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1. Sharma N, Dogra PN, Mathur S: Functional adrenal oncocytoma: a rare neoplasm. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Oct-Dec;51(4):531-3
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  • [Title] Functional adrenal oncocytoma: a rare neoplasm.
  • Adrenal oncocytoma is a rare adrenal neoplasm with only 21 cases reported in English literature.
  • These adrenal tumors are usually nonfunctional and hence incidentally detected.
  • Most of these adrenal neoplasms are benign.
  • We report a rare case of adrenal oncocytoma that was functional and was successfully managed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19008586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Heis HA, Bani-Hani KE, Bani-Hani BK: Adrenal cavernous haemangioma. Singapore Med J; 2008 Sep;49(9):e236-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cavernous haemangioma.
  • The adrenal gland is a rare location for haemangioma.
  • We report a huge non-functioning adrenal haemangioma presenting in a 50-year-old woman with flank pain.
  • It was surgically removed and diagnosed postoperatively as adrenal haemangioma.
  • Although rare, adrenal haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms.
  • The risks of haemorrhage, necrosis and thrombosis impose in the majority of cases surgical excision, particularly in tumours more than 3 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain. Adrenalectomy. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18830528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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3. Arkadopoulos N, Kyriazi M, Yiallourou AI, Stafyla VK, Theodosopoulos T, Dafnios N, Smyrniotis V, Kondi-Pafiti A: A rare coexistence of adrenal cavernous hemangioma with extramedullar hemopoietic tissue: a case report and brief review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:13
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  • [Title] A rare coexistence of adrenal cavernous hemangioma with extramedullar hemopoietic tissue: a case report and brief review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Cavernous hemangiomas of the adrenal gland are rare, benign, non-functioning neoplastic tumors.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of a large, non-functioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma that was incidentally found during the preoperative staging workup of a 75 year old woman with left breast adenocarcinoma.
  • Imaging with US, CT scan and MRI showed a heterogeneous 8 cm mass with non-specific radiological features that was located on the left adrenal gland.
  • The mass was surgically excised and pathology revealed an adrenal hemangioma with areas of extramedullar hemopoiesis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although adrenal hemangiomas are rare and their preoperative diagnosis is difficult, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19193247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2647540
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4. Raff H, Bruder ED, St. Luke's Medical Center Adrenal Tumor Study Group: Steroidogenesis in human aldosterone-secreting adenomas and adrenal hyperplasias: effects of hypoxia in vitro. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;290(1):E199-E203
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  • [Title] Steroidogenesis in human aldosterone-secreting adenomas and adrenal hyperplasias: effects of hypoxia in vitro.
  • The synthesis of adrenal steroids requires molecular oxygen.
  • Because arterial hypoxemia is a common clinical condition, the purpose of the present study was to examine steroidogenesis in vitro under physiological changes in O(2) tension (Po(2)) in cells from human adrenal glands with aldosterone-secreting adenomas (ASA; n=3) or with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia causing Cushing's syndrome (n=4).
  • Furthermore, cortisol and DHEA production in cells from histologically normal tissue, adjacent to ASA and from bilateral adrenal hyperplasias, was also inhibited under a Po(2) of 40 mmHg.
  • We conclude that physiological decreases in Po(2) to levels typical for adrenal venous Po(2) under mild hypoxia inhibit steroidogenesis.
  • These studies may have implications for oxygen therapy in critically ill patients with functional adrenal insufficiency, as well as for therapeutic options in patients with adrenal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Aldosterone / secretion. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Cell Hypoxia. Cells, Cultured. Cyclic AMP / pharmacology. Dehydroepiandrosterone / biosynthesis. Humans. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Oxygen / pharmacology. Partial Pressure. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16105860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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5. Siegel C: Adrenal neoplasms: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation--preliminary results. J Urol; 2005 Sep;174(3):867
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  • [Title] Adrenal neoplasms: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation--preliminary results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Catheter Ablation. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / radiography. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16093972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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6. Wu CT, Chiang YJ, Chou CC, Liu KL, Lee SH, Chang YH, Chuang CK: Comparative study of laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy. Chang Gung Med J; 2006 Sep-Oct;29(5):468-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) had become the preferred operation for management of adrenal neoplasm.
  • Thirty patients underwent OA and the other 37 patients received LA.
  • RESULTS: LA was completed in all 37 patients without conversion to OA or mortality.
  • The surgery times (203.4 vs. 192.9, p = 0.776) were similar for both OA and LA groups.
  • There was less blood loss in the LA group (355.0 vs. 104.0, p = 0.021).
  • The postoperative pain scale rating was lower in the LA group (5.6 vs. 4.5 p = 0.035) as was analgesia demand (57.4 vs. 3.7, p < 0.001).
  • Oral feeding resumed earlier in the LA group (91.7 vs. 16.4, p < 0.001) and these patients had a shorter postoperative hospital stay (8.4 vs. 3.9, p < 0.001).
  • In the LA group, patients with primary aldosteronism had shorter surgery times and less blood loss than patients with other tumor types (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA results in good surgical outcome without increased risks.
  • We suggest that LA should be the preferred choice for management of adrenal neoplasms.
  • We also suggest that surgeons inexperienced in LA consider beginning with a case of primary hyperaldosteronism.

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  • (PMID = 17214390.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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7. Xiao YY, Tian JL, Li JK, Yang L, Zhang JS: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jan;190(1):105-10
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  • [Title] CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous chemical ablation of primary and metastatic adrenal neoplasms under CT guidance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with 46 adrenal tumors underwent CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation.
  • The average (+/- SD) tumor diameter was 4.2 +/- 2.0 cm.
  • Eleven adrenal lesions were nonfunctional adenomas, six lesions were corticosteroid adenomas (bilateral lesions in one patient), nine lesions were aldosteronomas (bilateral lesions in two patients), and 20 were metastases (bilateral metastases in six patients).
  • RESULTS: Tumor volume decreased gradually during the first 2 years after the procedure.
  • For primary tumors, a complete response (CR) rate of 92.3% (24/26) and a partial response (PR) rate of 7.7% (2/26) were obtained, but for metastasis, a CR rate of 30% (6/20) and PR rate of 70% (14/20) were obtained 24 months after therapy.
  • The level of corticosteroid in five patients (six tumors) with Cushing's syndrome was in the normal range 3 months after the procedure.
  • Seven patients (nine tumors) with Conn's syndrome began receiving oral antihypertensive medications during the first month after the procedure to maintain normal blood pressure and the dose was gradually decreased after 1 month.
  • CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal tumors is an effective, minimally invasive, and easily performed procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetic Acid / administration & dosage. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Aug;191(2):W74; author reply W75 [18647891.001]
  • (PMID = 18094300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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8. Mellon MJ, Sundaram CP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma versus other surgical indications. JSLS; 2008 Oct-Dec;12(4):380-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is widely recognized as the preferred technique for surgical removal of adrenal masses.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies performed at a high-volume referral center and compare operative results for pheochromocytomas with that of other adrenal diseases.
  • Patient records were analyzed in regards to demographics, pathology diagnoses, operative time, postoperative complications, tumor size, hospital stay, among others.
  • Surgical indications included pheochromocytoma (n=11), aldosteronoma (n=26), malignant adrenal disease (n=4), nonfunctioning adenomas (n=17), Cushing's disease (n=6), and other adrenal disease (n=8).
  • When a comparison between pathological diagnosis groups was made, no statistical differences were seen between pheochromocytomas and other adrenal neoplasms with respect to estimated blood loss, open conversion rate, length of stay, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin values, blood transfusion rates, perioperative complication occurrence, tumor size, and ASA class.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and appropriate surgical technique for most adrenal lesions, including pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19275853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111198-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA111198; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA111198-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS115155; NLM/ PMC2691175
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9. Beland MD, Mayo-Smith WW: Ablation of adrenal neoplasms. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Sep-Oct;34(5):588-92
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  • [Title] Ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • Adrenal tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms that include multiple etiologies, each with a different prognosis, malignant potential, and recommended treatment.
  • Percutaneous techniques to treat adrenal neoplasms have been described including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and chemical ablation.
  • This article reviews the various adrenal neoplasms and the techniques of adrenal ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Cryosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Contrast Media. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18830736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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10. Ng SS, Lee JF, Yiu RY, Li JC, Leung KL: Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Aug;17(4):283-6
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  • [Title] Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms.
  • We report our experience with synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal carcinoma and renal/adrenal neoplasms with an emphasis on surgical and oncologic outcomes.
  • Five patients diagnosed to have synchronous colorectal carcinoma and renal/adrenal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma in 2 patients, adrenal cortical adenoma in 2 patients, and adrenal metastasis in 1 patient) underwent synchronous laparoscopic resection.
  • At a median follow-up of 17.6 months, no patient developed recurrence of disease.
  • Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms is technically feasible and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Sigmoid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17710049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • Clinical features and immunohistochemical reactions were compared in adult vs pediatric tumors.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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12. Juliano JJ, Cody RL, Suh JH: Metastatic adrenocortical oncocytoma: a case report. Urol Oncol; 2008 Mar-Apr;26(2):198-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • With only 51 cases reported in the literature to date, adrenocortical oncocytoma is an exceedingly rare pathological variant of adrenal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18312941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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13. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Studies have shown that most are metastatic tumors, and clinical presentation varies with tumor type.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Patients with lymphoma had largest average tumor size.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Ginat DT, Saad WE, Turba UC: Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):75-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that is increasingly used for the management of angiomyolipomas and to augment and/or palliate the management of malignant renal and adrenal neoplasms.
  • The most common indications for renal artery embolization include (1) prenephrectomy and preradiofrequency ablation infarction of renal tumors, (2) management of renal angiomyolipomas, (3) palliations of unresectable renal malignancy, and (4) malignant renal hemorrhage (life-threatening or chronic debilitating hematuria).
  • The increasing use of renal artery embolization for these conditions reflects the procedure's effectiveness and safety.
  • Although there is less extensive literature available regarding the use of transcatheter embolization of adrenal tumors, this technique appears to be effective and safe for palliation and preadrenalectomy of adrenal metastatic disease, adrenocortical carcinomas, as well as treatment of symptomatic aldosteronomas.
  • This article reviews the indications and techniques involved in performing transcatheter arterial embolization for renal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Catheterization. Embolization, Therapeutic. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Renal Artery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20540917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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15. International Pediatric Endosurgery Group: IPEG guidelines for the surgical treatment of adrenal masses in children. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 Mar;20(2):vii-ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] IPEG guidelines for the surgical treatment of adrenal masses in children.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy and adrenal biopsy are technically feasible in children.
  • There are no absolute contraindications to the laparoscopic approach, but for neuroblastomas and other adrenal neoplasms, care must be taken to maintain the principles of cancer surgery.
  • As opposed to adults, there are fewer benign indications for adrenalectomy, but in selected cases, laparoscopic resection of the adrenal is feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Child. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20230240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Ludwig AT, Wagner KR, Lowry PS, Papaconstantinou HT, Lairmore TC: Robot-assisted posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2010 Aug;24(8):1307-14

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is the preferred surgical approach for small, benign adrenal neoplasms.
  • Patients with adrenal masses larger than 7.0 cm, or with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 40, were excluded.
  • There were three right adrenal tumors and three left adrenal tumors.
  • Mean operative time was 121 minutes with a mean robot time of 57 minutes for the five patients in whom the entire adrenal dissection was performed robotically.

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  • [CommentIn] J Endourol. 2011 Mar;25(3):541-2 [21342015.001]
  • (PMID = 20482329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: The role of robotics for adrenal pathology. Curr Opin Urol; 2009 Jan;19(1):89-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of robotics for adrenal pathology.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review assesses the role of robotic surgery in management of benign and malignant adrenal disease.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and has been increasingly considered for malignant disease.
  • Robotic techniques have been considered for theoretical advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal and its vasculature.
  • There has been growing interest in adrenal sparing-surgery using minimally invasive techniques and encouraging outcomes for selected benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Robotics / methods

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  • (PMID = 19057223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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18. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to document the types of malignant tumors that metastasize to canine, feline, equine, and bovine adrenals, and the rate at which they do so.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • In dogs, 26 different tumor types metastasized to the adrenals.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • One dog had developed Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) secondary to lymphoma.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Rosoff JS, Raman JD, Del Pizzo JJ: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses. Curr Urol Rep; 2008 Jan;9(1):73-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses.
  • Open adrenalectomy has been the gold-standard therapy for adrenal neoplasms.
  • The traditional benefits of laparoscopy, including reduced blood loss, shorter hospital duration, and improved convalescence, extend to adrenal disease without compromising the oncologic efficacy of the surgery.
  • Contemporary series suggest that minimally invasive surgery is also a reasonable therapeutic modality for larger adrenal masses.
  • Oncologic outcomes collectively suggest that in the setting of adequate surgical resection, recurrence patterns relate more to disease-process biology than surgical approach.
  • Neither size criteria, suspicion of malignancy, nor locally invasive disease should be considered an absolute contraindication to laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18366978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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20. Bruhn AM, Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2010 Sep;62(3):305-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery.
  • The aim of this paper is to review the current state of laparoscopic and robotic surgery in the mannagement of benign and malignant disease of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal lesions can be adenomas, pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal cysts, hematomas, adrenal cortical carcinomas, metastases from other cancers, or other rare causes.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the new standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and is being increasingly utilized for malignant disease.
  • Robotic assistance offers unique advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal gland, especially considering its challenging vasculature.
  • Series of robotic adrenalectomy (RA) and LA show that techniques are both safe and effective compared to open.
  • There is also growing evidence in using minimally invasive approaches in adrenal sparing-surgery.
  • Success in these procedures depends on a firm understanding of adrenal anatomy and in careful patient selection.
  • Both LA and RA are offer advantages to patients and are comparable in outcomes.
  • While LA remains the standard of care, RA is an excellent option in high volume robotic centers from standpoints of outcomes, feasibility, and cost.

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  • (PMID = 20940699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumors (AT) are usually found in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • Thirty-four cases have been reported so far, more often presenting grossly as solid tumors, rarely as solid with cystic areas, and 5 cases were almost entirely cystic.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19851133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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22. Nakamura A, Shimizu C, Nagai S, Taniguchi S, Umetsu M, Atsumi T, Wada N, Yoshioka N, Ono Y, Sasano H, Koike T: Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jan;30(1):65-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A benign virilizing adrenal adenoma is rare among adrenal neoplasms in middle-aged women.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a left adrenal tumor, and an adrenocortical scintigraphy revealed uptake of the tracer on the left side.
  • Histopathological features of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with those of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunoreactivity of all the steroidogenic enzymes was apparent in the tumor cells and particularly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DHEA-ST) immunoreactivity was markedly expressed.
  • Cortical atrophy and reduced expression of DHEA-ST were detected in the cortex of the adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Insulin Resistance. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / therapy. Virilism / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Apr;31(4):380-1 [18475059.001]
  • (PMID = 17318025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Fas Ligand Protein. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology. Genotype. HLA-DRB1 Chains. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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24. Boikos SA, Stratakis CA: Carney complex: pathology and molecular genetics. Neuroendocrinology; 2006;83(3-4):189-99
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Carney complex (CNC) is a unique multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (MIM 160980) which is characterized by unusual biochemical features (chronic hypersomatotropinemia and paradoxical responses of cortisol production to glucocorticoids) and multi-tissue involvement.
  • The gene coding for the protein kinase A (PKA) type 1alpha regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A, had been mapped to 17q22-24, one of the genetic loci involved in CNC, and allelic analysis using probes from this chromosomal region revealed consistent changes in CNC tumors.
  • PRKAR1A has been investigated in sporadic endocrine tumors; it does not appear to be mutated in pituitary adenomas, but both thyroid and adrenal neoplasms have been found to harbor somatic mutations of this gene.
  • Animal models of the disease have been developed.
  • CNC is the first human disease caused by mutations of one of the subunits of the PKA holoenzyme, a critical component of numerous cellular signaling systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Myxoma / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Disease Models, Animal. Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Pigmentation Disorders / blood. Pigmentation Disorders / complications. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 17047382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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25. Fukuda T, Takahashi K, Suzuki T, Saruta M, Watanabe M, Nakata T, Sasano H: Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4671-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands.
  • Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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26. Iqbal CW, Wahoff DC: Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2009 Jun;21(3):379-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated.
  • Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder.
  • Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved.
  • Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients.
  • SUMMARY: Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population.
  • Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up.
  • Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Morbidity. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19421059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-698X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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27. Goh BK, Tan YM, Chung YF, Chow PK, Ooi LL, Wong WK: Retroperitoneal schwannoma. Am J Surg; 2006 Jul;192(1):14-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal schwannomas are rare, benign tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to present our surgical experience with 7 such tumors.
  • Two patients were symptomatic and presented with abdominal discomfort, and none of the patients suffered from von Recklinghausen's disease.
  • In 2 patients, calcification was seen in the tumors.
  • All 7 of the patients had a preoperative diagnosis of a retroperitoneal tumor including 3 patients who were thought to have adrenal neoplasms (1 patient had a diagnosis of an adrenal neoplasm excluded on magnetic resonance imaging).
  • Laparotomy and complete excision of tumors were performed in all the patients, and there was no morbidity or mortality.
  • CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal schwannomas are rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparotomy / methods. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16769268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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28. Lane BR, Tiong HY, Campbell SC, Fergany AF, Weight CJ, Larson BT, Novick AC, Flechner SM: Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2430-6; discussion 2436-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy are not clearly defined and some surgeons perform it routinely for large and/or upper pole renal tumors.
  • We analyzed initial management and oncological outcomes of adrenal glands after open partial nephrectomy.
  • During partial nephrectomy the ipsilateral adrenal gland was resected if a suspicious adrenal nodule was noted on radiographic imaging, or if intraoperative findings indicated direct extension or metastasis.
  • Pathological analysis revealed direct invasion of the adrenal gland by renal cell carcinoma (1), renal cell carcinoma metastasis (2), other adrenal neoplasms (3) or benign tissue (42, 87%).
  • Metachronous adrenalectomy was ipsilateral (10), contralateral (2) or bilateral (3), revealing metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenalectomy should not be routinely performed during partial nephrectomy, even for upper pole tumors.
  • We propose concomitant adrenalectomy only if a suspicious adrenal lesion is identified radiographically or invasion of the adrenal gland is suspected intraoperatively.
  • Even using such strict criteria only 13% of these suspicious adrenal nodules contained cancer.
  • The rarity of metachronous adrenal metastasis and the lack of an observable benefit to concomitant adrenalectomy support adrenal preservation during partial nephrectomy except as previously outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19371896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • These patients do not typically present in hemorrhagic shock, allowing for adequate preoperative evaluation for function and assessment for primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Pradeep PV, Mishra AK, Aggarwal V, Bhargav PR, Gupta SK, Agarwal A: Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience. World J Surg; 2006 Oct;30(10):1817-20
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  • [Title] Adrenal cysts: an institutional experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts are rare clinical entities.
  • We report our institutional experience with adrenal cysts and also assess various management options.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over the past 15 years the Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India, has had seven cases of adrenal cysts, of which two were functional: one patient had Cushing's syndrome and the other patient had pheochromocytoma.
  • It is generally agreed that a hormonal work-up is necessary in all cases of adrenal cysts to rule out a sub-clinical disease.
  • Adrenal neoplasms, including adrenocortical carcinomas, can be associated with cysts that are benign in appearance.
  • However, surgical excision provides a definite histopathological diagnosis and also removes the fear of future complications such as hemorrhage into the cyst and local pressure effects due to the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that the adrenals are a vascular gland and taking into consideration the possibilities of bleeding and complications in the cyst, our treatment of choice is the elective excision of adrenal cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Academies and Institutes / statistics & numerical data. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. India. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16983481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Murphy MM, Witkowski ER, Ng SC, McDade TP, Hill JS, Larkin AC, Whalen GF, Litwin DE, Tseng JF: Trends in adrenalectomy: a recent national review. Surg Endosc; 2010 Oct;24(10):2518-26
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenalectomy remains the definitive therapy for most adrenal neoplasms.
  • The majority of adrenalectomies (83%) were performed for benign disease.
  • Patient comorbidities (Charlson score 0 as the referent; Charlson score ≥ 2: AOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 3.71-6.14), recent year of surgery (1998-2000 as the referent; 2004-2006: AOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78), and benign disease (malignant disease as the referent; benign disease: AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.55-2.53) were predictive of major postoperative complications at multivariable analyses, whereas laparoscopy was protective (no laparoscopy as the referent; laparoscopy: AOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparoscopy / trends. Male. Middle Aged. United States

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  • (PMID = 20336320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Mazza A, Armigliato M, Zamboni S, Rempelou P, Rubello D, Pessina AC, Casiglia E: Endocrine arterial hypertension: therapeutic approach in clinical practice. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Dec;33(4):297-312
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  • In mineralocorticoid-related hypertension, adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice for aldosterone-producing adenomas and monolateral primary aldosteronism, whereas pharmacologic blood pressure (BP) control is indicated for the other forms of primary aldosteronism such as bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Subjects with catecholamine-dependent hypertension due to a neuroendocrine neoplasm need to undergo preoperative alpha-adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine or doxazozine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the procedure of choice for solitary intra-adrenal neoplasms <8 cm.
  • For malignant neoplasms, chemo- and radiopharmaceutical therapy may be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / therapeutic use. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18923367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Diuretics
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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33. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage, leading to life-threatening, and multiple tumors in the liver.
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20191330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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35. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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36. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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37. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Kim DJ, Chung JJ, Ryu YH, Hong SW, Yu JS, Kim JH: Adrenocortical oncocytoma displaying intense activity on 18F-FDG-PET: a case report and a literature review. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;22(9):821-4

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  • We report on the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) findings in a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland with the literature review of other imaging findings including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19039562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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39. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17926102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15708063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Miwa Y, Uchida K, Nakayama H, Asaki N: Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Sep;72(9):1229-32
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret.
  • The excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland, and some neoplastic cells were beta III-tubulin-, doublecortin- and neurofilament-positive.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was considered to be a neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20431253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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42. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Salem RR, Elefteriades J, Sosa JA: Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:109
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection.
  • Leiomyosarcomas arising from the adrenal vein are rare malignancies associated with delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 64-year old woman who presented with a 13 x 6.5 x 6.6 cm heterogeneous mass arising in the region of the right adrenal gland and extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium.
  • Biochemical evaluation excluded a functional tumor of the adrenal gland, and multiple tumor markers were negative.
  • We present the novel use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in the resection of an adrenal vein leiomyosarcoma extending into the right atrium.
  • The patient remains free of disease ten months after surgery.
  • DHCA afforded a bloodless operative field for optimal resection of disease from within the IVC.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas of the adrenal vein is one of exclusion and involves preoperative radiological imaging and biochemical evaluation to exclude other functional tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17910774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117013
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43. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Baldi C, Mazzoni G: Mebendazole inhibits growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines implanted in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(5):809-17
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland which requires new therapeutic approaches as its early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis poor despite therapies used.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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44. Walz MK: [Adrenal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Nov;79(11):1087-94; quiz 1095-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal tumors can be primary or secondary entities.
  • Primary tumors are able to secrete hormones which may cause significant effects clinically.
  • Typical tumor-related adrenal diseases are Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and pheochromocytoma (catacholamine excess).
  • Primary adrenal tumors are rarely malignant, but adrenocortical neoplasias show a relation between tumor size and rate of malignancy.
  • Diagnostic methods for adrenal tumors include hormone tests and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Endoscopy. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18941729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Orlando R, Lumachi F, Lirussi F: Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4385-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies.
  • Though most of these anatomical variants have no clinical significance, an accessory spleen may simulate a tumor in the adrenal gland, pancreas, stomach or intestine.
  • Alternatively, a missed accessory spleen may be the site of the relapse of a hematological disorder.
  • We, therefore, assessed retrospectively: (i) the frequency of congenital anomalies of the spleen observed during 2650 consecutive laparoscopies and (ii) looked for possible misdiagnoses of the accessory spleen as hematological disorders or solid tumors located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • Among the 44 patients in whom an accessory spleen was discovered laparoscopically, the recognition of this anomaly prevented a relapse of a hematological disease in one case and avoided a useless exploratory laparotomy in the second, where the radiologist had interpreted this malformation as a space-occupying lesion.
  • In the third case, the accessory spleen was initially misdiagnosed as a solid tumor of the pancreas, but was eventually recognized as a congenital anomaly by a second laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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46. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


47. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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48. Tang JY, Pan C, Chen J, Xu M, Chen J, Xue HL, Gu LJ, Dong R, Ye H, Zhou M, Wang YP: [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;44(10):770-3
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  • [Title] [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to improve the prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB) stage III and IV in children through the comprehensive therapy including chemotherapy, delayed tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and inducing differentiation and to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis.
  • Comprehensive protocol included accurate staging, delayed and/or second tumor resection for stage III and IV patients, chemotherapy of different intensity mainly composed of cell cycle nonspecific drugs and 13-cis-retinoid for inducing cell differentiation.
  • Of them, 15 were found to have the tumor in adrenal gland, 12 had the tumor extended to the retro-peritoneal space, while in 15 cases the tumor was beside the spinal column in chest and in 3 the tumor was located in other places.
  • Nine cases had stage I, 1 case had stage II, 8 cases had III, 26 cases had stage IV and 1 case had stage IVs of the tumor.
  • Depending on the age and stage of the tumor, 26 cases were aligned into high risk protocol, 10 into medium risk and 9 into low risk groups.
  • During up to 21 months median following up period (range 14 to 64 months), 24 cases (62%) kept CR (median 22 months) and 4 survived with stable disease.
  • Eleven cases died of relapse and disease progression.
  • Statistical analysis showed that the age older than 18 months, and stage III and IV of the tumor were the factors predicting poor prognosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively).
  • Patients who had the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal space, who had incomplete tumor resection, and those who did not receive ASCT had poorer prognosis, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.092, 0.55 and 0.60, respectively).
  • The origin of the tumor, completeness of tumor resection, and use of ASCT had no significant impact on the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17229383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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49. Pareja Megía MJ, Barrero Candau R, Medina Pérez M, Valero Puerta JA: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 May;58(4):362-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma adrenal gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland METHODS/RESULTS: A case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland, an uncommon non-functioning tumour of the adrenal cortex comprised of haematopoietic and adipose tissue, that had been detected incidentally during evaluation with CT because of its characteristic fatty composition.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15989103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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50. Ridho FE, Adam FM, Adam JM: Adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Apr;41(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor, which is unidentified before the imaging procedures conducted for an abnormality which is initially unforeseen as an adrenal disease.
  • Symptoms and/or clinical signs of adrenal tumor do not have to be present prior to a diagnosis.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma can be divided into non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, hypersecreting tumor, primary adrenal carcinoma, other adrenal mass, and metastases.
  • The majority of adrenal tumor is non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, but it is always considered as hypersecreting tumor until proven otherwise.
  • Some conditions that can be found due to hormonal activity of adrenal incidentaloma is subclinical Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma (Conn's disease), and several tumors which secrete androgen and sex hormone.
  • Diagnostic approach of adrenal incidentaloma is focused on two main problems, which are, whether the lesion is hormonally active even though lacking characteristic clinical signs, and whether the lesion is benign or malignant; thus it needs hormonal and radiologic evaluation, even a fine needle biopsy.
  • The management for adrenal incidentaloma includes surgical removal for hormonally active adrenal tumors, or inactive tumors with size less than 4 cm.
  • Monitoring of tumor's hormone level and size are necessary for non-hypersecreting tumor without surgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Aldosterone / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Incidental Findings. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Indonesia / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends

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  • (PMID = 19390128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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51. Rodríguez Hermosa JI, Roig García J, Font Pascual JA, Recasens Sala M, Ortuño Muro P, Pardina Badía B, Codina Cazador A: [Evolution of laparoscopic adrenal surgery in a general surgery department]. Cir Esp; 2008 Apr;83(4):205-10
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  • [Title] [Evolution of laparoscopic adrenal surgery in a general surgery department].
  • [Transliterated title] Evolución de la cirugía laparoscópica adrenal en un servicio de cirugía general.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility, safety and short-term results of laparoscopic adrenal surgery during the first few years after its introduction in our department.
  • Demographic data, medical history, diagnosis, adrenal and tumour size, technique, conversions, complications and hospital stay were re-viewed.
  • The mean size of tumours excised was 4.6 cm (range, 1.5-12).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18358181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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52. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Systemische Therapie maligner Nebennierentumoren.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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53. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • However, a limited visual field and a narrow working space make this approach difficult, particularly in cases of obese patients or small tumors.
  • Using multidetector row CT (MD-CT), this study investigated the use of preoperative virtual simulation (PVS) to identify tumor and central vein locations for EA, and verified these findings during EA surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Tomasich FD, Luz Mde A, Kato M, Targa GZ, Dias LA, Zucoloto FJ, Ogata DC: [Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Dec;52(9):1510-4
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Leiomiossarcoma primário de adrenal.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of adrenal gland is an extremely rare tumor originating from the central adrenal vein or its tributaries.
  • Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr infection have a higher incidence of these tumors, but even in those, the overall incidence is very low.
  • In this paper we report a case of a 48 year-old woman whose diagnosis was made by image exams that had suggested a mass in adrenal area.
  • The histopathologic and immunohistochemistry exams were compatible with primary leiomyosarcoma of adrenal gland.
  • Fifty-three months after adrenalectomy the patient died with recurrent disease.
  • Despite of the rarity of this tumor, leiomyosarcoma of adrenal gland has an aggressive behavior, such as the others soft tissue sarcomas.
  • The adrenalectomy is the primary treatment, while chemotherapy or radiotherapy is not prescribed except in metastatic or bulky and inoperable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19197462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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55. Baron M, Hamou L, Laberge S, Callonnec F, Tielmans A, Dessogne P: Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):523-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature.
  • Metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands due to gynaecological neoplasms is a relatively rare condition.
  • The aim of our study was to present four cases of metastases to the adrenal gland due to endometrial adenocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CT scan and MRI have been previously used in an attempt to define the nature of the adrenal mass but this approach is of limited value in diagnosis.
  • Image-guided pathological confirmation of an adrenal lesion may significantly change the staging or management of the primary neoplasm.
  • The authors suggest that isolated adrenal metastasis should be routinely considered for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19051827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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56. Varkarakis IM, Mufarrij P, Studeman KD, Jarrett TW: Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland. Urology; 2005 Jan;65(1):175
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are common in the genital tract but rare in the adrenal gland.
  • These tumors can be difficult to diagnose when present in extragenital sites.
  • This type of adrenal tumor lacks specific radiographic features and can be confused preoperatively with more common adrenal gland tumors.
  • We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidental right adrenal mass with calcified components and elevated urinary levels of homovanillic acid that was found to be an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Calcinosis / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Homovanillic Acid / urine. Humans. Incidental Findings. Kidney Calculi / complications. Kidney Calculi / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15667895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
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57. Gross MD, Djekidel M, Hay RV, Rubello D: Scintigraphic localization of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):171-84
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  • [Title] Scintigraphic localization of adrenal tumors.
  • Scintigraphy has historically added much to the evaluation of adrenal dysfunction and tumor localization.
  • The parallel emergence of radiopharmaceuticals for adrenomedullary imaging also provided important functional insight in evaluating these neoplasms, but despite the clinical value of such nuclear probes they too, were relegated to a less prominent role in tumor characterization because of advances in anatomic imaging.
  • However, with the recent introduction of dual-modality imaging platforms that directly combine CT with scintigraphy, either as single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/CT or positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, nuclear medicine studies once again play an integral role in adrenal tumor evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Cushing Syndrome / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19333218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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58. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


59. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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60. Gonsior A, Pfeiffer H, Führer D, Liatsikos E, Schwalenberg T, Stolzenburg JU: [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment]. Urologe A; 2010 May;49(5):659-68; quiz 669-70
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren. Grundlagen der Diagnostik und operativen Therapie.
  • Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity.
  • Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge.
  • This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / instrumentation. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenogenital Syndrome / diagnosis. Adrenogenital Syndrome / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopes. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20449781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Vincent C, Brewster JB, Kedar V, Sundaram CP: Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2008 May;22(5):995-7
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  • [Title] Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the clinical and radiologic features of unilateral adrenal hematomas in adults.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 75 patients who underwent adrenalectomies at our institution, we identified 3 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors.
  • The pathology report confirmed adrenal hematomas with no evidence of neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Unilateral adrenal hematomas sometimes are indistinguishable radiologically from neoplasms.
  • Surgery is then necessary to distinguish a hematoma from a hemorrhagic adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18393646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; A74586SNO7 / clopidogrel; OM90ZUW7M1 / Ticlopidine; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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62. Zografos GN, Farfaras A, Vasiliadis G, Pappa T, Aggeli C, Vassilatou E, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • It still remains to be clarified whether the laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) or potentially malignant tumors is appropriate or not due to technical difficulties and concern about local recurrence.
  • Fifteen patients with tumors ≥ 8 cm underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Tumor size ranged from 3.2 cm to 27 cm.
  • The largest laparoscopically excised tumors were a ganglioneuroma with a mean diameter of 13 cm and a myelolipoma of 14 cm.
  • There were no conversions in the group of patients with tumors > 8 cm.
  • In the large adrenal tumor group, operative time for laparoscopic resection ranged from 150 minutes to 240 minutes.
  • The mean postoperative stay was 2 days for the group with large tumors resected by laparoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) adrenal tumors is feasible and safe.

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  • (PMID = 21333189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041032
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63. Lau SK, Weiss LM: Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):656-9
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  • [Title] Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Calcifying fibrous tumor is an uncommon entity with distinctive pathologic features.
  • Most calcifying fibrous tumors involve the peripheral soft tissues or serosal surfaces, with reports of visceral examples of this lesion being extremely limited.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of an unusual case of calcifying fibrous tumor occurring in the adrenal gland of a 32-year-old woman.
  • The morphologic diagnosis of calcifying fibrous tumor was supported by diffuse positive immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa and absence of reactivity for muscle specific actin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
  • Although rare, awareness that calcifying fibrous tumor may occur at this particular site is important so as not to confuse this lesion with other mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17078996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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64. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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65. Kita M, Tamaki G, Okuyama M, Saga Y, Kakizaki H: Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Nov;53(11):761-6
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in cases of metastatic adrenal tumor remain controversial.
  • To clarify indications and outcomes of adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis, we performed a retrospective review of all 8 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis between 1990 and 2006 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital.
  • The Primary tumor was renal cell carcinoma in 2 cases, and eccrine poro carcinoma, rectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer and cancer of unknown origin in 1 case each.
  • Of the 4 patients with solitary adrenal metastasis, 3 were considered tumor-free after adrenalectomy, while the remaining patient was not due to unresectable primary tumor.
  • Of the 2 patients with other resectable metastasis who were tumor-free after removal of all metastases, one was alive 31 months postoperatively and the other died 23 months after operation.
  • At least in cases of solitary adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy can be effective if other valid methods are unavailable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 18051798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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66. Falhammar H, Thorén M: An 88-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: connection or coincidence? J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):449-53
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  • [Title] An 88-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: connection or coincidence?
  • An 88-yr-old woman presented with a 3x4x5 cm adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Biopsy of the tumor showed benign adenoma tissue.
  • The genetic analysis showed two mutations in the CYP21-gene, V281L and 1172N consistent with mild non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • Previous reports have shown increased prevalence of CAH in patients with adrenal tumors although, to our knowledge, no one has reported the combination in a patient as old as in ours.
  • Thus, clinical signs and symptoms of CAH should be looked for in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, even in the very old ones, and if suspicion further diagnostic work-up should be carried out to provide adequate treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology


67. Gaisa NT, Klöppel G, Brehmer B, Neulen J, Stephan P, Knüchel R, Donner A: [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours]. Pathologe; 2009 Sep;30(5):407-10
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Virilisierendes Ganglioneurom der Nebenniere : Eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose testosteronproduzierender Nebennierentumoren.
  • Testosterone secreting tumours of the adrenal glands are usually adrenal carcinomas or adenomas.
  • Here we report the rare case of an adrenal ganglioneuroma with ectopic Leydig cells, a so-called virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / secretion. Testosterone / secretion. Virilism / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Choristoma / pathology. Choristoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Inhibins / analysis. Laparoscopy. Leydig Cells. Male. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19396442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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68. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.
  • The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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69. Koren J, Cunderlík P: [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):111-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoidný tumor pravej nadoblicky: kazuistika.
  • Adenomatoid tumor of adrenal gland is a very rare primary tumor with favourable prognosis.
  • The mesothelial origin of this tumor was confirmed by multiple studies of various authors.
  • In our case report, we present an interesting case of the adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 55-year-old woman.
  • Our case is the second well-documented case of this tumor occurring in a female adult patient.
  • We emphasize the presence of an intraluminal thread-like bridging strands, generally considered to be a characteristic histologic feature of this tumor, which have not yet been reported in literature in adenomatoid tumor located in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16161457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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70. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • These tumors arise from tissues with distinct embryonic origins.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • The tumors are frequently large enough to provide material for biological studies in addition to diagnostic investigations.
  • In France many patients with hypersecretory tumors are referred to the Hypertension Unit of Georges Pompidou European Hospital, and to the Department of Endocrinology at Cochin Hospital, Paris.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of its excellent negative predictive value, 18F-FDG-PET may be of help in avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with non-secreting equivocal tumors at CT scanning and low 18F-FGD uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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72. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • In both tumors, it may be difficult to determine benign from malignant and the biologic behavior and degree of invasion may portend a more malignant course.
  • Surgical excision is the primary therapy for both tumors, including excision of metastatic and recurrent tumor.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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73. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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74. Nürnberg D: [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)]. Ultraschall Med; 2005 Dec;26(6):458-69
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  • [Title] [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographie von Nebennierentumoren--wann ist die Punktion indiziert?
  • The normal adrenal glands can be detected by high-resolution-sonography in a high percentage of cases.
  • Sonography is also highly sensitive in the diagnosis of tumours of the adrenal glands.
  • Only some of those tumours are hormonally active.
  • Amongst the benign tumours, adenomas are the most frequent (up to 8%).
  • Amongst the malignant tumours, metastases are more frequent than primary carcinomas (32.5% vs. 19.8% in uFNB-statistics).
  • The adrenal glands are the fourth most common location of metastases.
  • Bronchiogenic carcinomas, malignant melanomas, carcinomas of the breast and stomach as well as renal carcinomas metastasize into the adrenals most often.
  • Much less frequent are infiltrates of lymphomas in adrenal glands tumours (3.4%).
  • Incidentalomas are accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands without clinical symptoms.
  • Malignant tumours only represent a very small part of incidentalomas (0.2%).
  • In the case of an accidentally detected tumour, we propose a minimal laboratory profile (24-h-urinary-catecholamines, dexamethasone-test, electrolyte metabolism).
  • The uFNB of the adrenal glands has a high sensitivity (90-95%).
  • Considering the excellent imaging methods and laparoscopic surgery methods on hand, the indication of FNP is restricted to the following cases: 1. the presence of a metastasis leading to therapeutical consequences; 2. suspected lymphoma 3. undefined lesion (3-5 cm), hormonally inactive, without typical signs of a tumour 4. patients refusing surgery.
  • 5. uFNB in case of tumours of undefined dignity is only justified in specific cases.
  • Recommendations for this procedure in accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands: < 3 cm and hormonally inactive --> US-follow up, > 5 cm + suspected tumour --> surgery, 3-5 cm uFNB after laboratory diagnostics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16453217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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75. Gibbs KE, White A, Kaleya R: Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature. JSLS; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic management of adrenal masses has been well described.
  • We describe a case of an enlarging smooth muscle tumor of the adrenal gland in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and review the sparse literature available on this subject.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old female with AIDS complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was found to have a left adrenal mass.
  • Pathological review found the mass to be a rare adrenal leiomyoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Benign, smooth muscle tumors arising from the adrenal glands are rare.
  • A review of the literature does reveal a propensity for these tumors to occur in the immunocompromised population.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability to manage these tumors laparoscopically is of significant benefit to patients.

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  • (PMID = 16121885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015615
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76. Ueberberg B, Tourne H, Redmann A, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):722-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) is a widely distributed peptide with growth-inhibiting effects in various tumors.
  • We investigated expression of the five ssts in various adrenal tumors and in normal adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal tissue surrounding the tumor was available for analysis in twenty-seven cases.
  • Expression of all five receptor subtypes was observed in RNA obtained from normal adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, each receptor subtype was expressed in more than 50 % of all tumors analyzed.
  • No sst5 expression was found in PHEOs, while sst1 was present in nearly all of these tumors.
  • Differential expression of ssts in various adrenal tumors may point to new aspects in the pathogenesis of these adenomas.
  • New subtype specific analogues of SRIF may be used in the future depending on the type of adrenal tumor and receptor subtype expressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Horm Metab Res. 2006 Sep;38(9):617. Redman, A [corrected to Redmann, A]
  • (PMID = 16372224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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77. Ishay A, Luboshitzky R: Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors. Fertil Steril; 2009 Aug;92(2):806-7
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  • [Title] Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • An infertile man who presents with azoospermia and bilateral adrenal tumors reveals an XX karyotype and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Azoospermia / diagnosis. Azoospermia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19100538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • [Title] [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Przydatność ultrasonograficznego środka kontrastujacego Levovist w diagnostyce róznicowej guzów nadnerczy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • Non hormone-secreting tumors provide the most complicated diagnostic difficulties.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to define the usefulness of contrasting agent Levovist in differential diagnostics of adrenal tumors and its influence on sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination and to establish patients qualification criteria for surgical procedures.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 3D ultrasound could be useful in cases of big adrenal tumors--over 3 cm diameter after application of ultrasound contrast agents.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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79. Izaki H, Fukumori T, Takahashi M, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Tanimoto S, Nishitani MA, Kanayama HO: Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):677-81
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  • [Title] Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy.
  • AIM: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently indicated for biochemically and clinically functional adrenal tumors and potentially malignant tumors of the adrenal glands.
  • Non-functional adenomas greater than 5 cm in diameter of the adrenal gland are generally considered to represent potentially malignant tumors.
  • The present study shows indications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors with hypertension in a retrospective fashion.
  • Forty-five patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors, and [(131)I]6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (NP-59) scintigraphy was performed for patients with preoperative hypertension.
  • Mean maximum tumor diameter was 42 mm (range, 20-105 mm).
  • All adrenal tumors were removed successfully by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Importantly, all patients who improved hypertension after adrenalectomy displayed strong accumulation in adrenal tumors with visualization of the contralateral gland on NP-59 scintigraphy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The indication of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors is generally considered for lesions more than 5 cm diameter.
  • However, the present study suggests that laparoscopic surgery should be considered even in patients with tumors less than 5 cm in diameter, if both hypertension and accumulation in tumors on NP-59 scintigraphy are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16834641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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80. Barzon L, Trevisan M, Masi G, Pacenti M, Sinigaglia A, Macchi V, Porzionato A, De Caro R, Favia G, Iacobone M, Palù G: Detection of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in human adrenal tumors. Oncogene; 2008 Jan 31;27(6):857-64
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  • [Title] Detection of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in human adrenal tumors.
  • The presence of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in adrenal tumors and their role in adrenal tumorigenesis has never been investigated, even though the adrenal gland seems to be a preferential site of infection by these viruses and adrenal steroid hormones have been shown to activate their replication.
  • We examined in a large series of normal adrenal gland tissues (n=20) and adrenal tumors (n=107) the presence of herpesviruses and polyomaviruses sequences and gene expression, which were detected in a high proportion of both normal and neoplastic adrenal samples (overall, viruses were found in 15% normal adrenals, 27.8% benign adrenal tumors and 35.3% malignant tumors).
  • The polyomaviruses SV40 and BK virus were more frequently found in malignant adrenal tumors, whereas herpesviruses, especially Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus, were more frequently detected in functioning benign adrenocortical tumors, often as coinfection.
  • Moreover, tumors from patients with severe hypercortisolism frequently showed herpesvirus coinfections at high viral genome copy number.
  • Our study suggests that the adrenal gland could be a reservoir of infection for these viruses and that hormone overproduction by the adrenal gland could represent a trigger for virus reactivation.
  • On the other hand, these viruses could also contribute to adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / virology. Herpesviridae / isolation & purification. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Polyomavirus / isolation & purification. Polyomavirus Infections / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Viral, Tumor / analysis. Base Sequence. DNA, Viral / chemistry. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 17684484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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81. Hattori Y, Kanamoto N, Kawano K, Iwakura H, Sone M, Miura M, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Arai H, Akamizu T, Nakao K, Maitani Y: Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma. Int J Oncol; 2010 Sep;37(3):695-705
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma.
  • Adrenal neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma have the same embryonic origin from neural crest cells and mainly arise from the adrenal medulla.
  • Recently, transgenic mice exhibiting tumors in the bilateral adrenal medulla by the expression of SV40 T-antigen were developed.
  • In this study, we investigated mRNA expression in adrenal tumors of transgenic mice and compared them with human pheochromocytoma by DNA microarray analysis.
  • To compare mouse adrenal tumors and human pheochromacytoma, we found that the expressions of noradrenergic neuron-related genes, including dopa decarboxylase, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and chromogranin B, were up-regulated in humans but not in mice; however, the expression of neuroblastoma-related genes, including Mycn, paired-like homeobox 2b, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta3 subunit, islet 1 and kinesin family member 1A, was up-regulated in both species.
  • From the gene expression profiles, the characterization of mouse adrenal tumor, may be similar to that of human adrenal neuroblastoma rather than pheochromacytomas.
  • This mouse model would be a useful tool for the development of anti-cancer drugs and for understanding the etiology of adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / biosynthesis. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Up-Regulation


82. Wijesiriwardene B, De Silva DC: Adrenal hypersecretion. Ceylon Med J; 2007 Sep;52(3):104-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal hypersecretion.
  • Hypersecretion from the adrenal glands is associated with hypertension.
  • This article discusses their clinical features, diagnosis and treatment as well as the management of incidentally identified adrenal tumours (incidentaloma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18020030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-0875
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ceylon medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceylon Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sri Lanka
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83. Agha A, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):233-9
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  • [Title] [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der Nebennierenrinden-Adenome.
  • Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours.
  • The decision to use one of the available techniques depends on tumour size, body mass index, previous abdominal surgery and the experience of the surgeon.
  • Conventional surgery should be used if malignancy is suspected, especially for tumours larger than 6 cm.
  • In individual cases, even tumours up to 10 cm can be operated laparoscopically if there is no suspicion of invasive growth or lymphatic metastases.
  • The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent.
  • The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart , New York.
  • (PMID = 20549586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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85. Broome JT, Gauger P: Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):185-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors.
  • As technology has advanced, the options for the surgical management of adrenal disorders have also increased.
  • An understanding of the basic evaluation of adrenal tumors, patient specific factors, and the risks and benefits of available techniques will allow the clinician to select an appropriate treatment for each individual.
  • Except in the case of pheochromocytoma, large adrenal tumors >6 cm should not be removed laparoscopically due to the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This article will review basic surgical adrenal disorders, operative approaches, and delineate principles of patient and procedure selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Length of Stay. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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86. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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87. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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88. Kuruba R, Gallagher SF: Current management of adrenal tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Jan;20(1):34-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal tumors evoke considerable interest and diagnostic challenges.
  • This rare group of tumors includes functional tumors with a gamut of clinical presentations, as well as adrenocortical carcinoma, with its advanced disease at presentation and dismal prognosis posing additional challenge.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances have been made in diagnostic imaging modalities for identifying malignancy risk in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Considerable progress has occurred in understanding adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenesis from the study of genetics at the germline level in familial carcinomas, as well as at the somatic level by analyzing molecular alterations in sporadic tumors; this research supplies opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents against a tumor with poor prognosis.
  • SUMMARY: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has emerged as standard of care in the treatment of functional benign adenomas and nonfunctional tumors larger than 4 cm when adrenocortical carcinoma is not suspected.
  • International consensus conferences have attempted to standardize diagnostic and treatment approaches in the management of adrenal tumors; further research is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18043254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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89. Nomura M, Sasano H, Okada Y, Watanabe T, Sakamoto S, Sakiyama Y, Sakamoto R, Abe I, Horiuchi T, Yanase T, Takayanagi R: Adrenal failure caused by a retroperitoneal malignant mesothelioma. Intern Med; 2009;48(24):2109-14
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  • [Title] Adrenal failure caused by a retroperitoneal malignant mesothelioma.
  • A 62-year-old man presented with clinical signs of acute abdominal pain and adrenal insufficiency.
  • Computerized tomographic scans revealed bilateral adrenal tumors and the left adrenal tumor was surgically resected.
  • The patient was found to have retroperitoneal mesothelioma presenting as bilateral metastatic adrenal tumors, which were well controlled by systemic chemotherapy with CDDP and 5-FU.
  • This case appears to be the first reported case in the literature of adrenal failure due to bilateral adrenal infiltration caused by retroperitoneal malignant mesothelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Mesothelioma / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology


90. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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91. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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92. Phitayakorn R, McHenry CR: Laparoscopic and selective open resection for adrenal and extraadrenal neuroendocrine tumors. Am Surg; 2008 Jan;74(1):37-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic and selective open resection for adrenal and extraadrenal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Laparoscopic resection is preferred for most adrenal tumors.
  • From 1996 to 2007, 54 consecutive patients who underwent resection of an adrenal tumor or extraadrenal pheochromocytoma were reviewed to determine the outcome of laparoscopic resection and the rate of conversion and indications for open resection.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was initiated in 42 patients, three (7.3%) of whom underwent conversion to an open approach because of bleeding from an accessory vein (one), tumor invasion (one), or adhesions (one) (median American Society of Anesthesiologists score = 2, estimated blood loss = 186 +/- 235 mL, size = 5 +/- 3 cm).
  • Open resection was performed in 12 patients, six at the time of another procedure, three for pheochromocytoma of the organs of Zuckerkandl, two for bilateral adrenalectomy, and one for tumor invasion (median American Society of Anesthesiologists score = 3, estimated blood loss = 1525 +/- 978 mL, size = 8 +/- 4 cm).
  • When unrecognized, an accessory right adrenal vein may be a source of significant bleeding requiring conversion to an open approach.
  • Open resection is indicated for tumor invasion, for extraadrenal pheochromocytoma, when laparoscopic resection cannot be performed safely, and for concomitant open procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18274426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Krsek M: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Vnitr Lek; 2007 Jul-Aug;53(7-8):821-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomy nadledvin.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are called as a disease of modern technology because increased availability and accuracy of imaging techniques lead to increased incidence of incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are found in about 0.35-4.36% of abdominal CT scans performed for purpose other than suspicion of adrenal diseases.
  • However, in autoptic studies the percentage of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours in much higher, in some of then being even more than 20%.
  • Important component of differential diagnosis is endocrinological examination aimed to reveal potential autonomous hormonal overproduction.
  • Approximately more than 10% of adrenal incidentalomas is characterized by autonomous cortisol production, 5-10% is phaeochromocytomas and 5-7% is aldosteron producing adenomas.
  • Vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning tumours, mainly adenomas.
  • Rational ways and recommendations for screening of hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas is discussed.
  • Particular characteristics of particular adrenal tumours are discussed.
  • From the relationship between the tumour size and probability of malignancy, current recommendations are derived, that non-functioning tumours smaller than 4 cm are indicated for further follow-up, size over 6 cm is indication for adrenalectomy and in tumours between 4-6 cm decision process is complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17915426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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94. Silvio Estaba L, Madrazo González Z, Pujol Gebelli J, Masdevall Noguera C, Rafecas Renau A, Moreno Llorente P: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis]. Cir Esp; 2007 Apr;81(4):197-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica por sospecha de metástasis adrenal solitaria.
  • INTRODUCTION: Isolated adrenal metastasis is uncommon.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications, diagnosis and utility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in patients with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted in patients with current or previous tumoral disease and with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • Fifteen LA were performed (one patient was found to have an inoperable tumor at surgery).
  • Histopathological analysis revealed non-tumoral disease in two patients.
  • The most common metastatic disease was non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (10 patients), followed by colorectal cancer metastasis (two patients).
  • The mean tumor size was 4.7 cm and was 3.8 cm on computed tomography (p = 0.09).
  • The disease-free interval (DFI) in the NSCLC group was shorter than that in the remaining tumors (p = 0.17).
  • At the end of the study, five patients were alive: two were disease free, one had recurrent disease, one had margin involvement and one was awaiting resection of the primary tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA for metastasis can be performed without oncological disadvantage and should be offered to patients with resectable disease, a DFI > 6 months, and a tumoral size that allows laparoscopic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17403355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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95. Hiroi N, Yanagisawa R, Yoshida-Hiroi M, Endo T, Kawase T, Tsuchida Y, Toyama K, Shibuya K, Nakata K, Yoshino G: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):551-4
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.
  • A 56-yr-old man was admitted to our university hospital for severe back pain one month after a resection for lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIA) without evidence of the adrenal mass.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed bilateral bleeding of adrenal tumors.
  • Core-needle biopsy was performed on the right adrenal tumor and revealed adenocarcinoma cells mimicking a primary lung tumor previously examined.
  • We diagnosed retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma with adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenal metastases most commonly originate from a primary lung tumor, followed by stomach, esophagus and liver/bile ducts.
  • Bilateral adrenal metastases were noted in approximately half of all adrenal metastases patients.
  • Clinically significant adrenal hemorrhage by metastasis is exceedingly rare and non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal, chest or back pain, nausea and vomiting, confusion, weakness, hypotension, shock and high fever, are often observed in these patients.
  • We present a case of massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16840834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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96. Misseri R: Adrenal surgery in the pediatric population. Curr Urol Rep; 2007 Jan;8(1):89-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal surgery in the pediatric population.
  • Adrenal tumors in children may be benign or malignant.
  • In addition, both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active, leading to hypertension, metabolic crises, and endocrinopathies.
  • These tumors may be found incidentally or secondary to signs and symptoms of the aforementioned disorders.
  • Both a metabolic and a radiographic work-up are required before treatment of an adrenal tumor.
  • The primary therapy for most adrenal lesions is surgical, though some are treated medically or require chemotherapy before excision.
  • Laparoscopy has become the surgical approach of choice in both adult and pediatric patients with localized disease.
  • Open surgical approaches remain necessary in patients with extensive locally invasive or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / mortality. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Male. Neuroblastoma / mortality. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / mortality. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17239322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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97. Igaz P, Wiener Z, Szabó P, Falus A, Gaillard RC, Horányi J, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: Functional genomics approaches for the study of sporadic adrenal tumor pathogenesis: clinical implications. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2006 Oct;101(2-3):87-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional genomics approaches for the study of sporadic adrenal tumor pathogenesis: clinical implications.
  • Although sporadic adrenal tumors are frequently encountered in the general population their pathogenesis is not well elucidated.
  • Some studies have already been published describing gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and phaeochromocytomas.
  • Several genes coding for growth factors and their receptors, enzymes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, genes related to the regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation, adhesion and intracellular metabolism have been found to be up- or downregulated in various tumors.
  • Some alterations in gene expression appear so specific for certain tumor types that their application in diagnosis, determination of prognosis and the choice of therapy can be envisaged.
  • In this short review, the authors will present a synopsis of these recent findings that seem to open new perspectives in adrenal tumor pathogenesis, with emphasis on changes in steroidogenic enzyme expression profiles and highlighting possible clinical implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromosome Aberrations. Genomics / methods

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  • (PMID = 16891114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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98. Stell A, Sinnott R, Jiang J: Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:259-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.
  • One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
  • The rarity of the tumors under study means the value of accessing, aggregating and comparing data from many centres is great indeed.
  • We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Biomedical Research. Cooperative Behavior. Neoplasms. Public Health Informatics

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  • (PMID = 20543447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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99. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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100. Araujo Júnior E, Sanchez Ayub E, Costa Santos EM, Moraes DJ, Rodrigues Pires C, Filho Sebastião MZ: [Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal neuroblastoma]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Aug;73(8):451-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neuroblastoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal neuroblastoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnóstico prenatal ultrasonográfico de neuroblastoma adrenal.
  • Neuroblastoma is the most frequent solid malignant tumor in the neonatal period; however, its diagnosis is very difficult in the prenatal one.
  • This kind of tumor has a high morbidity and mortality rate due to the metastatic risk.
  • Its prognosis depends on the affected area, on the extension of the tumor, and on the associated abnormalities.
  • The antenatal ultrasound diagnosis is possible by finding a mixed mass in the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of a bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography at the 29th week of gestation.
  • We describe the principal findings and show the contribution of the tridimensional ultrasound on the relationship of the tumor with the nearby structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fetal Diseases / ultrasonography. Neuroblastoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal






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