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1. Sahasrabudhe N, Byers R: Massive haemorrhagic adrenal metastases leading to sudden death: a case report. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Massive haemorrhagic adrenal metastases leading to sudden death: a case report.
  • Although adrenal glands are a common site of metastatic cancer, clinically significant haemorrhage into these is very uncommon with only a few cases having been previously published in the English literature.
  • Here, a case of massive adrenal haemorrhage secondary to metastasis of lung cancer that led to the death of the patient is reported.
  • To the best of our knowledge, such an acute death, without any prior medical attention or intervention, as a consequence of haemorrhagic adrenal metastasis has not been described before and is an important consideration in a person with lung cancer who dies unexpectedly.

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  • (PMID = 21686905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029288
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2. Ishida M, Kojima K, Ohtomo K: Renal cell carcinoma with double synchronous contralateral adrenal metastases. Korean J Urol; 2010 Dec;51(12):879-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with double synchronous contralateral adrenal metastases.
  • A 63-year-old male patient visited our hospital with a right incidental renal tumor, which was found by ultrasonography for the follow-up study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and diabetes mellitus.
  • Consecutive computed tomography revealed a right renal tumor and two left adrenal tumors.
  • Further systemic imaging study and hormonal examination suggested one right renal cell carcinoma and left adrenal metastases.
  • In patients with renal cell carcinoma, contralateral adrenal metastasis is usually associated with multiple metastases to other organs.
  • There are a few cases of solitary and synchronous contralateral adrenal metastasis in the English literature.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of renal cell carcinoma with double synchronous contralateral adrenal metastases.

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  • (PMID = 21221210.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-6745
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016436
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal glands / Neoplasm metastasis / Neoplasms / Renal cell carcinoma / Synchronous neoplasms
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3. Nakanishi S, Hori D, Maeda S, Hatayama T: [Open adrenalectomy for adrenal metastases from lung cancer--usefulness and problem of laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):757-60
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  • [Title] [Open adrenalectomy for adrenal metastases from lung cancer--usefulness and problem of laparoscopic adrenalectomy].
  • We examined the outcome of open adrenalectomy performed at our hospital to determine the effectiveness and problems of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal metastases from lung cancer.
  • Between January 2001 and June 2004, eight open adrenalectomies were performed on six patients with adrenal metastases from lung cancer.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal metastases may be safe and effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17131861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Kim H, Park BK, Kim CK: Spontaneous regression of pulmonary and adrenal metastases following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a recurrent renal cell carcinoma. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Sep-Oct;9(5):470-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of pulmonary and adrenal metastases following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • The spontaneous regression of metastatic lesions from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare, but may be encountered following cytoreductive treatments.
  • We report a case of a recurrent RCC with multiple metastatic lesions which spontaneously regressed after undergoing radiofrequency ablation of the renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Remission, Spontaneous. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


5. Hsieh MH, Lin ZY, Huang CJ, Shih MC, Chuang WL: Management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2005 Aug;21(8):371-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.
  • The adrenal glands rarely are an extrahepatic site for metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Once identified, adrenal metastasis requires aggressive management, due to the risk of rupture and internal hemorrhaging.
  • Disease management of adrenal metastasis from HCC is limited, given the relative lack of available knowledge, and the present report details our efforts in managing bilateral adrenal metastases from HCC.
  • The left adrenal tumor was treated by 3D conformal radiation therapy, following the failure of TACE.
  • The size of the left adrenal tumor decreased and no evidence of recurrence after management was noted.
  • One right adrenal tumor was treated using two sessions of TACE, and the size of the tumor did not decrease.
  • We later observed that the right tumor actually progressively increased in size.
  • The tumor was then treated by 3D conformal radiation therapy (total 5400 cGy), and the size decreased by 10 mm, 1 month after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16158880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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6. Yamada A, Tanaka M, Yoshikawa M, Nakai Y, Tanaka N, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y, Hirao S: [Bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Mar;54(3):225-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • We report a case of renal cell carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases.
  • Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.5 cm left renal tumor and bilateral adrenal masses (3.0 cm on the right side and 2.0 cm on the left).
  • The pathological findings showed clear cell carcinoma, G2 of left kidney metastasizing to both adrenal glands.
  • Bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma are relatively rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18411780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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7. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Commo F, Dartevelle P, Gomez-Roca C, de Montpreville V, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases. Lung Cancer; 2009 Aug;65(2):144-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: The development of molecular targeted therapies as anti-cancer strategies raises important questions regarding the biological and molecular behavior of the metastatic sites as compared to their corresponding primary tumors.
  • We analysed telomere related markers (telomere length and telomeric proteins) and DNA damage repair (DDR) markers in a cohort of patients with surgically resected primary lung NSCLC and adrenal metastasis.
  • These markers were selected for two reasons: (i) small molecule inhibitors of 'druggable' DDR components as well as telomere-interacting agents are already being developed for clinical use; and (ii) limited data is available comparing the expression of these biomarkers between primary tumors and their metastases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a single series of 21 patients who had undergone surgery of both their primary lung tumor and its related adrenal gland metastasis in a single Institution.
  • RESULTS: DDR activation was observed in primary tumors and their corresponding metastasis.
  • However, higher levels of p-Chk2 were observed in metastasis than in primary tumors (p=0.0113).
  • Telomere length was independent from primary or metastatic status (p=0.29).
  • There was no correlation between primary and metastatic sites, although approximately 65% of metastases had shorter telomeres than their corresponding primary tumors.
  • In the same way, telomeric protein expression was independent from primary/metastatic localization.
  • Cluster analysis of each specimen according to its protein's expression levels and telomere length showed that matched primary tumors/adrenal metastasis were mostly separated into different clusters.
  • Overall, our findings suggest that the levels of biomarkers analysed differ substantially between primary lung tumors and corresponding metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: There are clear molecular discrepancies at the telomeric and DDR level between primary tumors and their corresponding metastases.
  • Our findings suggest that primary tumors and their relevant metastases may respond differently to such approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Repair / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomere / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19091442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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8. Eloubeidi MA, Luz LP, Crowe DR, Snowden C, Morgan DE, Arnoletti PJ: Bilateral adrenal gland enlargement secondary to histoplasmosis mimicking adrenal metastases: diagnosis with EUS-guided FNA. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):357-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal gland enlargement secondary to histoplasmosis mimicking adrenal metastases: diagnosis with EUS-guided FNA.
  • While adrenal gland histoplasmosis has been previously diagnosed by fine needle aspiration utilizing the percutaneous approach, EUS-FNA has not been employed in the diagnosis of this infection affecting both adrenal glands.
  • We report a patient with massive bilateral adrenal enlargement due to histoplasmosis that was diagnosed by EUS-FNA.
  • Trans-duodenal and trans-gastric fine needle aspiration biopsy of both adrenal glands was performed.
  • Fungal cultures from both adrenal EUS-FNA samples grew Histoplasma capsulatum.
  • This case highlights that EUS-FNA with ROSE can be a highly effective tool in the diagnosis of uncommon infections of the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography. Histoplasmosis / complications. Histoplasmosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19894255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Rubio E, González J, Jimenéz M, Lucena JL, Gimenez L, Martinez Arrieta F, Cuervas-Mons V, Turrión VS: Right adrenal metastases of hepatocarcinoma after liver transplantation: case report and literature review. Transplant Proc; 2009 Apr;41(3):1067-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Right adrenal metastases of hepatocarcinoma after liver transplantation: case report and literature review.
  • Although the treatment of extrahepatic metastases from primary liver tumors is essentially palliative, a solitary metastasis from such tumors offers a possibility of cure by surgical resection.
  • The adrenal gland is an uncommon site for metastasis from primary liver tumors.
  • Three years posttransplantation, a right adrenal mass was identified by CT.
  • PAAF was performed as well as adrenalectomy for a solitary adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent adrenalectomy for the right adrenal metastasis at 3 years following liver transplantation for HCC.
  • CONCLUSION: Carefully selected patients with solitary metastasis from HCC may be considered for resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Everolimus. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


10. Rajaratnam A, Waugh J: Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances. Australas Radiol; 2005 Aug;49(4):325-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances.
  • Malignant melanoma is an extremely aggressive form of cancer.
  • Adrenal metastases are found in 50% of cases of malignant melanoma, and are most often clinically and biochemically silent.
  • Clinical presentation varies, and the diagnosis of adrenal metastases is often made incidentally, and frequently years after treatment of the primary lesion.
  • An adrenal mass lesion seen on a CT scan, greater than 5 cm in diameter, with central or irregular areas of necrosis/haemorrhage (and no lipomatous component) is characteristic of a metastasis from malignant melanoma, in the setting of normal gland function.
  • Oval, low-attenuation (on CT) adrenal masses less than 3 cm in diameter should not be considered benign in a patient with any prior history of melanoma.
  • Careful imaging review of the adrenal glands should be undertaken in all patients with malignant melanoma.
  • Early diagnosis of these distant metastases has important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • The four cases presented illustrate the spectrum of presentations and clinical course of adrenal metastases from malignant melanoma.
  • The accompanying CT images show the characteristic appearances of adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16026441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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11. Okabe H, Beppu T, Ishiko T, Horino K, Masuda T, Hayashi H, Komori H, Tanaka H, Takamori H, Masahiko H, Baba H: [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):1973-5
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  • [Title] [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)].
  • The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adrenal metastases are often accompanied with the metastasis from other sites, and their prognosis is poor.
  • After 1999, we examined the prognosis and efficacy of the seven patients with drenal metastases from HCC.
  • The mean interval from the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma to the adrenal metastases was 46 months (1-95 months).
  • If there was a good control observed in the intrahepatic lesion with no metastases besides adrenal glands, we selected a surgical resection of the metastatic adrenal glands.
  • The mean overall survival time after the surgical treatment of the adrenal metastases was 23 months (7-54 months), and we considered it as a good prognosis.
  • The mean progression free survival of the adrenal metastases was 15 months (5-30 months).
  • Besides on such a good clinical outcome, we conclude that aggressive multimodal therapy including surgical resection of metastatic foci may be recommended if the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have no other metastatic sites other than the adrenal gland and liver lesions are well-controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18219869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Fumagalli U, de Carli S, de Pascale S, Rimassa L, Bignardi M, Rosati R: Adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: adrenalectomy and long-term survival. Updates Surg; 2010 Aug;62(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: adrenalectomy and long-term survival.
  • Treatment of adrenal metastases from cancer of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is not defined.
  • The aim of the present work is to analyze retrospectively our experience in treating patients with adrenal metastases from EGJ adenocarcinoma.
  • Five patients were diagnosed an adrenal metastases from EGJ adenocarcinoma, synchronous (s) in one and metachronous (m) in four, in the latter 11 months (mean) after esophagectomy.
  • At diagnosis, three patients had synchronous metastases to mediastinal nodes (1 s and 2 m), 1 (m) had synchronous metastases to bone, and 1 (m) had an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • Three patients with synchronous node metastasis received chemotherapy followed by adrenalectomy 3, 8 and 16 months (mean 9) after diagnosis; one patient also received postoperative mediastinal radiotherapy.
  • These patients are alive with no evidence of disease 16, 40 and 50 months after diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • The patient with bone metastasis received chemotherapy only and died 12 months after diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • The patient with isolated metastasis underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy only, developed early bone metastases and died 15 months after surgery.
  • In conclusion, our experience indicates that patients with adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the EGJ may benefit from adrenalectomy if the gland is the only site of metastasis beyond lymphnodal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Esophagogastric Junction. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20845103.001).
  • [ISSN] 2038-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Updates in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Updates Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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13. Hiroi N, Yanagisawa R, Yoshida-Hiroi M, Endo T, Kawase T, Tsuchida Y, Toyama K, Shibuya K, Nakata K, Yoshino G: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):551-4
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal metastases from lung adenocarcinoma.
  • A 56-yr-old man was admitted to our university hospital for severe back pain one month after a resection for lung adenocarcinoma (stage IIIA) without evidence of the adrenal mass.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed bilateral bleeding of adrenal tumors.
  • Core-needle biopsy was performed on the right adrenal tumor and revealed adenocarcinoma cells mimicking a primary lung tumor previously examined.
  • We diagnosed retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma with adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenal metastases most commonly originate from a primary lung tumor, followed by stomach, esophagus and liver/bile ducts.
  • Bilateral adrenal metastases were noted in approximately half of all adrenal metastases patients.
  • Clinically significant adrenal hemorrhage by metastasis is exceedingly rare and non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal, chest or back pain, nausea and vomiting, confusion, weakness, hypotension, shock and high fever, are often observed in these patients.
  • We present a case of massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16840834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Equal oncologic results for laparoscopic and open resection of adrenal metastases. J Surg Res; 2007 Jun 15;140(2):159-64
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  • [Title] Equal oncologic results for laparoscopic and open resection of adrenal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: While open adrenalectomy is often performed for malignant adrenal tumors, increasing numbers of surgeons have adopted the laparoscopic approach.
  • The postoperative benefits of laparoscopic adrenalectomy are well established, but questions persist about long-term oncologic outcomes when used for malignant lesions.
  • The current study was undertaken to compare laparoscopic with open adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • METHODS: From March 1993 to April 2006, 20 adults underwent adrenalectomy for isolated metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Three patients were excluded because of a concomitant nephrectomy (2) and an unresectable tumor (1).
  • Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and oncologic outcomes of the remaining patients were reviewed and analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 17 patients who received adrenalectomy for an isolated metastasis, there were 11 men and 6 women with a mean age of 58 +/- 3 y.
  • With a follow-up of up to 97 mo, there were no port site metastases, no tumor recurrences, and no difference in survival between laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy (median 19 months versus 17 months, 5-year survival 34% versus 54%, P=0.96).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When not limited by tumor size or invasion of surrounding tissue, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe alternative to open adrenalectomy with equivalent oncologic outcomes and clear postoperative benefit for patients with isolated metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17196989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Lo WK, vansonnenberg E, Shankar S, Morrison PR, Silverman SG, Tuncali K, Rabin M: Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic bilateral adrenal metastases in a single session. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2006 Jan;17(1):175-9
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  • [Title] Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic bilateral adrenal metastases in a single session.
  • Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been used in the palliative treatment of symptomatic bilateral adrenal tumors, often with each tumor addressed separately over the course of multiple treatment sessions.
  • In the present case, a 71-year-old man with a diagnosis of lung cancer and painful bilateral metastases to the adrenal glands underwent percutaneous CT-guided RF thermal ablation of both adrenal masses in a single session (left adrenal mass, 4.7 cm; right adrenal mass, 4.3 cm), without occurrence of blood pressure instability or other acute complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation

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  • (PMID = 16415149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Tanvetyanon T, Robinson LA, Schell MJ, Strong VE, Kapoor R, Coit DG, Bepler G: Outcomes of adrenalectomy for isolated synchronous versus metachronous adrenal metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Mar 1;26(7):1142-7
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  • [Title] Outcomes of adrenalectomy for isolated synchronous versus metachronous adrenal metastases in non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Several small studies have reported that an adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), along with a surgical resection for the primary lung cancer, can be curative.
  • However, some suggest that the survival outcome among patients with a synchronous metastasis is poor.
  • It remains unclear whether this treatment approach is warranted among those with synchronous metastasis.
  • Those not allowing separation of outcomes between synchronous and metachronous metastases were excluded.
  • Synchronous metastasis was defined as a disease-free interval (DFI) of 6 months or less.
  • RESULTS: There were 10 publications contributing 114 patients; 42% of patients had synchronous metastases and 58% had metachronous metastases.
  • Median overall survival was shorter for patients with synchronous metastasis than those with metachronous metastasis (12 months v 31 months, generalized Wilcoxon P value = .02).
  • CONCLUSION: For an isolated adrenal metastasis from NSCLC, patients with a synchronous metastasis who underwent adrenalectomy had a shorter median overall survival than those with a metachronous metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


17. Kohli M, Viswamitraa S, Schaefer R, Faas FH, Kumar U: Metastasectomy for isolated bilateral adrenal metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol; 2006 Oct;4(10):754-5; discussion 756-7
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  • [Title] Metastasectomy for isolated bilateral adrenal metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17099632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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18. Ozülker T, Ozülker F, Ozpaçaci T, Ergür S, Mülazimoğlu M: Tc-99m MDP uptake by adrenal metastases from nonsmall cell carcinoma of the lung. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Jul;30(7):514-6
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  • [Title] Tc-99m MDP uptake by adrenal metastases from nonsmall cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate

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  • (PMID = 15965335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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19. Pfannschmidt J, Schlolaut B, Muley T, Hoffmann H, Dienemann H: Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2005 Aug;49(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with adrenal metastases from lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC) remains controversial.
  • Several studies of adrenalectomy in cases of isolated adrenal metastases from NSCLC suggest that these patients could have improved survival.
  • Our aim is to define the history of patients after resection of solitary metastases to the adrenal gland and to identify characteristics of patients who achieved prolonged survival.
  • METHODS: Between January 1997 and July 2000, 11 patients underwent curative resection for metastatic NSCLC of the adrenal gland in our institution.
  • RESULTS: Eleven patients (seven men and four women) with unilateral adrenal metastases of NSCLC entered the study.
  • Patients with curative resection and metachronous disease (n=6) had a median survival of 30.9 months and tended to do better than patients with synchronous adrenal metastases (n=5) (median survival: 10.3 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that adrenalectomy for clinically solitary, resectable metastases can be performed safely.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


20. Chawla S, Chen Y, Katz AW, Muhs AG, Philip A, Okunieff P, Milano MT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of adrenal metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of adrenal metastases.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the dosimetry and outcomes of patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastases to the adrenal glands.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: At the University of Rochester, patients have been undergoing SBRT for limited metastases since 2001.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who had undergone SBRT for adrenal metastases from various primary sites, including lung (n = 20), liver (n = 3), breast (n = 3), melanoma (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), head and neck (n = 1), and unknown primary (n = 1).
  • RESULTS: Of the 30 patients, 14 with five or fewer metastatic lesions (including adrenal) underwent SBRT, with the intent of controlling all known sites of metastatic disease, and 16 underwent SBRT for palliation or prophylactic palliation of bulky adrenal metastases.
  • No patient developed symptomatic progression of their adrenal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: SBRT for adrenal metastases is well tolerated.
  • Most patients developed widespread metastases shortly after treatment.
  • Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of SBRT for oligometastatic adrenal metastases, given the propensity of these patients to develop further disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose Fractionation. Female. Gastrointestinal Tract / radiation effects. Humans. Kidney / radiation effects. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 19250766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Kuehl H, Stattaus J, Forsting M, Antoch G: Transhepatic CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2008 Nov-Dec;31(6):1210-4
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  • [Title] Transhepatic CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The prognosis of patients with adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been poor, and aggressive treatment of these tumors is mandatory to improve patients' survival.
  • Since adrenalectomy may be difficult to perform after previous surgery of the right liver lobe, other approaches are required to treat the adrenal mass.
  • This report aims at demonstrating the feasibility of CT-guided transhepatic radiofrequency ablation of right adrenal HCC metastases pretreated with chemoembolization in patients unable to undergo surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18584241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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22. Uenishi T, Yamazaki O, Matsuyama M, Horjii K, Yamamoto T, Kubo S: Surgical management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial embolization. Osaka City Med J; 2005 Dec;51(2):89-93
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bilateral adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • Despite progress in therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, management of extrahepatic metastatic lesions remains problematic.
  • A 73-year-old man who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma presented bilateral adrenal metastases.
  • Ten months after transcatheter arterial embolization, computed tomography detected huge tumors in both adrenal glands.
  • Simultaneous resection of both adrenal lesions was performed under hydrocortisone replacement therapy.
  • These tumors were confirmed histopathologically to represent adrenal metastatic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The patient died of respiratory failure due to lung metastasis 9 months after adrenalectomy, although intrahepatic tumor was controlled by transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • It is necessary to clarify the therapeutic effectiveness and the indication of adrenalectomy for patients with adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16617686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Osaka city medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Osaka City Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Pineda C, Cadogan KV, Cadogan MA: Distribution of metastases in NSCLC: Economic impact of imaging. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e19036

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  • [Title] Distribution of metastases in NSCLC: Economic impact of imaging.
  • Given that many patients have metastases to several organs, one important question is - "what is the frequency of metastases in the chest, the abdomen, the pelvis, elsewhere?
  • RESULTS: We found that there were 690 metastases to the chest, 205 to the abdomen, 80 to the bones, 18 to the pelvis, 13 to the brain and 23 others, not specified.
  • If we consider the actual incidence of metastases, we find the following absolute statistics: 16 patients had pelvic involvement.
  • This compares with 42 patients with adrenal metastases, 81 with liver metastases, 80 with bone metastases, 112 with hilar adenopathy, and 159 with mediastinal adenopathy. (See Table ) Conclusions: The cost of a CT of the pelvis varies, but is estimated at approximately $2000[Fred, Herbert L., MD, MACP.

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  • (PMID = 27962121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Nath J, Ready A: Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases (Br J Surg 2009; 96: 935-940). Br J Surg; 2010 Mar;97(3):458; author reply 458
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases (Br J Surg 2009; 96: 935-940).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] Br J Surg. 2009 Aug;96(8):935-40 [19591169.001]
  • (PMID = 20140885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Seshadri N, Wat J, Balan K: Bilateral adrenal metastases from malignant melanoma: concordant findings on (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FDOPA PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Jul;33(7):854-5
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal metastases from malignant melanoma: concordant findings on (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FDOPA PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Dihydroxyphenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / diagnostic imaging. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging

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  • [Cites] J Nucl Med. 2001 Feb;42(2):248-56 [11216523.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1964 Oct;17:1323-39 [14236766.001]
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  • (PMID = 16699770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
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26. de Haas RJ, Rahy Martin AC, Wicherts DA, Azoulay D, Castaing D, Adam R: Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg; 2009 Aug;96(8):935-40
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome in patients with adrenal metastases following resection of colorectal liver metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of adrenal metastases (AMs) in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2010 Mar;97(3):458; author reply 458 [20140885.001]
  • (PMID = 19591169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Roy PP, Basu N: Bilateral adrenal metastases from large cell carcinoma of lung in a female non-smoker patient. J Assoc Physicians India; 2006 Jun;54:504-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal metastases from large cell carcinoma of lung in a female non-smoker patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16912999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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28. Bitik B, Kalpakci Y, Altan E, Dogan E, Altundag K: Successful treatment of primary duodenal carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen. Ann Oncol; 2009 Feb;20(2):394-5
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of primary duodenal carcinoma with bilateral adrenal metastases with docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil regimen.

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  • (PMID = 19211504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Basu S, Shet T, Awasare S: Bilateral adrenal metastases and metastatic subcutaneous deposit in the chest wall from osteosarcoma of the mandible: utility of 18F-FDG-PET. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):51-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal metastases and metastatic subcutaneous deposit in the chest wall from osteosarcoma of the mandible: utility of 18F-FDG-PET.
  • Adrenal gland involvement as well as metastatic subcutaneous nodule from skeletal osteosarcoma are two extremely rare and unusual manifestations in the natural history of the disease.
  • We herein report a 45 yr old female with both these uncommon occurrences, having large bilateral adrenal metastases and a metastatic subcutaneous nodule in fluorine-18 fluorodesoxy glucose- positron emission tomography the chest wall along with pulmonary metastasis arising from osteosarcoma of the mandible.
  • It is noteworthy that osteosarcoma of the jaws, thought to be relatively less aggressive compared to its counterpart in long bones, can occasionally give rise to widespread metastases, including atypical sites.
  • A systematic review of the existing literature aiming to explore the patients' characteristics and clinical behavior of adrenal metastases from osteosarcoma, including the present case, was carried out.
  • This was nearly always associated with pulmonary metastases with occasional association with brain or skeletal metastases.
  • Peripheral long bones were the overwhelmingly common site of the primary, the present one being the first report of jaw bone being the primary site, giving rise to adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Mandibular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / secondary. Osteosarcoma / radionuclide imaging. Osteosarcoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19330184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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30. Vogl TJ, Lehnert T, Eichler K, Proschek D, Flöter J, Mack MG: Adrenal metastases: CT-guided and MR-thermometry-controlled laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy. Eur Radiol; 2007 Aug;17(8):2020-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastases: CT-guided and MR-thermometry-controlled laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of CT-guided and MR-thermometry-controlled laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) in adrenal metastases.
  • Nine patients (seven male, two female; average age 65.0 years; range 58.7-75.0 years) with nine unilateral adrenal metastases (mean diameter 4.3 cm) from primaries comprising colorectal carcinoma (n = 5), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), oesophageal carcinoma (n = 1), carcinoid (n = 1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1) underwent CT-guided, MR-thermometry-controlled LITT using a 0.5 T MR unit.
  • The preliminary results suggest that CT-guided, MR-thermometry-controlled LITT is a safe, minimally invasive and promising procedure for treating adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Hyperthermia, Induced / methods. Laser Therapy

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  • (PMID = 17180325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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31. Mokuno Y, Katayama M, Ogura Y, Kimura K, Koh K: Long-term survival after resection of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases of mucinous gastric carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(6):554-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival after resection of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases of mucinous gastric carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
  • A 68-year-old man who had undergone surgery for advanced gastric cancer 5 months earlier had a follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan, which showed a right adrenal tumor.
  • A routine follow-up CT scan done 41 months after the right adrenalectomy showed a left adrenal mass.
  • Histopathological examination also revealed a metastasis from gastric cancer.
  • This case suggests that resection of adrenal metastasis from gastric cancer is an effective treatment option that may prolong survival in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 2001 Mar;181(3):279-83 [11376587.001]
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  • (PMID = 16715429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. Golshayan AR, Elson P, Wood LS, Garcia JA, Dreicer R, Rini BI: Association of tumor burden characteristics with outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with sunitinib. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5043

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of tumor burden characteristics with outcomes in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with sunitinib.
  • : 5043 Background: An important goal of non-curative therapy for mRCC is tumor burden (TB) control.
  • However, the impact of tumor burden characteristics on clinical outcome has not been studied in mRCC pts treated with VEGF-targeted therapy.
  • CT scan images were re-reviewed from baseline, at the time of maximal tumor burden shrinkage (TS), at time of disease progression and at time of last assessment prior to death.
  • Sites of metastases included: lung (87%), mediastinal lymph nodes (52%), retroperitoneal lymph nodes (36%), adrenal (29%), bone (38%), liver (22%), pancreas (14%), kidney (7%), and brain (6%).
  • There were a median of 8 metastatic deposits across all organs (range, 1-20).
  • Total number of metastases <10 (p < 0.001) and tumor volume above the diaphragm <6.5 cm (p = 0.05) were independent positive predictors of OS.
  • At time of disease progression (PD), tumor location and pattern of progression were not associated with OS.
  • However, total TB (p = 0.003) and total number of metastatic deposits (≤12 vs. >12, p < 0.001) were significant predictors of OS from PD.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor burden shrinkage and tumor burden at time of disease progression are associated with overall survival in pts with mRCC treated with sunitinib.

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  • (PMID = 27962954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Srinivas S, Harshman L, Hauke RJ: Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14564

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study.
  • METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell with clear cell histology were enrolled at Stanford University and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.
  • Sites of metastases included lung, nodes, liver, adrenal glands, and bone.
  • One pathologic complete response was obtained after a patient underwent metastectomy of adrenal gland after 4 cycles.

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  • (PMID = 27963689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Bausewein C, Kühnbach R, Haberland B: Adrenal insufficiency caused by bilateral adrenal metastases -- a rare treatable cause for recurrent nausea and vomiting in metastatic breast cancer. Onkologie; 2006 May;29(5):203-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency caused by bilateral adrenal metastases -- a rare treatable cause for recurrent nausea and vomiting in metastatic breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with malignant disease.
  • Adrenal enlargement was noted in an abdominal scan.
  • The suspected diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency due to metastases was confirmed by laboratory tests.
  • CONCLUSION: If a patient with advanced cancer presents with unexplained and protracted nausea, vomiting and weakness, particularly if accompanied by hyponatremia and normal potassium levels, adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal metastases should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nausea / etiology. Vomiting / etiology


35. Carrafiello G, Laganà D, Recaldini C, Giorgianni A, Ianniello A, Lumia D, D'Ambrosio A, Petullà M, Dionigi G, Fugazzola C: Imaging-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases: preliminary results at a single institution with a single device. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2008 Jul-Aug;31(4):762-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases: preliminary results at a single institution with a single device.
  • The aim of this study was to show the feasibility, safety, imaging appearance, and short-term efficacy of image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of adrenal metastases (AM).
  • In five of six lesions, there was no residual enhancement of the treated tumor.
  • In one patient CT examination showed areas of residual enhancement of the tumor after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Radiography, Interventional. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18421499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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36. Wada H, Nagano H, Nakamura M, Yoshioka S, Kato H, Noda T, Damdinsuren B, Marubashi S, Miyamoto A, Takeda Y, Umeshita K, Dono K, Monden M: [A successful surgical treatment for solitary pulmonary and adrenal metastases after hepatic resection to hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1835-8
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  • [Title] [A successful surgical treatment for solitary pulmonary and adrenal metastases after hepatic resection to hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a 65-year-old man who received a successful surgical treatment for both pulmonary and adrenal metastases after curative resection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Thirty-eight months after the first hepatic resection, a metastatic lesion of the right pulmonary lobe was detected by computed tomography (CT).
  • After 6 months of the chemotherapy, a metastatic lesion of lung became decreased in size.
  • However, a metastatic lesion of the right adrenal gland was detected by abdominal CT scan.
  • Eighty one months after the first operation, he died of liver failure due to tumor progression.
  • Surgical resection for metastases from HCC resulted in long-term survival even if there were extrahepatic metastases in two different sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16315956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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37. Do YR, Song HS, Kim IH: Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Mar;22(1):18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case.
  • Metastases to the adrenal glands are frequently found at autopsy.
  • In practice, adrenal metastases have generally been accepted as evidence of blood-borne systemic disease.
  • So, clinically curable adrenal metastases is a rare malady.
  • The role for surgical resection in adrenal metastases has not been clearly defined.
  • A solitary adrenal metastases was resected 1 year later.
  • We report here on this case to show that for selected cases, surgical resection of adrenal metastases is feasible and this procedure may extend survival for metastatic gastric cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17427640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687596
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38. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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39. Charalambous S, Mylonaki E, Fotas A, Papatsoris AG, Papathanasiou A, Triantafyllidis A, Rombis V, Touloupidis S: Large adrenal metastasis in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Case report and literature review. Tumori; 2008 Jan-Feb;94(1):134-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large adrenal metastasis in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Case report and literature review.
  • Adrenal metastases are frequent in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
  • We present a case of a large adrenal metastasis from NSCLC and we discuss the relevant literature.
  • In such cases, early surgical intervention is recommended to avoid spontaneous rupture of the tumor and improve patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18468350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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40. Koutalellis GE, Felekouras E, Evangelou C, Koritsiadis G, Chasiotis D, Anastasiou I: Renal cell carcinoma with bilateral synchronous adrenal gland metastases: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7298

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with bilateral synchronous adrenal gland metastases: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma is characterized by its potential of metastasizing widely and to unusual sites, with the metastases occasionally preceding clinical recognition of the primary tumor.
  • Synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma, without other metastases, are rare and, to our knowledge, only 17 cases have been published in the literature to date.
  • In general, patients with synchronous bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma have a poor prognosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of right-sided renal cell carcinoma with simultaneous bilateral adrenal metastases in a 58-year-old woman.
  • The primary tumor was localized in the upper and mid pole of the kidney.
  • The pathological findings of the right renal tumor showed clear cell carcinoma and both adrenal tumors showed the same pathology as the right renal tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with bilateral synchronous adrenal metastases should be considered to have disseminated metastatic disease.
  • However, good performance status, the presence of paraneoplastic syndrome and the alleviation of refractory pain are important reasons make an urologist to consider radical nephrectomy in renal cell carcinoma patient with metastases.

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  • (PMID = 19918518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769348
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41. Nagler M, Müller B, Briner V, Winterhalder R: Severe hyperkalemia and bilateral adrenal metastasis. J Oncol; 2009;2009:831979

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe hyperkalemia and bilateral adrenal metastasis.
  • Adrenal metastases are a common finding in metastatic lung and breast cancer.
  • In this paper, we present a case of a 66-year-old man with metastatic lung cancer suffering from severe hyperkaliemia due to hypoaldosteronism as a result of bilateral adrenal metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 20204181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831202
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42. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Dartevelle P, Commo F, Olaussen KA, de Montpreville V, André F, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer; 2010 May;11(3):187-91
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lung Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that chemokines are involved in organ-specific metastatic relapse.
  • We evaluated the potential implications of chemokine receptors in the development of adrenal metastasis after complete resections of primary non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a unique cohort of 21 primary lung cancers with matched adrenal metastases for the expression of CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR6, and CCR7, using immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Although CXCR4, CX3CR1, and CCR7 were independently expressed in primary and corresponding metastases, CCR6 was clearly overexpressed in adrenal metastases, compared with corresponding primary tumors.
  • Moreover, CCL20, the ligand of CCR6, was preferentially expressed in adrenal tissues that developed metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: We report for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a potential role for the CCR6 receptor in the organ orientation of the development of metastases in lung cancer.
  • We demonstrated a statistically significant overexpression of CCR6 in adrenal metastases compared with primary lung tumors, indicating that the increased production of CCL20 in adrenal glands might contribute to the selective recruitment of CCR6-expressing cancer cells in lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, CCR6 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20439195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0690
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / CCR7 protein, human; 0 / CX3CR1 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL20; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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43. Zeng ZC, Tang ZY, Fan J, Zhou J, Qin LX, Ye SL, Sun HC, Wang BL, Zhang JY, Yu Y, Cheng JM, Wang XL, Guo W: Radiation therapy for adrenal gland metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb;35(2):61-7
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy for adrenal gland metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland is a common site of extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Methods previously tried for the management of adrenal gland metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma included surgical resection, transarterial chemoembolization or percutaneous ethanol injection, on the basis of case reports.
  • External beam radiation therapy has seldom been applied for patients with adrenal gland metastases.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively studied 22 patients with adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with limited-field external beam radiation therapy.
  • The radiation dose to the adrenal lesion ranged from 36 to 54 (median 50) Gy, while the intrahepatic lesions were treated with either surgical resection or transarterial chemoembolization.
  • RESULTS: Among the 14 patients who had pain related to adrenal metastases, 11 (78.6%) had complete pain relief without medication that lasted until death.
  • No patient died from complications related to adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma are sensitive to radiation treatment.
  • Radiation therapy with 50 Gy for adrenal gland metastases is a good palliative therapy with reasonable safety.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15709088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Strong VE, D'Angelica M, Tang L, Prete F, Gönen M, Coit D, Touijer KA, Fong Y, Brennan MF: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;14(12):3392-400
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Use of laparoscopy for isolated adrenal metastases is controversial.
  • The aims of this study were to characterize patients with isolated adrenal metastases; compare operative characteristics of the laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) versus open adrenalectomy (OA) approach; and compare long-term oncological and surgical outcomes.
  • METHODS: Our adrenal resection database (1995-2006) identified 63 OA and 31 LA cases done for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • Subset analysis was performed for all patients from isolated lung metastases (n = 39) and for all tumors smaller than 4.5 cm (n = 49).
  • The only independent predictor of survival for all (n = 94) was adrenal tumor size less than 4.5 cm (P = 0.01).
  • When comparing LA with OA, no differences in local recurrence, margin status, disease-free interval or overall survival were observed for the entire group, or for patients with metastases only from lung cancer (n = 39) or for those with tumors smaller than 4.5 cm (n = 49).
  • LA provided significantly shorter operative time (175 vs 208 min, P = 0.04), lower estimated blood loss (EBL) (106 vs 749 cc, P < 0.0001), shorter length of hospital stay (2.8 vs 8.0 days, P < 0.0001) and fewer total complications (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is equivalent to OA in terms of margin status, local recurrence, disease-free interval and overall survival.
  • LA for metastatic adrenal lesions is safe, with equivalent long-term oncological outcomes providing the additional benefits of a minimally invasive technique.
  • LA can be recommended as an appropriate initial approach for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Dec;14(12):3288-9 [17896147.001]
  • (PMID = 17665267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Weyhe D, Belyaev O, Skawran S, Müller C, Bauer KH: A case of port-site recurrence after laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Jun;17(3):218-20
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  • [Title] A case of port-site recurrence after laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • The case of a patient with bilateral adrenal metastases from lung cancer is described.
  • Several months later a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed, but 2 months later a loco-regional recurrence with a port-site metastasis was diagnosed on the right side.
  • Open adrenalectomy, by avoiding the potential for port-site metastasis, may be oncologically superior to laparoscopic adrenalectomy in this situation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17581473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Artifon EL, Lucon AM, Sakai P, Gerhardt R, Srougi M, Takagaki T, Ishioka S, Bhutani MS: EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Dec;66(6):1201-5
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  • [Title] EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS presents an alternative access to the left adrenal, making it possible to perform echo-guided needle biopsies.
  • OBJECTIVES: We present a case of EUS-guided therapy as alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastases.
  • CT scan revealed an invasive process in the left upper lobe of the lung and a mass in the left adrenal area that was considered highly suspicious for left adrenal metastases from the patient's lung carcinoma.
  • Cytopathologic examination of EUS-guided FNA confirmed the diagnosis of left adrenal metastasis.
  • Because the patient's main clinical symptom was disabling abdominal pain, we considered the possibility of injection of alcohol into the left adrenal metastases under EUS guidance to ablate the metastatic lesion and potentially relieve the abdominal pain.
  • RESULTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: On follow-up 3 days after EUS-guided left adrenal ablation, the patient had no abdominal pain.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastases in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer may provide palliation of cancer-related abdominal pain.
  • There may be potential for combining this (minimally invasive and easily performed EUS-guided therapeutic) technique for ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis in patients with lung cancer with other modalities (e.g., surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy) directed toward the primary pulmonary malignancy and adjacent mediastinal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Endosonography / methods. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18061721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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47. Benitah N, Yeh BM, Qayyum A, Williams G, Breiman RS, Coakley FV: Minor morphologic abnormalities of adrenal glands at CT: prognostic importance in patients with lung cancer. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):517-22
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  • [Title] Minor morphologic abnormalities of adrenal glands at CT: prognostic importance in patients with lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic importance of minor morphologic abnormalities of the adrenal glands at computed tomography (CT) in patients with lung cancer.
  • The authors retrospectively identified 197 patients with lung cancer who underwent serial chest or abdominal CT and did not have a focal adrenal mass at baseline CT.
  • Two readers independently classified the morphologic features of each adrenal gland as normal, smoothly enlarged, or nodular at initial CT examination.
  • They separately recorded the presence or absence of metastases to the adrenal glands (ie, any new focal adrenal mass) at final CT examination; a third independent reader arbitrated when interpretations were discordant (n = 11).
  • Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess for associations between baseline adrenal gland morphologic features and subsequent development of adrenal metastases.
  • RESULTS: At initial CT, reader 1 classified 253 (64%), 70 (18%), and 71 (18%) of the 394 adrenal glands and reader 2 classified 258 (65%), 45 (11%), and 91 (23%) of these glands as normal, smoothly enlarged, or nodular, respectively.
  • The readers had moderate interobserver agreement regarding the classification of adrenal gland morphologic features (kappa = 0.54).
  • Metastases subsequently developed in 13 adrenal glands in 11 patients.
  • Cox proportional hazard models revealed no significant association between baseline adrenal gland morphologic features and subsequent development of adrenal metastases (P = .50 and P = .20 for readers 1 and 2, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with lung cancer, smooth enlargement or nodularity of the adrenal glands at baseline CT is not associated with increased risk of subsequently developing adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / statistics & numerical data. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk


48. Vasinanukorn P, Rerknimitr R, Sriussadaporn S, Wisedopas N, Kongkam P, Chaopapsomkul B, Snabboon T: Adrenal hemorrhage as the first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Intern Med; 2007;46(21):1779-82
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  • [Title] Adrenal hemorrhage as the first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Imaging studies revealed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the right lobe of the liver with bilateral adrenal metastases and recent hemorrhage in the left adrenal gland.
  • Spontaneous massive AH due to metastatic HCC is unusual.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Hemorrhage / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17978534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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49. Venkatesan AM, Locklin J, Dupuy DE, Wood BJ: Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):89-99
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  • [Title] Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma, and adrenal metastases.
  • Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, and chemical ablation.
  • Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland's unique anatomic and physiological features.
  • The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article.
  • Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20540918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 69
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199588; NLM/ PMC2886030
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50. Anagnostou VK, Tiniakos DG, Chorti M, Kiagia M, Tourkantonis I, Alamara C, Syrigos KN: Right sited renal cell carcinoma metastasizing to the contralateral ovary: case report and review of the literature. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Mar;15(1):123-7
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  • Ovarian metastases from renal cell carcinoma are rare, with only 22 cases reported in the literature.
  • We report a case of a 45-year-old woman, who developed left ovarian and right adrenal metastases 3 months after diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and review the literature.
  • The patient is alive 4 years after resection of the ovarian tumor, treated with sunitinib.
  • We conclude that, although rare, metastatic renal cell carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors with clear cell histology.

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  • (PMID = 18493874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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51. M Mashfiqul AS, Tan YM, Thng CH, Cheow PC, Chung YF, Chow PK, Ooi LL: Pedunculated HCC or adrenal metastasis: a diagnostic conundrum. Singapore Med J; 2007 Feb;48(2):e50-2
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  • [Title] Pedunculated HCC or adrenal metastasis: a diagnostic conundrum.
  • Recurrences are common in the liver although extrahepatic metastases can occur and frequently involve the adrenals.
  • When this occurs in the right adrenal gland, it can be confused with an exophytic HCC arising from the posterior surface of the liver.
  • The distinction between a primary HCC and a metastasis is important but can be difficult in this clinical setting.
  • We report a 52-year-old man with recurrent HCC presenting as an "exophytic" posterior liver surface lesion that was actually a right adrenal metastasis.
  • Although right-sided adrenal metastases of HCC can be difficult to distinguish from intrahepatic recurrences, even with modern diagnostic imaging, management either way involves surgical exploration and resection whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17304379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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52. Namwongprom S, Núñez RF, Yeung HW, Kim EE, Macapinlac HA: Unusual adrenal metastasis and abdominal carcinomatosis secondary to Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Nov;115(10):694-6
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  • [Title] Unusual adrenal metastasis and abdominal carcinomatosis secondary to Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC) of the thyroid is an uncommon and relatively rare differentiated thyroid neoplasm.
  • To our knowledge, no reported case of adrenal metastases with abdominal carcinomatosis secondary to HCC of the thyroid has been demonstrated by F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging.
  • One report of adrenal uptake on I-131 whole-body scan with HCC exists.
  • In this case report, we describe a patient with HCC who had a left adrenal metastasis with abdominal carcinomatosis that was discovered using F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma / radiography. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18058606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Pena FJ, Quirce R, Allende RH, Banzo I, Carril JM: Bilateral adrenocortical uptake of Ga-67 SPECT during septicemia in a heart transplant patient. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 May;30(5):349-50
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  • Ga-67 SPECT showed bilateral abnormal adrenal gland uptake that disappeared after intensive antibiotic therapy as assessed by a new Ga-67 scintigraphy obtained 3 months later.
  • Unilateral and bilateral adrenal uptake of gallium has been reported in several clinical settings, ranging from adrenocortical adenomas to malignant disease such as lymphoma or adrenal metastases.
  • Only one similar case, septicemia with transient adrenal uptake of gallium, has been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / radionuclide imaging. Bacteremia / radionuclide imaging. Citrates. Gallium. Heart Transplantation / adverse effects. Heart Transplantation / radionuclide imaging. Staphylococcal Infections / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 15827412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Citrates; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 27905-02-8 / gallium citrate; CH46OC8YV4 / Gallium
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54. Muñoz A, López-Vivanco G, Mañé JM, Fernández R, Díaz-Aguirregoitia J, Saiz M, Barceló R: Metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma successfully treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Nov;36(11):731-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma successfully treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer is a common condition with a dismal prognosis.
  • Metastatic involvement of adrenal glands is not rare, but usually reflects widespread dissemination.
  • Selected patients with single adrenal metastasis may be cured with surgery, although the level of evidence comes from single cases reports and short retrospective series.
  • Here we report a patient with bilateral adrenal metastases from previously resected non-small-cell lung cancer, who remains free of disease four years after pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17071712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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55. Muth A, Persson F, Jansson S, Johanson V, Ahlman H, Wängberg B: Prognostic factors for survival after surgery for adrenal metastasis. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jul;36(7):699-704
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for survival after surgery for adrenal metastasis.
  • AIM: To better define the indications for adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis we have analysed factors predicting survival in our institutional series.
  • METHODS: A consecutive series of 30 patients undergoing adrenalectomy for metastasis (1996-2007), excluding patients with simultaneous ipsilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC), was studied.
  • Metastases were regarded as synchronous (<6 mo), or metachronous (>6 mo), depending on the interval after primary surgery.
  • RESULTS: The tumour diagnoses were RCC n = 9, malignant melanoma n = 5, non-small-cell lung cancer n = 5, colorectal carcinoma n = 4, foregut carcinoid n = 2, adrenocortical carcinoma, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and liposarcoma (one each); nine adrenal metastases were synchronous and 21 metachronous.
  • Ten patients had undergone previous surgery for extra-adrenal metastases.
  • Independent prognosticators of favourable survival were adrenalectomy for potential cure (p = 0.01), no previous metastasis surgery (p = 0.02), and tumour type (p = 0.043), with better prognosis for patients with adrenal metastasis from colorectal carcinoma and RCC and worse prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer and malignant melanoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgery for adrenal metastasis is safe and the indication for this procedure in an individual patient can be supported by several prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20452170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Daniele L, Cassoni P, Bacillo E, Cappia S, Righi L, Volante M, Tondat F, Inghirami G, Sapino A, Scagliotti GV, Papotti M, Novello S: Epidermal growth factor receptor gene in primary tumor and metastatic sites from non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Jun;4(6):684-8
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor gene in primary tumor and metastatic sites from non-small cell lung cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop distant metastases.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors are capable of reducing brain and adrenal metastases.
  • However, the EGFR status may be discordant between primary NSCLC and the corresponding metastases.
  • METHODS: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, the EGFR gene status was evaluated in a series of 38 cerebral or adrenal metastases collected from two institutions and in the corresponding primary tumors.
  • Also, EGFR mutational analysis was performed using direct sequencing on the cerebral metastases.
  • RESULTS: EGFR FISH was positive in 28% of the primary tumors and in 45% of the metastases (p < 0.05).
  • Among the seven cases FISH-positive at the metastatic site but negative in the primary tumor, six were brain metastases, and one was an adrenal metastasis; all were polysomic for chromosome 7, none were amplified.
  • No EGFR mutations have been found in the cerebral metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Because the molecular asset of EGFR may change during the metastatic progression of NSCLC to brain (but not to adrenal), the selection of patients with brain metastasis for specific targeted therapies by EGFR FISH analysis should be performed on metastatic lesions rather than on their corresponding primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / secondary. Survival Rate


57. Gockel I, Heintz A, Domeyer M, Trinh TT, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Indications for conventional adrenalectomy]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Jun;133(3):255-9
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  • RESULTS: Indications for conventional adrenalectomy were - as compared with the minimally invasive procedure - significantly more frequent adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), especially in the context of multivisceral resections, as well as adrenal metastases (synchronous and metachronous).
  • In contrast, adrenal Cushing's disease (including 19 patients with bilateral tumours), pheochromocytoma, incidentaloma and Conn's syndrome constituted a more frequent indication for minimally invasive adrenalectomy.
  • Conventionally operated adrenal pathologies with on average 6.0 (range: 1.2-19.0) cm diameter were significantly larger than the endoscopically removed tumours with on average 3.3 (range: 0.2-9.2) cm diameter (p < 0.0001).
  • The side localisation and the frequency of bilateral adrenal tumours did not differ significantly in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Since the establishment of the minimally invasive technique in 1994, conventional adrenalectomy has been selected for 26 % of all resected adrenal pathologies at our clinic and, therefore, still plays an important role even in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • The benefit of the laparoscopic procedure in the case of malignant pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and isolated adrenal metastases at a locally confined stage is still unclear and requires prospective, randomised studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / utilization. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18563692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Wang Y, Liang P, Yu X, Cheng Z, Yu J, Dong J: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of adrenal metastasis: preliminary results. Int J Hyperthermia; 2009;25(6):455-61
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  • [Title] Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of adrenal metastasis: preliminary results.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and therapeutic effects of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of adrenal metastasis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to April 2008, five consecutive patients with pathologically proven unilateral adrenal metastases with a diameter of 2.3 to 4.5 cm were treated by US-guided percutaneous MW ablation.
  • Four metastases were in the right side, one metastasis was in the left side.
  • RESULTS: All adrenal metastases were completely ablated after scheduled MW ablation sessions (mean, 1.2 sessions, range, 1 to 2 sessions).
  • CONCLUSIONS: US-guided percutaneous MW ablation appears to be a safe and effective therapy in selected adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Catheter Ablation / methods. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Ultrasonography, Interventional / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 19925324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-5157
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Hyperthermia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Subhawong AP, Subhawong TK, Li QK: Fine needle aspiration of metastatic prostate carcinoma simulating a primary adrenal cortical neoplasm: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Feb;38(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of metastatic prostate carcinoma simulating a primary adrenal cortical neoplasm: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occur in prostate cancer patients with widespread bone and visceral disease.
  • Autopsy studies have shown that adrenal metastases may be found in up to 23% of these patients.
  • However, the finding of an isolated adrenal metastasis without the involvement of other organs in a patient with prostate cancer is exceedingly rare.
  • We report a patient with a history of prostate cancer, status post radiation, and hormonal therapy 4 years before, who presented with a new, single adrenal mass on abdominal imaging studies.
  • The ultrasound-guided FNA cytology of the adrenal mass revealed cytomorphological features that were suggestive of a primary adrenal cortical neoplasm, but overlapped with those of a prostate metastasis.
  • To our knowledge, FNA findings of metastatic prostate cancer simulating an adrenal cortical neoplasm have not been previously reported in the English literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19693937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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60. Kim HK, Choi YS, Kim K, Kim J, Shim YM: Preoperative evaluation of adrenal lesions based on imaging studies and laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with otherwise operable lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2007 Dec;58(3):342-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative evaluation of adrenal lesions based on imaging studies and laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with otherwise operable lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: An unsuspected adrenal mass (AM) could be discovered in patients with operable non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but it is difficult to determine the nature of AM.
  • In group 1, no patients showed adrenal metastases, except one who died of adrenal metastasis.
  • In group 2, three patients revealed that they had had adrenal metastases when staging and two died of adrenal metastasis.
  • In group 3, one patient had an adrenal metastasis and the others had benign lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17825950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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61. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • Although metastases to the adrenals are common in humans, they have not been thoroughly studied in animals.
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to document the types of malignant tumors that metastasize to canine, feline, equine, and bovine adrenals, and the rate at which they do so.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • In dogs, 26 different tumor types metastasized to the adrenals.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Uberoi J, Munver R: Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches. Curr Urol Rep; 2009 Jan;10(1):67-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches.
  • The adrenal gland is a potential site of metastasis for various malignancies.
  • Metastases to the adrenal gland are the second most common type of adrenal mass lesion after adenomas.
  • Differentiation of a metastatic lesion from a primary adrenal lesion can be challenging and requires the selective use of radiologic imaging, serologic testing, and adrenal biopsy.
  • In patients who present with an isolated adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy is often considered to aid in cancer control.
  • Numerous studies have reported improved survival with resection of solitary adrenal metastases for various types of primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19116098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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63. Cho MM, Kobayashi K, Aoki T, Nishioka K, Yoshida K, Hatano N, Hirose H, Moon JH, Matsumoto T, Uemura Y, Kaneko T, Okagawa K: Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(1):79-81
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  • [Title] Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy.
  • The prognosis of esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy is poor due to a high frequency of metastasis to periesophageal lymph nodes and distant organs.
  • However, we experienced a case with good prognosis following resection of a solitary adrenal metastatic tumor.
  • Eight months following surgery, solitary adrenal metastasis was detected by CT, and was resected.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only five cases with resected solitary adrenal metastases including our case, have been reported, and show a greater than 1-year survival.
  • Consequently, we suggest that resection of solitary organ metastases is a good alternative, even following esophagectomy.

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  • (PMID = 17227316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Prando A, Prando D, Prando P: Renal cell carcinoma: unusual imaging manifestations. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):233-44
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  • These manifestations include bilateral synchronous multifocal tumors, a small RCC with synchronous adrenal metastasis, and RCC associated with bulky abdominal lymphoma.
  • Less common manifestations include multiseptated cystic carcinoma simulating a moderately complex renal cyst at ultrasonography (US), paraaortic metastatic adenopathy as the only sign of an undetectable primary renal neoplasm, RCC causing a large arteriovenous fistula, RCC simulating angiomyolipoma, and a nonfunctioning kidney due to transparenchymal renal propagation of cancer associated with a tumor thrombus occluding the renal vein.
  • Radiologists should be aware of the possibility of tumor multifocality or of adrenal metastases from a high-grade small renal tumor, as well as of the association of RCC with lymphoma.

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16418254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Xu J, Wang R, Xie ZH, Odero-Marah V, Pathak S, Multani A, Chung LW, Zhau HE: Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1664-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: The ARCaP cell line was established from the ascites fluid of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • This study characterized the host microenvironmental role in cancer progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and bone and adrenal metastasis in parental ARCaP and its derived cell subclones.
  • In vivo gene expression, behavior, and metastasis of ARCaP subclones were analyzed by serial intracardiac injections into SCID mice.
  • RESULTS: ARCaP(E) cells, with cobblestone morphology, underwent EMT through cellular interaction with host bone and adrenal gland.
  • Lineage-derived ARCaP(M) cells, with spindle-shape fibroblastic morphology, exhibited decreased cell adhesion and increased metastasis to bone and adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARCaP uniquely models the molecular basis of prostate cancer bone and adrenal metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Clone Cells. Disease Progression. Environment. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organ Specificity / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured


66. Böttger C, Warth A, Nawroth PP, Isermann B: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. Med Klin (Munich); 2010 Apr;105(4):237-41
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  • Based on a biopsy of a bronchial tumor, a small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the lung was diagnosed and chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin was initiated.
  • As the tumor progressed under chemotherapy, the bronchial biopsy was reevaluated and further biopsies of liver and adrenal metastases were obtained.
  • Under octreotide therapy, the patient remained stable for 1 year, when a discrete progress of the primary tumor in the lung was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcitonin / metabolism. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Lung / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20455040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6722
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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67. Tsukada Y, Tauchi K, Nakamura M, Kishimoto H, Yoshifuku S, Otagiri N, Sasahara K: [Complete response achieved in a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor by administration of imatinib mesilate with concurrent relatively high-dose steroid therapy to control side effects]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(11):2181-4
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  • [Title] [Complete response achieved in a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor by administration of imatinib mesilate with concurrent relatively high-dose steroid therapy to control side effects].
  • We present a 53-year-old man who underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in August 2005.
  • Imatinib mesilate (imatinib) 400 mg/day was started in February 2006 for left adrenal metastasis.
  • Tumor size markedly decreased by April 2006, but medication had to be discontinued due to a pruritic rash.
  • A distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenectomy were performed in August for recurrent adrenal metastases.
  • Imatinib 200 mg/day with PDL 40 mg/day was restarted in April due to an increase in tumor size.
  • The tumor was no longer visible on CT in May 2008, and complete response is being maintained as of August 2009.
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Drug Eruptions / prevention & control. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pruritus / chemically induced. Pruritus / prevention & control. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21084823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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68. Antonelli A, Cozzoli A, Simeone C, Zani D, Zanotelli T, Portesi E, Cosciani Cunico S: Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients. BJU Int; 2006 Mar;97(3):505-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report, in a retrospective study, the diagnostic problems and oncological results of surgery in patients with either synchronous or metachronous adrenal metastasis, which are uncommon in renal cancer, at 2-10% of patients.
  • During the follow-up after renal surgery, another 14 patients had adrenalectomy for CT evidence of an abnormal adrenal gland, contralateral to the previous renal tumour in 12 and bilaterally in two.
  • RESULTS: Of 914 ipsilateral adrenal glands removed during renal surgery, 854 (93.5%) were normal on pathological examination, 28 (3%) had a benign pathology, six (0.8%) were directly infiltrated by the tumour and 26 (2.7%) were metastatic.
  • For both benign and metastatic ipsilateral adrenal pathology, CT had sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values of 47%, 99%, 73% and 96%, respectively.
  • Of 29 contralateral glands removed because of suspicious CT findings (15 at diagnosis of renal cancer, 14 during the follow-up) there was no abnormality in one (3.4%), a benign pathology in seven (24%) and a metastasis in 21 (72%).
  • Thus there were 32 synchronous (incidence 2.7%; ipsilateral to the renal tumour in 24, contralateral in six and bilateral in two), and 13 metachronous adrenal metastases (incidence 1.0%; contralateral in 11 and bilateral in two).
  • The metachronous metastases were diagnosed at a mean (range) interval of 30.6 (8-73) months after renal surgery.
  • No ipsilateral adrenal metastases were discovered at diagnosis or during the follow-up in the 382 patients with an organ-confined renal tumour of <4 cm in diameter.
  • Twenty-seven patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis (synchronous in 14, metachronous in 13) had statistically significantly (P < 0.001) better survival than the 18 (all synchronous) with multiple sites of metastatic disease.
  • In particular, there was long-term survival (mean 83 months) in 10 patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Sparing the ipsilateral adrenal is advisable only for organ-confined renal tumours of <4 cm in diameter; clinical local staging of renal cancer is the best predictor of the risk of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, CT had good diagnostic ability for the contralateral adrenal gland, especially during the follow-up.
  • Some patients with isolated adrenal metastasis could be treated by metastasectomy, with long-term survival free of disease and confirming that, even if in a few and unselectable patients, removing all the neoplastic bulk can be curative.
  • Nevertheless, the high rate of relapse underlines the need for an effective systemic therapy, and more so for widespread metastatic disease that currently cannot be cured.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16469016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Aïssaoui R, Turki Z, Achiche A, Balti MH, Ben Slama C, Zbiba M: [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):364-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase surrénalienne d'un cancer papillaire de la thyroïde.
  • Adrenal metastases of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are very rare.
  • A 63-year-old woman had undergone 15 years earlier left lobo-ishmectomy for a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 7 years earlier right adrenalectomy for a tumor.
  • Histologic examination showed a benign cortical tumor.
  • In 1999, when the patient was admitted for worsening of glycemic control, a recurrence of the adrenal mass was detected.
  • According to the hormone evaluation it was a non-functional tumor.
  • Histologic examination and thyroglobulin immunochemistry identified metastatic PTC.
  • Although iodine-131 therapy and thyroxine treatment were given, bone metastases were detected in August 2004.
  • Distant spread may occur to bone or lung, but exceptionally to the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal localization is often associated with lung or bone metastasis.
  • In our patient, the adrenal metastasis remained isolated for many years.
  • It has been reported that survival rate decreases considerably after appearance of a distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


70. Ramacciato G, Paolo M, Pietromaria A, Paolo B, Francesco D, Sergio P, Antonio S, Vincenzo T, Micaela P, Gianluigi M: Ten years of laparoscopic adrenalectomy: lesson learned from 104 procedures. Am Surg; 2005 Apr;71(4):321-5
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  • Indications to laparoscopic adrenalectomy were aldosterone-secreting adenoma (20%), pheochromocytoma (24%), cortisol-secreting adenoma (11.5%), incidentaloma (26.9%), multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (2.8%), adrenal metastases from lung cancer (3.8%), adrenal cyst (6.7%), and angiomyolipoma (3.8%).
  • There was no correlation between adrenal tumor diameter and operative time.
  • The size of the adrenal tumor should not be considered a contraindication to this procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15943406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Ando S, Fukuhara Y, Miyazaki J, Hattori K, Tsukamoto S, Hinotsu S, Shimazui T, Akaza H: [Renal cell carcinoma with bilateral adrenal and small intestinal metastases: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Jan;97(1):64-7
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  • [Title] [Renal cell carcinoma with bilateral adrenal and small intestinal metastases: a case report].
  • A 69-year-old man who had a complaint of melena and hematemesis was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and treatment of renal masses, bilateral adrenal swelling and a tumor in the small intestine.
  • Bilateral adrenal swelling and a small intestinal tumor with invagination were also observed.
  • We diagnosed left renal cell carcinomas with bilateral adrenal metastases or hyperplasia, and a primary or metastatic small intestinal tumor.
  • Bilateral adrenal swelling and small intestinal tumor were metastases from the renal cell carcinoma After operation, we administered interferon-alpha and steroid replacement.
  • Renal cell carcinoma with simultaneous metastases to bilateral adrenal glands and the small intestine is extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestine, Small. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16485557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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72. Popescu I, Alexandrescu S, Ciurea S, Brasoveanu V, Hrehoret D, Gangone E, Boros M, Herlea V, Croitoru A: Adrenalectomy for metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma - a single center experience. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 May;392(3):381-4
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma - a single center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal metastases (AM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are rarely seen in clinical practice.
  • All the patients with AM were treated by adrenalectomy (simultaneously with liver resection in synchronous metastases), followed by systemic chemotherapy.
  • Non-resectable multifocal liver recurrences occurred in two patients, one of them having also a contralateral adrenal metastasis; these two patients are presently alive 26 and 43 months after adrenalectomy, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenalectomy for AM from HCC should be performed whenever the primary tumor is well therapeutically controlled and the patient has a good performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17187285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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74. Savci G, Yazici Z, Sahin N, Akgöz S, Tuncel E: Value of chemical shift subtraction MRI in characterization of adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Jan;186(1):130-5
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  • [Title] Value of chemical shift subtraction MRI in characterization of adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages of the image subtraction technique in chemical shift MRI for the differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with 42 adrenal masses (eight metastases and 34 nonfunctioning adenomas) underwent chemical shift MRI using a double-echo fast low-angle shot sequence.
  • For quantitative assessment, the signal intensity values of the adrenal masses were measured by one investigator with manually defined regions of interest.
  • Qualitative assessment of the subtraction images was performed independently by two investigators, who reported their confidence in diagnosing adenomas versus nonadenomas based on signal intensity of the adrenal masses on subtraction images.
  • RESULTS: The mean signal intensities were significantly different between adenomas and metastases on subtraction images (213 vs 18; p < 0.0001).
  • There was no overlap in signal intensities between adenomas and metastatic tumors.
  • The accuracy in distinguishing adenomas from metastatic tumors was 100% if the cutoff value of the signal intensity selected was 36-106.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemical shift subtraction MRI provides a high confidence level in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from adrenal metastases.
  • The image subtraction technique also facilitates quantitative and qualitative evaluation of adrenal masses in chemical shift MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16357391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Gomez-Roca C, Raynaud CM, Penault-Llorca F, Mercier O, Commo F, Morat L, Sabatier L, Dartevelle P, Taranchon E, Besse B, Validire P, Italiano A, Soria JC: Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Oct;4(10):1212-20
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  • [Title] Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites.
  • The correlation of biomarker expression between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis has not yet been well documented and analyzed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), excision repair cross-complementing (ERCC1), vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 was immunohistochemically analyzed in tumor samples of primary NSCLC and one corresponding metastasis in a population of 49 patients.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen cases (33%) displayed clear discordance in the EGFR status between the primary tumor and the metastasis, with a significant trend toward downregulation of EGFR in the metastasis (p = 0.01).
  • The ERCC1 status was discordant in 20 cases (41%), with a trend toward overexpression in brain and adrenal metastases (p = 0.01 and p = 0.08, respectively).
  • No difference in expression was observed between synchronous and metachronous metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Biomarker expression is discordant between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis in about one third of patients with NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Rate. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism


76. Perrier ND, Kennamer DL, Bao R, Jimenez C, Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Evans DB: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases. Ann Surg; 2008 Oct;248(4):666-74
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  • [Title] Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) is a minimally invasive approach to removal of the adrenal gland.
  • This anatomically direct approach, popularized by Walz, minimizes dissection and affords early access to the adrenal vein.
  • Indications for adrenalectomy were functional tumors in 43 patients (20 pheochromocytomas, 13 Cushing disease or syndrome, and 10 others), nonfunctional cortical adenomas in 4, and isolated adrenal metastases in 15.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm.
  • PRA may be the preferred technique for removing benign adrenal tumors and isolated metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18936580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Mourra N, Hoeffel C, Duvillard P, Guettier C, Flejou JF, Tiret E: Adrenalectomy for clinically isolated metastasis from colorectal carcinoma: report of eight cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Dec;51(12):1846-9
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for clinically isolated metastasis from colorectal carcinoma: report of eight cases.
  • PURPOSE: Metastasis to the adrenal glands is a relatively frequent finding at autopsy.
  • Adrenal metastasis of colorectal carcinoma is rare (14 percent).
  • Isolated adrenal metastasis is even rarer, and presents a therapeutic dilemma.
  • METHODS: Between 1997 and 2006, eight patients (5 men; mean age, 62 years) underwent adrenalectomy for metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: All patients were asymptomatic, and adrenal metastasis was suspected from an elevated serum level of carcinoembryogenic antigen or discovered by computed tomography.
  • Adrenal metastases were metachronous in seven patients, with median disease-free interval of 3.75 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rarity of isolated adrenal metastasis of colorectal carcinoma makes a randomized, prospective trial comparing surgery vs. nonsurgical management highly unlikely.
  • Our results provide further support for surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis, which may translate into survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18317842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Balestra MR, Napolitano L, Legnini M, Innocenti P: [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal gland metastasis: case report]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S130-1
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal gland metastasis: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] La chirurgia laparoscopica delle metastasi surrenaliche: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognised as the gold standard for the surgical treatment of adrenal lesion.
  • Also the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for metastasis is controversial.
  • This study, in according with literature dates, aimed to confirm that patients are most likely to have prolonged survival after resection of adrenal metastases and confirms that oncological outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy are similar with open adrenalectomy.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The study included patients who underwent LA from 2000 to 2005.
  • Indications for LA were adrenal masses with no radiological evidence of involvement of the surrounding structure, or solitary metastases with well-controlled primary cancer.
  • The variable evaluated were port-site and intra-addominal recurrence, distant metastasis and survival time.
  • Patients age was mean 69 (range, 62-77), the lesions were at right adrenal gland.
  • Mean diameter of the tumor was 4.5 cm (range, 4.2-4.8 cm).
  • Tumor free margins were obtained.
  • At follow-up mean of ten months (eight-twelve months) there was any sight of distant metastases and the patient was alive.
  • CONCLUSION: LA seems to be a feasible option if the principles of oncological surgery are respected.
  • Adrenalectomy for metastasis, with intent to prolong survival, should be offered to patient with favourable tumor biology, such as those with significant DFI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16437949.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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79. Cassoni P, Daniele L, Maldi E, Righi L, Tavaglione V, Novello S, Volante M, Scagliotti GV, Papotti M: Caveolin-1 expression in lung carcinoma varies according to tumour histotype and is acquired de novo in brain metastases. Histopathology; 2009 Jul;55(1):20-7
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  • [Title] Caveolin-1 expression in lung carcinoma varies according to tumour histotype and is acquired de novo in brain metastases.
  • AIMS: To study caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression in metastatic lung carcinomas.
  • Moreover, the percentage of Cav-1+ tumours with distant metastases was almost double that of non-metastatic tumours (17.8% vs. 8.1%), irrespective of the histotype.
  • In 34 tumours metastatic to the brain, primary and secondary lesions were compared and 53% of brain metastases were Cav-1+ vs. 20.6% of primaries, indicating a de novo acquisition of Cav-1 expression.
  • This pattern was exclusive to the brain, as it was not acquired in adrenal metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cav-1 immunoreactivity in lung carcinoma is histotype-dependent and acquired de novo in brain metastases, suggesting a site-specific phenotypic shift in secondary lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Caveolin 1 / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Disease Progression. Gene Amplification / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19614763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Caveolin 1; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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80. Park JS, Yoon DS, Kim KS, Choi JS, Lee WJ, Chi HS, Kim BR: What is the best treatment modality for adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma? J Surg Oncol; 2007 Jul 1;96(1):32-6
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  • [Title] What is the best treatment modality for adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma?
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of each therapeutic modality to clarify the treatment strategy for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • METHODS: Adrenal metastasis from HCC was observed in 45 patients.
  • Fifteen patients who were determined to have multi-organ metastasis including the adrenal glands were excluded, and the remaining 30 patients were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The location of adrenal metastasis was right side, left side, and both in 17, 9, and 4 patients, respectively.
  • Treatment for adrenal metastasis consisted of adrenalectomy in 5 patients, non-surgical treatment such as TACE, or chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 19 patients, while 6 patients received no treatment.
  • The median survival duration was 11.05 months in the 30 patients with adrenal metastasis.
  • The difference in cumulative survival according to mode of treatment of adrenal metastasis in the well-controlled intrahepatic lesion group was statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: We envisage increased benefit after adrenalectomy in terms of survival in patients with well controlled intrahepatic lesions at the time of adrenal metastasis and good general medical condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17345596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Nadeau ME, Kaartinen MJ, Laguë MN, Paquet M, Huneault LM, Boerboom D: A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor. Comp Med; 2009 Dec;59(6):553-6
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  • [Title] A mouse surgical model for metastatic ovarian granulosa cell tumor.
  • However, because the primary tumors killed their hosts before metastases were able to form, the use of these mice to study metastatic disease required the development of a simple, reliable, and humane surgical protocol for the excision of large GCTs from debilitated mice.
  • Here we describe a protocol involving multimodal anesthesia, tumor removal through ventral midline celiotomy and perioperative fluid therapy, and analgesia that led to the postoperative survival of more than 90% of mice, despite the removal of tumors representing as much as 10% of the animal's body weight.
  • Intraabdominal recurrence of the GCT did not occur in surviving animals, but most developed pulmonary or adrenal metastases (or both) by 12 wk after surgery.
  • We propose that this mouse model of metastatic GCT will serve as a useful preclinical model for the development of novel treatment modalities and diagnostic techniques.

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  • (PMID = 20034430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0820
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798836
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82. Chung SD, Wang SM, Lai MK, Huang CY, Liao CH, Huang KH, Pu YS, Chueh SC, Yu HJ: Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis after nephroureterectomy. BJU Int; 2009 Apr;103(8):1047-51
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal metastases from primary renal pelvic UCs were rare.
  • LVI appears to be a better prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome of renal pelvic UC than pT stage or tumour grade when using the current tumour-nodes-metastases staging system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / mortality. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] BJU Int. 2009 Apr;103(8):1143 [19338572.001]
  • (PMID = 19076143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Bonnet S, Gaujoux S, Leconte M, Thillois JM, Tissier F, Dousset B: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metachronous metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. World J Surg; 2008 Aug;32(8):1809-14
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metachronous metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metachronous adrenal metastases (AM) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are rare.
  • RESULTS: CT scan findings were those of an adrenal mass ranging from 2 to 13 cm in diameter with a basal density of 12 to 28 Hounsfield Units and strong heterogeneous enhancement following contrast injection.
  • The surgical procedure consisted of controlateral (n = 5), ipsilateral (n = 2), and bilateral (n = 1) laparoscopic adrenalectomy, whereas three patients underwent controlateral open adrenalectomy for adrenal mass >10 cm.
  • In the remaining two patients, lung metastases were discovered at postoperative months 28 and 11, respectively.
  • The former patient is alive and free of disease recurrence 32 months after lung metastasis resection, whereas the latter is currently being treated with sunitinib.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18330621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Howard EW, Ling MT, Chua CW, Cheung HW, Wang X, Wong YC: Garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine is a novel in vivo antimetastatic agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 15;13(6):1847-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: There is epidemiologic evidence that high garlic consumption decreases the incidence of prostate cancer, and compounds isolated from garlic have been shown to have cancer-preventive and tumor-suppressive effects.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used a newly established fluorescent orthotopic androgen-independent prostate cancer mouse model to assess the ability of S-allylmercaptocysteine to inhibit tumor growth and dissemination.
  • RESULTS: We showed that oral S-allylmercaptocysteine not only inhibited the growth of primary tumors by up to 71% (P < 0.001) but also reduced the number of lung and adrenal metastases by as much as 85.5% (P = 0.001) without causing notable toxicity.
  • This metastatic suppression was accompanied by a 91% reduction of viable circulating tumor cells (P = 0.041), suggesting that S-allylmercaptocysteine prevents dissemination by decreasing tumor cell intravasation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cysteine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Garlic / chemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / pharmacology. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 17363541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / S-allylmercaptocysteine; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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85. Cardinale L, Cortese G, Borasio P, Dogliotti L, Ferraris F, Novello S, Perotto F, Scagliotti G, Fava C: Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: Prevalence data. Radiol Med; 2005 Nov-Dec;110(5-6):532-43
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  • Six cases of lung cancer were identified, of which four were stage I, one stage was IIIB and one was stage IV with adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Radiation Dosage. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 16437039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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86. Malhotra G, Upadhye TS, Sridhar E, Asopa RV, Garde PS, Gawde S, Rangarajan V: Unusual case of adrenal and renal metastases from papillary carcinoma of thyroid. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Sep;35(9):731-6
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  • [Title] Unusual case of adrenal and renal metastases from papillary carcinoma of thyroid.
  • We report a rare case of adrenal and renal metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • A 30-year-old man underwent total thyroidectomy with left neck dissection for cytology proven nodal metastases from PTC.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging examination of spine detected left SI joint, dorsal and lumbar vertebral metastases.
  • An abdominal single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (CT) revealed the lumbar lesions to be within bilateral adrenal glands.
  • Contrast-enhanced CT of abdomen revealed lesions in bilateral adrenals and renal regions suggestive of metastases.
  • A CT-guided biopsy of left adrenal focus confirmed metastasis from the carcinoma of thyroid.
  • A high degree of suspicion with further radiologic and cytologic correlation clinched the diagnosis of both adrenal and renal metastases from PTC, which has been rarely reported.
  • Fortunately, radioiodine concentration in adrenal metastases made them amenable to high-dose radioiodine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20706057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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87. Collinson FJ, Lam TK, Bruijn WM, de Wilt JH, Lamont M, Thompson JF, Kefford RF: Long-term survival and occasional regression of distant melanoma metastases after adrenal metastasectomy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jun;15(6):1741-9
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  • [Title] Long-term survival and occasional regression of distant melanoma metastases after adrenal metastasectomy.
  • Long-term regression of distant metastatic melanoma was observed in one patient after bilateral adrenalectomy, prompting a review of adrenalectomy for melanoma metastases performed at this center.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study in which all patients treated at the Sydney Melanoma Unit and recorded as having adrenal gland metastases between January 1987 and January 2004 were identified and their survival analyzed.
  • RESULTS: One hundred eighty-six patients with adrenal gland metastases were identified.
  • The adrenal glands were the sole site of disease in five patients.
  • Median overall survival after adrenalectomy was 16 months (2-year survival, 39%), compared with 5 months for patients with documented adrenal metastases treated nonsurgically (P < .00001).
  • In one patient, nonresected visceral metastases elsewhere regressed completely after bilateral adrenalectomy; he remained well and free of disease 80 months after adrenalectomy.
  • Regression of distant visceral metastatic disease also occurred in a second patient after unilateral adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenalectomy for melanoma metastatic to the adrenal gland provides good palliation of symptoms and is associated with prolonged survival in a selected cohort of patients.
  • We report for the first time sustained complete regression of distant metastatic melanoma after bilateral adrenalectomy, suggesting a possible role for adrenal hormones in modifying melanoma progression in certain patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18379853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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89. Alamdari FI, Ljungberg B: Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2005;39(4):277-82
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of adrenal metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of all stages, its correlation with clinicopathological variables and its impact on survival.
  • The accuracy of the available preoperative radiological examinations was evaluated and any adrenal involvement was compared with other clinical and histopathological findings.
  • RESULTS: Ipsilateral adrenal tumour involvement was detected in 17/321 patients (5.3%).
  • In four of these patients, the adrenal gland was the only preoperatively found metastatic site.
  • Factors predicting the presence of ipsilateral adrenal metastases were male gender, tumour size, vein invasion, renal capsule and perirenal fat invasion.
  • Tumour location within the kidney and tumour side had no predictive value for the presence of adrenal metastasis.
  • The presence of ipsilateral adrenal involvement was a significant adverse prognostic variable, indicating a short survival time (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral adrenal metastasis is a highly adverse prognostic factor.
  • In the TNM staging system, adrenal gland involvement should be staged as M1a.
  • Ipsilateral adrenalectomy in conjunction with radical nephrectomy should be performed if an adrenal lesion cannot be cleared of suspicion after preoperative radiological imaging, as in locally advanced tumours.
  • The adrenal gland can be left in situ if the ipsilateral adrenal gland is assessed as normal at the preoperative investigation and perioperatively by the surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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90. Sebag F, Calzolari F, Harding J, Sierra M, Palazzo FF, Henry JF: Isolated adrenal metastasis: the role of laparoscopic surgery. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):888-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated adrenal metastasis: the role of laparoscopic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Solitary adrenal metastases (AM) are rare and their management unclear.
  • Surgery, especially laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA), is debatable in the management of AM.
  • This retrospective study analysed the feasibility and the results of LA for AM.
  • METHODS: From 1997 to 2003, 16 patients underwent LA for isolated AM.
  • No patient presented with local relapse or port-site metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA can achieve an acceptable 5-year survival, comparable to open surgery but with better postoperative comfort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16547618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Huang ZM, Li HZ, Xiao H, Ji ZG: [Melanoma adrenal metastasis: report of 3 cases and literature review]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Apr 27;90(16):1123-5
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  • [Title] [Melanoma adrenal metastasis: report of 3 cases and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of melanoma adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: A total of 48 cases of malignant melanoma from 1985 to 2007 were reviewed.
  • And three cases of melanoma adrenal metastasis were analyzed.
  • The disease-free interval to adrenal metastasis were 25, 37, 33 months respectively.
  • Two presented with flank or abdominal discomfort and another one had adrenal metastasis on routine examination.
  • The maximal diameters of metastasis were 5, 8 and 12 cm respectively.
  • The CT value of adrenal metastasis had a range of 9 - 45 Hu in plain scan.
  • RESULTS: One patient with concurrent lymph node metastasis received non-operative therapy with interleukin-2.
  • The other two cases underwent complete resection of melanoma metastasis.
  • One received adrenalectomy via retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach while another patient with tumor thrombus in inferior vena cava underwent right adrenalectomy and extraction of tumor thrombus out of inferior vena cava in traditional open surgery.
  • When contralateral adrenal metastasis of melanoma was found 6 months later, left adrenalectomy laparoscopically was performed.
  • One had multiple metastasis in 16 months and died at 21 months.
  • Another was alive without recurrence or new metastasis at 30 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Melanoma metastasis to adrenal gland is rare and it generally has a poor prognosis.
  • Patients with adrenal metastases from melanoma, either isolated or with a limited number of additional metastases, may achieve a survival benefit from surgical resection if all visible lesions are removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20646432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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92. Pugliese R, Boniardi M, Sansonna F, Maggioni D, De Carli S, Costanzi A, Scandroglio I, Ferrari GC, Di Lernia S, Magistro C, Loli P, Grossrubatscher E: Outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Clinical experience with 68 patients. Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;17(1):49-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA).
  • Between December 1998 and May 2007 in our institution a total of 68 patients of mean age of 53 years underwent unilateral (n=57) or bilateral (n=11) LA.
  • Adrenal masses averaged 5.4cm in size (range 1.2-13cm) and 56.7g in weight (range 10-265) including 71 benign and 8 malignant lesions.
  • A total of 79 adrenal glands were resected, 44 right sided and 35 left sided.
  • The mean duration of surgery for each LA was 138+/-90min and 3.8 trocar were used on average (range 3-6).
  • Estimated mean blood loss for each LA was 95+/-30ml and it was greater for bilateral LA.
  • While long-term results after LA for cortical carcinomas were poor and LA is not recommended in such cases, long-term results after LA for adrenal metastases were encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17949973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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93. Milano MT, Katz AW, Muhs AG, Philip A, Buchholz DJ, Schell MC, Okunieff P: A prospective pilot study of curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with 5 or fewer oligometastatic lesions. Cancer; 2008 Feb 1;112(3):650-8
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  • BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that oligometastatic disease represents a state of potentially curable, limited metastases.
  • METHODS: From 2001 to 2006, 121 patients with < or =5 detectable metastases were enrolled in 2 prospective studies that used curative-intent SBRT.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery was offered to patients with brain metastases.
  • A greater net tumor volume predicted significantly worse OS, PFS, LC, and DC.
  • Patients with breast cancer fared significantly better with respect to OS, PFS, LC, and DC; and patients with adrenal metastases had significantly worse OS, PFS, and DC despite the small number of such patients enrolled.
  • Neither the number of metastatic lesions nor the number of organs involved was a significant predictor of outcome.
  • In this hypothesis-generating analysis, patients with less volume burden of their metastatic disease and those with primary breast cancer fared better.
  • SBRT delivered with curative intent in patients with limited metastases should be investigated further.
  • The Southwest Oncology Group is developing a prospective protocol to treat women who have limited breast cancer metastases with SBRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 18072260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Antonelli A, Cosciani Cunico S: [Surgery for renal carcinoma metastases]. Urologia; 2008 Jan-Mar;75(1):1-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgery for renal carcinoma metastases].
  • Renal cell carcinoma, however, is still the renal neoplastic condition with the highest mortality rate, due in most cases to the presence of distal metastases.
  • Because of a lack of agreement on an efficient systemic therapeutic approach, surgery is generally considered to be the most suitable option to remove metastases: it is technically easy to perform, it can increase survival and the patient's psychological compliance, though metastasectomy is unlikely to cure the metastatic patient.
  • 304 (20%) developed a metastasis; 4 subjects only (5.4%) out of the 74 having multiple metastatic anatomical sites were long-surviving.
  • 39 subjects (16.9%) out of the 230 having single-site metastases are currently disease-free (mean follow-up: 80 months from diagnosis): 33 out of the 111 patients who underwent metastasectomy, 4 out of the 57 who received a medical therapy, 1 out of the 14 being administered radiotherapy, and 1 out of the 48 who were cared under palliative purposes only.
  • Therefore we concluded that, in case of single-site (lung or adrenal) metastases, surgery is the most suitable and advisable therapeutic approach, being the only option able to achieve survival even for a small amount of patients.
  • New biologic drugs are currently under investigation, which can interfere with tumor proliferation and angiogenesis: the study results are still preliminary, nevertheless these drugs open the way to a multimodal medical option of treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21086368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-5603
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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95. Szolar DH, Korobkin M, Reittner P, Berghold A, Bauernhofer T, Trummer H, Schoellnast H, Preidler KW, Samonigg H: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology; 2005 Feb;234(2):479-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively measure the adrenal gland attenuation and the percentage loss of adrenal gland enhancement at delayed contrast medium-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients with adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas and to compare these data with those in patients with adenomas and metastases.
  • Eleven patients with proved adrenocortical carcinoma, 17 with proved pheochromocytoma, 23 with adrenal adenoma, and 16 with metastasis to the adrenal gland underwent helical CT.
  • RESULTS: The mean attenuation of adenomas (8 HU +/- 18 [standard deviation]) was significantly lower than those of adrenocortical carcinomas (39 HU +/- 14), pheochromocytomas (44 HU +/- 11), and metastases (34 HU +/- 11) on nonenhanced CT scans (P < .001).
  • Although the mean attenuation values for nonadenomas (ie, adrenocortical carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases) were significantly higher than the value for adenomas on the 1-minute contrast-enhanced CT scans (P < .001), there was more overlap in attenuation between adenomas and nonadenomas on contrast-enhanced scans than on nonenhanced scans.
  • On the 10-minute delayed contrast-enhanced scans, the mean attenuation of adenomas (32 HU +/- 17) was significantly lower than the mean attenuations of carcinomas (72 HU +/- 15), pheochromocytomas (83 HU +/- 14), and metastases (66 HU +/- 13) (P < .001).
  • At optimal threshold values of 50% for absolute percentage of enhancement loss and 40% for relative percentage of enhancement loss at 10 minutes, both the sensitivity and the specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma were 100% when adenomas were compared with carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The enhancement loss in adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas is similar to that in adrenal metastases but significantly less than that in adrenal adenomas.
  • The percentage change in contrast material washout is a useful adjunct to absolute CT attenuation values in differentiating adrenal adenomas from adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3 [16118181.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2006 Jan;238(1):373; author reply 373-4 [16373781.001]
  • (PMID = 15671003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2358-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In a patient with a history of cancer, an isolated adrenal mass is usually thought to be a metastasis.
  • This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of functional adrenal lesions in patients with a history of cancer and examine predictive factors for the type of lesion.
  • METHODS: At a single institution, 33 patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer underwent surgical treatment.
  • Patients' records were retrospectively analyzed for type of adrenal lesion and other diagnostic parameters.
  • Of these, 20 (61%) had adrenal metastases, 8 (24%) had pheochromocytomas, and 5 (15%) had adrenal adenomas.
  • Usual diagnostic criteria, including presenting symptoms, primary tumor, and other demographic characteristics, did not consistently predict the pathology of the lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 4 resected adrenal masses in patients with a history of cancer were pheochromocytomas.
  • Therefore, remember one thing in patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer: pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Medical Records. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden


97. Quayle FJ, Spitler JA, Pierce RA, Lairmore TC, Moley JF, Brunt LM: Needle biopsy of incidentally discovered adrenal masses is rarely informative and potentially hazardous. Surgery; 2007 Oct;142(4):497-502; discussion 502-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Needle biopsy of incidentally discovered adrenal masses is rarely informative and potentially hazardous.
  • INTRODUCTION: The role of fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses is limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to review the value of FNA biopsy of adrenal masses in patients referred to a large university endocrine surgical practice.
  • METHODS: Patients referred to the endocrine surgery service at our institutions from 1997 through 2006 for evaluation of an adrenal mass were identified and those who underwent needle biopsy were selected for analysis.
  • RESULTS: Of the 347 patients evaluated for adrenal masses, 22 (6.3%) had undergone needle biopsy before referral.
  • Clinical presentations were incidentaloma (n = 15), suspected metastasis (n = 4), and symptomatic large mass (n = 3).
  • Biopsies were diagnostic in 2 of 4 patients with suspected metastasis and in 1 of 3 patients with a large symptomatic mass.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA biopsy is not useful in the diagnostic workup of patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses and rarely alters management in patients with resectable adrenal metastases and primary adrenal malignancies.
  • Language that suggests biopsy of adrenal masses should be avoided in radiology reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / adverse effects. Biopsy, Needle / contraindications. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17950341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Bellantone R: Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;94(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of laparoscopic approach for the treatment of malignant adrenal diseases is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to verify the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all the patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for adrenal diseases and in whom malignancy was demonstrated at final histology were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients were included (three malignant pheochromocytomas, four adrenocortical carcinomas, and two adrenal metastases).
  • One patient died for metastatic disease and the other one for unrelated causes.
  • One patient operated on for a malignant pheochromocytoma developed multiple intra-abdominal recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that LA can have a role also in case of adrenal malignancies.
  • A preliminary laparoscopic exploration can be planned in case of suspected malignant lesions to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate their operability.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Registries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16847903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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100. Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, Sperone P, Novello S, Berruti A, Borasio P, Fava C, Dogliotti L, Scagliotti GV, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):298-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, defined as masses discovered incidentally during imaging investigation of non-adrenal disorders, have become a rather common finding in clinical practice.
  • The aim of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas among subjects undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest in a screening program of lung cancer (Tic TAC study) in Piedmont, a region of Northwestern Italy.
  • Twenty-three patients with adrenal masses were identified: 21 adrenal adenomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 1 metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Therefore, the overall prevalence of adrenal lesions was 4.4%, and that of benign adrenal masses was 4.2%.
  • Another factor that influenced our results is that subject age is skewed towards the decades characterized by a greater occurrence of adrenal masses.
  • The outcome of this study confirms that we are presently able to identify incidentally discovered adrenal masses more often than in early years and that the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas on CT images is approaching that of autopsy series.
  • The present study provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma with currently used CT scanners.
  • Notwithstanding that our subjects were at increased risk of lung cancer, the rate of adrenal metastases was low.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 16699294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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