, Tanaka Y: Intraoperative radiation therapy for advanced neuroblastoma: the problem of securing the IORT field. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Dec;23(12):1203-7
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  • All of them had surgery with IORT against the primary tumor site and the abdominal aorta surroundings.
  • Nine patients were alive 17-120 (mean 48 months) after diagnosis.
  • Local tumor control was achieved in 100% of patients, of whom one experienced local recurrence outside the IORT field.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Intraoperative Care / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17968560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Park HS, Roman SA, Sosa JA: Outcomes from 3144 adrenalectomies in the United States: which matters more, surgeon volume or specialty? Arch Surg; 2009 Nov;144(11):1060-7
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  • CONCLUSION: To optimize outcomes, patients with adrenal disease should be referred to surgeons based on adrenal volume and laparoscopic expertise irrespective of specialty practice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Clinical Competence. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospital Costs. Hospital Mortality / trends. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Probability. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Specialization. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 19917944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Pang TC, Bambach C, Monaghan JC, Sidhu SB, Bune A, Delbridge LW, Sywak MS: Outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for hyperaldosteronism. ANZ J Surg; 2007 Sep;77(9):768-73
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  • Multivariate regression analysis showed that age and gland size were independent factors predicting sustained hypertension after surgery.
  • Larger adrenal gland size and older age at time of surgery are predictors of persisting hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17685956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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80. Sasaki K, Desimone M, Rao HR, Huang GJ, Seethala RR: Adrenocortical carcinosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:51
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  • On en bloc resection, the tumor grossly did not involve the pancreas, kidney or colon.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of two distinct components - an epithelioid component with granular cytoplasm that stained for synaptophysin, Melan-A, calretinin, and vimentin compatible with adrenocortical differentiation, and a pleomorphic to spindled component that was positive for desmin and myogenin, compatible with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation.
  • A wedge biopsy of a liver nodule showed morphologic features similar to the epithelial component of the primary tumor.
  • Awareness of this as a possibility will help in distinguishing this tumor from other carcinomas, melanomas, and true sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20687934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224959
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81. Miller BS, Ammori JB, Gauger PG, Broome JT, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Laparoscopic resection is inappropriate in patients with known or suspected adrenocortical carcinoma. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1380-5
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  • Seventeen patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA).
  • Median tumor size of those who underwent LA was 7.0 (range, 4-14) cm versus 12.3 (range, 5-27) cm for OR.
  • Recurrent disease in the laparoscopic group occurred in 63% versus 65% in the open group.
  • Mean time to first recurrence for those who underwent LA was 9.6 months (+/-14) versus 19.2 months (+/-37.5) in the open group (p < 0.005).
  • Fifty percent of patients who underwent LA had positive margins or notation of intraoperative tumor spill versus 18% of those who underwent OR (p = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACC continues to be a deadly disease, and little to no progress has been made from a treatment standpoint in the past 20 years.
  • Although feasible in many cases and tempting, laparoscopic resection should not be attempted in patients with tumors suspicious for or known to be adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / contraindications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20372905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Hegde HV, Puri GD, Kumar B, Behera A: Bi-spectral index guided closed-loop anaesthesia delivery system (CLADS) in pheochromocytoma. J Clin Monit Comput; 2009 Aug;23(4):189-96
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  • BIS increased significantly following intubation, incision and tumor handling (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.03 respectively).
  • There was a significant fall in both HR and MAP following induction of anaesthesia (P = 0.001), and MAP following tumor excision (P = 0.045) as compared to the baseline.
  • Though maximum HR within 5 min post-intubation, post-incision and during tumor handling were significantly higher (P = 0.001, 0.014 and 0.037) compared to just before the respective event, they were not statistically different from the baseline.
  • Though maximum MAP within 5 min post-intubation, post-incision and during tumor handling were significantly higher compared to MAP just before the respective event (P = 0.001, 0.021 and 0.001), they were not significantly different compared to the baseline value except maximum MAP during tumor handling (P = 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Pheochromocytoma / therapy


83. Diab DL, Faiman C, Siperstein AE, Grossman WF, Rabinowitz LO, Hamrahian AH: Virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a woman with subclinical Cushing syndrome. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):358-61
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  • [Title] Virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a woman with subclinical Cushing syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with a virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor and subclinical Cushing syndrome attributable to an adrenal adenoma.
  • RESULTS: A 49-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a left adrenal mass (3.0 by 2.4 cm), which had been diagnosed by computed tomographic scan 4 years previously during a work-up for hirsutism.
  • A laparoscopic adrenalectomy revealed an adrenal adenoma.
  • At 6 months postoperatively, a normal result of a cosyntropin stimulation test indicated recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy revealed a 1.3-cm right ovarian Leydig cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a virilizing ovarian Leydig cell tumor in a patient with subclinical Cushing syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Virilism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Testosterone / blood


84. Patel AA, Gupta D, Seligson D, Hattab EM, Balis UJ, Ulbright TM, Kohane IS, Berman JJ, Gilbertson JR, Dry S, Schirripa O, Yu H, Becich MJ, Parwani AV, Shared Pathology Informatics Network: Availability and quality of paraffin blocks identified in pathology archives: a multi-institutional study by the Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN). BMC Cancer; 2007 Feb 28;7:37
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  • METHODS: Four centers evaluated pathology reports (1990-2005) for common and rare tumors to determine the percentage of cases where suitable tissue blocks with tumor were available.
  • Each site generated a list of 100 common tumor cases (25 cases each of breast adenocarcinoma, colonic adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma) and 100 rare tumor cases (25 cases each of adrenal cortical carcinoma, gastro-intestinal stromal tumor [GIST], adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mycosis fungoides) using a combination of Tumor Registry, laboratory information system (LIS) and/or SPIN-related tools.
  • Pathologists identified the slides/blocks with tumor and noted first 3 slides with largest tumor and availability of the corresponding block.
  • RESULTS: Common tumors cases (n = 400), the institutional retrieval rates (all blocks) were 83% (A), 95% (B), 80% (C), and 98% (D).
  • Retrieval rate (tumor blocks) from all centers for common tumors was 73% with mean largest tumor size of 1.49 cm; retrieval (tumor blocks) was highest-lung (84%) and lowest-prostate (54%).
  • Rare tumors cases (n = 400), each institution's retrieval rates (all blocks) were 78% (A), 73% (B), 67% (C), and 84% (D).
  • Retrieval rate (tumor blocks) from all centers for rare tumors was 66% with mean largest tumor size of 1.56 cm; retrieval (tumor blocks) was highest for GIST (72%) and lowest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (58%).
  • This study serves to compliment the data from which uniform use of the SPIN query tools by all four centers will be measured to assure and highlight the usefulness of archival material for obtaining tumor tissues for research.

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  • (PMID = 17386082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA091343; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA091429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA091429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016042; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA091343; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA91338-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1810540
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85. Matsumoto K, Egawa S, Satoh T, Okuno N, Kaseda S, Baba S: Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1055-7
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  • [Title] Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma.
  • Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic excision of the tumor was conducted under the diagnosis of isolated local recurrence of adrenal carcinoma.
  • There have been no signs of tumor recurrence during 3 years follow up after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thoracoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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86. Brauckhoff M, Dralle H: [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands]. Chirurg; 2005 Mar;76(3):227-37
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  • [Title] [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands].
  • Repeat adrenalectomy may be required due to ipsilateral recurrence of benign or malignant adrenal tumors after previous total or subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • Even for multivisceral resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, complete resection of local recurrent tumor offers results similar to those of primary resection (5-year survival 40-60%).
  • In contrast, since no benefit on long-term survival has been shown so far by tumor debulking, palliative tumor resection should only be performed individually for control of severe endocrine symptoms.
  • The effect of endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with large tumors (>5 cm) or suspected malignancy has still not been well examined.
  • In any case, during open or endoscopic approach, tumor spillage must be avoided to prevent local tumor cell implantation.
  • Following subtotal adrenalectomy, the risk of ipsilateral recurrence correlates with disease, follow-up, localization, size of the adrenal remnant, and, in case of familial pheochromocytoma, probably with genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / mortality. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15739057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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87. Leshnower BG, Morris RJ, Pechet TT: Management of an anterior mediastinal pheochromocytoma causing tracheomalacia. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Dec;84(6):2088-90
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  • Thoracic paragangliomas are rare tumors that arise from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells and have the capacity to secrete catecholamines.
  • Surgical excision is the optimal treatment of these tumors as they are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Although these tumors are most commonly found in the abdomen, 10% of paraganagliomas are located in the thorax, usually in the posterior mediastinum.
  • Occasionally these tumors present in the anterior mediastinum, which can pose a significant surgical challenge due to the proximity of the great vessels and airway.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Tracheal Diseases / etiology


88. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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89. Rabah R, Weber R, Serhatkulu GK, Cao A, Dai H, Pandya A, Naik R, Auner G, Poulik J, Klein M: Diagnosis of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma using Raman spectroscopy. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Jan;43(1):171-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma using Raman spectroscopy.
  • This is the first report to evaluate Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis and classification of neuroblastoma in children.
  • METHODS: A biopsy or resection of fresh tissue samples from normal adrenal glands, neuroblastomas, ganglioneuromas, nerve sheath tumors, and pheochromocytoma at our hospital were equally divided between routine histology and spectroscopic studies.
  • RESULTS: We collected 698 spectra from 16 neuroblastomas, 5 ganglioneuromas, 3 normal adrenal glands, 6 nerve sheath tumors, and 1 pheochromocytoma.
  • Raman spectroscopy differentiated between normal adrenal gland, and neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
  • It was also able to differentiate neuroblastoma from nerve sheath tumors and pheochromocytoma with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: This technique can differentiate neuroblastoma from ganglioneuroma and other tumors.
  • It has a potential as a noninvasive real-time diagnostic tool in classifying pediatric tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Embedding


90. Suzuki K, Nishiyama T, Hara N, Yamana K, Takahashi K, Labrie F: Importance of the intracrine metabolism of adrenal androgens in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2007;10(3):301-6
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  • [Title] Importance of the intracrine metabolism of adrenal androgens in androgen-dependent prostate cancer.
  • The present data show that adrenal androgen precursors do not directly interact with androgen receptors (ARs) but are converted to DHT via the intraprostatic metabolic pathways, resulting in the induction of LNCaP activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Androgens / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Dihydrotestosterone / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Finasteride / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / drug effects. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17387321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-7852
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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91. Renken NS, Krestin GP: Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2005 Jun;26(3):162-71
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands.
  • Differentiation of pathologic alterations of the adrenal glands is still a frequent and challenging problem of daily practice in radiology.
  • Two main groups of patients have to be differentiated: those with clinical symptoms, mainly of endocrinopathies, and those in which a mass of the adrenal gland is detected incidentally.
  • In the first group, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a minor role, although it allows to detect and often even differentiate the cause of the disease.
  • In the second group, MRI has an excellent performance in differentiating between adenomas and non-adenomatous lesions of the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endocrine System Diseases / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15987065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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92. Huang TW, Tzao C, Chen DW, Tsai WC, Cheng YL, Lee SC: Lung cancer with isolated skip metastasis to an abdominal lymph node. Onkologie; 2007 Jul;30(7):375-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The preferential sites of extrapulmonary spread include lymph nodes, liver, brain, adrenal gland, and bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Biopsy. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lung / diagnostic imaging. Lung / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2007 Jul;30(7):352 [17596742.001]
  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2008 Dec;31(12):708 [19060511.001]
  • (PMID = 17596746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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93. Daub KF: Pheochromocytoma: challenges in diagnosis and nursing care. Nurs Clin North Am; 2007 Mar;42(1):101-11, viii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma: challenges in diagnosis and nursing care.
  • Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the sympathoadrenal system, which includes the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglionic tissue.
  • Challenges in diagnosis, tumor location, and treatment are considerable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / nursing. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / nursing

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  • (PMID = 17270594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-6465
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nursing clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nurs. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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94. Mulatero P, Bertello C, Sukor N, Gordon R, Rossato D, Daunt N, Leggett D, Mengozzi G, Veglio F, Stowasser M: Impact of different diagnostic criteria during adrenal vein sampling on reproducibility of subtype diagnosis in patients with primary aldosteronism. Hypertension; 2010 Mar;55(3):667-73
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  • [Title] Impact of different diagnostic criteria during adrenal vein sampling on reproducibility of subtype diagnosis in patients with primary aldosteronism.
  • In patients with primary aldosteronism, adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is considered the only reliable technique to distinguish between unilateral and bilateral autonomous production of aldosterone, but agreement is lacking on the best criteria indicating successful cannulation and lateralization.
  • The objective of this study was to assess the impact of differing criteria for the successful cannulation and lateralization on the reproducibility of subtype diagnosis.
  • Although 91.1% of all of the (both first and second) AVSs were "successful" by type 1 criteria (50.8% by type 2 and 33.9% by type 3), in only 35.3% of patients was the diagnosis concordant between the first and second Avs. Type 1 criteria also led to a higher rate of diagnosis of unilateral primary aldosteronism (67.3% of successful procedures) than type 2 (36.5%) or type 3 (26.2%).
  • There was considerable disparity in the diagnosis reached using the 3 different criteria, with concordance in only 32.2%.
  • Using either type 1 or 2 criteria, the minimal adrenal/peripheral vein cortisol ratio necessary to obtain the same diagnosis in the first and second AVS procedures was >/=2.75.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnostic Techniques, Cardiovascular / standards. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine / standards. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Catheterization / standards. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Veins


95. Rosenblatt GS, Takesita K, Fuchs GJ, Colquhoun SD, Ng CS: Adrenal metastasis with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus through adrenal vein. Urology; 2009 Aug;74(2):290-1
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus through adrenal vein.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography showed a large right renal mass.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 12-cm renal mass and a separate 7.5-cm ipsilateral adrenal mass, with a tumor thrombus extending through the adrenal vein and into the inferior vena cava.
  • Right radical nephrectomy/adrenalectomy with caval tumor thrombectomy was performed, and both lesions were diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma.
  • We report on an unusual case of a large renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the adrenal gland and vena caval extension by way of the adrenal venous system, without renal vein thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19501878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Meinardi JR, Wolffenbuttel BH, Dullaart RP: Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: a clinical challenge. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Sep;157(3):245-54
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  • Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder, characterized by repeated episodes of cortisol excess interspersed by periods of normal cortisol secretion.
  • Our review of 65 reported cases demonstrates that cyclic CS originates in 54% of cases from a pituitary corticotroph adenoma, in 26% from an ectopic ACTH-producing tumour and in about 11% from an adrenal tumour, the remainder being unclassified.
  • In cases of suspected ectopic ACTH production, specific biochemical testing for carcinoids or neuroendocrine tumours is required, including measurements of serotonin in platelets and/or urine, chromogranin A and calcitonin.

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  • (PMID = 17766705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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97. Srirangalingam U, Khoo B, Matson M, Carpenter R, Reznek R, Maher ER, Chew SL, Drake WM: SDHD-related chromaffin tumours: disease localisation to genetic dysfunction. Horm Res Paediatr; 2010;73(2):135-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] SDHD-related chromaffin tumours: disease localisation to genetic dysfunction.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the management of a subject with multiple chromaffin tumours found to have a novel succinate dehydrogenase D (SDHD) mutation.
  • CASE: A 15-year-old boy with marked hypertension was found to have elevated urinary catecholamines and initial imaging thought to represent bilateral adrenal phaeochromocytomas.
  • An adrenal venous catheter was required to clarify a right adrenal phaeochromocytoma and a left abdominal paraganglioma, distinct from the left adrenal gland.
  • Excision of these tumours, with preservation of the left adrenal gland, provided a cure for this subject without the need for lifelong steroid replacement.
  • Disease surveillance in this subject and genetic screening of first degree relatives is ongoing.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic testing should be considered in all subjects presenting with a chromaffin tumour.
  • In certain circumstances an adrenal venous sampling catheter for catecholamines may clarify diagnostic uncertainty.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Catecholamines / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20190551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1663-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research in pædiatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Res Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / RNA Splice Sites; 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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98. De Toma G, Letizia C, Cavallaro G, Polistena A, Cotesta D, Petramala L, Porciello R, Giustini S, Calvieri S: Adrenal pheochromocytoma and jejunal neurofibroma in type 1 neurofibromatosis: report of a case. G Chir; 2007 May;28(5):199-202
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma and jejunal neurofibroma in type 1 neurofibromatosis: report of a case.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), known as von Recklinghausen's disease, is characterized by presence of café au lait spots, and neurofibromas in the skin or along the course of peripheral nerves.
  • Diagnosis, despite extreme clinical variability, is defined by established diagnostic criteria.
  • Clinical status is frequently complicated by systemic disorders and neoplasias.
  • CASE REPORT: A case of a patient affected by NF1, with hypertension due to adrenal pheochromocytoma and with jejunal neurofibroma, is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Jejunal Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neurofibromatosis 1. Pheochromocytoma


99. Zaludik J, Schuitemaker F, DeWaal R, Veldjuijzen B, Van der Meer N: Severe lactate acidosis and cardiogenic shock: a rare manifestation of a phaeochromocytoma. Anaesth Intensive Care; 2010 May;38(3):593-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acidosis, Lactic / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Shock, Cardiogenic / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20518121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0310-057X
  • [Journal-full-title] Anaesthesia and intensive care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesth Intensive Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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100. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
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  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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