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1. Umemoto S, Miyoshi Y, Nakaigawa N, Yao M, Takebayashi S, Kubota Y: Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):245-7
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  • [Title] Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan.
  • Heterotropic splenic tissue in renal fossa is characteristically asymptomatic and is usually an incidental finding that has been reported to mimic renal or adrenal tumors.
  • A 55-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma had undergone radical nephrectomy together with splenectomy because of disrupture of the splenic capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Splenosis / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Splenectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17430265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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2. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to document the types of malignant tumors that metastasize to canine, feline, equine, and bovine adrenals, and the rate at which they do so.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • In dogs, 26 different tumor types metastasized to the adrenals.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • One dog had developed Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) secondary to lymphoma.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • DESIGN: Pools of RNA from NA and APAs were hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays.
  • Data were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from NA (n = 20) and APAs (n = 18).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • RESULTS: LH/choriogonadotropin receptor gene and CYP11B2 are indicated as having greater than 25-fold expression in one pool of APA mRNA samples over NA using microarray analysis.
  • Real-time RT-PCR analyses indicated that one APA sample (APA-LH receptor) exhibited more than 2400-fold elevation in LH receptor expression over NA.
  • Examination of LH receptor mRNA levels in 18 independent APA samples indicated elevated expression in nine samples when compared with NA.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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4. [Adrenal gland tumor removed from a dog via video surgery]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd; 2007 Apr 15;132(8):308
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumor removed from a dog via video surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Bijniertumor hond via kijkoperatie verwijderd.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery / veterinary

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  • [CommentIn] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2007 May 15;132(10):407 [17580402.001]
  • (PMID = 17489377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-7453
  • [Journal-full-title] Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Commo F, Dartevelle P, Gomez-Roca C, de Montpreville V, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases. Lung Cancer; 2009 Aug;65(2):144-9
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  • [Title] Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: The development of molecular targeted therapies as anti-cancer strategies raises important questions regarding the biological and molecular behavior of the metastatic sites as compared to their corresponding primary tumors.
  • We analysed telomere related markers (telomere length and telomeric proteins) and DNA damage repair (DDR) markers in a cohort of patients with surgically resected primary lung NSCLC and adrenal metastasis.
  • These markers were selected for two reasons: (i) small molecule inhibitors of 'druggable' DDR components as well as telomere-interacting agents are already being developed for clinical use; and (ii) limited data is available comparing the expression of these biomarkers between primary tumors and their metastases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a single series of 21 patients who had undergone surgery of both their primary lung tumor and its related adrenal gland metastasis in a single Institution.
  • RESULTS: DDR activation was observed in primary tumors and their corresponding metastasis.
  • However, higher levels of p-Chk2 were observed in metastasis than in primary tumors (p=0.0113).
  • There was no correlation between primary and metastatic sites, although approximately 65% of metastases had shorter telomeres than their corresponding primary tumors.
  • Cluster analysis of each specimen according to its protein's expression levels and telomere length showed that matched primary tumors/adrenal metastasis were mostly separated into different clusters.
  • Overall, our findings suggest that the levels of biomarkers analysed differ substantially between primary lung tumors and corresponding metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: There are clear molecular discrepancies at the telomeric and DDR level between primary tumors and their corresponding metastases.
  • Our findings suggest that primary tumors and their relevant metastases may respond differently to such approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Repair / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomere / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19091442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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6. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards


7. Erbil Y, Ozbey N, Barbaros U, Unalp HR, Salmaslioglu A, Ozarmagan S: Cardiovascular risk in patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma: myth or reality? World J Surg; 2009 Oct;33(10):2099-105
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  • [Title] Cardiovascular risk in patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma: myth or reality?
  • BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma (NFA) increases the risk of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome or whether this type of adrenal tumor has been found more frequently in patients with cardiometabolic risk factors.
  • Age (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.9), total cholesterol (OR = 2.3), and presence of adrenal incidentaloma (OR = 10) were significant independent predictors of lower FMD (P < 0.05 for all).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Atherosclerosis / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology


8. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumors (AT) are usually found in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • Thirty-four cases have been reported so far, more often presenting grossly as solid tumors, rarely as solid with cystic areas, and 5 cases were almost entirely cystic.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male


9. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


10. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Studies have shown that most are metastatic tumors, and clinical presentation varies with tumor type.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Patients with lymphoma had largest average tumor size.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Ochiai T, Komiyama S, Ikoma H, Kubota T, Nakanishi M, Ichikawa D, Kikuchi S, Fujiwara H, Sakakura C, Kokuba Y, Sonoyama T, Otsuji E: A case report of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right adrenal gland successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;15(4):423-7
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  • [Title] A case report of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right adrenal gland successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Computed tomography revealed lung infarction and a right adrenal tumor sized 12 cm in diameter that was tightly compressed against the inferior vena cava (IVC).
  • The primary tumor had shrunk to 4.2 cm in diameter.
  • Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma based on the immunostaining features, i.e., synaptophysin- and chromogranin positive.
  • There were no viable tumor cells at the dissected lymph nodes or at the liver tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20221660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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12. Nambirajan T, Leeb K, Neumann HP, Graubner UB, Janetschek G: Laparoscopic adrenal surgery for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma. Eur Urol; 2005 May;47(5):622-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenal surgery for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy (LPA) for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma (4 with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 1 with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B), who had undergone adrenal surgery previously, presented with recurrent adrenal tumours.
  • The adrenal vein could be spared in all patients except one.
  • The adrenal function was adequate in all patients without need for steroid supplementation except one patient who lost both adrenals eventually.
  • There was no correlation between the preservation of adrenal vein and adrenocortical function.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is feasible, safe and effective in recurrent phaeochromocytoma, despite previous adrenal surgery and is technically easier if the previous approach had been laparoscopic as well.
  • Patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma are prone for recurrent tumours and may need repeated surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15826753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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13. Winczyk K: [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):156-66
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  • [Title] [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands].
  • The expression of PPARgamma was detected in normal and tumor cells of endocrine glands.
  • The reports about oncostatic effects of PPARgamma agonists in pituitary adenomas, thyroid cancers and adrenal tumor are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18465691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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14. Sugiyama N, Suzuki Y, Okamoto A, Yamamoto H, Kudo S, Hatakeyama S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Kamimura N, Ohyama C: [Experience of laparoscopic surgery of pheochromocytoma found on induction for hemodialysis]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Oct;56(10):565-7
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  • A left adrenal mass, 2.5 cm in diameter, was incidentally found by screening computed tomography at the initiation of hemodialysis.
  • In the scintiscan using ¹²³I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), accumulation of the radionuclide in the left adrenal tumor region was confirmed.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed without peri-operative complications under the diagnosis of left pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 21063160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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15. Oki K, Yamane K, Nakanishi S, Nakashima R, Jitsuiki K, Kohno N: Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. Endocrine; 2009 Dec;36(3):372-6
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  • A 61-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes was referred for the evaluation of multiple bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as having ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) with subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with the aberrant expression of β-adrenergic receptors.
  • While the suppression of cortisol secretion was sustained for 24 months, glucose metabolism and adrenal size were unaffected.
  • Additional cases or controlled studies are needed to determine the potential effect of propranolol on metabolic disorders and adrenal size in patients with AIMAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19813002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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16. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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17. Yokoyama H, Konomi I, Miyajima T, Tamaru S, Tanaka M: Interventional ultrasound for adrenal masses. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2006 Dec;33(4):245-9
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  • [Title] Interventional ultrasound for adrenal masses.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the value of interventional ultrasound (US) for adrenal masses, especially incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and pathological data were reviewed for eight patients who underwent percutaneous US-guided puncture or biopsy for adrenal masses from September 1994 through March 2002 in our institute.
  • RESULTS: US-guided intervention was successfully performed for seven patients: two with adrenal cysts, two with adrenocortical adenomas, and three with metastatic adrenal tumors (one from prostate cancer, one from lung cancer, and one from renal cell carcinoma).
  • The remaining patient had bilateral adrenal masses, and a biopsy specimen could not be obtained because safe puncture was difficult.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interventional US using the color Doppler method for adrenal masses is a useful procedure for safe puncture to reveal the orientation of adjacent viscera and blood vessels at the puncture site and to avoid complications including hemorrhage and pneumothorax.
  • In addition, pathological examination of specimens obtained by percutaneous biopsy or fine needle aspiration is useful for avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with metastatic adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 27277982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal mass / interventional ultrasound
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18. Hanssen WE, Kuhry E, Casseres YA, de Herder WW, Steyerberg EW, Bonjer HJ: Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Br J Surg; 2006 Jun;93(6):715-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has replaced open surgery in the treatment of benign adrenal tumours.
  • METHODS: Over a period of 8 years, 123 patients underwent surgery for benign adrenal lesions using the endoscopic retroperitoneal approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Endoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16609956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Imachi H, Murao K, Yoshimoto T, Sugimoto M, Kakehi Y, Hayashi T, Kushida Y, Haba R, Tahara R, Ishida T: Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):249-52
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  • [Title] Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient.
  • The patient was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of a right adrenal tumor (size, 10 × 9 cm²).
  • Preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings were indicative of adrenal hemorrhage (AH).
  • Laboratory data revealed mild anemia but no adrenal dysfunction.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was simply idiopathic adrenal hematoma.
  • We report an unusual case of idiopathic unilateral adrenal hematoma in an elderly patient.
  • It is important to distinguish this benign lesion from a neoplasm and to consider idiopathic AH in an adrenal tumor during differential diagnosis in elderly patients who have not received anticoagulation therapy or suffered from trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Hematoma / diagnostic imaging. Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging. Hypertension / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


20. Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Saito T, Fujimoto K, Isaka T, Tajima N, Ikeda K, Yamada H, Furuta N, Sasano H: Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):213-9
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  • [Title] Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • A 40-year-old female, diagnosed as essential hypertension, demonstrated a 2 cm mass in left adrenal gland by computed tomography without abnormal endocrinological findings. (131)I-adosterol and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy at 39 years of age showed no abnormal accumulation.
  • Follow up (131)I-adosterol scintigraphy performed one year later showed apparently abnormal uptake and slightly elevated uptake in left adrenal gland.
  • Serial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated two distinct tumors.
  • Furthermore, selective adrenal venous sampling with intravenous ACTH infusion indicated aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) in left adrenal gland.
  • During operation of adrenal tumor, blood pressure elevated markedly and complication of pheochromocytoma (PC) was suspected.
  • Immunohistochemical findings after left adrenolectomy revealed that the adrenal mass was compatible with APA and PC.
  • Herein, we present an extremely rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of both APA and PC in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / complications. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19023159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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21. Amano T, Imao T, Takemae K, Yamauchi K: [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Jun;55(6):377-80
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  • [Title] [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma].
  • Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left adrenal tumor 6 cm in size.
  • The radioisotope (MIBG) accumulated in the left adrenal gland.
  • Thus, the diagnosis of pheochomocytoma in left adrenal tumor was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / adverse effects. Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Doxazosin / adverse effects. Ejaculation / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / chemically induced


22. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Hahner S, Stuermer A, Kreissl M, Reiners C, Fassnacht M, Haenscheid H, Beuschlein F, Zink M, Lang K, Allolio B, Schirbel A: [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2358-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to advances in conventional imaging, adrenal tumors are detected with increasing frequency.
  • Furthermore, four patients with known adrenal tumors (two metastatic adrenal adenocarcinomas, one bilateral adrenocortical adenoma, and one melanoma metastasis) were investigated with [(123)I]iodometomidate-SPECT.
  • In patients, adrenocortical tissue showed high and specific tracer uptake in both primary tumor and metastases with short investigation time and low radiation exposure, whereas the non-adrenocortical tumor did not exhibit any tracer uptake.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully completed the development of an in vivo detection system of adrenal Cyp11B enzymes by [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy in both experimental animals and humans.
  • Due to the general availability of SPECT technology, we anticipate that [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy may become a widely used tool to characterize adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / analysis. Iodine Radioisotopes. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Aged. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Etomidate / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Multigene Family. Radioactive Tracers. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18397978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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24. Pollack RP, Brett EM: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome manifesting during pregnancy. Endocr Pract; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):260-3
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  • The diagnosis of CS during pregnancy is difficult to establish because of the normal physiologic hypercortisolemia of pregnancy.
  • Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen disclosed a 3.5-cm left adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of CS during pregnancy is rare; however, when it does occur, adrenal tumors are more common than pituitary tumors.
  • Caution should be used during interpretation of laboratory tests to evaluate for CS during pregnancy because of the normal increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function during pregnancy.
  • The current case demonstrates the safety and utility of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging for localization of a tumor during pregnancy, as well as the safe use of laparoscopic surgical treatment of CS during the early third trimester.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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25. Homma K, Hayashi K, Wakino S, Irie R, Mukai M, Kumagai H, Shibata H, Saruta T: Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy. Hypertens Res; 2006 Jul;29(7):551-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy.
  • A computed tomography scan revealed no adrenal tumor but a large liver mass (5 x 5 cm), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity lesion on the T2-weighted image.
  • Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites was markedly increased, although a 123I-metaiodobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) scintigram failed to show accumulation in the hepatic mass, and no difference was noted between the catecholamine concentration in the tumor-drainage vein and that obtained from the vein draining from the non-tumor area.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization of the liver tumor was conducted and resulted in a marked (50%) decrease in the 24-h urine normetanephrine excretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17044668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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26. Ueberberg B, Tourne H, Redmann A, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):722-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) is a widely distributed peptide with growth-inhibiting effects in various tumors.
  • We investigated expression of the five ssts in various adrenal tumors and in normal adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal tissue surrounding the tumor was available for analysis in twenty-seven cases.
  • Expression of all five receptor subtypes was observed in RNA obtained from normal adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, each receptor subtype was expressed in more than 50 % of all tumors analyzed.
  • No sst5 expression was found in PHEOs, while sst1 was present in nearly all of these tumors.
  • Differential expression of ssts in various adrenal tumors may point to new aspects in the pathogenesis of these adenomas.
  • New subtype specific analogues of SRIF may be used in the future depending on the type of adrenal tumor and receptor subtype expressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Horm Metab Res. 2006 Sep;38(9):617. Redman, A [corrected to Redmann, A]
  • (PMID = 16372224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Tanaka T, Sekimura A, Tanaka H, Tonegawa K, Ogawa K, Haneda H: [Gallbladder metastasis of large cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Nov;62(12):1069-72
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  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed gallbladder tumor and extended resection of the gallbladder was performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was adenosquamous cell carcinoma After 1 year and 4 months later, left adrenal gland tumor was found by CT scan, and the surgery was conducted.
  • By reevaluation of pathology of the gallbladder, the tumor was found to have similar component of resected lung cancer, suggesting the possibility of the tumor to be metastatic.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19894573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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29. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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30. Velavan P, Morris JL: Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Oct-Dec;51(4):337-8
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  • [Title] Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnosis. Tachycardia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16388187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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31. Ranganathan S, Lynshue K, Hunt JL, Kane T, Jaffe R: Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;8(4):483-8
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  • [Title] Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are uncommon neoplasms in childhood.
  • Most pediatric adrenal tumors are virilizing and carcinomas are more common than adenomas.
  • Recent molecular data suggest an adenoma-to-carcinoma progression sequence in adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with virilizing symptoms secondary to an adrenal tumor that was resected laparoscopically.
  • The bulk of the tumor was a large, yellow mass with typical features of an adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Child, Preschool. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Hirsutism / etiology. Hirsutism / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16010500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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32. Gola M, Doga M, Bonadonna S, Mazziotti G, Vescovi PP, Giustina A: Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):221-9
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects.
  • Excessive peripheral production of GHRH by a tumor source would therefore be expected to cause somatotroph cell hyperstimulation, increased GH secretion and eventually pituitary acromegaly.
  • Immunoreactive GHRH is present in several tumors, including carcinoid tumors, pancreatic cell tumors, small cell lung cancers, endometrial tumors, adrenal adenomas, and pheochromocytomas which have been reported to secrete GHRH.
  • Dynamic pituitary tests are not helpful in distinguishing acromegalic patients with pituitary tumors from those harbouring extrapituitary tumors.
  • Plasma GHRH levels are usually elevated in patients with peripheral GHRH-secreting tumors, and are normal or low in patients with pituitary acromegaly.
  • Unique and unexpected clinical features in an acromegalic patient, including respiratory wheezing or dyspnea, facial flushing, peptic ulcers, or renal stones sometimes are helpful in alerting the physician to diagnosing non pituitary endocrine tumors.
  • Surgical resection of the tumor secreting ectopic GHRH should be the logical approach to a patient with ectopic GHRH syndrome.
  • Standard chemotherapy directed at GHRH-producing carcinoid tumors is generally unsuccessful in controlling the activated GH axis.
  • Somatostatin analogs provide an effective option for medical management of carcinoid patients, especially those with recurrent disease.
  • In fact, long-acting somatostatin analogs may be able to control not only the ectopic hormonal secretion syndrome, but also, in some instances, tumor growth.
  • Therefore, although cytotoxic chemotherapy, pituitary surgery, or irradiation still remain available therapeutic options, long-acting somatostatin analogs are now preferred as a second-line therapy in patients with carcinoid tumors and ectopic GHRH-syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17036195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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33. Tan F, Thai AC, Cheah WK, Mukherjee JJ: Unusual presentation of pheochromocytoma with ischemic sigmoid colitis and stenosis. South Med J; 2009 Oct;102(10):1068-70
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  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 5 cm right adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colitis, Ischemic / etiology. Colon, Sigmoid / blood supply. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sigmoid Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19738530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Catecholamines; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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34. Ramesh C, Nayak TK, Burai R, Dennis MK, Hathaway HJ, Sklar LA, Prossnitz ER, Arterburn JB: Synthesis and characterization of iodinated tetrahydroquinolines targeting the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30. J Med Chem; 2010 Feb 11;53(3):1004-14
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  • In vivo biodistribution studies in female ovariectomized athymic (NCr) nu/nu mice bearing GPR30-expressing human endometrial tumors revealed GPR30-mediated uptake of the radiotracer ligands in tumor, adrenal, and reproductive organs.

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  • (PMID = 20041667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54MH074425; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA127731-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH074425; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA118100; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA127731-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA127731; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH084690; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH074425-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116662-04; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH084690-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116662; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54MH084690; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH074425-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116662; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116662-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / GPER protein, human; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS168019; NLM/ PMC2818973
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35. Miyoshi T, Otsuka F, Suzuki J, Inagaki K, Kano Y, Ogura T, Kiura K, Saika T, Makino H: Abrupt enlargement of adrenal incidentaloma: a case of isolated adrenal metastasis. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):785-8
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  • [Title] Abrupt enlargement of adrenal incidentaloma: a case of isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • A 56-year-old Japanese man was referred for examination of right adrenal tumor (3 cm).
  • However, five months after the initial diagnosis the patient complained of severe right back pain with remarkable enlargement of both adrenals (~20-fold volume).
  • Although the origin of adrenal tumor was uncertain by pathological workup, positron emission tomography (PET) scan with (18)F-2-fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) eventually revealed a hot spot on left upper lung, which was consistent with a lesion of thickened bulla wall observed by chest CT.
  • The present case is a very rare example of abrupt enlargement of bilateral adrenals due to clinically isolated adrenal metastasis, suggesting the requirement of frequent observation with greatest care regarding morphologic changes of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr J. 2007 Dec;54(5):829 [17878608.001]
  • (PMID = 16410674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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36. Xiao YY, Tian JL, Li JK, Yang L, Zhang JS: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jan;190(1):105-10
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  • [Title] CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous chemical ablation of primary and metastatic adrenal neoplasms under CT guidance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with 46 adrenal tumors underwent CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation.
  • The average (+/- SD) tumor diameter was 4.2 +/- 2.0 cm.
  • Eleven adrenal lesions were nonfunctional adenomas, six lesions were corticosteroid adenomas (bilateral lesions in one patient), nine lesions were aldosteronomas (bilateral lesions in two patients), and 20 were metastases (bilateral metastases in six patients).
  • RESULTS: Tumor volume decreased gradually during the first 2 years after the procedure.
  • For primary tumors, a complete response (CR) rate of 92.3% (24/26) and a partial response (PR) rate of 7.7% (2/26) were obtained, but for metastasis, a CR rate of 30% (6/20) and PR rate of 70% (14/20) were obtained 24 months after therapy.
  • The level of corticosteroid in five patients (six tumors) with Cushing's syndrome was in the normal range 3 months after the procedure.
  • Seven patients (nine tumors) with Conn's syndrome began receiving oral antihypertensive medications during the first month after the procedure to maintain normal blood pressure and the dose was gradually decreased after 1 month.
  • CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal tumors is an effective, minimally invasive, and easily performed procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetic Acid / administration & dosage. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Aug;191(2):W74; author reply W75 [18647891.001]
  • (PMID = 18094300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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37. Lee R, Al-Ahmadie HA, Boorjian SA, Gonzalez RR, Badillo C, Badillo F, Reuter VE, Steckel J: A case of incidental adrenocortical oncocytoma. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2006 Nov;3(11):618-21
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  • BACKGROUND: A 39-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered left adrenal mass.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Oncocytic adrenocortical tumor, or adrenal oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17088930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Lazúrová I, Závacký P, Ondic O: Adrenal actinomycosis mimicking a large tumor of the adrenal gland. J Urol; 2005 Feb;173(2):517-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal actinomycosis mimicking a large tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Actinomycosis / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


39. Kabayegit OY, Soysal D, Oruk G, Ustaoglu B, Kosan U, Solmaz S, Avci A: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:228
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands.
  • Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome.
  • The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 18620603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2481265
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40. Sahin D, Cetiner H, Mirapoglu S, Mete O: An infantile leiomyosarcoma that metastasized from the small intestine to the adrenal gland. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2010;29(5):299-304
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  • [Title] An infantile leiomyosarcoma that metastasized from the small intestine to the adrenal gland.
  • In the literature, there is no reported pediatric leiomyosarcoma case that has metastasized from the small intestine to the adrenal gland.
  • Radiologic examination revealed bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • At the time of surgery, the terminal ileum was resected and a tru-cut biopsy was done from the right adrenal mass.
  • We present an intestinal leiomyosarcoma that metastasized from the small intestine to both adrenal glands with clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical studies with a literature review.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestine, Small / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20704475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3823
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Murphy MM, Witkowski ER, Ng SC, McDade TP, Hill JS, Larkin AC, Whalen GF, Litwin DE, Tseng JF: Trends in adrenalectomy: a recent national review. Surg Endosc; 2010 Oct;24(10):2518-26
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenalectomy remains the definitive therapy for most adrenal neoplasms.
  • The majority of adrenalectomies (83%) were performed for benign disease.
  • Patient comorbidities (Charlson score 0 as the referent; Charlson score ≥ 2: AOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 3.71-6.14), recent year of surgery (1998-2000 as the referent; 2004-2006: AOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78), and benign disease (malignant disease as the referent; benign disease: AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.55-2.53) were predictive of major postoperative complications at multivariable analyses, whereas laparoscopy was protective (no laparoscopy as the referent; laparoscopy: AOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparoscopy / trends. Male. Middle Aged. United States

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  • (PMID = 20336320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Morimoto R, Satoh F, Murakami O, Hirose T, Totsune K, Imai Y, Arai Y, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Ito S, Takahashi K: Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues. J Endocrinol; 2008 Jul;198(1):175-83
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  • [Title] Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues.
  • AM is expressed in various tumors including adrenocortical tumors and modulates tumor growth.
  • The AM2/IMD expression has not been studied, however, in adrenal tumors.
  • The expression of AM2/IMD and AM was therefore studied in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues by immunocytochemistry (ICC).
  • ICC showed that AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were localized in adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas.
  • RIA detected IR-AM2/IMD in adrenal tumors (0.414+/-0.12 to 0.786+/-0.27 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M.) and attached adrenal tissues (0.397+/-0.052 pmol/g wet weight).
  • RT-PCR showed expression of AM2/IMD, CRLR, and RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 mRNA in tissues of adrenal tumors and attached adrenal glands.
  • In conclusion, AM2/IMD is expressed in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues and may play (patho-)physiological roles in normal and neoplastic adrenals as an autocrine/paracrine regulator.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Peptide Hormones / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18460550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADM2 protein, human; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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44. Cvijovic G, Yamashita SA, Micic D, Kendereski A, Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Zoric S, Popovic V: Low leptin level in an obese hyperandrogenic woman--potential marker for androgen-secreting tumor. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;23(2):112-6
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  • [Title] Low leptin level in an obese hyperandrogenic woman--potential marker for androgen-secreting tumor.
  • Hyperandrogenism in postmenopausal women is due to ovarian hyperthecosis or an androgen-secreting ovarian/adrenal tumor.
  • Making the correct diagnosis might be complicated due to the possible existence of an adrenal neoplasm secreting testosterone only, ectopic ovarian tissue or ectopic luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors in the adrenals, as well as the relatively low sensitivity of imaging techniques (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and vein catheterization for this type of pathology.
  • We present the case of an obese postmenopausal woman with metabolic syndrome, hyperandrogenism (high testosterone levels, suppressed gonadotropins), adrenal macronodular hyperplasia and Leydig-cell ovarian tumor.
  • Then, bilateral oophorectomy with hysterectomy was performed and a small Leydig-cell tumor was found in the left ovary.
  • In conclusion, we speculate that low leptin levels in obese hyperandrogenic women might be a marker for androgen-secreting tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / etiology. Hirsutism / etiology. Hyperandrogenism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Leptin / blood. Leptin / metabolism. Metabolic Syndrome X / complications. Middle Aged. Obesity

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  • (PMID = 17454162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Leptin
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45. Manz M, Schmeer T, Horcic M, Meier R, Maurer CA: [Bronchogenic cyst: a rare cause of a retroperitoneal mass]. Zentralbl Chir; 2009 Dec;134(6):570-2
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  • The histopathological definition consists of the presence of ciliated epithelium together with cartilage or bronchial mucous glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 49-year-old patient with the incidental finding of a large cystic mass between the diaphragm and the stomach.
  • Imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumour.
  • Histological examination revealed the surprising diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions.
  • Regardless of being asymptomatic most of the time, surgical resection is recommended to obtain definitive histological diagnosis and avoid future complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 19424941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Elli M, Pinarli FG, Dagdemir A, Dabak N, Fisgin T, Selcuk MB, Sultansuyu S, Acar S: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in a patient with Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Mar;23(2):111-4
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  • Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder with clinical and laboratory features closely resembling to hereditary von Willebrand disease.
  • The syndrome may accompany various conditions, including malignant disorders, most often with Wilms tumor and adrenal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16651239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Boylu U, Oommen M, Lee BR, Thomas R: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope. J Endourol; 2009 Jun;23(6):971-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the role of laparoscopy for large adrenal tumors in terms of outcomes, pathology, operative time, and morbidity.
  • The laparoscopic adrenalectomy patients were divided into two groups based on tumor size: <8 cm (n = 16, group 1) and >or=8 cm (n = 8, group 2).
  • RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 5.6 cm for group 1 and 12.1 cm for group 2.
  • Pathologic examination revealed eight adrenal cortical adenomas, five myolipomas, four pheochromocytomas, four cysts/pseudocysts, and three adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • Our findings suggest, however, that laparoscopic adrenalectomy for masses larger than 8 cm can produce comparable results concerning hospital stay, conversion to open surgery rate, and pathologic outcome in comparison with results for adrenal masses smaller than 8 cm.

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  • (PMID = 19456243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Goldstein DS, Mannelli M, Csako G, Walther MM, Brouwers FM, Pacak K: Pheochromocytoma catecholamine phenotypes and prediction of tumor size and location by use of plasma free metanephrines. Clin Chem; 2005 Apr;51(4):735-44
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma catecholamine phenotypes and prediction of tumor size and location by use of plasma free metanephrines.
  • BACKGROUND: Measurements of plasma free metanephrines (normetanephrine and metanephrine) provide a useful test for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and may provide other information about the nature of these tumors.
  • METHODS: We examined relationships of tumor size, location, and catecholamine content with plasma and urinary metanephrines or catecholamines in 275 patients with pheochromocytoma.
  • We then prospectively examined whether measurements of plasma free metanephrines could predict tumor size and location in an additional 16 patients.
  • RESULTS: Relative proportions of epinephrine and norepinephrine in tumor tissue were closely matched by relative increases of plasma or urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine, but not by epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Tumor diameter showed strong positive relationships with summed plasma concentrations or urinary outputs of metanephrine and normetanephrine (r = 0.81 and 0.77; P <0.001), whereas relationships with plasma or urinary catecholamines were weaker (r = 0.41 and 0.44).
  • All tumors in which increases in plasma metanephrine were >15% of the combined increases of normetanephrine and metanephrine either had adrenal locations or appeared to be recurrences of previously resected adrenal tumors.
  • Measurements of plasma free metanephrines predicted tumor diameter to within a mean of 30% of actual diameter, and high plasma concentrations of free metanephrine relative to normetanephrine accurately predicted adrenal locations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of plasma free metanephrines not only provide information about the likely presence or absence of a pheochromocytoma, but when a tumor is present, can also help predict tumor size and location.
  • This additional information may be useful for clinical decision-making during tumor localization procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Catecholamines / analysis. Metanephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15718487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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49. Fassnacht M, Allolio B: What is the best approach to an apparently nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Nov;73(5):561-5
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  • In suspected nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) a careful preoperative diagnostic work up is needed including comprehensive endocrine analysis as recommended by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (http://www.ENSAT.org/ACC.htm).
  • As many patients will suffer from tumor recurrence after seemingly complete removal of ACC, adjuvant treatment based on the individual risk status is recommended.
  • Key factors for risk assessment are tumor stage, resection status and the proliferation marker Ki67.
  • R1 resection) we recommend additional radiotherapy of the tumor bed.
  • In low/intermediate risk patients who cannot be included in this trial observation only can be justified in cases with a tumor diameter of <8 cm and no microscopic evidence for invasion of blood vessels or tumor capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20738315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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50. Haase M, Willenberg HS: Adrenal cortical tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia-related syndromes. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):123-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortical tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia-related syndromes.
  • Relatively frequent, adrenal masses include a multitude of different tumor types: uni- or bilateral hyperplasias, adenomas, and the rare entity of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • With significant progress in our appreciation of their underlying molecular pathomechanisms and from analysis of affected individuals and their families, a number of inherited diseases and tumor syndromes have been linked to adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • These syndromes and diseases include the Carney complex, the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, familial adenomatosis coli, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial forms of primary aldosteronism, the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • The key to successful management of these syndromes is identification of patients harboring adrenal tumors within the context of hereditary diseases, since diagnostic procedures, therapy and follow-up may significantly differ from the management of sporadic, isolated adrenal tumors.
  • This review explores the underlying genetic defects, diagnosis and therapy of the major heritable tumor syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Myxoma / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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51. Hennings J, Lindhe O, Bergström M, Långström B, Sundin A, Hellman P: [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1410-4
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  • [Title] [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19).
  • The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection.
  • Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative.
  • SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC.
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors.
  • MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Antineoplastic Agents. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16403816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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52. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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53. Pohl PP, Meyer A, Lammers BJ, Goretzki PE: [Abdominal preoperation. No contraindication for laparoscopic transabdominal adrenalectomy]. Chirurg; 2008 Jun;79(6):571-5
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  • Benign adrenal gland tumors smaller than 6 cm are nowadays the indication for minimally invasive surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / contraindications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Laparoscopy / contraindications. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17879074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Bovio S, Reimondo G, Daffara F, Allasino B, Angeli A, Terzolo M: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas]. Recenti Prog Med; 2006 Jan;97(1):6-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] La sindrome di Cushing subclinica nei pazienti con incidentaloma surrenalico.
  • In the heyday of high-tech medicine, the incidental discovery of an adrenal mass is a frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiological techniques.
  • The potential harm to health associated with incidentally discovered cortical adenoma, the most frequent tumor among adrenal incidentalomas, is unclear at present.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenoma may secrete cortisol autonomously, in a way that is no longer under close control by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases.
  • At present, data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or nonsurgical approach to manage patients with subclinical hyperfunctioning adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • It is of the utmost importance to establish collaborative prospective studies with clearly defined entry criteria and standardized evaluation protocols and treatment modalities to appraise the natural history and long-term morbidity of clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma and subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16535924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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55. Takahashi K, Totsune K, Saruta M, Fukuda T, Suzuki T, Hirose T, Imai Y, Sasano H, Murakami O: Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. Peptides; 2006 Jan;27(1):178-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • In the present study, we studied expression of Ucn3/SCP in the normal adrenal and adrenal tumors by radioimmunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • High concentrations of immunoreactive (IR)-Ucn3 were present in the normal portions of adrenal glands (4.2+/-0.51 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M., n = 14), and the levels were higher than those in the brain.
  • IR-Ucn3 was also detected in the tumor tissues of aldosterone-secreting adenomas (6.2+/-0.6 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-secreting adenomas (5.0+/-1.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.9+/-0.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 7).
  • Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that IR-Ucn3 in normal portions of adrenal glands and aldosterone-secreting adenomas was eluted mainly in the positions of Ucn3 and SCP with several minor peaks eluting earlier.
  • The RT-PCR showed expression of Ucn3 mRNA in normal portions of adrenal gland (positive ratio; 4/4), aldosterone-secreting adenomas (3/4), cortisol-secreting adenomas (1/3) and pheochromocytomas (6/7).
  • These findings indicate that Ucn3 is produced in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors (both adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas), and suggest that Ucn3 acts as an autocrine or paracrine regulator in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Urocortins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16095756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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56. Nagai T, Taie S, Endo R, Iwanaga Y, Maekawa N: [Survival after intraoperative pulmonary embolism of a patient with left adrenal tumor]. Masui; 2006 Jul;55(7):910-3
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  • [Title] [Survival after intraoperative pulmonary embolism of a patient with left adrenal tumor].
  • A 15-year-old girl was scheduled to undergo left adrenalectomy and removal of vena cava tumor thrombi.
  • After left adrenalectomy and removal of vena cava tumor thrombi, IVC was declamped.
  • TEE may be useful for diagnosis of acute PE by secondary signs of pulmonary artery obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Echocardiography, Transesophageal. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16856556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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57. Batista DL, Riar J, Keil M, Stratakis CA: Diagnostic tests for children who are referred for the investigation of Cushing syndrome. Pediatrics; 2007 Sep;120(3):e575-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Endogenous Cushing syndrome in children is a rare disorder that is most frequently caused by pituitary or adrenocortical tumors.
  • Diagnostic criteria have generally been derived from studies of adult patients despite significant differences in both the physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the epidemiology of Cushing syndrome in childhood.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the tests that most reliably and efficiently diagnose pituitary or adrenal tumors in a large cohort of pediatric patients with Cushing syndrome.
  • Imaging of the pituitary and adrenal glands was also obtained.
  • The main outcome measure was the sensitivity of these parameters for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome at 100% specificity.
  • RESULTS: A midnight cortisol value of > or = 4.4 microg/dL confirmed the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome in almost all children, with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%.
  • Suppression of morning cortisol levels > 20% in response to an overnight, high-dosage dexamethasone test excluded all patients with adrenal tumors and identified almost all patients with pituitary tumors (sensitivity: 97.5%; specificity: 100%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that among children who were referred for the evaluation of possible Cushing syndrome, a single cortisol value at midnight followed by overnight high-dosage dexamethasone test led to rapid and accurate confirmation and diagnostic differentiation, respectively, of hypercortisolemia caused by pituitary and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Dexamethasone / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hormones. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Function Tests. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17698579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 201-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids; 0 / Hormones; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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58. Agha A, Hornung M, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: Single-incision retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy and single-incision laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1765-70
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  • OBJECTIVE: Single-incision surgery is by now practicable in many fields of surgery, including surgery of the adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: All patients had benign adrenal tumors (Conn's adenoma, n = 7; pheochromocytoma, n = 1).
  • Tumor size ranged between 1.2 and 2.4 cm.

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  • (PMID = 20849304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20191330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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60. Chen G, Yao J, Mou L, Fang X, Huang H, Liang J, Li L, Ye L, Lin L, Wen J: Clinical analysis of 249 cases of adrenal tumors in a Chinese hospital. Urol Int; 2010;85(3):270-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical analysis of 249 cases of adrenal tumors in a Chinese hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics of adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 249 cases of adrenal masses which were confirmed at operation and by pathology were analyzed.
  • Overall, females were more commonly represented than males, especially with Cushing's syndrome and typical pheochromocytoma (female:male ratio 3.3:1.9), however the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) in males and females was similar.
  • Of 109 adrenocortical adenomas, 47 were primary aldosteronism, 31 were Cushing's syndrome, 30 were AIs, and 1 was adrenal virilization.
  • Of 14 adrenal nodular hyperplasias, 6 were Cushing's syndrome and 8 were primary aldosteronism.
  • Of the remaining 30 benign tumors, all presented as AIs.
  • The diameter of malignant tumors (10.9 ± 5.6 cm) was significantly larger than that of benign tumors (4.5 ± 3.7 cm) (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows a high rate of AIs in patients with adrenal masses selected for surgery.
  • Hormone levels should be determined in symptomatic or incidental patients with adrenal masses.
  • Imaging examination (CT and MRI) is the first method used to detect and localize adrenal masses.
  • Tumor size is an important parameter of diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses, especially AIs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. China. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Hospitals. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20606391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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61. Bercovici JP, Fiet J, Gibault L, Volant A, Abalain JH, Floch HH, Sonnet E, Fournier G: Testicular adrenal rest tumours in salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (in vivo and in vitro studies). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Jan;93(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Testicular adrenal rest tumours in salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (in vivo and in vitro studies).
  • We describe the case of a 20-year-old patient with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) related to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Bilateral craggy testicular tumours were found, requiring histological evaluation.
  • High levels of 11beta-OH steroids measured in the gonadal vein, compared with peripheral blood samples suggested the presence of adrenal rests.
  • Incubation of the tumours (which could not be differentiated histologically, from Leydig tissue), with radioactive steroid precursors was carried out.
  • The results revealed the testicular tumours were of adrenal tissue origin, associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Rest Tumor / etiology. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Adult. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Fludrocortisone / therapeutic use. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Follow-Up Studies. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Hydrocortisone / deficiency. Hypogonadism / etiology. Inhibins / blood. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Prolactin / blood. Renin / blood. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 15748834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / inhibin B; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. Venkatesan AM, Locklin J, Dupuy DE, Wood BJ: Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):89-99
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma, and adrenal metastases.
  • Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, and chemical ablation.
  • Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland's unique anatomic and physiological features.
  • The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article.
  • Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20540918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 69
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199588; NLM/ PMC2886030
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63. Kojima Y, Miyake O, Morimoto A, Kawamura C, Katayama S: [A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with end-stage renal disease]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jan;56(1):21-4
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  • [Title] [A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with end-stage renal disease].
  • Periodic follow-up abdominal ultrasonography revealed a tumor measuring 4 cm in diameter in an area adjacent to the upper pole of the right kidney.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right adrenal tumor.
  • Furthermore, adrenal scintigraphy after dexamethasone inhibition showed accumulation in the right adrenal gland.
  • Under a diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adrenal tumor, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed.
  • Pathological findings showed adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Primary aldosteronism causes hypertension, hypopotassiumemia, hyporeninemia, and hyperaldosteronemia via excessive secretion of aldosterone in the adrenal glands.
  • A previous study also indicated the presence of hyperaldosteronemia in patients with end-stage renal disease.
  • A diagnosis should be carefully made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications

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  • (PMID = 20104005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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64. Garg K, Lee P, Ro JY, Qu Z, Troncoso P, Ayala AG: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;9(1):11-5
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are relatively uncommon benign neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts.
  • Rare extragenital adenomatoid tumors have been identified in the adrenal glands, heart, mesentery, pleura, and lymph nodes.
  • In the adrenal gland, adenomatoid tumors may pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • The differential diagnosis includes adrenocortical carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma, especially signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • Because of its glandular pattern, an adenomatoid tumor may be confused with an adenocarcinoma.
  • We present 3 cases of adrenal adenomatoid tumors, including one with a concurrent large hemorrhagic vascular adrenal cyst.
  • The adenomatoid tumors were unilateral, appeared solid and white, and varied from 1.7 to 4.2 cm in diameter.
  • One patient presented with abdominal pain due to the presence of a concurrent large adrenal cyst.
  • The tumor was an incidental radiological finding in another case and was discovered during the course of a workup for hypertension in the third case.
  • The light microscopic appearances were consistent with those of typical adenomatoid tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for calretinin and cytokeratin 5/6 were positive, confirming the tumors' mesothelial origin.
  • In our experience, the key to the diagnosis of this rare benign tumor is to consider adenomatoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of any glandular tumor occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Cysts / complications. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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65. Zhang XP, Wei JX, Zhang WX, Wang ZY, Wu YD, Song DK: [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2009 Jul;28(7):730-3
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  • [Title] [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases].
  • The type of adrenal diseases, operating time, blood loss, complications and prognosis were summarized and the operating method was analyzed.
  • Two patients suffered from diaphragm injuries, one patient had right renal vein injury and one had colon injury.
  • CONCLUSION: Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy is one of the favorable approaches for the treatment of adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Child, Preschool. Colon / injuries. Diaphragm / injuries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Renal Veins / injuries. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


66. Hsiao HL, Li CC, Lin HC, Yeh HC, Huang CH, Wu WJ: Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2008 Oct;24(10):553-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report.
  • Schwannoma of the adrenal gland is extremely rare.
  • Here, we report a 49-year-old patient with an adrenal tumor noted incidentally by abdominal ultrasonography while undergoing regular health examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19181588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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67. Shoji S, Uchida T, Nakano M, Nagata Y, Usui Y, Terachi T: [Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst on the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jun;56(6):315-7
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst on the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • An adrenal tumor was found by abdominal sonography and she was referred to our hospital.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed right adrenal cystic tumor.
  • We diagnosed the tumor as right adrenal cystic tumor, and performed surgical excision by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination of excised tumors revealed an epidermoid cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20610923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Thiel EL, Trost BA, Tower RL: A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 1;54(7):1032-4
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  • [Title] A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland.
  • At surgery, the mass was noted to arise from the right adrenal gland.
  • The final diagnosis was a cystic composite-pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • This compound adrenal tumor is only the fourth case reported in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


69. Boikos SA, Horvath A, Heyerdahl S, Stein E, Robinson-White A, Bossis I, Bertherat J, Carney JA, Stratakis CA: Phosphodiesterase 11A expression in the adrenal cortex, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and other corticotropin-independent lesions. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):347-53
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  • [Title] Phosphodiesterase 11A expression in the adrenal cortex, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and other corticotropin-independent lesions.
  • A variety of adrenal tumors and bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias (BAH) leading to Cushing syndrome (CS) may be caused by aberrant cAMP signaling.
  • We recently identified patients with a micronodular form of BAH that we have called "isolated micronodular adrenocortical disease" (iMAD) in whom CS was associated with inactivating mutations in phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A ( PDE11A).
  • In the present study, we examined PDE11A expression in normal adrenocortical tissue, sporadic tumors, and hyperplasias without PDE11A mutations, and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and adenomas from patients with PRKAR1A and a single tumor with a GNAS mutation.
  • The total number of the tumor samples that we studied was 22.
  • Phosphorylated CREB was the highest in tissues from patients with iMAD compared to all other forms of BAH and normal adrenal tissue.
  • We conclude that PDE11A is expressed widely in adrenal cortex.
  • Its expression appears to be increased in PPNAD but varies widely among other adrenocortical tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18491255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101685; NLM/ PMC2713062
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70. Tan YY, Ogilvie JB, Triponez F, Caron NR, Kebebew EK, Clark OH, Duh QY: Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):879-85; discussion 886-7
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  • [Title] Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that routine adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is necessary to lateralize an aldosterone-producing adenoma in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • RESULTS: Altogether, 65 patients were included in the study, 52 (80%) of whom had their adrenal tumors lateralized based on computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 16680603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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71. Gagliardi L, Hotu C, Casey G, Braund WJ, Ling KH, Dodd T, Manavis J, Devitt PG, Cutfield R, Rudzki Z, Scott HS, Torpy DJ: Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jun;70(6):883-91
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  • [Title] Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome due to familial ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) has been reported in small kindreds.
  • DESIGN: Clinical studies of three kindreds for adrenal tumours or early Cushing's and molecular studies of adrenal tumours (AIMAH-01).
  • PATIENTS: Thirty-three individuals, from three kindreds, were screened for perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or adrenal tumours.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Patients underwent clinical, biochemical and adrenal imaging investigations.
  • Adrenal VP receptor (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, AVPR2) expression (AIMAH-01) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • RESULTS: AIMAH-01 had three siblings with Cushing's, and four individuals with suppressed ACTH/aberrant VP responses and/or adrenal nodules.
  • RT-PCR showed adrenal overexpression of AVPR1A and AVPR1B.
  • The adrenal tumour from one patient also stained weakly for VP and AVPR2.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal nodules, suppressed ACTH and increased VP sensitivity may represent preclinical disease, allowing early detection, and treatment, of affected individuals.
  • In AIMAH-01, increased VP sensitivity may be due to adrenal VP receptor overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Pedigree. Vasopressins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Vasopressin / genetics. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19018784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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72. Iqbal CW, Wahoff DC: Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2009 Jun;21(3):379-85
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated.
  • Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder.
  • Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved.
  • Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients.
  • SUMMARY: Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population.
  • Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up.
  • Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Morbidity. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19421059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-698X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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73. Saftoiu A, Vilman P: Endoscopic ultrasound elastography-- a new imaging technique for the visualization of tissue elasticity distribution. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2006 Jun;15(2):161-5
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  • Mapping of the tissue elasticity distribution might be useful for the differential diagnosis of focal pancreatic masses, especially in the setting of chronic pancreatitis where the accuracy of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration is also low.
  • EUS elastography might also enhance the detection and differentiation of various solid tumors (adrenal tumors, submucosal tumors, etc.) situated nearby the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity. Endosonography / methods. Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16802011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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74. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 210 LAs performed in 6 yr, 39 patients had potentially malignant tumors greater than 5 cm in diameter.
  • RESULTS: All 39 patients had successful LAs without perioperative mortality, conversion to open surgery, or capsular disruption during dissection.
  • The mean tumor size was 6.2 cm (range, 5-12 cm), operative time 207 min (115-315 min), and blood loss 75 ml (minimal-1400 ml).
  • Preoperatively there were 27 nonfunctioning tumors, seven pheochromocytomas, three cortisol-secreting tumors, and two virilizing tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Only the tumor size was larger and length of postoperative hospital stay longer for those in the hand-assisted group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Unger N, Petersenn S, Mann K: [Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine hypertension]. Med Klin (Munich); 2006 Mar 22;101 Suppl 1:170-2
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine hypertension].
  • Once the diagnosis of hypertension is established, secondary forms should be considered.
  • Especially hormonally active adrenal tumors may allow specific treatment.
  • A unilateral adrenal adenoma has to be separated from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Determinations of 24-h urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are established diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • In conclusion, recently established biochemical methods are reliable screening parameters for the diagnosis of adrenal hypertension.
  • Endocrine hypertension due to adrenal tumors may be treated by minimally invasive surgery or specific antihypertensive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Epinephrine / blood. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Norepinephrine / blood

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  • (PMID = 16802547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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76. Hsieh MH, Lin ZY, Huang CJ, Shih MC, Chuang WL: Management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2005 Aug;21(8):371-6
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  • [Title] Management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.
  • The adrenal glands rarely are an extrahepatic site for metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Once identified, adrenal metastasis requires aggressive management, due to the risk of rupture and internal hemorrhaging.
  • Disease management of adrenal metastasis from HCC is limited, given the relative lack of available knowledge, and the present report details our efforts in managing bilateral adrenal metastases from HCC.
  • The left adrenal tumor was treated by 3D conformal radiation therapy, following the failure of TACE.
  • The size of the left adrenal tumor decreased and no evidence of recurrence after management was noted.
  • One right adrenal tumor was treated using two sessions of TACE, and the size of the tumor did not decrease.
  • We later observed that the right tumor actually progressively increased in size.
  • The tumor was then treated by 3D conformal radiation therapy (total 5400 cGy), and the size decreased by 10 mm, 1 month after treatment.
  • Renal function was maintained within normal ranges after diagnosis of HCC and throughout the entire follow-up period, and no complications secondary to radiation therapy were noted.
  • Our experience may provide useful information in disease management for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16158880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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77. Médeau V, Moreau F, Trinquart L, Clemessy M, Wémeau JL, Vantyghem MC, Plouin PF, Reznik Y: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of normotensive patients with primary aldosteronism: a comparison with hypertensive cases. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jul;69(1):20-8
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  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Retrospective comparison of 10 normotensive and 168 hypertensive patients with PA for office or ambulatory blood pressure, serum potassium, plasma aldosterone and renin concentrations; the aldosterone:renin ratio, and tumour size.
  • RESULTS: The 10 normotensive patients were women and presented with hypokalemia or an adrenal mass.
  • Mean tumour diameter was larger in the normotensive patients than in the hypertensive matched patients with an adenoma (P < 0.01).
  • Aldosterone synthase expression was detected in four out of five adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Treatment Outcome


78. Nomikos IN, Zizi-Serbetzoglou A, Matsakis G, Elemenoglou J, Vamvakopoulos NC: Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features. J BUON; 2008 Jul-Sep;13(3):425-8
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  • [Title] Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features.
  • Abnormal stimulation of adrenal function may be either direct, affecting similarly cortical and medullary secretion, or indirect affecting primarily the medulla.
  • Indirect activation of clinically detectable adrenomedullary function may develop as a physical consequence of a non-functional adrenal tumor exerting pressure on the medulla by its size, location and direction of growth.
  • Our case of an oversized and overweight adrenal tumor associated with expression of late-onset pheochromocytoma-like clinical symptoms may be explained by the physical indirect rather than the biological direct activation of adrenomedullary function like hyperplasia or cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18979561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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79. Shimony A, Bereza S, Shalev A, Gilutz H, Ilia R, Zahger D: Ventricular fibrillation as the presenting manifestation of adrenocortical carcinoma. Am Heart Hosp J; 2009;7(1):65-6
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  • The arrhythmia was precipitated by severe hypokalemia induced by the aldosterone-secreting tumor.
  • Sudden death has not been previously described as a manifestation of this adrenal neoplasm.
  • Unexplained persistent hypokalemia after resuscitated sudden death (especially when combined with hypertension( should prompt investigation for an underlying secondary hypertension, particularly adrenal pathology.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained sudden death associated with unexplained hypokalemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Ventricular Fibrillation / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19742438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-7168
  • [Journal-full-title] The American heart hospital journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Heart Hosp J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Johanssen S, Fassnacht M, Brix D, Koschker AC, Hahner S, Riedmiller H, Allolio B: [Adrenocortical carcinoma. Diagnostic work-up and treatment]. Urologe A; 2008 Feb;47(2):172-81
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  • [Transliterated title] Das Nebennierenkarzinom. Diagnostik und Therapie.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • Preoperatively, a thorough hormonal work-up is mandatory, as the hormonal status may influence the perioperative management and may also provide marker hormones for monitoring of tumour recurrence.
  • CT and MRI are equally sensitive and specific imaging tools for adrenal tumours.
  • For discerning malignancy, assessment of the fat content of the tumour and contrast media wash-out after 10 min are of great value.
  • Complete surgical resection of the tumour offers the only chance for cure.
  • Intraoperative tumour spillage should be carefully avoided.
  • Even after R0 resection, recurrence of the disease is frequent and regular follow-up for a minimum of 5 years is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18030443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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  • [Number-of-references] 28
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81. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Olivares R, Soffia P, Contreras M: Laparoscopic resection of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Aug;17(4):351-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are of rare occurrence.
  • Since first reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of adrenal tumors, the feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the setting of pheochromocytoma has also been established given a careful preoperative planning.
  • Literature on the laparoscopic treatment of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas is lacking.
  • We report a hypertensive 54-year-old male patient (body mass index, 26.2) with elevated urinary catecholamines and a 6-cm solid mass under the right renal hilum diagnosed after a magnetic resonance.
  • The patient underwent complete transperitoneal laparoscopic excision of the tumor.
  • Recovery was uneventful and final histopathologic examination showed an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • We believe that transperitoneal laparoscopic excision of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is a feasible and reproducible technique that allows for complete removal of tumoral tissue with low morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and minimal convalescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17710068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Inoue T, Ishiguro K, Suda T, Ito N, Suzuki Y, Taniguchi Y, Ohgi S: Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):94-7
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  • Laparoscopic total adrenalectomy has become a standard technique for small adrenal tumors; however, bilateral adrenalectomy results in postoperative adrenal insufficiency, necessitating lifelong steroid replacement.
  • We based our preoperative diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical tumors causing Cushing's syndrome on the results of endocrinological investigations and imaging findings.
  • Thus, we performed lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy, preserving the adrenal glands, which were normal.
  • Pathological examination of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 16378204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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83. Vilar L, Freitas MC, Naves LA, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Silva LM, Arahata CM, Agra R, Lima LH, Azevedo M, Casulari LA: The role of non-invasive dynamic tests in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Nov;31(11):1008-13
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  • [Title] The role of non-invasive dynamic tests in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of non-invasive dynamic tests in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • METHODS: We studied laboratory features of 74 patients with endogenous CS, subdivided as follows: 46 (62.1%) with Cushing's disease (CD), 21 (28.3%) with an adrenal tumor, and 7 (9.5%) with ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS).
  • ACTH levels were suppressed in patients with adrenal tumors, normal or high in CD and invariably increased in EAS.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that LDDST had 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of CS and that HDDST and stimulation tests with CRH or desmopressin may be very useful for confirmation of CS etiology when analyzed together or when more stringent cut-offs are used.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Deamino Arginine Vasopressin. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Saliva / chemistry. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19169058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; ENR1LLB0FP / Deamino Arginine Vasopressin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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84. Ludwig AT, Wagner KR, Lowry PS, Papaconstantinou HT, Lairmore TC: Robot-assisted posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2010 Aug;24(8):1307-14
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is the preferred surgical approach for small, benign adrenal neoplasms.
  • Patients with adrenal masses larger than 7.0 cm, or with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 40, were excluded.
  • There were three right adrenal tumors and three left adrenal tumors.
  • Mean operative time was 121 minutes with a mean robot time of 57 minutes for the five patients in whom the entire adrenal dissection was performed robotically.

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  • [CommentIn] J Endourol. 2011 Mar;25(3):541-2 [21342015.001]
  • (PMID = 20482329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Bahlo M, Schott M, Kaminsky E, Cupisti K: [Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2a: late manifestation of a newly-discovered mutation]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Mar;133(10):464-6
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  • [Title] [Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2a: late manifestation of a newly-discovered mutation].
  • [Transliterated title] Multiple Endokrine Neoplasie 2a: Spätmanifestation bei neuer Mutation.
  • The patient denied dyspnea, dysphagia, "a lump in the throat" or thyroid disease.
  • Two of his paternal aunts had thyroid carcinoma and an adrenal tumor.
  • This case underlines the need of genetic screening in all patients who present with a MTC only, no matter what the person's age of manifestation, even in the absence of any other MEN-related disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18302097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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86. Izbizky G, Elias D, Gallo A, Farias P, Sod R: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal bilateral adrenal carcinoma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Nov;26(6):669-71
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  • [Title] Prenatal diagnosis of fetal bilateral adrenal carcinoma.
  • Fetal tumors are suspected on ultrasonography in the presence of structures of abnormal shape or size that are occasionally associated with polyhydramnios and hydrops.
  • Most of the large abdominal masses detected antenatally are renal in origin, although adrenal tumors should also be kept in mind in their differential diagnosis.
  • We report a case of a large-for-gestational-age fetus with abdominal distention secondary to bilateral adrenal carcinoma, polyhydramnios and placental enlargement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / pathology. Fetal Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Spontaneous. Adenoma, Islet Cell / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 ISUOG
  • (PMID = 16254889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Anchi T, Tamura K, Inoue K, Fukata S, Nishikawa H, Moriki T, Shuin T: [A case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Jul;55(7):401-3
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  • [Title] [A case of retroperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor].
  • Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a common neoplasm of the pleura and rarely arises from the retroperitoneal space.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) showed the left adrenal mass measuring 6.0 x 4.5 x 10 cm.
  • Because the tumor was thought to be left adrenal tumor or left adrenal metastasis of the malignant melanoma, she admitted to our department.
  • The tumor was not connected to the adrenal gland.
  • The immunohistochemical examination showed that the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19673426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Munver R, Ilbeigi P: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Curr Urol Rep; 2005 Feb;6(1):72-7
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered to be the standard of care for the surgical excision of the adrenal gland.
  • Since the initial report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 1992, it has evolved into a feasible and reproducible minimally invasive procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches are the two principal laparoscopic routes to the adrenal gland.
  • Although the transperitoneal approach is used more widely, the retroperitoneal approach offers distinct advantages that make it a valuable alternative route to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15610700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2737
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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89. Vuorenoja S, Rivero-Muller A, Kiiveri S, Bielinska M, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB, Huhtaniemi IT, Rahman NA: Adrenocortical tumorigenesis, luteinizing hormone receptor and transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Apr 15;269(1-2):38-45
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  • Luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG) responsiveness of normal and pathological human adrenal glands as well as the possibility of constitutive expressions of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in adrenal cortex has been reported.
  • Some recent studies showed a correlation between the LHR and abundant GATA-4 expression in both metastasizing and non-metastasizing human adrenocortical tumors, but not in normal adrenals, implicating the putative relevance of LHR and GATA-4 for adrenocortical pathophysiology.
  • The paucity of suitable models for adrenal tumorigenesis makes the establishment of proper animal models highly important.
  • LHR expression in the murine adrenal gland is an exception and not found in wild-type (WT) animal.
  • We have previously shown that ectopic LHR expression in the murine adrenal gland can be induced by chronically elevated LH levels.
  • We have generated a gonadotropin-responsive adrenal tumor model in gonadectomized transgenic (TG) mice expressing the inhibin alpha promoter/Simian Virus 40 T antigen transgene (inhalpha/Tag).
  • A functional link between LHR and GATA-4 actions in the adrenal pathophysiology is proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. GATA4 Transcription Factor / physiology. GATA6 Transcription Factor / physiology. Receptors, LH / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Inhibins / genetics. Mice. Mice, Transgenic

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  • (PMID = 17337116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA4 protein, human; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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90. Tanaka S, Satoh M, Hirabayashi Y, Nunomiya S, Seo N: [Case of anaphylactic shock induced by an antibiotic after induction of anesthesia]. Masui; 2006 Oct;55(10):1270-2
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  • A 39-year-old man was scheduled for removal of right adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Ampicillin / administration & dosage. Ampicillin / adverse effects. Biomarkers / blood. Histamine / blood. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Intraoperative Care. Male. Sulbactam / administration & dosage. Sulbactam / adverse effects. Tryptases / blood

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  • (PMID = 17051993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 65DT0ML581 / sultamicillin; 7C782967RD / Ampicillin; 820484N8I3 / Histamine; EC 3.4.21.59 / Tryptases; S4TF6I2330 / Sulbactam
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91. Phitayakorn R, McHenry CR: Laparoscopic and selective open resection for adrenal and extraadrenal neuroendocrine tumors. Am Surg; 2008 Jan;74(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic and selective open resection for adrenal and extraadrenal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Laparoscopic resection is preferred for most adrenal tumors.
  • From 1996 to 2007, 54 consecutive patients who underwent resection of an adrenal tumor or extraadrenal pheochromocytoma were reviewed to determine the outcome of laparoscopic resection and the rate of conversion and indications for open resection.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was initiated in 42 patients, three (7.3%) of whom underwent conversion to an open approach because of bleeding from an accessory vein (one), tumor invasion (one), or adhesions (one) (median American Society of Anesthesiologists score = 2, estimated blood loss = 186 +/- 235 mL, size = 5 +/- 3 cm).
  • Open resection was performed in 12 patients, six at the time of another procedure, three for pheochromocytoma of the organs of Zuckerkandl, two for bilateral adrenalectomy, and one for tumor invasion (median American Society of Anesthesiologists score = 3, estimated blood loss = 1525 +/- 978 mL, size = 8 +/- 4 cm).
  • When unrecognized, an accessory right adrenal vein may be a source of significant bleeding requiring conversion to an open approach.
  • Open resection is indicated for tumor invasion, for extraadrenal pheochromocytoma, when laparoscopic resection cannot be performed safely, and for concomitant open procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18274426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Gibbs KE, White A, Kaleya R: Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature. JSLS; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic management of adrenal masses has been well described.
  • We describe a case of an enlarging smooth muscle tumor of the adrenal gland in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and review the sparse literature available on this subject.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old female with AIDS complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was found to have a left adrenal mass.
  • Pathological review found the mass to be a rare adrenal leiomyoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Benign, smooth muscle tumors arising from the adrenal glands are rare.
  • A review of the literature does reveal a propensity for these tumors to occur in the immunocompromised population.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability to manage these tumors laparoscopically is of significant benefit to patients.

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  • (PMID = 16121885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015615
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93. Maruyama M, Sato H, Yagame M, Shoji S, Terachi T, Osamura RY: Spontaneous rupture of pheochromocytoma and its clinical features: a case report. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2008 Sep;33(3):110-5
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  • Rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma is extremely rare and can be lethal because of dramatic changes in the circulation.
  • The patient was referred to our hospital because of severe hypertension (256/127 mmHg) and a left adrenal tumor.
  • T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity in the 50-mm left adrenal tumor.
  • These findings suggested that the left adrenal tumor was a pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 21318978.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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94. Uenishi T, Yamazaki O, Matsuyama M, Horjii K, Yamamoto T, Kubo S: Surgical management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial embolization. Osaka City Med J; 2005 Dec;51(2):89-93
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • A 73-year-old man who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma presented bilateral adrenal metastases.
  • Ten months after transcatheter arterial embolization, computed tomography detected huge tumors in both adrenal glands.
  • Simultaneous resection of both adrenal lesions was performed under hydrocortisone replacement therapy.
  • These tumors were confirmed histopathologically to represent adrenal metastatic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The patient died of respiratory failure due to lung metastasis 9 months after adrenalectomy, although intrahepatic tumor was controlled by transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • It is necessary to clarify the therapeutic effectiveness and the indication of adrenalectomy for patients with adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16617686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Osaka city medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Osaka City Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Ivović M, Vujović S, Penezić Z, Zarković M, Drezgić M: [Insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Jul-Aug;134(7-8):315-9
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  • [Title] [Insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma].
  • INTRODUCTION: Frequent use of modern imaging methods (such as ultrasound, CT and MRI) results in high incidence of accidentally discovered adrenal mass.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are accidentally discovered adrenal tumors by imaging methods without any prior suspicion of adrenal disease.
  • Some studies have shown decreased insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentalom a.
  • METHOD: A total of 22 patients with accidentally discovered adrenal mass confirmed by CT/MRI were evaluated in our study.
  • RESULTS: Our results showed significantly lower insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentalomas comparing to the control group (4.95 +/- 0.58 vs. 6.62 +/- 0.47, p=0.015).
  • CONCLUSION: Our patients with adrenal incidentalomas manifested lower insulin sensitivity what suggested further follow up and assessment of insulin sensitivity during endocrine evaluation of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Insulin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 17009611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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96. Lehmann TP, Biernacka-Łukanty JM, Saraco N, Langlois D, Li JY, Trzeciak WH: Temporal pattern of the induction of SF-1 gene expression by the signal transduction pathway involving 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Acta Biochim Pol; 2005;52(2):485-91
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  • The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of stimulation of the cAMP-dependent pathway on the expression of an orphan nuclear receptor, SF-1/Ad4BP in mouse adrenal tumour, Y-1 cells in culture.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Animals. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. CREB-Binding Protein / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / genetics. Colforsin / pharmacology. Cycloheximide / pharmacology. Dactinomycin / pharmacology. Histone Acetyltransferases / genetics. Mice. Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1. Phosphoproteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15912208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1734-154X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica Polonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Pol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Crebbp protein, mouse; 0 / Ncoa1 protein, mouse; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; EC 2.3.1.48 / CREB-Binding Protein; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1
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97. Igaz P, Wiener Z, Szabó P, Falus A, Gaillard RC, Horányi J, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: Functional genomics approaches for the study of sporadic adrenal tumor pathogenesis: clinical implications. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2006 Oct;101(2-3):87-96
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  • [Title] Functional genomics approaches for the study of sporadic adrenal tumor pathogenesis: clinical implications.
  • Although sporadic adrenal tumors are frequently encountered in the general population their pathogenesis is not well elucidated.
  • Some studies have already been published describing gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and phaeochromocytomas.
  • Several genes coding for growth factors and their receptors, enzymes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, genes related to the regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation, adhesion and intracellular metabolism have been found to be up- or downregulated in various tumors.
  • Some alterations in gene expression appear so specific for certain tumor types that their application in diagnosis, determination of prognosis and the choice of therapy can be envisaged.
  • In this short review, the authors will present a synopsis of these recent findings that seem to open new perspectives in adrenal tumor pathogenesis, with emphasis on changes in steroidogenic enzyme expression profiles and highlighting possible clinical implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromosome Aberrations. Genomics / methods

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  • (PMID = 16891114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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98. Kostyuchenko N, Pushkarev V, Kashevarov G, Tronko M, Komisarenko I, Mikosha O: Effects of N-acylethanolamines and various antimitotic agents on apoptotic DNA fragmentation in conventionally normal and tumor tissue of human adrenals. Exp Oncol; 2005 Sep;27(3):215-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of N-acylethanolamines and various antimitotic agents on apoptotic DNA fragmentation in conventionally normal and tumor tissue of human adrenals.
  • AIM: To study effects of N-acylethanolamines (NAE) and various antimitotic agents: taxol, colchicine, and cytochalasin B on the DNA fragmentation extent in conventionally normal (CNT) and tumor tissue of human adrenal cortex.
  • METHODS: Six types of adrenal tumor tissue of 84 patients were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: It was established that NAEs enhanced apoptosis in conventionally normal and tumor tissue of adrenal glands.
  • In general, tumor tissue was more sensitive to NAEs and antimitotic compounds than conventionally normal tissue.
  • NAEs in combination with colchicine and cytochalasin B enhanced DNA fragmentation in some types of tumor tissue and did not influence, or even reduced it in CNT.
  • Taxol revealed selective action depending on tumor tissue type.
  • Considerable individual differences were reported in sensitiveness of different types of tumors to the NAEs and antimitotic agents.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taxol and combination of NAEs with colchicine and cytochalasin B are inductors of apoptosis in the adrenal tumor cells and thus promising for further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Antimitotic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. DNA Damage. Ethanolamines / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16244584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimitotic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Ethanolamines; 0 / N-acylethanolamines; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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99. Huhtaniemi I: Are gonadotrophins tumorigenic--a critical review of clinical and experimental data. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Nov 25;329(1-2):56-61
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  • The growth of many gonadal and extragonadal tumors is stimulated by gonadal sex hormones.
  • Because gonadal hormone production is regulated by pituitary gonadotrophins, the latter hormones can be considered as indirect tumor promoters.
  • In addition, there is a growing body of evidence that both gonadal (e.g. ovarian cancer) and extragonadal (e.g. breast, uterus, prostate and adrenal) tumors express gonadotrophin receptors, indicating the possibility of a direct tumorigenic role for FSH and LH.
  • The purpose of this brief review is to present a critical evaluation of the current information, both clinical and experimental, about the direct involvement of gonadotrophins in the induction and growth of gonadal and extragonadal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropins / physiology. Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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100. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of its excellent negative predictive value, 18F-FDG-PET may be of help in avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with non-secreting equivocal tumors at CT scanning and low 18F-FGD uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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