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1. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage, leading to life-threatening, and multiple tumors in the liver.
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Miwa Y, Uchida K, Nakayama H, Asaki N: Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Sep;72(9):1229-32
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret.
  • The excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland, and some neoplastic cells were beta III-tubulin-, doublecortin- and neurofilament-positive.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was considered to be a neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20431253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Salem RR, Elefteriades J, Sosa JA: Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:109
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection.
  • Leiomyosarcomas arising from the adrenal vein are rare malignancies associated with delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 64-year old woman who presented with a 13 x 6.5 x 6.6 cm heterogeneous mass arising in the region of the right adrenal gland and extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium.
  • Biochemical evaluation excluded a functional tumor of the adrenal gland, and multiple tumor markers were negative.
  • We present the novel use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in the resection of an adrenal vein leiomyosarcoma extending into the right atrium.
  • The patient remains free of disease ten months after surgery.
  • DHCA afforded a bloodless operative field for optimal resection of disease from within the IVC.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas of the adrenal vein is one of exclusion and involves preoperative radiological imaging and biochemical evaluation to exclude other functional tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17910774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117013
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5. Orlando R, Lumachi F, Lirussi F: Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4385-8

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  • [Title] Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies.
  • Though most of these anatomical variants have no clinical significance, an accessory spleen may simulate a tumor in the adrenal gland, pancreas, stomach or intestine.
  • Alternatively, a missed accessory spleen may be the site of the relapse of a hematological disorder.
  • We, therefore, assessed retrospectively: (i) the frequency of congenital anomalies of the spleen observed during 2650 consecutive laparoscopies and (ii) looked for possible misdiagnoses of the accessory spleen as hematological disorders or solid tumors located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • Among the 44 patients in whom an accessory spleen was discovered laparoscopically, the recognition of this anomaly prevented a relapse of a hematological disease in one case and avoided a useless exploratory laparotomy in the second, where the radiologist had interpreted this malformation as a space-occupying lesion.
  • In the third case, the accessory spleen was initially misdiagnosed as a solid tumor of the pancreas, but was eventually recognized as a congenital anomaly by a second laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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6. Sandgren J, Andersson R, Rada-Iglesias A, Enroth S, Akerstrom G, Dumanski JP, Komorowski J, Westin G, Wadelius C: Integrative epigenomic and genomic analysis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Exp Mol Med; 2010 Jul 31;42(7):484-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Epigenomic and genomic changes affect gene expression and contribute to tumor development.
  • Furthermore, genomic aberrations such as DNA copy number changes are common events in tumors.
  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare endocrine tumor of the adrenal gland that mostly occurs sporadic with unknown epigenetic/genetic cause.
  • The integrated analysis of the tumor expression levels, in relation to normal adrenal medulla, indicated that either histone modifications or chromosomal alterations, or both, have great impact on the expression of a substantial fraction of the genes in the investigated sample.
  • Candidate tumor suppressor genes identified with decreased expression, a H3K27me3 mark and/or in regions of deletion were for instance TGIF1, DSC3, TNFRSF10B, RASSF2, HOXA9, PTPRE and CDH11.
  • Our approach to associate histone methylations and DNA copy number changes to gene expression revealed apparent impact on global gene transcription, and enabled the identification of candidate tumor genes for further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genome, Human / genetics. Genomics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Dosage / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Lysine / metabolism. Methylation. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20534969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912476
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7. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20191330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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8. Kim DJ, Chung JJ, Ryu YH, Hong SW, Yu JS, Kim JH: Adrenocortical oncocytoma displaying intense activity on 18F-FDG-PET: a case report and a literature review. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;22(9):821-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report on the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) findings in a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland with the literature review of other imaging findings including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19039562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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9. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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10. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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11. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17926102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Baldi C, Mazzoni G: Mebendazole inhibits growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines implanted in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(5):809-17
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland which requires new therapeutic approaches as its early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis poor despite therapies used.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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13. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15708063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Tang JY, Pan C, Chen J, Xu M, Chen J, Xue HL, Gu LJ, Dong R, Ye H, Zhou M, Wang YP: [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;44(10):770-3
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  • [Title] [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to improve the prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB) stage III and IV in children through the comprehensive therapy including chemotherapy, delayed tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and inducing differentiation and to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis.
  • Comprehensive protocol included accurate staging, delayed and/or second tumor resection for stage III and IV patients, chemotherapy of different intensity mainly composed of cell cycle nonspecific drugs and 13-cis-retinoid for inducing cell differentiation.
  • Of them, 15 were found to have the tumor in adrenal gland, 12 had the tumor extended to the retro-peritoneal space, while in 15 cases the tumor was beside the spinal column in chest and in 3 the tumor was located in other places.
  • Nine cases had stage I, 1 case had stage II, 8 cases had III, 26 cases had stage IV and 1 case had stage IVs of the tumor.
  • Depending on the age and stage of the tumor, 26 cases were aligned into high risk protocol, 10 into medium risk and 9 into low risk groups.
  • During up to 21 months median following up period (range 14 to 64 months), 24 cases (62%) kept CR (median 22 months) and 4 survived with stable disease.
  • Eleven cases died of relapse and disease progression.
  • Statistical analysis showed that the age older than 18 months, and stage III and IV of the tumor were the factors predicting poor prognosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively).
  • Patients who had the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal space, who had incomplete tumor resection, and those who did not receive ASCT had poorer prognosis, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.092, 0.55 and 0.60, respectively).
  • The origin of the tumor, completeness of tumor resection, and use of ASCT had no significant impact on the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17229383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Walz MK: [Adrenal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Nov;79(11):1087-94; quiz 1095-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal tumors can be primary or secondary entities.
  • Primary tumors are able to secrete hormones which may cause significant effects clinically.
  • Typical tumor-related adrenal diseases are Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and pheochromocytoma (catacholamine excess).
  • Primary adrenal tumors are rarely malignant, but adrenocortical neoplasias show a relation between tumor size and rate of malignancy.
  • Diagnostic methods for adrenal tumors include hormone tests and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Endoscopy. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18941729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


17. Koren J, Cunderlík P: [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):111-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoidný tumor pravej nadoblicky: kazuistika.
  • Adenomatoid tumor of adrenal gland is a very rare primary tumor with favourable prognosis.
  • The mesothelial origin of this tumor was confirmed by multiple studies of various authors.
  • In our case report, we present an interesting case of the adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 55-year-old woman.
  • Our case is the second well-documented case of this tumor occurring in a female adult patient.
  • We emphasize the presence of an intraluminal thread-like bridging strands, generally considered to be a characteristic histologic feature of this tumor, which have not yet been reported in literature in adenomatoid tumor located in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16161457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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18. Gibbs KE, White A, Kaleya R: Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature. JSLS; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic management of adrenal masses has been well described.
  • We describe a case of an enlarging smooth muscle tumor of the adrenal gland in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and review the sparse literature available on this subject.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old female with AIDS complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was found to have a left adrenal mass.
  • Pathological review found the mass to be a rare adrenal leiomyoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Benign, smooth muscle tumors arising from the adrenal glands are rare.
  • A review of the literature does reveal a propensity for these tumors to occur in the immunocompromised population.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability to manage these tumors laparoscopically is of significant benefit to patients.

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  • (PMID = 16121885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015615
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19. Wagner RA, Piché CA, Jöchle W, Oliver JW: Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Am J Vet Res; 2005 May;66(5):910-4
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  • [Title] Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and endocrine responses of ferrets with adrenocortical disease (ACD) to treatment with a slow-release implant of deslorelin acetate.
  • Plasma estradiol, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were measured before and after treatment and at relapse of clinical signs; at that time, the adrenal glands were grossly or ultrasonographically measured and affected glands that were surgically removed were examined histologically.
  • In 5 ferrets, large palpable tumors developed within 2 months of clinical relapse; 3 of these ferrets were euthanatized because of adrenal gland tumor metastasis to the liver or tumor necrosis.
  • Deslorelin may not decrease adrenal tumor growth in some treated ferrets.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / veterinary. Ferrets. Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage. Triptorelin Pamoate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15934621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; TKG3I66TVE / deslorelin
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20. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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21. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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22. Beland MD, Mayo-Smith WW: Ablation of adrenal neoplasms. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Sep-Oct;34(5):588-92
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  • [Title] Ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • Adrenal tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms that include multiple etiologies, each with a different prognosis, malignant potential, and recommended treatment.
  • Percutaneous techniques to treat adrenal neoplasms have been described including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and chemical ablation.
  • This article reviews the various adrenal neoplasms and the techniques of adrenal ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Cryosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Contrast Media. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18830736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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23. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Systemische Therapie maligner Nebennierentumoren.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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24. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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25. Barzon L, Trevisan M, Masi G, Pacenti M, Sinigaglia A, Macchi V, Porzionato A, De Caro R, Favia G, Iacobone M, Palù G: Detection of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in human adrenal tumors. Oncogene; 2008 Jan 31;27(6):857-64
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  • [Title] Detection of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in human adrenal tumors.
  • The presence of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in adrenal tumors and their role in adrenal tumorigenesis has never been investigated, even though the adrenal gland seems to be a preferential site of infection by these viruses and adrenal steroid hormones have been shown to activate their replication.
  • We examined in a large series of normal adrenal gland tissues (n=20) and adrenal tumors (n=107) the presence of herpesviruses and polyomaviruses sequences and gene expression, which were detected in a high proportion of both normal and neoplastic adrenal samples (overall, viruses were found in 15% normal adrenals, 27.8% benign adrenal tumors and 35.3% malignant tumors).
  • The polyomaviruses SV40 and BK virus were more frequently found in malignant adrenal tumors, whereas herpesviruses, especially Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus, were more frequently detected in functioning benign adrenocortical tumors, often as coinfection.
  • Moreover, tumors from patients with severe hypercortisolism frequently showed herpesvirus coinfections at high viral genome copy number.
  • Our study suggests that the adrenal gland could be a reservoir of infection for these viruses and that hormone overproduction by the adrenal gland could represent a trigger for virus reactivation.
  • On the other hand, these viruses could also contribute to adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / virology. Herpesviridae / isolation & purification. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Polyomavirus / isolation & purification. Polyomavirus Infections / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Viral, Tumor / analysis. Base Sequence. DNA, Viral / chemistry. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 17684484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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26. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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27. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • In both tumors, it may be difficult to determine benign from malignant and the biologic behavior and degree of invasion may portend a more malignant course.
  • Surgical excision is the primary therapy for both tumors, including excision of metastatic and recurrent tumor.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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28. Kuruba R, Gallagher SF: Current management of adrenal tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Jan;20(1):34-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal tumors evoke considerable interest and diagnostic challenges.
  • This rare group of tumors includes functional tumors with a gamut of clinical presentations, as well as adrenocortical carcinoma, with its advanced disease at presentation and dismal prognosis posing additional challenge.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances have been made in diagnostic imaging modalities for identifying malignancy risk in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Considerable progress has occurred in understanding adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenesis from the study of genetics at the germline level in familial carcinomas, as well as at the somatic level by analyzing molecular alterations in sporadic tumors; this research supplies opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents against a tumor with poor prognosis.
  • SUMMARY: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has emerged as standard of care in the treatment of functional benign adenomas and nonfunctional tumors larger than 4 cm when adrenocortical carcinoma is not suspected.
  • International consensus conferences have attempted to standardize diagnostic and treatment approaches in the management of adrenal tumors; further research is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18043254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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29. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • These tumors arise from tissues with distinct embryonic origins.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • The tumors are frequently large enough to provide material for biological studies in addition to diagnostic investigations.
  • In France many patients with hypersecretory tumors are referred to the Hypertension Unit of Georges Pompidou European Hospital, and to the Department of Endocrinology at Cochin Hospital, Paris.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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30. Lau SK, Weiss LM: Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):656-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Calcifying fibrous tumor is an uncommon entity with distinctive pathologic features.
  • Most calcifying fibrous tumors involve the peripheral soft tissues or serosal surfaces, with reports of visceral examples of this lesion being extremely limited.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of an unusual case of calcifying fibrous tumor occurring in the adrenal gland of a 32-year-old woman.
  • The morphologic diagnosis of calcifying fibrous tumor was supported by diffuse positive immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa and absence of reactivity for muscle specific actin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
  • Although rare, awareness that calcifying fibrous tumor may occur at this particular site is important so as not to confuse this lesion with other mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17078996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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31. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • These patients do not typically present in hemorrhagic shock, allowing for adequate preoperative evaluation for function and assessment for primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.
  • The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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33. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. Agha A, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):233-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der Nebennierenrinden-Adenome.
  • Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours.
  • The decision to use one of the available techniques depends on tumour size, body mass index, previous abdominal surgery and the experience of the surgeon.
  • Conventional surgery should be used if malignancy is suspected, especially for tumours larger than 6 cm.
  • In individual cases, even tumours up to 10 cm can be operated laparoscopically if there is no suspicion of invasive growth or lymphatic metastases.
  • The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent.
  • The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart , New York.
  • (PMID = 20549586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Broome JT, Gauger P: Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):185-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors.
  • As technology has advanced, the options for the surgical management of adrenal disorders have also increased.
  • An understanding of the basic evaluation of adrenal tumors, patient specific factors, and the risks and benefits of available techniques will allow the clinician to select an appropriate treatment for each individual.
  • Except in the case of pheochromocytoma, large adrenal tumors >6 cm should not be removed laparoscopically due to the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This article will review basic surgical adrenal disorders, operative approaches, and delineate principles of patient and procedure selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Length of Stay. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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36. Berker D, Isik S, Erden G, Tutuncu YA, Ozcan HN, Caner S, Tekelek B, Aydin Y, Guler S: Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):419-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels can be used as a diagnostic tool in determining the functioning status of benign adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, medical records of patients with adrenal tumors who consecutively presented to an endocrinology clinic between August 2005 and October 2008 were evaluated.
  • Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma was larger than 4 cm or when a hypersecreting tumor was suspected.
  • Findings were compared among patients with functioning adrenal tumors, patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors, and control participants.
  • RESULTS: Of 370 patients with adrenal tumors, 50 with adrenal incidentaloma met the inclusion criteria.
  • Group 1 included 20 patients with functioning adrenal tumors (14 with Cushing syndrome and 6 with pheochromocytoma), and Group 2 included 30 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • MMP-9 levels were higher in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors and functioning adrenal tumors than in control participants (P<.001).
  • MMP-9 levels in patients with functioning adrenal tumors were significantly higher than those in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (P = .002).
  • No significant linear correlation existed between tumor volume and MMP-9 levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum MMP-9 levels may be useful in differentiating benign subclinical functioning adrenal tumors from benign nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood

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  • (PMID = 20061295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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37. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.
  • Patients who have local invasion, tumors that are too large, or require organ resection require an open procedure.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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38. Komatsu S, Watanabe R, Naito M, Mizusawa T, Obara K, Nishiyama T, Takahashi K: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):606-7
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from adrenal gland in adulthood, diagnosed preoperatively as having non-functional adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunohistological examination revealed the definite diagnosis as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a highly malignant neoplasm, there is no evidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis 16 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16771733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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39. Plouin PF, Amar L, Lepoutre C: Phaeochromocytomas and functional paragangliomas: clinical management. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):933-41
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  • Phaeochromocytomas (PH) and functional paragangliomas (FPGL) are neoplasms of adrenal (PH) or extra-adrenal (FPGL) chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines.
  • Catecholamines are converted into inactive metabolites, metanephrines, within the tumour and the diagnosis of PH/FPGL is therefore based on the quantification of plasma or urinary metanephrines.
  • The tumour can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy.
  • Patients are treated by tumour resection following alpha-blockade.
  • Patients with PH/FPGL should be followed up indefinitely as the disease may recur, particularly if they have inherited or extra-adrenal tumours.
  • About 10% of tumours are malignant either at initial surgery or during follow-up.
  • Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extra-adrenal tumours, and in SDHB mutation carriers.
  • Treatments for progressive malignant PH/FPGL include tumour debulking, metabolic radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and possibly tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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40. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Studies have shown that most are metastatic tumors, and clinical presentation varies with tumor type.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Patients with lymphoma had largest average tumor size.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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41. Hirano D, Minei S, Yamaguchi K, Yoshikawa T, Hachiya T, Yoshida T, Ishida H, Takimoto Y, Saitoh T, Kiyotaki S, Okada K: Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port. J Endourol; 2005 Sep;19(7):788-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port.
  • This study reports the outcomes of retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (RA) for adrenal tumors via a single port using a large cylinder without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with adrenal tumors were treated using RA via a single large port.
  • The average tumor size was 2.6 cm.
  • A rectoscope tube with a 4-cm diameter was inserted, and the adrenal glands were removed endoscopically via the single large port without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • Postoperative major complications, including fulminant hepatitis and pulmonary thrombosis, were observed in two patients (3.7%), and the patient with hepatic disease died on the 14th postoperative day.
  • However, no local tumor recurrence or hormonal relapse has occurred at a median follow-up of 34 months.

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  • (PMID = 16190829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Cheren'ko SM, Larin AS, Tovkaĭ AA: [Potentialities of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in treatment of patients with adrenal tumors]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(2):41-4
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  • [Title] [Potentialities of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in treatment of patients with adrenal tumors].
  • The authors emphasize the advantages of the transperitoneal approach and good perspectives of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in almost all cases of benign and non-invasive adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16752638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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43. Walz MK, Petersenn S, Koch JA, Mann K, Neumann HP, Schmid KW: Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours. Br J Surg; 2005 Jun;92(6):719-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic adrenalectomy has become the treatment of choice for small benign adrenal tumours but should not be used for malignant lesions.
  • It is debatable whether large and therefore potentially malignant primary adrenal tumours should be removed by minimally invasive techniques.
  • METHODS: Three hundred and eighty primary adrenal tumours in 368 patients (142 male and 226 female; mean(s.d.) age 48.9(14.4) years) were excised by laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Adrenal neoplasias exceeded 6 cm in diameter (range 6-13 cm) in 33 patients (18 male and 15 female; age 42.6(14.2) years).
  • Patients with large tumours had an increased conversion rate (P = 0.039), longer operating time (P < 0.001) and greater intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.007) than those with smaller lesions, but a similar overall morbidity rate (P = 0.207).
  • Six malignant tumours were identified (diameter 4-10 cm; four phaeochromocytomas and two adrenocortical carcinomas).
  • CONCLUSION: Endocopic adrenalectomy perfomed by an experienced surgeon should be the treatment of choice for tumours exceeding 6 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15856491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Ishay A, Luboshitzky R: Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors. Fertil Steril; 2009 Aug;92(2):806-7
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  • [Title] Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • An infertile man who presents with azoospermia and bilateral adrenal tumors reveals an XX karyotype and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Azoospermia / diagnosis. Azoospermia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19100538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of its excellent negative predictive value, 18F-FDG-PET may be of help in avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with non-secreting equivocal tumors at CT scanning and low 18F-FGD uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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46. Ziegler CG, Brown JW, Schally AV, Erler A, Gebauer L, Treszl A, Young L, Fishman LM, Engel JB, Willenberg HS, Petersenn S, Eisenhofer G, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15879-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues.
  • A hallmark of adrenocortical tumor formation is the aberrant expression of peptide receptors relating to uncontrolled cell proliferation and hormone overproduction.
  • Our microarray results have also demonstrated a differential expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in tumor subtypes of human pheochromocytoma.
  • In light of these findings, we performed a comprehensive analysis of relevant receptors in both human adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tumors and tested the antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues targeting these receptors.
  • Specifically, we examined the receptor expression of somatostatin-type-2 receptor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor or GHRH receptor splice variant-1 (SV-1) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor at the mRNA and protein levels in normal human adrenal tissues, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, and cell lines.
  • In conclusion, the expression of receptors for somatostatin, GHRH, and LHRH in the normal human adrenal and in adrenal tumors, combined with the growth-inhibitory effects of the antitumor peptide analogues, may make possible improved treatment approaches to adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / analogs & derivatives. 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / pharmacology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aniline Compounds / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cytostatic Agents / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Gene Expression. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PC12 Cells. Pyrroles / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Receptors, LHRH / genetics. Receptors, LHRH / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19717419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AN 238; 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Cytostatic Agents; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 2PK59M9GFF / vapreotide; 33189-65-0 / N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-2,5-dichloroaniline; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7568-93-6 / 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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47. Katoh N, Onimaru R, Sakuhara Y, Abo D, Shimizu S, Taguchi H, Watanabe Y, Shinohara N, Ishikawa M, Shirato H: Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for adrenal tumors. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):418-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the three-dimensional movement of internal fiducial markers near the adrenal tumors using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system and to examine the feasibility of high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy for the adrenal tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional motion of a fiducial marker near the adrenal tumors was detected.
  • Hypofractionated RTRT for adrenal tumors was feasible for patients with metastatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18439693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-57-5 / Gold
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48. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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49. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • [Title] [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Przydatność ultrasonograficznego środka kontrastujacego Levovist w diagnostyce róznicowej guzów nadnerczy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • Non hormone-secreting tumors provide the most complicated diagnostic difficulties.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to define the usefulness of contrasting agent Levovist in differential diagnostics of adrenal tumors and its influence on sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination and to establish patients qualification criteria for surgical procedures.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 3D ultrasound could be useful in cases of big adrenal tumors--over 3 cm diameter after application of ultrasound contrast agents.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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50. Wang HS, Li CC, Chou YH, Wang CJ, Wu WJ, Huang CH: Comparison of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with open surgery for adrenal tumors. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2009 Aug;25(8):438-44
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  • [Title] Comparison of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with open surgery for adrenal tumors.
  • The role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal tumors is well established.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the operative and postoperative parameters of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors and compared the results with those of traditional open adrenalectomy.
  • Eighty-eight patients with adrenal tumors underwent adrenalectomy between January 1997 and October 2008 at our institute.
  • In Group I, eight patients had adrenal tumors larger than 6 cm and no statistically significant differences were found compared with the other patients in Group I.
  • We recommend that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the gold standard procedure for adrenal tumors, irrespective of whether the tumor is benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19605338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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51. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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52. Abma EM, Kluin PM, Dullaart RP: Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism. Neth J Med; 2008 Jun;66(6):252-5
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  • [Title] Malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumour: reoccurrence with glucocorticoid excess without hyperaldosteronism.
  • We describe a case of hypokalaemic hypertension due to hyperaldosteronism caused by a unilateral adrenocortical tumour with unfavourable histopathology suggestive of malignancy.
  • The patient's clinical course was uneventful, until she presented with extensive metastases of adrenal carcinoma four years later.
  • Although malignant aldosterone-producing adrenal tumours are very rare, the present case underscores that clinicians should be aware that primary hyperaldosteronism can occur in the context of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperkalemia / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Pressure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Potassium / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18689909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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53. Unger N, Serdiuk I, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schulz S, Saeger W, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jun;68(6):850-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Somatostatin mediates its action through five receptor subtypes (sst1-5) that are widely distributed in various endocrine tissues and tumours.
  • In contrast to their well-established use in neuroendocrine and pituitary tumours, little is known about their potential use in adrenal tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined somatostatin receptor protein expression in adrenal tumours of various aetiologies.
  • DESIGN: Seven benign and eight malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), eight aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), nine cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), seven nonfunctioning adrenal tumours (NFAs) and 25 adrenal carcinomas (CAs) as well as eight normal adrenal glands were investigated.
  • However, in the majority of these tumours, less than 30% of cells were positively stained.
  • The majority presented with more than 60% of tumour cells stained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtypes are expressed in PHEOs as well as in tumours of the adrenal cortex with tumour-specific distribution patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / classification. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18031328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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54. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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55. Morimoto R, Satoh F, Murakami O, Hirose T, Totsune K, Imai Y, Arai Y, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Ito S, Takahashi K: Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues. J Endocrinol; 2008 Jul;198(1):175-83
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  • [Title] Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues.
  • AM is expressed in various tumors including adrenocortical tumors and modulates tumor growth.
  • The AM2/IMD expression has not been studied, however, in adrenal tumors.
  • The expression of AM2/IMD and AM was therefore studied in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues by immunocytochemistry (ICC).
  • ICC showed that AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were localized in adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas.
  • RIA detected IR-AM2/IMD in adrenal tumors (0.414+/-0.12 to 0.786+/-0.27 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M.) and attached adrenal tissues (0.397+/-0.052 pmol/g wet weight).
  • RT-PCR showed expression of AM2/IMD, CRLR, and RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 mRNA in tissues of adrenal tumors and attached adrenal glands.
  • In conclusion, AM2/IMD is expressed in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues and may play (patho-)physiological roles in normal and neoplastic adrenals as an autocrine/paracrine regulator.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Peptide Hormones / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18460550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADM2 protein, human; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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56. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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57. Mezzadri NA, Catalina Mandry A, Sinagra DL, Eduardo Falco J, Fernández Vila JM: [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours]. Cir Esp; 2010 May;87(5):306-11
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Abordaje laparoscópico en el tratamiento de las tumoraciones adrenales malignas.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant primary or secondary adrenal tumours are uncommon.
  • Although controversy exists on this issue, the increasing experience in laparoscopic surgery extends the indication for laparoscopic adrenalectomy to potentially malignant and to metastatic adrenal tumours.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasias, describing the results of our consecutive series of patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 13 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasia between March 1999 and June 2009, at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidad of Buenos Aires and at the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed due to malignant neoplasia.
  • Five patients had an adrenal carcinoma, 1 patient a malignant phaeochromocytoma, and 7 patients had metastatic tumours.
  • The cause of death was the underlying disease in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a reasonable technique for malignant adrenal tumours, when the open oncological resection can be reproduced by the laparoscopic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-147X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Gross MD, Avram A, Fig LM, Fanti S, Al-Nahhas A, Rubello D: PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2007 Sep;51(3):272-83
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  • [Title] PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Early experience with positron emission tomography (PET) has provided exciting results in the evaluation of a broad spectrum of neoplasms, to include primary adrenal tumors, their metastases and metastatic disease to the adrenal glands.
  • By virtue of the well-recognized propensity of malignancies to preferentially use glycolysis as an important energy source and the stimulation of mechanisms designed to absorb substrate glucose, the glucose analog, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, has become a successful radiopharmaceutical in the scintigraphic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Building upon prior experience gained with imaging the adrenal gland, other positron-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are finding their way into clinical use.
  • The 11b-hydroxylase inhibitor, metomidate labeled with 11C has been used to scintigraphically identify tissues of adrenocortical origin, to accurately identify recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma and may be useful in assessing the malignant potential of these tumors and predicting survival in afflicted patients.
  • Adrenomedulla imaging with 11C- and 18F-labeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs draws heavily from the experience gained from predecessor compounds, labeled with single photon emitting isotopes and, in some instances, single photon emission tomography, and has been shown to depict with high efficacy pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas and other neoplasms of neural crest origin.
  • Additional structural and functional information provided by computed tomography (CT), performed as part of hybrid PET/CT imaging directly complements PET and adds measurable diagnostic value in the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Image Enhancement / methods. Molecular Probe Techniques. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17464268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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59. Oprea I, Michel G: [Androgen-secreting tumor in an adrenal tumor discovered by accident after amenorrhea caused by a meningeal hemorrhage]. Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb; 2008;(4):517-20
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  • [Title] [Androgen-secreting tumor in an adrenal tumor discovered by accident after amenorrhea caused by a meningeal hemorrhage].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur androgènosecrétante de la surrénale découverte par hasard après une aménorrhée installée brutalement suite a une hémorragie méningée.
  • Androgen-secreting tumors are uncommon among adrenal secreting tumors.
  • The case reported here concerns an adrenal tumor secreting androgens, unexpectedly found after a sudden amenorrhea caused by a meningeal haemorrhage, with positive outcome after adrenalectomy.
  • The indication of increased secretion of oestrogens and androgens, should suggest the presence of adrenal androgen-secreting tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Amenorrhea / etiology. Androgens / secretion. Hemorrhage / complications. Meningeal Arteries / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-9247
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société des sciences médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Luxembourg
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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60. Chen JH, Yu CY, Pai CY, Chan DC, Chen CJ, Yu JC, Liu YC: Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;35(6):353-6
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  • [Title] Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review.
  • Castleman's disease is a rare disorder characterized by benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue.
  • The left suprarenal location of this localized disease may be mistaken for an adrenal tumor.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a Castleman's tumor located superomedial to the upper pole of the left kidney that mimicked an adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15928190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Locali RF, Matsuoka PK, Cherbo T, Gabriel EA, Buffolo E: Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2009 Mar;92(3):168-76
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The resection of tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium (RA) increases the survival rate of patients with renal/adrenal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical procedure in cases of IVC and RA in the treatment of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical intervention (during the period) between January 1997 and June 2007, for resection of IVC and/or RA thrombus due to renal or adrenal tumors, were retrospectively evaluated.
  • The patients (64.2% male) presented with Wilms' tumor, clear cell carcinoma and adrenal adenocarcinoma, and had mean age of 4.5, 60.5 and 2.5 years, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Suprahepatic IVC tumor thrombus were observed in all the patients, and in 62.4% of them the thrombus invaded the RA.
  • The duration of orotracheal intubation and length of hospital stay were different, according to the tumor type.
  • Two deaths, due to intraoperative cardiorespiratory arrest, were seen among patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: IVC and RA tumor thrombi are more frequent in patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • More postoperative complications are seen in patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma, and the postoperative prognosis is better for patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombectomy / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior. Venous Thrombosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced / methods. Extracorporeal Circulation / methods. Female. Heart Atria / surgery. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19390703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4170
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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62. Ueberberg B, Unger N, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Saeger W, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):181-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy.
  • In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach.
  • In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland.
  • GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent.
  • In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs.
  • GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors.
  • Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function.
  • The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ghrelin / genetics. Receptors, Ghrelin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18246525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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63. Toba A, Tamura Y, Osajima Y, Kinbara Y, Sato M, Yamaga R, Hashimoto R, Mori S, Miyakoshi S, Ota M, Ito H, Araki A: [A case of nasal NK/T cell lymphoma presenting with bilateral giant adrenal tumors]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;45(6):660-5
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  • [Title] [A case of nasal NK/T cell lymphoma presenting with bilateral giant adrenal tumors].
  • Abdominal echogram showed bilateral adrenal swelling (left adrenal 90x80 mm, right adrenal 50x20 mm) and she was admitted to the hospital for further examination.
  • A tumor was also found inside nasal cavity by enhanced computed tomography (CT), and abnormal uptake in the nasal cavity and adrenal gland was shown in gallium scintigraphy.
  • Biopsy of the nasal tumor revealed nasal natural killer or thymus-derived (NK/T) cell lymphoma.
  • After THP-COP chemotherapy regimen, both the nasal and adrenal tumors decreased in size.
  • Since she had a high level of plasma ACTH (158.0 pg/ml) and normal serum cortisol (14.6 microg/dl), partial adrenal insufficiency was suspected.
  • In addition, since her cortisol circadian rhythm was lost and cortisol levels were not completely suppressed by the 1 mg and 8 mg dexamethasone test, she met the criteria of the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing syndrome.
  • NK/T cell lymphoma with giant adrenal tumor is extremely rare, but should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / complications. Nose Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19179800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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64. Stephenson TJ: Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):629-43
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  • [Title] Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours.
  • This review encompasses the diagnostic features of malignancy, the routinely observable prognostic features and the prognostic and predictive features emerging from research techniques in the principal endocrine neoplasms: pancreatic and extrapancreatic endocrine cell tumours, thyroid and parathyroid neoplasia, adrenal cortical neoplasms and adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • While each endocrine tissue has its own set of diagnostic features for malignancy, and prognostic features once a diagnosis of malignancy has been established, there are a few common themes.
  • For several endocrine neoplasms, definite recognition of malignancy can be difficult and may depend upon frank invasive or metastatic growth at presentation.
  • The accurate documentation of routinely observable histological features interpreted in the light of current literature has not been superseded by special techniques in the statement of diagnosis or prognosis in the vast majority of endocrine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Peptide Hormones / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Glucagon / analysis. Humans. Insulin / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16681678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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65. Wang X, Liang L, Jiang Y: Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature. Acta Paediatr; 2007 Jun;96(6):930-4
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  • [Title] Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature.
  • AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and outcome of children adrenal tumors presenting with hypertension.
  • METHODS: The records of nine children under 16 years of age with adrenal tumours presenting with hypertension were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Abdominal mass was palpable only in one patient at diagnosis.
  • Abdominal computed topography showed adrenal mass in all patients.
  • Tumours were completely resected for each patient.
  • The median tumour weight was 73 g (11-530 g) and the size ranged from 1.5 x 1.5 to 12 x 14 cm2.
  • In one case, adrenal pheochromocytoma first occurred and non-functioning islet cell tumour successively occurred at pancreas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adrenal tumours presented with hypertension showed an atypical course, variable presentation.
  • We report a unique case of adrenal pheochromocytoma followed by the occurrence of non-functioning islet cell tumour.
  • Imaging techniques are important to detect adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vanilmandelic Acid / blood


66. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumors (AT) are usually found in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • Thirty-four cases have been reported so far, more often presenting grossly as solid tumors, rarely as solid with cystic areas, and 5 cases were almost entirely cystic.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19851133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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67. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Takahashi K, Totsune K, Saruta M, Fukuda T, Suzuki T, Hirose T, Imai Y, Sasano H, Murakami O: Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. Peptides; 2006 Jan;27(1):178-82
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  • [Title] Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • In the present study, we studied expression of Ucn3/SCP in the normal adrenal and adrenal tumors by radioimmunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • High concentrations of immunoreactive (IR)-Ucn3 were present in the normal portions of adrenal glands (4.2+/-0.51 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M., n = 14), and the levels were higher than those in the brain.
  • IR-Ucn3 was also detected in the tumor tissues of aldosterone-secreting adenomas (6.2+/-0.6 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-secreting adenomas (5.0+/-1.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.9+/-0.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 7).
  • Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that IR-Ucn3 in normal portions of adrenal glands and aldosterone-secreting adenomas was eluted mainly in the positions of Ucn3 and SCP with several minor peaks eluting earlier.
  • The RT-PCR showed expression of Ucn3 mRNA in normal portions of adrenal gland (positive ratio; 4/4), aldosterone-secreting adenomas (3/4), cortisol-secreting adenomas (1/3) and pheochromocytomas (6/7).
  • These findings indicate that Ucn3 is produced in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors (both adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas), and suggest that Ucn3 acts as an autocrine or paracrine regulator in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Urocortins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16095756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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69. Vetshev PS, Ippolitov LI, Vetshev SP, Kovalenko EI: [Disputable points and negative tendencies in diagnosis and surgical treatment of accidentally revealed adrenal tumors]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(6):11-4
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  • [Title] [Disputable points and negative tendencies in diagnosis and surgical treatment of accidentally revealed adrenal tumors].
  • Two main problems are discussed in detail: differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors before surgery, and policy of treatment of these patients.
  • Some negative tendencies in adrenal surgery are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16044119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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70. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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71. Iwakura H, Ariyasu H, Kanamoto N, Hosoda K, Nakao K, Kangawa K, Akamizu T: Establishment of a novel neuroblastoma mouse model. Int J Oncol; 2008 Dec;33(6):1195-9
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  • In an attempt to obtain transgenic mice carrying simian virus 40 T-antigen gene under control of tetracycline responsive elements with cytomegalovirus promoter, we found one line of mice exhibiting bilateral adrenal tumors by leakage expression of T-antigen in adrenal gland.
  • These adrenal tumors contained small round tumor cells with increased N/C ratio, showing chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase-like immunoreactivity.
  • By electron microscopy, tumor cells containing neuritic processes with synaptic vesicles surrounding them were observed.
  • MYCN expression levels were significantly elevated in these tumors.
  • These findings indicated that the adrenal tumor was a neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology


72. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Otto M, Cichocki A, Rosłonowska E, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Jeske W, Papierska L, Zgliczyński W: Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: a lesson from observation of 1,444 patients. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal tumors: a lesson from observation of 1,444 patients.
  • This study was aimed at summarizing our experience in the management of 1,444 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumors observed at a single endocrinological centre.
  • Hormonal determinations were performed in all patients at the beginning of the observation period to detect subclinical adrenal hyperfunction.
  • The imaging phenotype on CT and MRI was analyzed for defining the malignant potential of the tumors.
  • Based on the results of these examinations we diagnosed among our cohort probably benign masses in 87%, malignant tumors in 10% (adrenal carcinoma - 9%), and metastases in 3%.
  • Malignancy is the most serious risk in the group of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms / radiography. Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18491253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 210 LAs performed in 6 yr, 39 patients had potentially malignant tumors greater than 5 cm in diameter.
  • RESULTS: All 39 patients had successful LAs without perioperative mortality, conversion to open surgery, or capsular disruption during dissection.
  • The mean tumor size was 6.2 cm (range, 5-12 cm), operative time 207 min (115-315 min), and blood loss 75 ml (minimal-1400 ml).
  • Preoperatively there were 27 nonfunctioning tumors, seven pheochromocytomas, three cortisol-secreting tumors, and two virilizing tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Only the tumor size was larger and length of postoperative hospital stay longer for those in the hand-assisted group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Lumachi F, Basso SM, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Favia G: Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4559-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role and cost-effectiveness of adrenal imaging and image-guided FNA cytology in the management of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal masses (incidentalomas) are relatively frequent and unsuspected incidentalomas (AI) of more than 1 cm in size may be found in 1-5% of patients who have undergone abdominal or chest computed tomography (CT)-scan for unrelated reasons.
  • Once an AI is detected, the two major questions are whether the patient has biochemical evidence of adrenal hyperfunction, and whether the mass is an adrenal metastasis or a malignant adrenal tumour.
  • A single test for disease probabilities is not always more cost-effective than two-test approaches and it has been shown that the cumulative sensitivity and accuracy of both FNAC + magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FNAC + norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy reach 100%, at a similar cost-to-accuracy ratio (7.5 vs. 7.0), whilst the strategy CT-scan + MRI together is less sensitive at a lower cost-to-accuracy ratio.
  • However, image-guided FNAC in conjunction with MRI as the exclusive imaging test has the major role and cost-effectiveness in the management of patients with AL, and should be considered the strategy of choice in distinguishing between benign and malignant non-functioning adrenal masses of more than 2 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):446. Fabia, Gennaro [corrected to Favia, Gennaro]
  • (PMID = 16334141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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75. Hattori Y, Kanamoto N, Kawano K, Iwakura H, Sone M, Miura M, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Arai H, Akamizu T, Nakao K, Maitani Y: Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma. Int J Oncol; 2010 Sep;37(3):695-705
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma.
  • Adrenal neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma have the same embryonic origin from neural crest cells and mainly arise from the adrenal medulla.
  • Recently, transgenic mice exhibiting tumors in the bilateral adrenal medulla by the expression of SV40 T-antigen were developed.
  • In this study, we investigated mRNA expression in adrenal tumors of transgenic mice and compared them with human pheochromocytoma by DNA microarray analysis.
  • To compare mouse adrenal tumors and human pheochromacytoma, we found that the expressions of noradrenergic neuron-related genes, including dopa decarboxylase, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and chromogranin B, were up-regulated in humans but not in mice; however, the expression of neuroblastoma-related genes, including Mycn, paired-like homeobox 2b, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta3 subunit, islet 1 and kinesin family member 1A, was up-regulated in both species.
  • From the gene expression profiles, the characterization of mouse adrenal tumor, may be similar to that of human adrenal neuroblastoma rather than pheochromacytomas.
  • This mouse model would be a useful tool for the development of anti-cancer drugs and for understanding the etiology of adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / biosynthesis. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Up-Regulation


76. Zhang Y, Li H: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of adrenal gland. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;40(8):800-4
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of adrenal primitive neuroectodermal tumors for a better understanding of the disease.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of four cases of adrenal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (two male, two female; age 21-30, average 24) was made.
  • Among the four patients, one refused to receive treatment after definitiver diagnosis through needle biopsy, three received surgical treatments and their post-operative pathological exams all confirmed the diagnoses of primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a very rare tumor.
  • It has non-specific clinical or imaging manifestation and its diagnosis is mostly based on pathological examinations.
  • The tumor is fast-developing, highly malignant with poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20430773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • However, a limited visual field and a narrow working space make this approach difficult, particularly in cases of obese patients or small tumors.
  • Using multidetector row CT (MD-CT), this study investigated the use of preoperative virtual simulation (PVS) to identify tumor and central vein locations for EA, and verified these findings during EA surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Izaki H, Fukumori T, Takahashi M, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Tanimoto S, Nishitani MA, Kanayama HO: Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):677-81
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  • [Title] Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy.
  • AIM: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently indicated for biochemically and clinically functional adrenal tumors and potentially malignant tumors of the adrenal glands.
  • Non-functional adenomas greater than 5 cm in diameter of the adrenal gland are generally considered to represent potentially malignant tumors.
  • The present study shows indications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors with hypertension in a retrospective fashion.
  • Forty-five patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors, and [(131)I]6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (NP-59) scintigraphy was performed for patients with preoperative hypertension.
  • Mean maximum tumor diameter was 42 mm (range, 20-105 mm).
  • All adrenal tumors were removed successfully by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Importantly, all patients who improved hypertension after adrenalectomy displayed strong accumulation in adrenal tumors with visualization of the contralateral gland on NP-59 scintigraphy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The indication of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors is generally considered for lesions more than 5 cm diameter.
  • However, the present study suggests that laparoscopic surgery should be considered even in patients with tumors less than 5 cm in diameter, if both hypertension and accumulation in tumors on NP-59 scintigraphy are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16834641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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79. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • In addition, SF-1 mRNA expression was present in all 91 analyzed adrenocortical tumors.
  • In contrast, SF-1 expression was absent in all nonsteroidogenic tumors.
  • Strong SF-1 protein expression significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome: tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-4.64] and for recurrence 3.91 (95% CI = 1.71-8.94).
  • Similar results were obtained in the independent cohort using RNA analysis [tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 4.69 (95% CI = 1.44-15.30)].
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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80. Onol FF, Baytekin F, Dikbas O, Ergönenç T, Tanidir Y: A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking adrenal tumour in an adult: is differential diagnosis truly possible? J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;62(2):187-9
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  • [Title] A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking adrenal tumour in an adult: is differential diagnosis truly possible?
  • This is a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst featuring uncommon histological findings, which raises the question whether these benign lesions can always be accurately differentiated from teratomatoid cystic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19181637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


82. Mishel' LA: [Asymptomatic tumors of the adrenals (incidentalomas): criteria for the endoscopic removal]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2005;164(4):41-3
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  • [Title] [Asymptomatic tumors of the adrenals (incidentalomas): criteria for the endoscopic removal].
  • An algorithm of using modern methods of the laboratory and X-ray examination and of operative treatment of patients by laparoscopic techniques was developed on the basis of an analysis of the results of diagnosis, endovideosurgical treatment of 132 patients with adrenal tumors without clear clinical signs, hypercortisolism and hyperadrenalinectomy (incidentalomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16755735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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83. Wang H, Zhou FJ, Qin ZK, Han H, Liu ZW: [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):76-8
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenalectomy is a standard treatment for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Conventional open operation usually results in bigger incisions, more blood loss, and long hospital stay to patients; while laparoscopic approaches could make up above shortcomings, which is used to resect benign adrenal tumors gradually.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 10 patients with benign adrenal tumors undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomy were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the experiences and techniques in laparoscopic surgery.
  • RESULTS: Of the 10 patients, 9 had tumors successfully resected by laparoscopic adrenalectomy with no severe postoperative complication; 1 switched to receive open surgery during operation, and had mild postoperative corticoadrenal insufficiency.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of benign adrenal tumors has the advantages of minimal invasion, safety, and efficiency, and may be a primary therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15642205.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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85. Vincent C, Brewster JB, Kedar V, Sundaram CP: Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2008 May;22(5):995-7
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  • [Title] Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the clinical and radiologic features of unilateral adrenal hematomas in adults.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 75 patients who underwent adrenalectomies at our institution, we identified 3 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors.
  • The pathology report confirmed adrenal hematomas with no evidence of neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Unilateral adrenal hematomas sometimes are indistinguishable radiologically from neoplasms.
  • Surgery is then necessary to distinguish a hematoma from a hemorrhagic adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18393646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; A74586SNO7 / clopidogrel; OM90ZUW7M1 / Ticlopidine; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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86. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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87. Gonsior A, Pfeiffer H, Führer D, Liatsikos E, Schwalenberg T, Stolzenburg JU: [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment]. Urologe A; 2010 May;49(5):659-68; quiz 669-70
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren. Grundlagen der Diagnostik und operativen Therapie.
  • Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity.
  • Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge.
  • This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / instrumentation. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenogenital Syndrome / diagnosis. Adrenogenital Syndrome / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopes. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20449781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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88. Bondarenko VO, Lutsevich OE, Poliakova GA: [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2009;87(9):58-62
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  • [Title] [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)].
  • The development of two hormonally active tumours in one adrenal gland is a very rare event.
  • Classification of concomitant adrenal pathologies and proposals on its modification are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19882884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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89. Ramacciato G, Mercantini P, La Torre M, De Ruvo N, Ercolani G, Stigliano A, Toscano V: Simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe for synchronous large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3):381-5
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  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe for synchronous large adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopy is now considered the gold standard for treating benign monolateral adrenal lesions.
  • We present the case of a patient affected by Cushing's syndrome due to large bilateral adrenal adenomas (7.5 cm) who underwent simultaneous laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy is a safe, effective procedure when performed by experienced hands and may be an alternative treatment for large adrenal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17212901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015693
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90. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
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  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF alpha were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, nonfunctioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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91. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • In 351 of them, bilateral tumours were detected.
  • The aim of our study was to analyze the character of bilateral tumours and summarize the methods of their management.
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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92. Stehr C, Velasco S, Velasco A, López M JM: [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?]. Rev Med Chil; 2007 Dec;135(12):1526-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?].
  • [Transliterated title] El tamaño de los tumores suprarrenales ¿está en relación al tiempo de evolución o expresa una diferencia biológica?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumor (AT) malignancy has been related to tumor size.
  • Since laparoscopic surgery is being used, smaller adrenal tumors are being excised.
  • AIM: To evaluate eventual clinical and histological differences between adrenal tumors smaller than 4 cm. and those larger than 6 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pathological reports and clinical records of patients operated for adrenal tumors, dividing them in two groups.
  • Group 1 had 29 patients aged 52 +/- 13 years with AT < 4 cm operated during the period 2000-2005, and Group 2 was formed by 52 patients aged 46 +/-18 years with AT >6 cm operated between 1984-2005- Tumors between 4 and 6 cm were not included in the study to establish clear cut differences between groups.
  • RESULTS: Tumors were functional in 40 and 41% of cases in groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • Fifty percent of functional tumors of group 1 were pheochromocytomas and the rest secreted aldosterone.
  • In group 2, 66% of tumors were pheochromocytomas and no aldosterone secreting tumors were found.
  • Fifty two and eight percent of tumors in Groups 1 and 2 were adenomas, respectively (p <0.001).
  • Nineteen tumors of group 2 were malignant, compared with one of group 1 (p <0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size of adrenal cortical tumors may represent biological differences, suggesting two different tumor populations.
  • At time of diagnosis adrenal carcinomas are almost always larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18357352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20044246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Chung JM, Jung MJ, Lee W, Choi S: Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst presenting as adrenal tumor in adult successfully treated with retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. Urology; 2009 Feb;73(2):442.e13-5
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst presenting as adrenal tumor in adult successfully treated with retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • A 41-year-old woman presented with an incidental left retroperitoneal mass that was suspicious for an adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Remission Induction. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • (PMID = 18468665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Awazawa R, Yamamoto Y, Gushi M, Taira K, Yagi N, Asato Y, Hagiwara K, Uezato H: Case of pemphigus foliaceus that shifted into pemphigus vulgaris after adrenal tumor resection. J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;34(8):549-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case of pemphigus foliaceus that shifted into pemphigus vulgaris after adrenal tumor resection.
  • The diagnosis at first was made as pemphigus foliaceus (PF).
  • Systemic examinations on admission revealed a right adrenal tumor that had caused Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histopathological diagnosis of the removed tumor was a functional adrenal adenoma.
  • To date, there have been no reports of pemphigus complicated with an adrenal tumor that caused Cushing's syndrome in Japan.
  • The present case is particularly interesting in that the symptoms became worse after the tumor resection and that the first diagnosis of PF shifted into PV after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Pemphigus / complications. Skin / pathology


96. Venkatasubramanian R, Wadhwa A, Sharma A, Khullar R, Soni V, Baijal M, Chowbey PK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy - a review of initial 24 consecutive patients. Indian J Surg; 2007 Aug;69(4):129-35

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy were pheochromocytoma (13 patients), Cushing's syndrome (5 patients), myelolipoma (2 patients), adrenal cyst (2 patients), aldosteronoma (1 patient) and adrenal incidentaloma (1 patient).
  • Nineteen of our patients with functioning adrenal tumours were prepared preoperatively for periods ranging up to 2 weeks by the endocrinologist.
  • A careful preoperative preparation in functioning adrenal tumours aids in the faster recovery of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 23132964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Laparoscopy / Pheochromocytoma
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97. Lacroix A: Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4812-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thorough imaging and endocrine evaluations can identify the majority of ACCs amongst adrenal tumors; however, some smaller ACCs are better identified using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.
  • Complete resection by an expert surgeon is the only potentially curative treatment for ACC, and tumor spillage should be avoided.
  • Histopathology is important for diagnosis, but immunohistochemistry markers and gene profiling of the resected tumor may become superior to current staging systems to stratify prognosis.
  • Despite complete resection in stage I-III tumors, approximately 40% of patients develop metastasis within 2 yr.
  • Some retrospective studies indicate that adjuvant mitotane therapy prolongs disease-free survival, leading several centers to recommend its administration; prospective studies are under way to provide future evidence-based recommendations.
  • Careful replacement of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency after surgery or mitotane therapy is important; steroid excess from remaining tumor burden should also be controlled to avoid its morbidities.
  • For metastatic disease, combination chemotherapy should be administered, if possible, in the context of multicenter collaborative research protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21051577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Herd A, Harman R, Taylor E: Surgical outcomes following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) between 1999 and 2006. N Z Med J; 2010 Oct 15;123(1324):50-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a recognised cause of secondary hypertension with its aetiology most commonly due to a secreting aldosterone adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the adrenal tumour has now become the accepted form of intervention.

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  • (PMID = 20953222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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99. Fujiwara M, Murao K, Imachi H, Yoshida K, Muraoka T, Ohyama T, Kushida Y, Haba R, Kakehi Y, Ishida T: Misdiagnosis of two cases of primary aldosteronism owing to failure of computed tomography to detect adrenal microadenoma. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Oct;340(4):335-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Misdiagnosis of two cases of primary aldosteronism owing to failure of computed tomography to detect adrenal microadenoma.
  • The author report 2 cases in which aldosterone-producing microadenoma was diagnosed by selective adrenal venous sampling (AVS) and furosemide plus upright test.
  • In both cases, computed tomography imaging revealed a normal adrenal gland without any tumor.
  • In conclusion, AVS should be performed to confirm the diagnosis of PA when computed tomography imaging does not provide definite results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20881759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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100. Kastelan D, Dusek T, Aganović I, Stern-Padovan R, Kuzmanić D, Kastelan Z, Knezević N, Crncević-Orlić Z, Kraljević I, Dzubur F, Pavlić-Renar I, Giljević Z, Jelcić J, Baretić M, Skorić T, Korsić M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma: the position statement of the Croatian referral center for adrenal gland disorders]. Lijec Vjesn; 2010 Mar-Apr;132(3-4):71-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma: the position statement of the Croatian referral center for adrenal gland disorders].
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are tumours of adrenal glands discovered during diagnostic workup for other clinical condition unrelated to adrenal glands.
  • Improvement in imaging techniques and their widespread use in everyday practice have increased detection of adrenal incidentalomas making their management one of the most important challenges of modern endocrinology.
  • Based on the relevant medical literature and guidelines of other international societies a panel of Croatian leading experts in adrenal gland disorders provide practical recommendations for the diagnostics and treatment of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 20540431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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