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1. Ishikura K, Takamura T, Takeshita Y, Nakagawa A, Imaizumi N, Misu H, Taji K, Kasahara K, Oshinoya Y, Suzuki S, Ooi A, Kaneko S: Cushing's syndrome and big IGF-II associated hypoglycaemia in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Despite surgery and chemotherapy with mitotane, the ACC progressed with metastases to the lymph nodes, liver and lung.
  • Initially, she developed adrenal insufficiency and was treated with hydrocortisone.
  • As the liver metastases grew, the patient developed hypoglycaemia with suppression of endogenous insulin secretion.

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  • (PMID = 22461853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027795
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2. Assouad J, Banu E, Brian E, Pham DN, Dujon A, Foucault C, Riquet M: Strategies and outcomes in pulmonary and extrapulmonary metastases from renal cell cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2008 May;33(5):794-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Strategies and outcomes in pulmonary and extrapulmonary metastases from renal cell cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Resected renal carcinoma related lung metastases (LM) are associated with higher survival rates, but surgery for extrapulmonary metastases affords good results too.
  • Patients operated on for extrapulmonary metastases before thoracotomy are at high risk of death.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the data of 15 patients operated for LM and extrapulmonary metastases from 1984 to 2005.
  • Metastases were resected synchronously in two patients and metachronously in 13 of them (mean time interval: 28 months).
  • The prognosis was better when the resected extrapulmonary metastases were located in the perirenal (pancreas, adrenal gland) or intrathoracic structures (lymph nodes, diaphragm) than in distant visceral organs (brain, bone, thyroid gland).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery for lung and extrapulmonary renal cell cancer-related metastases provides favourable results and is indicated when complete resection can be achieved.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Diaphragm. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy. Survival Rate. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18304831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Sugiura Y, Kaseda S, Kakizaki T, Takeuchi K, Iizuka Y, Nakamura N: [Tonsillar metastais from primary lung large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the early stage; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Nov;62(12):1101-4
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  • In April, 2008, multiple metastases to the brain appeared, and the patient unederwent gamma knife treatment.
  • In addition, metastases to the liver, lymphnode of abdomen, left adrenal and bone followed in 1 month.
  • Although we considered a chemotherapy, her general condition deteriorated rapidly with development of right tonsil metastasis and died as lasly as 3 months later.

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  • (PMID = 19894580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Yamaguchi E, Uchida M, Makino Y, Tachibana M, Sato T, Yamamoto Y, Kawashima K, Araki A, Maruyama R: Tonsillar metastasis of gastric cancer. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec;3(6):289-95
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  • [Title] Tonsillar metastasis of gastric cancer.
  • Metastasis from a malignant tumor to the palatine tonsils is rare, with only 100 cases reported in the English-language literature.
  • Tonsillar metastasis from a gastric cancer is very rare.
  • We report here a case of palatine tonsillar metastasis after gastric cancer surgery.
  • Histologically, the tumor was primarily a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Multiple lung metastases, Virchow's lymph node metastasis, and adrenal metastasis were observed.
  • It was diagnosed as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, a metastasis from gastric cancer.
  • There was a concern of asphyxiation due to hemorrhage of the tumor; however, the tumor dislodged approximately 10 days after biopsy and tonsillar recurrence was not observed.
  • In the literature there are cases with tonsillar metastases where surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were performed and extension of survival was seen.
  • Tonsillar metastasis is a form of systemic metastasis of a malignant tumor, and there is a high risk for asphyxiation from tumor dislodgement or hemorrhage.
  • Thus, it is important to recognize tonsillar metastasis as an oncologic emergency.

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  • (PMID = 21841958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Chong S, Lee KS, Kim HY, Kim YK, Kim BT, Chung MJ, Yi CA, Kwon GY: Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls. Radiographics; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):1811-24; discussion 1824-6
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  • [Title] Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls.
  • Integrated fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for adrenal gland imaging in cancer patients allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • However, false-positive findings are encountered at integrated PET-CT in approximately 5% of adrenal lesions identified as positive at PET, including adrenal adenomas, adrenal endothelial cysts, and inflammatory and infectious lesions.
  • Moreover, false-negative findings may be seen in adrenal metastatic lesions with hemorrhage or necrosis, small-sized (<10-mm) metastatic nodules, and metastases from pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or carcinoid tumors.
  • An awareness of the potential pitfalls of integrated PET-CT enhances the diagnostic efficacy of this modality by allowing differentiation of metastatic adrenal lesions from other abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2006
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6):1594
  • (PMID = 17102052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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6. Ansquer C, Scigliano S, Mirallié E, Taïeb D, Brunaud L, Sebag F, Leux C, Drui D, Dupas B, Renaudin K, Kraeber-Bodéré F: 18F-FDG PET/CT in the characterization and surgical decision concerning adrenal masses: a prospective multicentre evaluation. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Aug;37(9):1669-78
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET/CT in the characterization and surgical decision concerning adrenal masses: a prospective multicentre evaluation.
  • PURPOSE: This prospective multicentre study assesses the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in characterizing and making the therapeutic decision concerning adrenal tumours that are suspicious or indeterminate in nature after conventional examinations (CE).
  • METHODS: Seventy-eight patients (37 men, 41 women, 81 adrenal lesions) underwent FDG PET/CT after CE including CT scan, biological tests and optionally (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and/or (131)I-norcholesterol scans.
  • FDG adrenal uptake exceeding that of the liver was considered positive.
  • RESULTS: Following the gold standard (histology analysis or >or=9 months follow-up), 49 lesions potentially qualified for surgery (malignant = 27, benign secreting = 22) and 32 benign non-secreting lesions did not.
  • PET was negative in 97% of non-surgical lesions and positive in 73% of potentially surgical ones which included all the malignant lesions, except 3 renal cell metastases, and 12 of 22 benign secreting lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal FDG uptake is a good indicator of malignancy and/or of secreting lesions and should lead one to discuss surgery.
  • If there is no prior history of poorly FDG-avid cancer, the absence of FDG uptake should avoid unnecessary removal of benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20490488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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7. Escobar MA, Grosfeld JL, Powell RL, West KW, Scherer LR 3rd, Fallon RJ, Rescorla FJ: Long-term outcomes in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;41(2):377-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary tumor sites were adrenal (35), retroperitoneal (11), mediastinal (3), pelvic (2), and no primary with tumor metastases identified (1).
  • Sites of metastasis in survivors and nonsurvivors were similar.
  • Treatment in survivors included surgery in 51 (75% [39/51] complete tumor resection [CTR]); chemotherapy, 50; radiation, 17; stem cell transplantation, 20; and bone marrow transplant, 1.
  • Six patients had tumor recurrence but survived (mean, 9.3 +/- 8.3 years; range, 6 months-24 years).
  • Forty-four percent of survivors experienced late morbidity, and tumor recurred in 6 (11.5%) of 52.
  • Patients should be monitored for tumor recurrence and long-term sequelae.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16481255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Leboulleux S, Deandreis D, Al Ghuzlan A, Aupérin A, Goéré D, Dromain C, Elias D, Caillou B, Travagli JP, De Baere T, Lumbroso J, Young J, Schlumberger M, Baudin E: Adrenocortical carcinoma: is the surgical approach a risk factor of peritoneal carcinomatosis? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a rare site of distant metastases in patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • One preliminary study suggests an increased risk of PC after laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for ACC.
  • Mean tumor size was 132 mm.
  • The only risk factor of PC occurring during follow-up was the surgical approach with a 4-year rate of PC of 67% (95% confidence interval (CI), 30-90%) for LA and 27% (95% CI, 15-44%) for open adrenalectomy (P=0.016).
  • Neither tumor size, stage, functional status, completeness of surgery, nor plasma level of op'DDD was associated with the occurrence of PC.
  • CONCLUSION: We found an increased risk of PC after LA for ACC.

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  • (PMID = 20348273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Subhawong AP, Subhawong TK, Li QK: Fine needle aspiration of metastatic prostate carcinoma simulating a primary adrenal cortical neoplasm: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Feb;38(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of metastatic prostate carcinoma simulating a primary adrenal cortical neoplasm: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occur in prostate cancer patients with widespread bone and visceral disease.
  • Autopsy studies have shown that adrenal metastases may be found in up to 23% of these patients.
  • However, the finding of an isolated adrenal metastasis without the involvement of other organs in a patient with prostate cancer is exceedingly rare.
  • We report a patient with a history of prostate cancer, status post radiation, and hormonal therapy 4 years before, who presented with a new, single adrenal mass on abdominal imaging studies.
  • The ultrasound-guided FNA cytology of the adrenal mass revealed cytomorphological features that were suggestive of a primary adrenal cortical neoplasm, but overlapped with those of a prostate metastasis.
  • To our knowledge, FNA findings of metastatic prostate cancer simulating an adrenal cortical neoplasm have not been previously reported in the English literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19693937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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10. Mansouri D, Dimet S, Couanet D, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Vasiliu V, Khalifa C, Suciu V, Vielh P: Renal cell carcinoma with an Xp11.2 translocation in a 16-year-old girl: a case report with cytological features. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Nov;34(11):757-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a case of a 16-year-old girl with a left renal tumor discovered by her family practitioner.
  • Cytological analysis revealed highly cellular smears with malignant cells arranged in large clusters or rarely isolated, sometimes surrounding hyaline nodules with numerous psammoma bodies.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed this translocation by showing nuclear positivity in tumor cells for an antibody raised against the TFE3 protein.
  • The clinical outcome was marked several months later by metastases in lymph nodes, bone, lung, and adrenal gland as well as a local recurrence.

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  • [Copyright] (C) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17121199.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Scharmach M, Neumann V, Müller KM, Fischer M: [Comparison of patterns of metastasis between malignant pleural mesotheliomas and pulmonary carcinomas]. Pneumologie; 2006 May;60(5):277-83
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  • [Title] [Comparison of patterns of metastasis between malignant pleural mesotheliomas and pulmonary carcinomas].
  • Starting with the question whether there is a principal difference in the metastatic behaviour of pleural mesothelioma and pulmonary tumors, a detailed retrospective study of the findings of 210 post-mortem examinations between the years of 1992 to 1999 was conducted.
  • The spectrum of metastatic sites is very large in malignant pulmonary carcinomas (n = 148) as well as in malignant pleural mesotheliomas (n = 62).
  • There is no significant difference in the TMN-staging between both tumor groups at the time of death.
  • One exception was the brain: there were significantly more metastases from the pulmonary tumors.
  • Carcinomas metastasized more frequently into the skeleton, the kidneys and the adrenal glands, while metastases of mesotheliomas were more often found in the peritoneum.
  • As of the moment there is no significant difference in the pattern of metastasis between both tumor groups discernible.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadaver. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16703480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-8387
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Crosta F, Paganini A, D'Ambrosio G, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Perioperative results of 214 laparoscopic adrenalectomies by anterior transperitoneal approach. Surg Endosc; 2008 Feb;22(2):522-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The present study attempts to evaluate the perioperative results of the anterior approached laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in a large cohort of patients, and report the advantages and disadvantages of this route.
  • METHODS: 204 patients, 125 female and 79 male with a mean age 52.8 years (range, 19-75 years), underwent LA by the anterior transperitoneal approach from 1994 to 2005 in our institution.
  • There were 100 right and 114 left LAs.
  • Ten patients underwent bilateral LA.
  • During the same period 47 LAs had been performed by different approaches (flank and submesocolic).
  • Histology results were as follows: nonsecreting adenoma 65, Cushing's adenoma 58, Conn's adenoma 53, pheochromocytoma 24, metastases 9, myelolipoma 3, adrenogenital syndrome 1, carcinoma 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA by anterior transperitoneal approach is safe and effective in our experience, despite the inherent limitation that this was not a prospective randomized study.
  • The main advantage of this route is early ligature of the adrenal vein on both sides, enabling the performance of associated surgical procedures and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17705067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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14. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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15. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnostic imaging. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 6B3QJ94C7P / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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16. Kleinschmidt S, Puff C, Baumgärtner W: Metastasizing oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged pig. Vet Pathol; 2006 Jul;43(4):569-73
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  • At necropsy, a firm, white, poorly demarcated ulcerated mass at the left hard and soft palate with metastases to the left retropharyngeal lymph node and the lung was observed.
  • Additional findings included a uterine adenocarcinoma, a hepatocellular adenoma, and nodular hyperplasias in spleen and adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fatal Outcome. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Keratins / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sus scrofa. Swine

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  • (PMID = 16847003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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17. Jang JW, Kay CS, You CR, Kim CW, Bae SH, Choi JY, Yoon SK, Han CW, Jung HS, Choi IB: Simultaneous multitarget irradiation using helical tomotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple extrahepatic metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jun 1;74(2):412-8
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  • [Title] Simultaneous multitarget irradiation using helical tomotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple extrahepatic metastases.
  • PURPOSE: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with extrahepatic metastases is extremely poor.
  • This study evaluated the feasibility and outcome of tomotherapy for advanced HCC with metastases.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 42 consecutive HCC patients with metastases were treated with tomotherapy using the Hi-Art system.
  • RESULTS: An objective response (complete response and partial response) was achieved in 45.2% of patients with intrahepatic tumors, 68.4% of patients with pulmonary lesions, 60.0% of patients with lymph node/adrenal lesions, and 66.7% of patients with soft-tissue metastases.
  • The complete response rate for those with pulmonary and lymph node/adrenal metastases was 26.3% and 5.0%, respectively.
  • The actuarial in-field tumor control rate for < or =1 year was 79.0%.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study have shown that helical tomotherapy is safe and feasible without major toxicities for the treatment of advanced HCC and results in excellent tumor control and a potential survival benefit.
  • This approach is expected to be a useful palliative option for selected HCC patients with metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Iodized Oil / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18963538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Sporny S, Musiał J: [Markers of malignancy in pheochromocytomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):946-51
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  • A pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm composed of cells which synthesize and release catecholamines.
  • The pathological picture of pheochromocytomas is varied and nothing but the presence of metastases can determine aggressiveness of this neoplasm.
  • Current studies try to look for other biological markers which can separate malignant tumors before they metastasize.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Pheochromocytoma / classification. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Antinuclear / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Catecholamines / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Telomerase / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16821216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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19. Van Schil PE, Hendriks JM, Carp L, Lauwers PR: Surgery for oligometastatic disease in non-small-cell lung cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Dec;8(12):1931-8
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  • In general, patients with additional metastatic nodules or distant metastases of a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor prognosis.
  • However, published results suggest that in carefully selected patients with synchronous or metachronous metastatic lesions, long-term survival can be obtained when a complete resection of the primary site and metastasis - mostly single brain or adrenal - is achieved.
  • Different subgroups of patients with metastatic NSCLC exist and a distinction should be made between additional malignant nodules in the ipsilateral and contralateral lung, malignant pleural effusion and extrathoracic, single or multiple metastases.
  • Patients with additional malignant nodules in the same lobe or ipsilateral nonprimary lobe have a better prognosis than suggested by the current tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19046113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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20. Sane T: [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(17):2040-6
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  • [Title] [Mitotane in the treatment of adrenal carcinoma].
  • It reduces local recurrence of the disease and development of metastases even after a seemingly total surgical removal of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 21053521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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21. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2358-62
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  • [Title] Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In a patient with a history of cancer, an isolated adrenal mass is usually thought to be a metastasis.
  • This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of functional adrenal lesions in patients with a history of cancer and examine predictive factors for the type of lesion.
  • METHODS: At a single institution, 33 patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer underwent surgical treatment.
  • Patients' records were retrospectively analyzed for type of adrenal lesion and other diagnostic parameters.
  • Of these, 20 (61%) had adrenal metastases, 8 (24%) had pheochromocytomas, and 5 (15%) had adrenal adenomas.
  • Usual diagnostic criteria, including presenting symptoms, primary tumor, and other demographic characteristics, did not consistently predict the pathology of the lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 4 resected adrenal masses in patients with a history of cancer were pheochromocytomas.
  • Therefore, remember one thing in patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer: pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Medical Records. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden


22. Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Ahlman H, Bornstein SR, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grossman AB, Kimura N, Mannelli M, McNicol AM, Tischler AS, International Symposium on Pheochromocytoma: Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. October 2005. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Feb;3(2):92-102
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  • Localization studies should only follow reasonable clinical evidence of a tumor.
  • Consideration of tumor location, presence of multiple tumors, presence of metastases, and type of catecholamine produced is useful in deciding which genes to test.
  • Inadequate methods to distinguish malignant from benign tumors and a lack of effective treatments for malignancy are important problems requiring further resolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Humans. Metanephrine / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mutation. Normetanephrine / metabolism. Patient Care Planning. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17237836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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23. Rajaratnam A, Waugh J: Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances. Australas Radiol; 2005 Aug;49(4):325-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances.
  • Malignant melanoma is an extremely aggressive form of cancer.
  • Adrenal metastases are found in 50% of cases of malignant melanoma, and are most often clinically and biochemically silent.
  • Clinical presentation varies, and the diagnosis of adrenal metastases is often made incidentally, and frequently years after treatment of the primary lesion.
  • An adrenal mass lesion seen on a CT scan, greater than 5 cm in diameter, with central or irregular areas of necrosis/haemorrhage (and no lipomatous component) is characteristic of a metastasis from malignant melanoma, in the setting of normal gland function.
  • Oval, low-attenuation (on CT) adrenal masses less than 3 cm in diameter should not be considered benign in a patient with any prior history of melanoma.
  • Careful imaging review of the adrenal glands should be undertaken in all patients with malignant melanoma.
  • Early diagnosis of these distant metastases has important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • The four cases presented illustrate the spectrum of presentations and clinical course of adrenal metastases from malignant melanoma.
  • The accompanying CT images show the characteristic appearances of adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Okabe H, Beppu T, Ishiko T, Horino K, Masuda T, Hayashi H, Komori H, Tanaka H, Takamori H, Masahiko H, Baba H: [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):1973-5
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  • [Title] [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)].
  • The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adrenal metastases are often accompanied with the metastasis from other sites, and their prognosis is poor.
  • After 1999, we examined the prognosis and efficacy of the seven patients with drenal metastases from HCC.
  • The mean interval from the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma to the adrenal metastases was 46 months (1-95 months).
  • If there was a good control observed in the intrahepatic lesion with no metastases besides adrenal glands, we selected a surgical resection of the metastatic adrenal glands.
  • The mean overall survival time after the surgical treatment of the adrenal metastases was 23 months (7-54 months), and we considered it as a good prognosis.
  • The mean progression free survival of the adrenal metastases was 15 months (5-30 months).
  • Besides on such a good clinical outcome, we conclude that aggressive multimodal therapy including surgical resection of metastatic foci may be recommended if the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have no other metastatic sites other than the adrenal gland and liver lesions are well-controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18219869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Antonarakis ES, Eisenberger MA: Is abiraterone acetate well tolerated and effective in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2009 Jan;6(1):12-3
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  • Abiraterone is a potent suppressor of adrenal androgen synthesis, and produced lasting prostate-specific antigen responses in approximately half of the patients.
  • A few patients had partial regression of distant metastases.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 10;23(32):8242-6 [16278479.001]
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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Oct 1;26(28):4563-71 [18645193.001]
  • (PMID = 18957947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstenes; 0 / Androstenols; G819A456D0 / abiraterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS571697; NLM/ PMC4014058
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26. Li HZ, Yan WG, Zeng ZP, Huang YG: [Retroperitoneal laparoscopic resection for pheochromocytoma (experience of 107 cases)]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 15;46(24):1875-8
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  • One hundred and two cases were intra-adrenal and 5 extra-adrenal.
  • Of the 102 intra-adrenal tumors, 43 tumors were located in left adrenal, 51 in right adrenal and 8 in both sides.
  • All of the 5 extra-adrenal tumors were at para-abdominal aorta.
  • At mature stage from January 2007 to June 2008, 31 cases, including 5 extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas, underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • And there was no distant metastases and death case.
  • The dimension, recurrence and location of tumor are not the absolute contraindication of retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery for pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19134374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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27. Yeh KH, Yeh SH, Wan JP, Shen YC, Cheng AL: Somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor underlying complete responsiveness to gefitinib in a Taiwanese female patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma of lung. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Aug;16(7):739-42
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  • [Title] Somatic mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor underlying complete responsiveness to gefitinib in a Taiwanese female patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma of lung.
  • A 61-year-old never-smoker female suffered from adenocarcinoma of the lung with chest wall invasion and peri-adrenal lymph node metastases.
  • After palliative resection of all clinically detectable primary and metastatic adenocarcinoma, she received cisplatin and gemcitabine combination chemotherapy for a total of 3 cycles.
  • New metastatic lesions were found in spleen and para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • Her tumor tissue was subjected to mutation analysis for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and had been shown to have a T-->G missense mutation in nucleotide 2819 of EGFR full-length cDNA (accession no.
  • She had a very good tumor response with more than 90% tumor reduction shown by abdominal computed tomographic scan, normalization of previously elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level, and complete resolution of previous uptake signals in spleen and para-aortic lymph nodes shown by positron emission tomographic scan.
  • Our patient supports the proposition that somatic mutation L858R in exon 21 of the EGFR gene accounts for complete responsiveness to gefitinib in a Taiwanese female patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma of lung.

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  • (PMID = 16027522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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28. Van Laarhoven HW, Vinken M, Mus R, Flucke U, Oyen WJ, Van der Graaf WT: The diagnostic hurdle of an elderly male with bone pain: how 18F-FDG-PET led to diagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):469-72
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  • [Title] The diagnostic hurdle of an elderly male with bone pain: how 18F-FDG-PET led to diagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • It is uncommon for patients to present with bone metastases while the primary tumor is still unknown.
  • The case of a patient with bone metastases as primary presentation of leiomyosarcoma, who was diagnosed after a 18F-FDG PET-CT and a CT-guided biopsy of the adrenal gland is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Leiomyosarcoma / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19331188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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29. Korpershoek E, Loonen AJ, Corvers S, van Nederveen FH, Jonkers J, Ma X, Ziel-van der Made A, Korsten H, Trapman J, Dinjens WN, de Krijger RR: Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma. J Pathol; 2009 Mar;217(4):597-604
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  • [Title] Conditional Pten knock-out mice: a model for metastatic phaeochromocytoma.
  • Phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) are neuro-endocrine tumours of the adrenal medulla that are usually benign, but approximately 10% of patients develop metastases.
  • Malignant PCCs can only be diagnosed with certainty if metastases are present.
  • Here we describe adrenal tumours generated in a Pten conditional knock-out (KO) mouse model.
  • Thirty-two of 41 (78%) male Psa-Cre;Pten-loxP/loxP mice presented adrenal tumours that were shown to be PCC by histology and by immunohistochemical staining for enzymes in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway.
  • In 6 of 17 investigated mice, histological and immunohistochemical evidence was obtained for the presence of PCC lung metastases.
  • The mouse model should allow further studies into the pathogenesis of human malignant PCCs and into therapeutic strategies for these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / secondary


30. Wilson RL, Brown RK, Reisman D: Surgical resection for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer to the pancreas. Lung Cancer; 2009 Mar;63(3):433-5
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  • [Title] Surgical resection for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer to the pancreas.
  • We report the case of a woman with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastatic to the pancreas who underwent pancreatic resection followed by a significant disease-free interval.
  • Resection of NSCLC metastases, other than those to the brain and adrenal gland, are rarely reported.
  • We could not identify any other cases of pancreatic metastasis resection in the literature.
  • This case proves, in principle, that resection of solitary metastatic lesions in certain clinical conditions can be improved regardless of location.


31. Charfi S, Ayadi L, Ellouze S, Ghorbel R, Khabir A, Gouiaa N, Bahri I, Fakhfakh I, Makni S, Sellami-Boudawra T: [Composite pheochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Jun;28(3):225-8
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  • Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla are rare and have been reported in both the presence and the absence of phacomatosis.
  • Composite pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B has not been reported so far.
  • Clinical investigations revealed a left adrenal medullary tumor and bilateral thyroid nodules.
  • Histologic examination confirmed the presence of typical pheochromocytoma with large areas of ganglioneuroma and multifocal medullary carcinoma with cervical lymph nodes metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


32. Kuwada M, Hosokawa Y, Takada S, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Adrenocortical carcinoma with intratumoral hemorrhage detected from chest and back pain: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):599-602
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  • Computed tomography (CT) showed left retroperitoneal tumor, which was 6 cm in diameter with intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • En bloc resection of the tumor and the left kidney was performed.
  • Bone and liver metastases were recognized 2 months after operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Back Pain / etiology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Chest Pain / etiology. Hemorrhage / etiology


33. van't Sant HP, Bouvy ND, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Hop WC, Feelders RA, de Herder WW, de Krijger RR: The prognostic value of two different histopathological scoring systems for adrenocortical carcinomas. Histopathology; 2007 Aug;51(2):239-45
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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-nine adrenal cortical tumours were divided into adenomas (n = 17), non-metastatic carcinomas (n = 24) and carcinomas with metastatic disease and/or local recurrence during follow-up (n = 19) or at time of presentation (n = 19).
  • Non-metastasized carcinomas had a lower score with both indices compared with carcinomas with metastases at the time of presentation (VSI, P = 0.017; WRI, P = 0.019).
  • Time from diagnosis of ACC to development of metastatic disease was correlated with the WRI (P = 0.036, r = -0.350).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17593212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Garraud M, Margery J, Laborde F, Saint-Blancard P, David S, Bonardel G, Héno P: [Pulmonary vein leiomyosarcoma extending into the left atrium]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2010 Oct;66(5):321-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Léiomyosarcome de la veine pulmonaire avec extension dans l'oreillette gauche.
  • Further recurrences were observed with metastases first in the scalp and then in the spine and adrenal glands leading to the death of the patient 2 years after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Echocardiography, Transesophageal. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Military Personnel. Mitral Valve / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Pulmonary Edema / diagnosis. Respiratory Insufficiency / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21087728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8417
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de pneumologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Pneumol Clin
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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35. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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36. Eleraky M, Papanastassiou I, Vrionis FD: Management of metastatic spine disease. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; 2010 Sep;4(3):182-8
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  • [Title] Management of metastatic spine disease.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In metastatic spine disease, technologic advancements, neurologic recovery, pain relief, cost-effectiveness, and health-related quality of life have all strengthened surgery's and radiation's role in its management.We evaluated different surgical approaches to the spine and the multimodality treatment in the management of these cases.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, the survival rate of malignant spinal metastases has rapidly improved because of early detection and multimodality treatment.
  • Newer surgical techniques that address both tumor resection and spinal stabilization offer the best outcome in selected patients.
  • The prognostic parameters suggested for metastatic spine tumors include the general condition of the patient, neurological status number of spinal and extraspinal metastases, primary site of the cancer, visceral metastasis, and severity of spinal cord compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Pain / drug therapy. Quality of Life / psychology. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Decompression, Surgical / instrumentation. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Radiosurgery / methods. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. United States

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  • (PMID = 20671554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in supportive and palliative care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Support Palliat Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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37. Brady MJ, Thomas J, Wong TZ, Franklin KM, Ho LM, Paulson EK: Adrenal nodules at FDG PET/CT in patients known to have or suspected of having lung cancer: a proposal for an efficient diagnostic algorithm. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):523-30
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  • [Title] Adrenal nodules at FDG PET/CT in patients known to have or suspected of having lung cancer: a proposal for an efficient diagnostic algorithm.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review with waiver of informed consent of data in 1388 consecutive patients who underwent PET/CT for known or suspected lung cancer was completed, and 187 adrenal nodules were identified in 147 patients.
  • Nodules were defined histologically or by size change (malignant, n = 37) or stability for more than 1 year (benign, n = 58).
  • Applying a further cutoff of SUV ratio > 2.5 enabled identification of 22 of 37 metastatic lesions and exclusion of all fluorodeoxyglucose-avid benign nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Definitive identification of many metastases can be accomplished by applying an SUV ratio cutoff of greater than 2.5, allowing pragmatic management of adrenal nodules that initially test positive with the combined PET/CT criteria SUV(max) > 3.1 and mean attenuation > 10 HU.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods


38. Simon CJ, Dupuy DE, Mayo-Smith WW: Microwave ablation: principles and applications. Radiographics; 2005 Oct;25 Suppl 1:S69-83
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  • Microwave ablation is the most recent development in the field of tumor ablation.
  • With imaging guidance, the tumor is localized, and a thin (14.5-gauge) microwave antenna is placed directly into the tumor.
  • The main advantages of microwave technology, when compared with existing thermoablative technologies, include consistently higher intratumoral temperatures, larger tumor ablation volumes, faster ablation times, and an improved convection profile.
  • Microwave ablation has promising potential in the treatment of primary and secondary liver disease, primary and secondary lung malignancies, renal and adrenal tumors, and bone metastases.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 16227498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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39. Segawa M, Kusajima Y, Saito K: [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung rapidly developed multiple metastases after surgery]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 May;59(5):387-91
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung rapidly developed multiple metastases after surgery].
  • A 73-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of the pulmonary tumor.
  • Lung biopsy revealed that the tumor was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • No distant metastasis were observed by systemic examination.
  • A right middle lobectomy with partial resection of the right upper lobe and lymph node dissection were performed, because the tumor (5.3 x 4.0 x 4.0 cm) was located in peripheral S' and invaded S3 via the interlobular space.
  • Histological findings showed adenocarcinoma comprised of spindle cell components that reacted positively to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and no lymph node metastasis.
  • But metastatic lesions newly appeared in the thoracic skin, the liver, the diaphragm, the bilateral adrenal glands, and the retroperitoneal space on the 30th postoperative day.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Aged. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Postoperative Period. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16715890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Castellano MC, Massone AR, Idiart JR: Primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma metastatic to the uvea, brain and adrenal gland in a dog. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med; 2006 May;53(4):194-7
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  • [Title] Primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma metastatic to the uvea, brain and adrenal gland in a dog.
  • Thoracic radiographs revealed multiple pulmonary metastases and the owner opted for killing.
  • On necropsy, lung masses and nodules in left iris, right adrenal medulla, and brain were detected.
  • Metastases to regional lymph nodes, uvea, adrenal medulla, and brain were recognized.
  • The metastatic behaviour resembled that occurring in humans.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a pulmonary adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the uvea in a dog.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16629953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-184X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Havekes B, Corssmit EP, Jansen JC, van der Mey AG, Vriends AH, Romijn JA: Malignant paragangliomas associated with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase D gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Apr;92(4):1245-8
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  • [Title] Malignant paragangliomas associated with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase D gene.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant paragangliomas have been well described in carriers of mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) gene, but have rarely been associated with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase D (SDHD) gene.
  • AIM: The aim of the study was to report the different clinical expression patterns of malignant paragangliomas in five patients with SDHD (D92Y) mutations observed in approximately 200 SDHD (D92Y) mutation carriers followed in our institution.
  • RESULTS: Metastasis and/or local tumor invasion was documented 0 (n=2), 1, 18, and 30 yr after the initial diagnosis of paraganglioma.
  • Malignancy was proven by paraganglioma bone metastases (n=2), intrathoracic paraganglioma with lymph node metastases, locally invasive head-and-neck paraganglioma with destruction of the petrosal bone, and locally invasive paraganglioma of the bladder with lymph node metastases.
  • Four of the five patients developed catecholamine excess during follow-up due to intraadrenal paraganglioma (pheochromocytoma) (n=1), extra adrenal paraganglioma (n=2), and presumed subclinical disease (n=1).
  • CONCLUSION: SDHD mutations (D92Y) are associated with malignant paragangliomas and catecholamine excess with remarkable interindividual variations despite the same mutation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Substitution. Carotid Body Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skull Neoplasms / genetics. Temporomandibular Joint

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  • (PMID = 17227803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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42. Balestra MR, Napolitano L, Legnini M, Innocenti P: [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal gland metastasis: case report]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S130-1
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal gland metastasis: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] La chirurgia laparoscopica delle metastasi surrenaliche: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognised as the gold standard for the surgical treatment of adrenal lesion.
  • Also the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for metastasis is controversial.
  • This study, in according with literature dates, aimed to confirm that patients are most likely to have prolonged survival after resection of adrenal metastases and confirms that oncological outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy are similar with open adrenalectomy.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The study included patients who underwent LA from 2000 to 2005.
  • Indications for LA were adrenal masses with no radiological evidence of involvement of the surrounding structure, or solitary metastases with well-controlled primary cancer.
  • The variable evaluated were port-site and intra-addominal recurrence, distant metastasis and survival time.
  • Patients age was mean 69 (range, 62-77), the lesions were at right adrenal gland.
  • Mean diameter of the tumor was 4.5 cm (range, 4.2-4.8 cm).
  • Tumor free margins were obtained.
  • At follow-up mean of ten months (eight-twelve months) there was any sight of distant metastases and the patient was alive.
  • CONCLUSION: LA seems to be a feasible option if the principles of oncological surgery are respected.
  • Adrenalectomy for metastasis, with intent to prolong survival, should be offered to patient with favourable tumor biology, such as those with significant DFI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16437949.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Schindera ST, Soher BJ, Delong DM, Dale BM, Merkle EM: Effect of echo time pair selection on quantitative analysis for adrenal tumor characterization with in-phase and opposed-phase MR imaging: initial experience. Radiology; 2008 Jul;248(1):140-7
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  • [Title] Effect of echo time pair selection on quantitative analysis for adrenal tumor characterization with in-phase and opposed-phase MR imaging: initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the effect of two pairs of echo times (TEs) for in-phase (IP) and opposed-phase (OP) 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on (a) quantitative analysis prospectively in a phantom study and (b) diagnostic accuracy retrospectively in a clinical study of adrenal tumors, with use of various reference standards in the clinical study.
  • Single-breath-hold IP and OP 3.0-T MR images in 21 patients (14 women, seven men; mean age, 63 years) with 23 adrenal tumors (16 adenomas, six metastases, one adrenocortical carcinoma) were reviewed.
  • However, with scheme B, no overlap in the adrenal gland SI-to-liver SI ratio between adenomas and nonadenomas was seen (P < .05).
  • With scheme B, no overlap in adrenal gland SI index-to-liver SI index ratio between adenomas and nonadenomas was seen (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSION: This initial experience indicates SI index is the most reliable parameter for characterization of adrenal tumors with 3.0-T MR imaging when obtaining OP echo before IP echo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18566172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • [Title] The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Malignant phaeochromocytomas are rare tumours accounting for ~10% of all phaeochromocytomas; the prevalence of malignancy among paragangliomas is higher, especially those associated with succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene mutations.
  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Clinical, biochemical and histological features cannot reliably distinguish malignant from benign tumours.
  • Functional imaging using radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and more recently, (18)F-fluorodopamine and (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography offer substantial sensitivity and specificity to correctly detect metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma and helps identify patients suitable for treatment with radiopharmaceuticals.
  • The 5-year mortality rate of patients with malignant phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas greater than 50% indicates that there is considerable room for the improvement of currently available therapies.
  • Chemotherapy has been used for metastatic disease with only a partial and mainly palliative effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromaffin Cells / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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45. Huang KH, Chung SD, Chen SC, Chueh SC, Pu YS, Lai MK, Lin WC: Clinical and pathological data of 10 malignant pheochromocytomas: long-term follow up in a single institute. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):181-5
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathological data of 10 malignant pheochromocytomas: long-term follow up in a single institute.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant pheochromocytomas are rare.
  • We report the clinical and histological data of long-term follow up in 10 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical charts of 10 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma from a single institute were reviewed.
  • All patients had metastases in sites where chromaffin tissue was normally absent.
  • Extra-adrenal tumors occurred in four patients including paraganglioma tumors in three cases and bladder tumor in one case.
  • Regional lymph node metastases were noted in six patients.
  • Distant metastases were located in the lungs of two patients, in the bones of two patients and in the liver of one patient.
  • Metastases were present in postoperative pathology in seven patients.
  • In another three patients, metastases were discovered 6 months to 10 years after surgery.
  • All patients achieved long-term survival except for two who died of metastasis 1.5 years and 2 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17430251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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46. Viterbo R, Greenberg RE, Al-Saleem T, Uzzo RG: Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):446-50
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  • [Title] Prior abdominal surgery and radiation do not complicate the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney or adrenal gland.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery is an accepted standard of care.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated clinical and functional parameters in 78 consecutive patients undergoing retroperitoneoscopic renal or adrenal surgery performed by a single surgeon in a 36-month period, including radical nephrectomy with or without ureterectomy in 50, nerve sparing surgery in 8, ablation in 16 and adrenalectomy in 4.
  • Pathological findings showed malignancy in 57 cases (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, carcinoid disease and metastases) and benign disease in 21 (oncocytoma, adenoma, pyelonephritis and complex cysts).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The retroperitoneoscopic approach to the kidney and adrenal glands can be used in patients with extensive prior open abdominal surgery and/or radiation without significant increases in morbidity or convalescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Nephrectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16006862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Bertagna F, Biasiotto G, Rodella C, Werner T, Giubbini R, Alavi A: Massive bilateral adrenal gland metastases from melanoma diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET/CT. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Nov;27(9):392-3
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  • [Title] Massive bilateral adrenal gland metastases from melanoma diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET/CT.
  • We report a case of a 75-year-old man with a history of a malignant melanoma with massive bilateral adrenal gland metastases diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET/CT after 10 years of negative follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • [Cites] Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006 Jul;33(7):854-5 [16699770.001]
  • [Cites] Cutis. 1999 May;63(5):275-8, 281-4 [10349543.001]
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  • (PMID = 19943154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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48. Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Polat B, Koschker AC, Kenn W, Flentje M, Allolio B: Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4501-4
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  • [Title] Efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy of the tumor bed on local recurrence of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Local tumor recurrence is common in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and is the most frequent cause for reoperation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was investigation of adjuvant tumor bed irradiation in the treatment of ACC.
  • PATIENTS: The German ACC Registry (n = 285) was screened for patients who had received tumor bed radiotherapy in an adjuvant setting (no macroscopic evidence for residual disease after surgery).
  • Fourteen patients without distant metastases (World Health Organization stage I, one patient; stage II, seven; stage III, three; and stage IV, three) were matched with 14 patients for resection status, adjuvant mitotane treatment, stage, and tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: These data from the largest series of ACC patients treated with adjuvant tumor bed irradiation suggest that radiotherapy is effective in reducing the high rate of local recurrence in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4250-2 [17088440.001]
  • (PMID = 16895957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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49. Pascual Piédrola JI, Rincón Mayans A, Tolosa Eizaguirre E, Barba Abad J, Romero Vargas L, Rosell Costa D: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metachronous metastasis. Experience in 12 cases]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 Feb;34(2):201-5
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metachronous metastasis. Experience in 12 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica por metástasis metácrona. Experiencia en 12 casos.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the peroperative and oncological results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for an isolated metastasis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted of 12 laparoscopic adrenalectomies performed for metastases out of a total of 40 adrenalectomies performed from May 1998 to April 2009.
  • The primary tumor was pulmonary in 7 patients, renal in 3, and colonic in 2.
  • Demographic data collected included median age, operating time, blood loss, complications, tumor size, and length of hospital stay.
  • Tumor size was 4.5 cm (range, 1.3-8.5).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastasis is a safe procedure with oncological results superimposable to those of open surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma / secondary. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Length of Stay. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20403287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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50. Perrier ND, Kennamer DL, Bao R, Jimenez C, Grubbs EG, Lee JE, Evans DB: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases. Ann Surg; 2008 Oct;248(4):666-74
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  • [Title] Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: preferred technique for removal of benign tumors and isolated metastases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) is a minimally invasive approach to removal of the adrenal gland.
  • This anatomically direct approach, popularized by Walz, minimizes dissection and affords early access to the adrenal vein.
  • Indications for adrenalectomy were functional tumors in 43 patients (20 pheochromocytomas, 13 Cushing disease or syndrome, and 10 others), nonfunctional cortical adenomas in 4, and isolated adrenal metastases in 15.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm.
  • PRA may be the preferred technique for removing benign adrenal tumors and isolated metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


51. Tsalis K, Zacharakis E, Sapidis N, Lambrou I, Zacharakis E, Betsis D: Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jul 25;3:50
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be found in the lung and adrenal gland.
  • We report case of a patient who presented with adrenal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of HCC.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A patient was referred for surgical treatment for a tumor in retro-peritoneal space.
  • The computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a mass originating from the left adrenal gland.
  • Histologically, the resected lesion was a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor from HCC.
  • Fine needle aspiration/tru-cut biopsy might be useful in the investigation of an accidentally discovered adrenal mass regardless of the size and can lead to the detection of a primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16042808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1187929
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52. Mian C, Barollo S, Zambonin L, Pennelli G, Bernante P, Pelizzo MR, Nacamulli D, Mantero F, Girelli ME, Opocher G: Characterization of the largest kindred with MEN2A due to a Cys609Ser RET mutation. Fam Cancer; 2009;8(4):379-82
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  • In a kindred with 15 carriers of the Cys609Ser RET mutation we observed no MTC before 17 years of age, no lymph node metastases before 30 years and no distant metastases before 60 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19475497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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53. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Bellantone R: Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;94(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of laparoscopic approach for the treatment of malignant adrenal diseases is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to verify the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the management of adrenal malignancies.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all the patients who underwent laparoscopic procedures for adrenal diseases and in whom malignancy was demonstrated at final histology were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients were included (three malignant pheochromocytomas, four adrenocortical carcinomas, and two adrenal metastases).
  • One patient died for metastatic disease and the other one for unrelated causes.
  • One patient operated on for a malignant pheochromocytoma developed multiple intra-abdominal recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that LA can have a role also in case of adrenal malignancies.
  • A preliminary laparoscopic exploration can be planned in case of suspected malignant lesions to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate their operability.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Registries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16847903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Drucker AM, Houlden RL: A case of familial paraganglioma syndrome type 4 caused by a mutation in the SDHB gene. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;2(12):702-6; quiz following 706
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  • He had undergone resection of a paraganglioma superior to the right adrenal gland at 19 years of age, resection of two para-aortic paragangliomas at 39 years of age, and resection of a paraganglioma in the interatrial septum at 40 years.
  • The patient's mother had died at age 39 years of metastases from a carotid body tumor.
  • The patient is at high risk for malignant disease and should undergo an annual monitoring program that consists of physical examination and measurement of his blood pressure and levels of urinary catecholamines and metanephrines.
  • [MeSH-major] Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17143317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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55. Cho MM, Kobayashi K, Aoki T, Nishioka K, Yoshida K, Hatano N, Hirose H, Moon JH, Matsumoto T, Uemura Y, Kaneko T, Okagawa K: Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(1):79-81
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  • [Title] Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy.
  • The prognosis of esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy is poor due to a high frequency of metastasis to periesophageal lymph nodes and distant organs.
  • However, we experienced a case with good prognosis following resection of a solitary adrenal metastatic tumor.
  • Eight months following surgery, solitary adrenal metastasis was detected by CT, and was resected.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only five cases with resected solitary adrenal metastases including our case, have been reported, and show a greater than 1-year survival.
  • Consequently, we suggest that resection of solitary organ metastases is a good alternative, even following esophagectomy.

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  • (PMID = 17227316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Bergamini C, Prosperi P, Bruscino A, Leahu A, Bargellini T, Poma A, Valeri A: [Update on the laparoscopic adrenal surgery in the second decade of the century: "doubts no more?]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):328-31
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  • [Title] [Update on the laparoscopic adrenal surgery in the second decade of the century: "doubts no more?].
  • Laparoscopic adrenal surgery has significantly improved during the last years.
  • Thus at the moment it is possible to define such technique as the therapeutic "Gold Standard" option in the treatment of the adrenal tumors.
  • However, some doubts are still remaining concerning the feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in case of malignant adrenal tumors, hyper-vascular tumors (pheochromocytoma) and indeterminate incidentaloma.
  • Doubts still remain concerning the role of laparoscopy in the treatment of metastases, big pheochromocytomas, small size incidentalomas (risk of over-treatement).
  • Nearly no respond has been given to others issues such as "the single port techniques" in laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the role of radiofrequency laparoscopic ablation of the adrenal tumor, the kind of treatment of stadium I and II adrenocortical carcinoma and big size (> 8 cm) tumors, the management of non-functioning incidentaloma of 4-6 cm, the role of the robot, and, finally, the approach of the bilateral tumors.
  • We conclude that, despite many issues on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopy in the adrenal surgery have been definitely clarified, so that such technique has been declared the "Gold Standard" method in the treatment of the adrenal tumor, doubts still remain in some aspects of this method.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20646385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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57. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • They are a very heterogenous group of diseases and include benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions, metastases, pheochromocytomas and other entities.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
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58. Taillibert S, Delattre JY: Palliative care in patients with brain metastases. Curr Opin Oncol; 2005 Nov;17(6):588-92
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  • [Title] Palliative care in patients with brain metastases.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With improvements in systemic therapy, central nervous system metastases have increased in incidence in patients with cancer.
  • Patients with brain metastases from solid tumors often have a dismal prognosis, and supportive measures are often critical in improving patient outcome.
  • This article reviews all the supportive care measures in patients with brain metastases, with the exception of tumor-specific chemotherapy treatments that are also used in this patient population.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, improvement has been made in the management of the following complications of brain metastases: epilepsy and antiepileptic drug side effects, thromboembolic complications, fatigue and cognitive disorder of mixed (tumoral and/or iatrogenic) origin, pain, hematological side effects of chemotherapy, and steroids complications.
  • SUMMARY: Patients with brain metastases are particularly prone to develop severe side effects, increased fatigue, and cognitive deteriorations following apparently minor changes in symptomatic treatments.
  • Palliative management of brain metastasis requires a multidisciplinary approach, and it is important to avoid any treatment that is useless or harmful or has a poor toxicity/efficacy ratio.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Anticoagulants / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Brain Edema / prevention & control. Epilepsy / prevention & control. Humans. Pain Management. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Venous Thrombosis / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16224238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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59. Barrier A, Lescaille G, Rigolet A, Descroix V, Goudot P, Ruhin B: [Jaw osteonecrosis induced by oral biphosphonates: 12 cases]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2010 Sep;111(4):196-202
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  • The indication for BP was prevention or treatment of osteoporosis in 11 cases and breast with bone metastases in one case.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alendronate / adverse effects. Autoimmune Diseases / complications. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Chronic Disease. Delayed Diagnosis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etidronic Acid / adverse effects. Etidronic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mandibular Diseases / chemically induced. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / drug therapy. Osteoporosis / prevention & control. Risedronate Sodium. Time Factors. Tooth Extraction. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20810140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; M2F465ROXU / Etidronic Acid; OFG5EXG60L / Risedronate Sodium; X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
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60. Argyriou P, Zisis C, Alevizopoulos N, Kefaloyannis EM, Gennatas C, Petraki CD: Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:134
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma with recurrent metastases: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortex oncocytic carcinoma (AOC) represents an exceptional pathological entity, since only 22 cases have been documented in the literature so far.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Our case concerns a 54-year-old man with past medical history of right adrenal excision with partial hepatectomy, due to an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical study revealed a metastatic AOC.
  • Although the patient was given mitotane orally in adjuvant basis, he experienced relapse with multiple metastases in the thorax twice in the next year and was treated with consecutive resections.
  • Two and a half years later, a right hip joint metastasis was found and concurrent chemoradiation was given.
  • Finally, approximately five years post disease onset, the patient died due to massive metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19091123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630932
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61. Rajarubendra N, Bolton D, Lawrentschuk N: Diagnosis of bone metastases in urological malignancies--an update. Urology; 2010 Oct;76(4):782-90
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of bone metastases in urological malignancies--an update.
  • Early detection of metastatic bony lesions assists with tailoring patient management and potentially improving quality of life.
  • Furthermore, the ideal time to investigate for bony metastases has often been controversial.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers. Biomarkers, Tumor. Bone Resorption. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Osteolysis. Physical Examination. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20346492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.1 / ALPL protein, human; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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62. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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63. Copland JA, Marlow LA, Williams SF, Grebe SK, Gumz ML, Maples WJ, Silverman VE, Smallridge RC: Molecular diagnosis of a BRAF papillary thyroid carcinoma with multiple chromosome abnormalities and rare adrenal and hypothalamic metastases. Thyroid; 2006 Dec;16(12):1293-302
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  • [Title] Molecular diagnosis of a BRAF papillary thyroid carcinoma with multiple chromosome abnormalities and rare adrenal and hypothalamic metastases.
  • MAIN OUTCOMES: A 57-year-old man with papillary thyroid carcinoma presented with adrenal and several other presumed metastases, pulmonary nodules, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.
  • The cells expressed thyroid-specific markers [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS)] and markers [thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), cytokeratin-7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R)] present in the primary tumor and adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unusual metastases may be associated with multiple molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities.
  • Thus, molecular and cell-biological studies can allow otherwise difficult thyroid tumor diagnosis and may be used for targeted, individualized selection of potential treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Chromosome Aberrations. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / secondary. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured


64. Gambino G, Mannone T, Rizzo A, Scio A, Branca M, Airò Farulla M, Guccione M, Spallitta IS, Nicoli N: Adrenal epithelioid angiosarcoma: a case report. Chir Ital; 2008 May-Jun;60(3):463-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal epithelioid angiosarcoma: a case report.
  • We report what to the best of our knowledge is the first case of primary angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Computed tomography revealed a suspected rupture of a liver neoplasm and surgical treatment was performed.
  • At laparotomy there was no evidence of liver tumour but a large mass was found in the right adrenal gland.
  • This cellular proliferation, together with the widespread necrosis, distorted the normal appearance of the adrenal gland.
  • Six months and 1 year later thoracic- abdominal computed tomography and positron emission tomography were performed, and no signs of local recurrence or metastases were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Hemangiosarcoma

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  • (PMID = 18709789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Lin YT, Wu BS, Yang SF, Chen HC: Isolated pancreatic metastasis of a malignant pleural mesothelioma. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2009 Jul;25(7):395-400
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  • [Title] Isolated pancreatic metastasis of a malignant pleural mesothelioma.
  • Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis.
  • When metastases are present, the major sites always include regional lymph nodes, the contralateral lung, liver, adrenal glands and kidneys.
  • Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated pancreatic metastasis of mesothelioma of the pleura in a 40-year-old man who initially presented with epigastric discomfort and hunger pain, which were refractory to medical treatments.
  • The possibility of pancreatic metastatic lesion should be considered in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in the presence of refractory epigastric tenderness.

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  • (PMID = 19605332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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66. Kumar M, Gupta P, Chaubey A: The thyroid: an extremely rare primary site of neuroblastoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1357-60
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  • It is located at any site containing sympathetic neural tissue, with retroperitoneal and adrenal lesions being the most common.
  • Cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases of NB in children are infrequent.
  • Primary thyroid NB with regional lymph node and distant multiple subcutaneous metastases was diagnosed in an 11-year-old boy.
  • The differential diagnosis was primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Vanilmandelic Acid / urine

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  • (PMID = 16949905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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67. Kakkos SK, Reddy DJ, Shepard AD, Lin JC, Nypaver TJ, Weaver MR: Contemporary presentation and evolution of management of neck paragangliomas. J Vasc Surg; 2009 Jun;49(6):1365-73.e2
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  • Three tumors were malignant, based on lymph node involvement (n = 1) or development of late metastases (n = 2).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / surgery. Thoracic Surgical Procedures. Vascular Surgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical / prevention & control. Blood Transfusion. Carotid Body Tumor / surgery. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / surgery. Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / surgery. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Palpation. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vagus Nerve Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19497493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6809
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Sorge I, Bierbach U, Finke R, Hirsch W: Multiple malignant and benign lesions in the liver in a child with adrenocortical carcinoma. Pediatr Radiol; 2008 May;38(5):588-91
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  • [Title] Multiple malignant and benign lesions in the liver in a child with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • At the time of diagnosis there were no metastases, but 6 months later multiple liver metastases appeared.
  • Following intensive chemotherapy the metastases resolved completely.
  • Their morphology on US and MRI differed from the previous metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18256815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
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69. Aokage K, Yoshida J, Nishimura M, Nishiwaki Y, Nagai K: Annual abdominal ultrasonographic examination after curative NSCLC resection. Lung Cancer; 2007 Sep;57(3):334-8
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  • Further work-up diagnosed NSCLC recurrence in 2 (0.8%) patients (multiple liver metastases in one and right adrenal metastasis in one).

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  • (PMID = 17499386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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70. Eschmann SM, Pfannenberg AC, Rieger A, Aschoff P, Müller M, Paulsen F, Anastasiadis A, Claussen CD, Bares R, Schlemmer HP: Comparison of 11C-choline-PET/CT and whole body-MRI for staging of prostate cancer. Nuklearmedizin; 2007;46(5):161-8; quiz N47-8
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  • RESULTS: 88/103 detected lesions were considered as malignant: 44 bone metastases, 22 local tumor, 15 lymph node metastases, 3 lung, and 3 brain metastases.
  • One further lesion was located in the adrenal gland, which was a second tumor.
  • 3 vertebral metastases had initially been missed by Cho-PET/CT and were found retrospectively.
  • MRI identified 2 bone metastases and 1 lymph node metastasis after being informed about the results of Cho-PET/CT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cho-PET/CT and WB-MRI both presented high accuracy in the detection of bone and lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiography. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carbon Radioisotopes. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


71. Ang TL, Tee AK, Fock KM, Teo EK, Chua TS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in the evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Respir Med; 2007 Jun;101(6):1299-304
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  • Distant metastases were diagnosed by EUS-FNA in 4 cases of NSCLC (2 cases of left adrenal gland and 2 cases of pancreatic metastases).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Bronchoscopy / methods. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17116391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6111
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Park SK, Kim YS, Kim SG, Jang JY, Moon JH, Lee MS, Kim BS, Koh ES, Park JM: Detection of distant metastasis to skeletal muscle by 18F-FDG-PET in a case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Korean J Hepatol; 2010 Sep;16(3):325-8
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  • [Title] Detection of distant metastasis to skeletal muscle by 18F-FDG-PET in a case of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma can metastasize in lymphatic chains, including the hepatoduodenal ligament, and it often invades adjacent organs or metastasizes to other visceral organs such as the lungs, bones, adrenal glands, and brain.
  • However, distant skeletal muscle metastasis is very rare.
  • Moreover, a metastatic skeletal muscle tumor rarely shows specific symptoms, making it difficult to identify in a routine examination.
  • Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography with contrast enhancement showed a malignant mass in the right hepatic lobe, and 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography revealed distant skeletal muscle metastases in the thorax and buttock.
  • The patient underwent an ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy for the metastatic low-echo masses in the skeletal muscle.

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  • (PMID = 20924217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3304591
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73. Kim H, Park BK, Kim CK: Spontaneous regression of pulmonary and adrenal metastases following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a recurrent renal cell carcinoma. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Sep-Oct;9(5):470-2
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of pulmonary and adrenal metastases following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • The spontaneous regression of metastatic lesions from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare, but may be encountered following cytoreductive treatments.
  • We report a case of a recurrent RCC with multiple metastatic lesions which spontaneously regressed after undergoing radiofrequency ablation of the renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Remission, Spontaneous. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


74. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Iacobone M, Toniato A, Sattarova S, Erlic Z, Martella M, Mian C, Merante Boschin I, Zambonin L, De Lazzari P, Murgia A, Pelizzo MR, Favia G, Mantero F: Familial nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:149-55
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  • His brother died of malignant pheochromocytoma and his nephew died suddenly of an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma.
  • The proband of family 2 is a female who had a 5-cm benign adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 34 years, while her cousin (maternal branch) had a monolateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 42 years.
  • In family 4, the proband was a female who had a bilateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 46 years and a local recurrence a few years later, with liver metastases from the pheochromocytoma.
  • In family 5, the proband was a female who had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 50 years and a breast cancer at 49 years of age.
  • Her mother had had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at 61 years of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17102081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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75. Venkatesan AM, Locklin J, Lai EW, Adams KT, Fojo AT, Pacak K, Wood BJ: Radiofrequency ablation of metastatic pheochromocytoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2009 Nov;20(11):1483-90
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency ablation of metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • In the present report on the preliminary safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pheochromocytoma metastases, seven metastases were treated in six patients (mean size, 3.4 cm; range, 2.2-6 cm).
  • Complete ablation was achieved in six of seven metastases (mean follow-up, 12.3 months; range, 2.5-28 months).
  • In conclusion, RF ablation may be safely performed for metastatic pheochromocytoma given careful attention to peri-procedural management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19875067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL040011-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL040015-02; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZID BC011242-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425891; NLM/ PMC3608423
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76. Chawla S, Chen Y, Katz AW, Muhs AG, Philip A, Okunieff P, Milano MT: Stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of adrenal metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Stereotactic body radiotherapy for treatment of adrenal metastases.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the dosimetry and outcomes of patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastases to the adrenal glands.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: At the University of Rochester, patients have been undergoing SBRT for limited metastases since 2001.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who had undergone SBRT for adrenal metastases from various primary sites, including lung (n = 20), liver (n = 3), breast (n = 3), melanoma (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), head and neck (n = 1), and unknown primary (n = 1).
  • RESULTS: Of the 30 patients, 14 with five or fewer metastatic lesions (including adrenal) underwent SBRT, with the intent of controlling all known sites of metastatic disease, and 16 underwent SBRT for palliation or prophylactic palliation of bulky adrenal metastases.
  • No patient developed symptomatic progression of their adrenal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: SBRT for adrenal metastases is well tolerated.
  • Most patients developed widespread metastases shortly after treatment.
  • Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of SBRT for oligometastatic adrenal metastases, given the propensity of these patients to develop further disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose Fractionation. Female. Gastrointestinal Tract / radiation effects. Humans. Kidney / radiation effects. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 19250766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Nocca D, Aggarwal R, Mathieu A, Blanc PM, Denève E, Salsano V, Figueira G, Sanders G, Domergue J, Millat B, Fabre PR: Laparoscopic surgery and corticoadrenalomas. Surg Endosc; 2007 Aug;21(8):1373-6
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  • However, the situation is not so clearcut when the issue is laparoscopic excision of malignant adrenal tumors.
  • We present our results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treating malignant tumors over the past decade.
  • Twelve patients (9%) had a malignant tumor: nine corticoadrenalomas, one pleomorphic sarcoma, one metastatic deposit from a previously excised colonic cancer, and one malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • One patient developed pulmonary metastases one year postsurgery; they were responsive to mitotane.
  • Five years later, the same patient had a reoperation for an intra-abdominal retrogastric recurrence of her tumor and continues to do well.
  • Another patient developed pulmonary metastases 22 months following adrenalectomy.
  • Two patients died of metastatic intra-abdominal disease 20 and 7 months postsurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17356945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Di Carlo I, Toro A, Sparatore F, Cordio S: Liver resection for hepatic metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(2):106-9
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  • [Title] Liver resection for hepatic metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Liver metastases from adrenocortical carcinoma are very rare and no clear indications for surgery exist.
  • All the patients submitted to hepatic resection for liver metastases from adrenal carcinoma reported in the literature (PubMed source) from 1978 to 2005 were considered for the present study.
  • The data investigated suggest that metachronous metastases, developed after a minimum of 1 year from the primary tumor, and completely removable, may represent an indication for surgery - although this still needs to be proved.

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  • (PMID = 18333256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2131421
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79. Gockel I, Heintz A, Domeyer M, Trinh TT, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Indications for conventional adrenalectomy]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Jun;133(3):255-9
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  • RESULTS: Indications for conventional adrenalectomy were - as compared with the minimally invasive procedure - significantly more frequent adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), especially in the context of multivisceral resections, as well as adrenal metastases (synchronous and metachronous).
  • In contrast, adrenal Cushing's disease (including 19 patients with bilateral tumours), pheochromocytoma, incidentaloma and Conn's syndrome constituted a more frequent indication for minimally invasive adrenalectomy.
  • Conventionally operated adrenal pathologies with on average 6.0 (range: 1.2-19.0) cm diameter were significantly larger than the endoscopically removed tumours with on average 3.3 (range: 0.2-9.2) cm diameter (p < 0.0001).
  • The side localisation and the frequency of bilateral adrenal tumours did not differ significantly in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Since the establishment of the minimally invasive technique in 1994, conventional adrenalectomy has been selected for 26 % of all resected adrenal pathologies at our clinic and, therefore, still plays an important role even in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • The benefit of the laparoscopic procedure in the case of malignant pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and isolated adrenal metastases at a locally confined stage is still unclear and requires prospective, randomised studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / utilization. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18563692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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80. Javadrashid R, Paak N, Salehi A: Combined subcutaneous, intrathoracic and abdominal splenosis. Arch Iran Med; 2010 Sep;13(5):436-9
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  • An enhancing solid mass adjacent to the upper pole of the left kidney and nodular pleural based lesions in the left hemi-thorax along with nodular lesions in subcutaneous tissue of the left chest wall suggested possible adrenal malignancy with multiple metastases.

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  • (PMID = 20804314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-3947
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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81. Muehling BM, Toelkes S, Schelzig H, Barth TF, Sunder-Plassmann L: Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Feb;10(2):228-31
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  • [Title] Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors.
  • However, the expression of these receptors especially in lung metastases has not been examined.
  • Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR.
  • PDGFRalpha was expressed in all metastases; 31% stained negative for PDGFRbeta, 86% negative for VEGFR and 45% negative for EGFR.
  • Our investigation of a pilot character represents a 'biomarker-based' analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate 'tumor profiling' at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19948538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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82. Gil J, Kalembkiewicz M, Polak E, Kostecka-Matyja M: [Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2007 Jul;117(7):317-21
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm occurring with a frequency of 1-2 cases per million.
  • It is characterized by significant malignancy with mean survival of about 28 months, and in the presence of documented metastases survival is shorter up to 8 months.
  • This type of a tumor is slightly more frequent in women (58.6%) than in men (41.4%).
  • The tumor size is still the best single predictor of prognosis.
  • Histopathology specimen from biopsy or obtained during operation should be stained for Melan A, which can confirm the adrenal origin of the tumor.
  • However, because of its dynamics, metastases cannot be reliably excluded.
  • We presented the case of functioning adrenocortical cancer in 37-year-old patient who at time of diagnosis had 12 cm in diameter tumor of the left adrenal gland and metastases to the liver and lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17966598.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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83. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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84. Rankin SC: Staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cancer Imaging; 2006;6:1-3
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  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in staging and provide anatomical information but have well known limitations in differentiating reactive from malignant nodes, fibrosis from active disease and in defining the extent of invasion.
  • Functional imaging using [2-(18F)]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is increasingly being used to provide unique information and when combined with anatomic imaging will provide better staging information for both local disease and the extent of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] International Cancer Imaging Society.
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  • (PMID = 16478697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1693760
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85. Wachter T, Bouscayrol H, Champeaux E, Verrelle P, Giraud P: [Extracranial stereotaxic body irradiation: preliminary results and the Orleans hospital experience]. Bull Cancer; 2008 Jan;95(1):153-60
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  • [Transliterated title] La radiothérapie stéréotaxique extracrânienne: résultats préliminaires et expérience de l'hôpital d'Orléans.
  • ESRT with dedicated systems including secure immobilization avoiding patient movement, accurate repositioning, and stereotactic registration of tumor targets and organs at risk (OAR) allows very high doses in few fractions on extra cranial locations.
  • From 120 patients treated with ESRT since 1999, 90 cases are presented; 28 lung metastases were treated with 40 Gy/5 fr/12 d and 17 liver metastases were treated with 30 Gy/5 fr/12 d prescribed on the 70 to 85 % isodose.
  • ECRT allows controlling localized tumors (primitives or metastases) and it is now a suitable part of our therapeutic tools as radiofrequency or cryotherapy techniques.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. France. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Physical Phenomena. Physics. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18230582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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86. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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87. Lim JS, Yun MJ, Kim MJ, Hyung WJ, Park MS, Choi JY, Kim TS, Lee JD, Noh SH, Kim KW: CT and PET in stomach cancer: preoperative staging and monitoring of response to therapy. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):143-56
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  • Complete resection of a gastric tumor and adjacent lymph nodes represents the only potentially curative intervention.
  • However, CT may be limited in the identification of nonenlarged lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and small hematogenous metastasis.
  • Although FDG PET is not an appropriate first-line diagnostic procedure in the detection of stomach cancer and is not helpful in tumor staging, it may play a valuable role in the detection of distant metastases, such as those of the liver, lungs, adrenal glands, ovaries, and skeleton.
  • Further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of FDG PET in the detection of local nodal metastases and peritoneal dissemination.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16418249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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88. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173
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  • [Title] Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: About 10% of spinal metastases are found in the cervical level.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for early detection of spinal metastases.
  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.

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  • (PMID = 19830057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740268
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89. Abbas O, Reddy K, Demierre MF, Blanchard RA, Mahalingam M: Epidermotropic metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):505-8
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  • [Title] Epidermotropic metastatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an invasive malignant neoplasm composed of mucus-secreting, epidermoid, and intermediate cells in varying proportions, is the commonest malignant salivary gland neoplasm in adults.
  • Cutaneous metastases from the same, although not entirely common, has been previously reported but are typically confined to dermis.
  • In this report, we present a case of MEC presenting as a cutaneous metastasis.
  • A histologic feature unique to this case was epidermotropism, previously not noted in either metastatic or primary MEC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / secondary. Epidermis / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Biopsy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged


90. Cadden IS, Atkinson AB, Johnston BT, Pogue K, Connolly R, McCance D, Ardill JE, Russell CF, McGinty A: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression correlates with phaeochromocytoma malignancy: evidence for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):743-51
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  • AIMS: Phaeochromocytomas are rare but potentially life-threatening neuroendocrine tumours of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic nervous system ganglia.
  • There are no histological features which reliably differentiate benign from malignant phaeochromocytomas.
  • There was a statistically significant association between COX-2 histoscore (intensity x proportion) and the development of tumour recurrence or metastases (P = 0.006).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17916073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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91. Nomura K, Kimura H, Shimizu S, Kodama H, Okamoto T, Obara T, Takano K: Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2850-6
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  • [Title] Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy.
  • CONTEXT: About 10% of pheochromocytomas are malignant.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the survival curves and survival times of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy on prolongation of life.
  • PATIENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Thirty-two patients with metastasized malignant pheochromocytoma were analyzed for survival.
  • In the 25 patients whose primary tumor was excised, patients who already had metastases at the time of pheochromocytoma diagnosis had better survival than those whose metastases were found later.
  • The survival rate after diagnosis of metastasis was worse in the CVD group than in controls.
  • When the effects of CVD were examined after stratifying several factors, female gender and adrenal origin of tumor were found to be negative prognostic factors for CVD chemotherapy.
  • CVD chemotherapy was not shown to extend survival, especially for women and patients with adrenal gland-derived primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19470630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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92. Antonelli A, Cozzoli A, Simeone C, Zani D, Zanotelli T, Portesi E, Cosciani Cunico S: Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients. BJU Int; 2006 Mar;97(3):505-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report, in a retrospective study, the diagnostic problems and oncological results of surgery in patients with either synchronous or metachronous adrenal metastasis, which are uncommon in renal cancer, at 2-10% of patients.
  • During the follow-up after renal surgery, another 14 patients had adrenalectomy for CT evidence of an abnormal adrenal gland, contralateral to the previous renal tumour in 12 and bilaterally in two.
  • RESULTS: Of 914 ipsilateral adrenal glands removed during renal surgery, 854 (93.5%) were normal on pathological examination, 28 (3%) had a benign pathology, six (0.8%) were directly infiltrated by the tumour and 26 (2.7%) were metastatic.
  • For both benign and metastatic ipsilateral adrenal pathology, CT had sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values of 47%, 99%, 73% and 96%, respectively.
  • Of 29 contralateral glands removed because of suspicious CT findings (15 at diagnosis of renal cancer, 14 during the follow-up) there was no abnormality in one (3.4%), a benign pathology in seven (24%) and a metastasis in 21 (72%).
  • Thus there were 32 synchronous (incidence 2.7%; ipsilateral to the renal tumour in 24, contralateral in six and bilateral in two), and 13 metachronous adrenal metastases (incidence 1.0%; contralateral in 11 and bilateral in two).
  • The metachronous metastases were diagnosed at a mean (range) interval of 30.6 (8-73) months after renal surgery.
  • No ipsilateral adrenal metastases were discovered at diagnosis or during the follow-up in the 382 patients with an organ-confined renal tumour of <4 cm in diameter.
  • Twenty-seven patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis (synchronous in 14, metachronous in 13) had statistically significantly (P < 0.001) better survival than the 18 (all synchronous) with multiple sites of metastatic disease.
  • In particular, there was long-term survival (mean 83 months) in 10 patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Sparing the ipsilateral adrenal is advisable only for organ-confined renal tumours of <4 cm in diameter; clinical local staging of renal cancer is the best predictor of the risk of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, CT had good diagnostic ability for the contralateral adrenal gland, especially during the follow-up.
  • Some patients with isolated adrenal metastasis could be treated by metastasectomy, with long-term survival free of disease and confirming that, even if in a few and unselectable patients, removing all the neoplastic bulk can be curative.
  • Nevertheless, the high rate of relapse underlines the need for an effective systemic therapy, and more so for widespread metastatic disease that currently cannot be cured.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome


93. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • Four years after cystectomy, the patient had no evidence of other metastases.
  • We discuss surgery for solitary metastasis of transitional cell carcinoma as a curative treatment option.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


94. Boyd DT, Hayeri MR, Kadom N: Parotid metastasis from adrenal neuroblastoma. Pediatr Radiol; 2010 Dec;40 Suppl 1:S113-5
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  • [Title] Parotid metastasis from adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • In contrast, salivary gland tumors are uncommon in children, accounting for only 1% of all pediatric neoplasms.
  • Parotid metastases are rare; only two cases of parotid metastases from neuroblastomas have been reported with an emphasis on the pathology.
  • We present a case of a parotid metastasis from a neuroblastoma with in-depth description and discussion of its ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary


95. Gupta K, Joshi K, Aggarwal AN, Vaiphei K: Asymptomatic polypoidal intracavitary cardiac metastases from pulmonary adenocarcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Jan;61(1):142
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  • [Title] Asymptomatic polypoidal intracavitary cardiac metastases from pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18156433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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96. Traub-Weidinger T, Von Guggenberg E, Dobrozemsky G, Kendler D, Eisterer W, Bale R, Putzer D, Gabriel M, Virgolini I: Preliminary experience with (68)Ga-DOTA-lanreotide positron emission tomography. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Feb;54(1):52-60
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  • AIM: Positron emission tomography (PET) of (68)Ga-radiolabelled (SST) somatostatin receptor (R) binding peptides has recently been evaluated in SSTR positive tumor patients.
  • First promising results in lung and thyroid tumor patients with (111)In-DOTA-Lanreotide (DOTA-LAN) scintigraphy have been described.
  • After intravenous injection of 75-150 MBq (68)Ga-DOTA-LAN dynamic studies were acquired over the tumor site for the first 40 min with a dedicated PET scanner in 3 patients, and 2 partial body scans were acquired at 20 and 50 min p.i. in 2 patients.
  • Tumor sites were visualized already during the first min after injection.
  • Comparison of positron emission tomography (PET) and CIT showed concordant results in 3/8 patients and partial concordant results in 5/8 patients with matched results for the primary/recurrent tumor, mediastinal lymph nodes, or adrenal gland metastases.
  • Partial concordant results were seen for the lung, bone, liver and cervical lymph node metastases.
  • Micronodular metastases of the lung and the cerebrum were not visualized by (68)Ga-DOTA-LAN PET.
  • The maximal standardized uptake values of the lung and bone tumor lesions ranged from 6 to 8 g/ml at 90 min p.i..
  • CONCLUSIONS: (68)Ga-DOTA-LAN visualized the majority of tumor lesions.

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  • (PMID = 20168286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / gallium 68-DOTA-lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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97. Jalón Monzón A, Alvarez Múgica M, Fernández Gómez JM, Martín Benito JL, Martínez Gómez F, García Rodríguez J, González Alvarez RC, Regadera Sejas FJ: [Renal cell carcinoma: prognostic factors and staging]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Mar;60(2):125-36
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  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic significance of the 2002 TNM tumor classification for renal cell carcinoma, as well as other factors intervening in its survival.
  • Mean tumor size was 7.17 +/- 3.4 cm.
  • Most cases had a solitary tumor.
  • 8.2% of the patients had lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis, and 8.6% metastases.
  • Advanced tumors (T3, T4) had the tendency to have a nuclear grade III-IV, bigger size, necrosis, vascular involvement, lymph node involvement, and metastases.
  • The number of months free of disease, the presence of metastatic lymph nodes, the treatment of the first recurrence and the presence of anemia were independent factors for cancer specific mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The modification of the current classification of renal tumors pT3 and pT4 would help to a better decision-making in the therapy of tumors with vascular, perirenal fat or adrenal involvement.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / epidemiology. Anemia / etiology. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Spain / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 17484480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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98. Hoeffel C, Tissier F, Mourra N, Oudjit A, Tubiana JM, Fornes P: Unusual adrenal incidentalomas: magnetic resonance imaging features with pathological correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2006 Nov-Dec;30(6):917-25
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  • [Title] Unusual adrenal incidentalomas: magnetic resonance imaging features with pathological correlation.
  • Diagnosis of incidental adrenal masses is a real challenge to radiologists.
  • The most common incidental tumors of the adrenal gland are adenomas and metastases.
  • This article presents our experience with uncommon adrenal incidentalomas.
  • When possible, they are correlated with the findings at gross and microscopic analysis, to help in understanding the mechanisms by which magnetic resonance imaging may aid in the characterization of the incidental adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17082697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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99. Ramacciato G, Paolo M, Pietromaria A, Paolo B, Francesco D, Sergio P, Antonio S, Vincenzo T, Micaela P, Gianluigi M: Ten years of laparoscopic adrenalectomy: lesson learned from 104 procedures. Am Surg; 2005 Apr;71(4):321-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Indications to laparoscopic adrenalectomy were aldosterone-secreting adenoma (20%), pheochromocytoma (24%), cortisol-secreting adenoma (11.5%), incidentaloma (26.9%), multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A (2.8%), adrenal metastases from lung cancer (3.8%), adrenal cyst (6.7%), and angiomyolipoma (3.8%).
  • There was no correlation between adrenal tumor diameter and operative time.
  • The size of the adrenal tumor should not be considered a contraindication to this procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 15943406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Gross MD, Avram A, Fig LM, Fanti S, Al-Nahhas A, Rubello D: PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2007 Sep;51(3):272-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Early experience with positron emission tomography (PET) has provided exciting results in the evaluation of a broad spectrum of neoplasms, to include primary adrenal tumors, their metastases and metastatic disease to the adrenal glands.
  • By virtue of the well-recognized propensity of malignancies to preferentially use glycolysis as an important energy source and the stimulation of mechanisms designed to absorb substrate glucose, the glucose analog, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, has become a successful radiopharmaceutical in the scintigraphic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Building upon prior experience gained with imaging the adrenal gland, other positron-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are finding their way into clinical use.
  • The 11b-hydroxylase inhibitor, metomidate labeled with 11C has been used to scintigraphically identify tissues of adrenocortical origin, to accurately identify recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma and may be useful in assessing the malignant potential of these tumors and predicting survival in afflicted patients.
  • Additional structural and functional information provided by computed tomography (CT), performed as part of hybrid PET/CT imaging directly complements PET and adds measurable diagnostic value in the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Image Enhancement / methods. Molecular Probe Techniques. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17464268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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