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1. Baig MA, Lin YS, Rasheed J, Mittman N: Renal medullary carcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 Jul;98(7):1171-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is an epithelial malignant tumor arising from collecting duct epithelium.
  • The tumor is almost exclusive to young black patients with the sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, mainly sickle cell trait (SCT).
  • Most patients present with metastatic disease and have a worse prognosis.
  • An African-American male with sickle cell disease (HbSCD) who was diagnosed to have renal medullary carcinoma is presented here.
  • The clinical, histologic and radiologic features of this tumor are described.
  • In the setting of advanced disease, treatment modalities have proved largely unsuccessful.
  • Given the shared demographic, clinical and radiographic features of these patients, awareness and early diagnosis may prove essential in improving survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / etiology. Sickle Cell Trait / complications

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  • (PMID = 16895289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2569460
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2. Ellis CL, Burroughs F, Michael CW, Li QK: Cytology of metastatic renal medullary carcinoma in pleural effusion: a study of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Nov;37(11):843-8
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  • [Title] Cytology of metastatic renal medullary carcinoma in pleural effusion: a study of two cases.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare and aggressive malignant epithelial neoplasm of the kidney.
  • It almost exclusively affects children and young adults with a sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease.
  • The majority of RMC patients present with widely disseminated disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • Herein, we report two cases of young African-American patients with history of sickle cell trait, hematuria and renal mass, who present with malignant right pleural effusions.
  • The cytology of pleural effusion reveals predominantly clusters and individual tumor cells.
  • The tumor cells show high nuclear to cytoplasmic (NC) ratios and large nuclei with nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear grooves, and prominent single or multiple nucleoli.
  • Surgical specimens of renal mass and lymph node show features of RMC.
  • Metastatic RMC to the serous cavity is rare and may present a diagnostic dilemma since it may mimic a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or other high-grade malignant neoplasms.
  • RMC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with a renal mass, particularly in those with history of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sickle Cell Trait / complications

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  • (PMID = 19526572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Assad L, Resetkova E, Oliveira VL, Sun W, Stewart JM, Katz RL, Caraway NP: Cytologic features of renal medullary carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Feb 25;105(1):28-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic features of renal medullary carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare tumor that is most common in young black men with sickle cell disease or trait.
  • Patients often present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis, and their prognosis is poor, even with aggressive therapy.
  • The clinical and pathologic features of renal medullary carcinoma have been described in several articles, but reports describing the cytologic features are rare.
  • METHODS: In the current report, the authors describe the cytologic features of three cases of renal medullary carcinoma.
  • The patients were young black men with sickle cell trait ages 20 years, 33 years, and 33 years.
  • RESULTS: All three patients presented with hematuria, flank pain, and a renal mass.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Renal medullary carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with hematuria or a renal mass, especially in young black men with sickle cell disease or trait.
  • Cytologically, renal medullary carcinoma cells appear similar to the cells in high-grade carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies can be helpful in distinguishing renal medullary carcinoma from other poorly differentiated kidney tumors, except for collecting duct carcinoma.
  • The clinical findings are key to diagnosing renal medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Sickle Cell Trait / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Hematuria / diagnosis. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] 2005 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 15593260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Cheng JX, Tretiakova M, Gong C, Mandal S, Krausz T, Taxy JB: Renal medullary carcinoma: rhabdoid features and the absence of INI1 expression as markers of aggressive behavior. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jun;21(6):647-52
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: rhabdoid features and the absence of INI1 expression as markers of aggressive behavior.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare, well-recognized highly aggressive tumor of varied histopathology, which occurs in young patients with sickle cell trait or disease.
  • Rhabdoid elements, occasionally seen in high-grade renal tumors including renal medullary carcinoma, possibly represent a pathologic marker of aggressive behavior.
  • Loss of this factor in mice results in aggressive rhabdoid tumors or lymphomas.
  • In humans, the loss of INI1 expression has been reported in pediatric renal rhabdoid tumors, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and epithelioid sarcomas, a possible primary soft tissue rhabdoid tumor.
  • This study compares five renal medullary carcinomas with 10 high-grade renal cell carcinomas (five with rhabdoid features), two urothelial carcinomas and two pediatric renal rhabdoid tumors.
  • All five renal medullary carcinomas, irrespective of histopathology, showed complete loss of INI1 expression similar to that seen in pediatric renal rhabdoid tumors.
  • In contrast, all renal cell carcinomas or urothelial carcinomas, including those with histological rhabdoid features, expressed INI1.
  • Clinically, all five of the patients with renal medullary carcinoma and the two patients with rhabdoid tumors presented with extra-renal metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • This study demonstrates that renal medullary carcinoma and renal rhabdoid tumor share a common molecular/genetic alteration, which is closely linked to their aggressive biological behavior.
  • However, the absence of INI1 expression is not necessarily predictive of rhabdoid histopathology but remains associated with aggressive behavior in renal medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18327209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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5. Bobinski M, Greco CM, Schrot RJ: Giant intracranial medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis presenting as apoplexy. Skull Base; 2009 Sep;19(5):359-62
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  • [Title] Giant intracranial medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis presenting as apoplexy.
  • We present a case of a giant sellar and suprasellar skull base-invasive metastasis from a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Radiographic features were similar to atypical/malignant meningioma or pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Intracranial metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma are very rare.

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  • (PMID = 20190947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0065
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2765703
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Medullary thyroid carcinoma / metastasis / sella turcica / skull base
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6. Singh K, Sharma MC, Jain D, Kumar R: Melanotic medullary carcinoma of thyroid--report of a rare case with brief review of literature. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanotic medullary carcinoma of thyroid--report of a rare case with brief review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanin production in medullary carcinoma is extremely uncommon.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare variant of medullary carcinoma of thyroid with melanin production in a 52-year-old woman who presented with swelling in the thyroid of 3 months duration.
  • This tumor recurred thrice in two years after surgery and patient died with metastasis.
  • Microscopic examination showed typical morphology of medullary carcinoma with numerous cells loaded with melanin pigment as confirmed by bleached Fontana-Masson, negative iron and immunohistochemical stains.
  • Tumor cells were diffusely immunopositive for calcitonin, HMB-45, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CEA but showed focal paranuclear dot positivity for cytokeratin.
  • No C-cell hyperplasia was seen in the adjacent thyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Melanotic medullary carcinoma is an extremely uncommon entity.
  • There is a need to report more number of cases in the literature for exact categorization and prognostication of this subtype of medullary carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18190715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2253502
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7. Winn B, Tavares R, Fanion J, Noble L, Gao J, Sabo E, Resnick MB: Differentiating the undifferentiated: immunohistochemical profile of medullary carcinoma of the colon with an emphasis on intestinal differentiation. Hum Pathol; 2009 Mar;40(3):398-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiating the undifferentiated: immunohistochemical profile of medullary carcinoma of the colon with an emphasis on intestinal differentiation.
  • Undifferentiated or medullary carcinoma is characterized by its distinct histologic appearance and relatively better prognosis compared to poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma.
  • Only limited immunohistochemical studies investigating medullary carcinoma have been reported.
  • Our aim was to further characterize the immunohistochemical profile of medullary carcinoma, with particular emphasis on intestinal markers.
  • Paraffin blocks from 16 cases of medullary carcinoma and 33 cases of poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma were retrieved, and tissue microarrays were constructed and stained with an immunohistochemical panel including CDX2, CK7, CK20, p53, intestinal trefoil factor 3, chromogranin, synaptophysin, MLH-1, MUC-1, MUC-2, and calretinin.
  • A significantly higher proportion of medullary carcinomas, as opposed to poorly differentiated colonic carcinomas, showed loss of staining for MLH-1 and for the intestinal transcription factor CDX2, in accordance with previous studies.
  • MLH-1 staining was present in only 21% of medullary carcinoma cases compared with 60% of the poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma cases (P = .02), whereas CDX2 was positive in 19% of medullary carcinomas and 55% of poorly differentiated colonic carcinomas (P = .03).
  • Interestingly, calretinin staining was strongly positive in 73% of medullary carcinomas compared to only 12% of poorly differentiated colonic carcinomas (P < .0001).
  • Evidence of intestinal differentiation by MUC-1, MUC-2, and TFF-3 staining was seen in 67%, 60%, and 53% of the medullary carcinomas, respectively.
  • These 3 markers were frequently positive in many of the CDX2-negative medullary carcinoma cases.
  • Medullary carcinoma of the colon retains a significant degree of intestinal differentiation as evidenced by its high percentage of staining for MUC-1, MUC-2, and TFF-3.
  • Calretinin, MLH-1, and CDX2 may help to differentiate medullary carcinoma from poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma of the colon.

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  • (PMID = 18992917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017695; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR017695-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR017695-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR17695
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96750; NLM/ PMC2657293
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8. Zhu W, Hai T, Ye L, Cote GJ: Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines Contain a Self-Renewing CD133+ Population that Is Dependent on RET Activity. Endocr Rev; 2009 Dec 01;30(7):933

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  • [Title] Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines Contain a Self-Renewing CD133+ Population that Is Dependent on RET Activity.

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  • (PMID = 28199507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7189
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Maruna P, Duskova J, Limanova Z, Dvoraková S, Vaclavikova E, Bendlova B: Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid in a 71-year-old man with history of malignant melanoma. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Apr;14(4):CS31-6
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  • [Title] Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid in a 71-year-old man with history of malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed medullary-follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with a pleomorphic pattern is a rare malignant epithelial tumor characterized by clinical and immunohistochemical features of follicular and parafollicular thyroid cells.
  • Different molecular mechanisms for mixed thyroid tumors have been suggested.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a 71-year-old man with a history of malignant melanoma with mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Cytology results of a fine needle aspiration biopsy were suspicious of a thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma that showed characteristic patterns and calcitonin and thyroglobulin positivities in many of the tumor cells.
  • The tumor was not associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A mixed differentiated thyroid tumor is a diagnostic challenge with fine needle aspiration.
  • Definitive diagnosis remains the domain of histology because of the necessity of topographic information.
  • The origins of this rare tumor entity are unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18376354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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10. Haji BE, Das DK, Al-Ayadhy B, Pathan SK, George SG, Mallik MK, Abdeen SM: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):408-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary.
  • Recognition of special types of breast cancers by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology may have prognostic implications but some difficulties still exist in the ability of cytopathologists to determine the tumor subtypes.
  • Detailed cytomorphological features were studied in the four special and unusual types of breast cancer cases (8 cases of mucinous, 9 medullary, 9 apocrime, and 11 papillary) and compared between themselves and with those of 32 duct cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • Papillary carcinomas were also compared with 10 benign papillary lesions.
  • In mucinous carcinoma, the frequency of signet ring cells (62.5%), and background pools of mucin (87.5%) were significantly higher than those of duct cell carcinoma (NOS), medullary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0408 to < 0.0001).
  • In medullary carcinomas, lymphomononuclear cell infiltration (100.0%) was observed in significantly higher number of cases than in papillary, mucinous, and apocrine types (P < 0.0001).
  • Further, moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism (100.0%) and nuclear irregularity (77.8%) was significantly higher than those of mucinous carcinoma and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0294 to <0.0003).
  • Abnormal apocrine cells and papillary formation, characterizing all the apocrine carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, respectively, were present in significantly lower number in other variants and in duct cell carcinoma (NOS) (P = 0.0002 to <0.0001).
  • Glycogen vacuoles (63.6%) were observed in a significantly higher number of papillary carcinoma as compared to duct cell carcinoma (NOS), apocrine, and medullary carcinomas (P = 0.0047 to 0.0022).
  • The significant parameters differentiating papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were loose cohesive clusters (P = 0.001) and acinar formation by neoplastic cells (P = 0.0237).
  • Histopathology reports available in 36 cases, confirmed the cytodiagnosis of carcinoma in all 35 cases and the benign lesion in one case.
  • Cytological subtyping was confirmed in 13 of 16 special types of carcinomas and all the 15 duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • Thus, special and unusual variants of duct cell carcinomas like mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary have specific cytomorphological features, which differentiate them from one another and from duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • However, differentiating features between papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were very few in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17580344.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Di Matteo FM, Sorrenti S, Palermo S, De Stefano M, Biancafarina A, Di Battista L, Savino G, Giusti D, Casalvieri L, Catania A: [Two cases of synchronous papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma]. G Chir; 2008 Apr;29(4):159-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Two cases of synchronous papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Due casi di carcinomi tiroidei sincroni di tipo midollare e papillifero.
  • The Authors describe two cases of simultaneous association of papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • They emphasize the treatment of these cases stressing the correlation between the therapeutic criteria and the malignancy of medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Carcinoma, Papillary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18419980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Schreiner AM, Yang GC: Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as rectangular cell type on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Mar;37(3):213-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as rectangular cell type on fine-needle aspiration.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma typically presents as dyscohesive plasmacytoid, spindled, or polygonal cells on fine-needle aspiration smears.
  • We recently encountered a case of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a hypercellular aspirate composed of cohesive aggregates of rectangle-shaped cells.
  • The case was mistakenly reported as a hypercellular follicular neoplasm on cytology.
  • Subsequent thyroidectomy revealed medullary carcinoma.
  • We draw attention to this distinctive rectangular cell type as an additional morphology for medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19156827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Ergul E, Gozetlik EO: Does percutaneous thyroid laser ablation induce mixed papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma? Acta Chir Belg; 2010 Mar-Apr;110(2):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does percutaneous thyroid laser ablation induce mixed papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma?
  • Mixed medullary-papillary carcinomas are very rare and still not listed in the WHO classification (1988).
  • The rarity of the co-existence of medullary and papillary carcinoma suggests that these cases represent mere coincidence.
  • Some studies have shown that radiation exposure has induced neoplasia in the two cell types in rats.
  • But we still have limited information about the carcinogenetic effect of laser ablation on the thyroid gland.
  • This report describes the first case of thyroid carcinoma that demonstrated both medullary carcinoma and papillary components in the thyroid, which might occur due to percutaneous thyroid laser ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Laser Therapy / adverse effects. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20514841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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14. Ono M, Tsuda H, Shimizu C, Yamamoto S, Shibata T, Kouno T, Tamura K, Ando M, Katsumata N, KInoshita T, Fujiwara Y: Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):559

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.
  • We examined the value of histological parameters including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as surrogate markers for pCR in TNBC.
  • METHODS: Of 474 patients who received NAC and subsequent surgical therapy to stage II-III invasive breast carcinoma between 1999 and 2007, 102 (22%) had TNBC, and 92 core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens before NAC were available.
  • We first immunohistochemically confirmed TNBC and basal-like subtype by current criteria for ER, PgR, and HER-2, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK14, EGFR, and p53.
  • All cases were TNBC, and 54 tumors (59%) were basal-like subtype defined as expression of at least one of CK5/6, CK14 and EGFR in >1% of cancer cells.
  • Totally, 26 tumors (28%) showed pCR.
  • These parameters were also examined in resected tumor specimens from 21 non-pCR cases.
  • RESULTS: The pCR rate was significantly higher in the patients with tumors with TIL (24 of 68, 35%) than in those without (2 of 24, 8%, p = 0.01), and higher in tumors with high-score apoptosis (9 of 19, 47%) than in those with low-score apoptosis (17 of 73, 23%, p = 0.04).
  • Tumors showing medullary features and p53-negative tended to show pCR more frequently (38% and 35%) than those with non-medullary features and with p53-positive (25% and 24%), but the differences were not significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TIL and the level of tumor cell apoptosis appeared predictive markers for response to NAC in TNBC.

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  • (PMID = 27960670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ghosn M, Hajj C, Nasr F, El Karak F, Abadjian G, Kattan J, Chahine G: Triple-negative breast cancer: Epidemiology, characteristics, and survival in a Lebanese cohort. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22228

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pathology studies showed: invasive ductal carcinoma component in 138 pts (89%), pure medullary carcinoma in 7 pts (5%), pure invasive lobular carcinoma in 6 pts (4%), pure mucinous carcinoma in 3 pts (2%) and epidermoid carcinoma in 1 pt (1%).
  • Five- year disease free survival and 5-year overall survival were respectively 75% and 88% for stage I, 58% and 72% for stage II and 40% and 63% for stage III.
  • Focus on understanding the biology of this particular BC subtype is essential for determining targets for future therapeutic options.

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  • (PMID = 27964092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Fox E, Widemann BC, Whitcomb PO, Aikin A, Dombi E, Lodish M, Stratakis CA, Steinberg S, Wells SA Jr, Balis FM: Phase I/II trial of vandetanib in children and adolescents with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10014

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I/II trial of vandetanib in children and adolescents with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • : 10014 Background: Mutations in the RET protooncogenecause hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) including Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Type 2A, Type 2B and familial MTC.
  • Response is monitored using tumor measurements (RECIST), serum biomarkers, calcitonin (CTN), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • Tumor size decreased in 6/6 patients with M918T RET mutations; 2 achieved RECIST partial response after 6 and 12 cycles.

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  • (PMID = 27962526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Sherman EJ, Fury MG, Tuttle RM, Ghossein R, Stambuk H, Baum M, Lisa D, Su YB, Shaha A, Pfister DG: Phase II study of depsipeptide (DEP) in radioiodine (RAI)-refractory metastatic nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6059

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of depsipeptide (DEP) in radioiodine (RAI)-refractory metastatic nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Depsipeptide (DEP) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo.
  • In thyroid cancer cell lines, DEP increases expression of both thyroglobulin and the sodium/iodine symporter messenger RNAs, offering the possibility of improved iodine concentrating ability of radioactive iodine (RAI)-resistant tumors.
  • METHODS: Eligible patients (pts) must have progressive, RAI-refractory, recurrent/metastatic, non-medullary, non-anaplastic thyroid cancer; RECIST measurable disease; and adequate organ/marrow function.
  • Exclusionary criteria include prior chemotherapy in the recurrent/metastatic setting; cardiac disease or dysfunction; QTc prolongation or co-administration of drugs that prolong the QTc.
  • Evaluation of response: stable disease (10); progression (3); early death (1); unknown/inevaluable (6: 5 - temporary protocol suspension; 1 - withdrew consent).

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  • (PMID = 27961936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Carr L, Goulart B, Martins R, Keith E, Kell E, Wallace S, Capell P, Mankoff D: Phase II trial of continuous dosing of sunitinib in advanced, FDG-PET avid, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6056

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of continuous dosing of sunitinib in advanced, FDG-PET avid, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC).
  • Here we report the results of a phase II trial investigating the use of continuous dosing sunitinib in patients with metastatic WDTC and MTC.
  • To target those patients with more aggressive thyroid cancer, enrollment was limited to FDG-PET avid disease.
  • RESULTS: To date 33 patients have been enrolled (7 MTC:26 WDTC), and 29 patients have been evaluated for disease response.
  • Rate of disease control at 3 months (SD+PR+CR) 83% (24/29).
  • Of these patients 7 have disease control per RECIST criteria.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Continuous dosing of sunitinib is active (disease control rate 83%) in patients with high risk, metatstatic WDTC and MTC, as defined by FDG-PET avid disease.

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  • (PMID = 27961933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Bareggi C, Consonni D, Galassi B, Gambini D, Locatelli E, Visintin R, Runza L, Giroda M, Reali G, Tomirotti M: Uncommon breast malignancies: Presentation pattern, treatment options and outcome in a single Institution experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22174

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e22174 Background: Uncommon breast tumors are often neglected by large clinical trials, even if their incidence is not so low.
  • RESULTS: Rare subtypes were represented as follows: tubular 2.7% (58 pts), mucinous 1.1% (25 pts), medullary 1% (21 pts), papillary 0.4% (8 pts).
  • Median age at diagnosis was 56.5 years among patients with tubular histotype, 68.9 years for mucinous, 55 and 61.7 years for medullary and papillary, respectively.
  • Stage I tumors were 87.7% among patients with tubular differentiation, 60% for mucinous, 26.3% for medullary and 50% for papillary, (compared to 45.7% in invasive ductal carcinoma: 1,626 pts).
  • Stage II represented 12.3% among patients with tubular carcinoma, 32% for mucinous, 57.9% for medullary and 37.5% for papillary.
  • Median DFS for patients with tubular cancer was 4.1 years, for mucinous 3.7 years, 10.5 and 5.1 years for medullary and papillary, respectively.
  • Median OS for patients with tubular cancer was 4.3 years, whereas for mucinous 4.2 years, for medullary 11 years and 5.3 years for papillary.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our retrospective analysis, uncommon breast tumors are often diagnosed at limited stages, resulting in good prognosis, with standard treatment.

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  • (PMID = 27963710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Lubner SJ, Chen H, Holen K, LoConte N, Rikkers L, Weber S, Warner T, Eickhoff J, Fass T, Schelman W: A phase II clinical and biological study of lithium carbonate (Li) in patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15662

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II clinical and biological study of lithium carbonate (Li) in patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumors.
  • : e15662 Background: Low-grade neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), such as carcinoid, islet cell tumors, and medullary thyroid carcinomas, respond poorly to chemotherapy, and effective, less toxic therapies are needed.
  • Use of lithium carbonate (Li) in murine models suppressed carcinoid cell growth, reduced GSK-3β levels and reduced expression of chromogranin A.
  • The primary endpoint was objective tumor response by RECIST.
  • Secondary endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, decrease of serum tumor markers, toxicity, and quality of life.
  • Patients' diagnoses were carcinoid tumor for 8 subjects, islet cell tumor for 5 subjects, and 2 unknown primary sites.
  • Evaluation of quality of life and GSK-3β levels in tumor tissue is ongoing.
  • We will determine from tumor biopsies whether Li was effective at phosphorylating GSK-3β in order to make conclusions about GSK-3β as a therapeutic target for future NET treatment strategies.

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  • (PMID = 27962770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Brose MS, Troxel AB, Redlinger M, Harlacker K, Redlinger C, Chalian AA, Flaherty KT, Loevner LA, Mandel SJ, O'Dwyer PJ: Effect of BRAF&lt;sup&gt;V600E&lt;/sup&gt; on response to sorafenib in advanced thyroid cancer patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6002

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : 6002 Background: We are conducting an open-label phase II study of sorafenib in patients with metastatic, iodine-refractory thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histological subtypes include papillary (PTC): 25 pts (47%); follicular/Hürthle Cell (FTC): 19 pts (36%); medullary: 4 pts (8%), and poorly differentiated/anaplastic: 5 pts (9%).
  • While most patients with PTC or FTC achieve durable responses, patients whose tumors harbor BRAF<sup>V600E</sup> have significantly longer PFS than those that are BRAF<sup>wt</sup>.

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  • (PMID = 27962409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Johnson ED, Tannir NN, Olejeme KA, Logothetis CJ, Jonasch E: Survival benefit in bevacizumab-based therapy in sickle cell trait patients diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16096

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival benefit in bevacizumab-based therapy in sickle cell trait patients diagnosed with renal medullary carcinoma.
  • : e16096 Background: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is an epithelial malignant tumor arising from collecting duct epithelium.
  • The tumor is almost exclusive to young black patients with the sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, primarily sickle cell trait.
  • This is a rare and highly aggressive tumor that is shown to be most resistant to chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: All patients had metastatic disease (stage IV) to at least one distant site at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sickle cell trait was confirmed for all in this group diagnosed with RMC.
  • Future studies, including genetic studies on the tumor types are essential to determining the SNP profiles of renal cell carcinoma in black patients.
  • Furthermore, a prospective multicenter trial should be developed to evaluate the efficacy of bevacizumab based regimens in renal medullary carcinoma in this population.

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  • (PMID = 27963088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Bourlet P, Dumousset E, Nasser S, Chabrot P, Pezet D, Thieblot P, Garcier JM, Boyer L: Embolization of hepatic and adrenal metastasis to treat Cushing's syndrome associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2007 Sep-Oct;30(5):1052-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Embolization of hepatic and adrenal metastasis to treat Cushing's syndrome associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • We report functionally successful hepatic and left adrenal embolization with particles to treat Cushing's syndrome associated with a medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


24. Hoff AO, Hoff PM: Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):475-88; viii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor derived from the C cells of the thyroid gland and accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid carcinomas.
  • Approximately 30% of the cases are associated with an autosomal dominant syndrome called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, and the identification of these individuals is important because affected family members may benefit from an early diagnosis.
  • The treatment of this disease is predominantly surgical, and the impact of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is limited.
  • The identification of the associated molecular events has lead to the development of specific molecular targeted agents that may change the way this disease is treated in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17548035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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25. Blitman NM, Berkenblit RG, Rozenblit AM, Levin TL: Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jul;185(1):268-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: CT and MRI features.
  • OBJECTIVE: We review the cross-sectional imaging findings of six cases of pathologically proven renal medullary carcinoma in patients with sickle cell trait.
  • To our knowledge, only one previous report has addressed MRI features of this rare disease.
  • CONCLUSION: In young patients with sickle cell trait, an infiltrative renal mass with associated retroperitoneal adenopathy and caliectasis are characteristic findings of renal medullary carcinoma on CT and MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Male. Retrospective Studies. Sickle Cell Trait / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15972435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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26. Zhang Q, Yang CS, Guo ZM, Zeng ZY, Yang AK, Lai FY: [Prognostic factors of medullary thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;43(12):939-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prognostic factors of medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate prognostic factors of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: By using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, the prognostic factors were investigated in 102 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma treated at this hospital.
  • In univariate analysis, gender, age, bilateral thyroid lobe tumors, tumor size > 4 cm, invasion of thyroid capsule, distant metastasis, and non-radical tumor resection were significant poor prognostic factors.
  • In multivariate analysis, tumor size > 4 cm (chi(2) = 7.43, P = 0.0035), distant metastasis (chi(2) = 23.50, P = 0.0000), and non-radical tumor resection (chi(2) = 25.90, P = 0.0000) remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor size > 4 cm, distant metastasis, and non-radical tumor resection are the independent predictors of patients survival.
  • Early diagnosis and early therapy can improve significantly the prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Factor Analysis, Statistical. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19141248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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27. Sturniolo G, Bonanno L, Gagliano E, Tonante A, Taranto F, Mamo M, De Salvo G, Sturniolo G: Surgical therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Chir Ital; 2007 Nov-Dec;59(6):781-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • This study describes the findings of a retrospective study of 57 medullary thyroid cancer patients observed at the main Sicilian centres for endocrine surgery.
  • Six of these patients were observed locally in order to add a further dimension to the discussion of surgical therapies for medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • A review of the literature on sporadic forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma and hereditary neoplastic syndromes is followed by presentation of the authors' series.
  • Particular attention is paid to patterns of metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma and to the differing opinions regarding the extent of lymph-node dissection required and the treatment of recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18360982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Rakha EA, Aleskandarany M, El-Sayed ME, Blamey RW, Elston CW, Ellis IO, Lee AH: The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(10):1780-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast.
  • The new gene expression molecular taxonomy of breast cancer places medullary carcinoma in the basal group.
  • The basal group is considered to have a poor prognosis, but medullary carcinoma is considered to have a better prognosis than other grade 3 carcinomas.
  • The prognostic significance of tumour associated inflammation, an important feature of medullary carcinomas, remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of medullary histological type and inflammation in breast cancer.
  • Typical and atypical medullary carcinomas (n=132) did not have significantly different survival and were grouped together.
  • Medullary carcinoma did not have significantly different prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma with prominent inflammation, but both had a better prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation (P<0.0001 and P=0.03).
  • These results question the current separation of typical and atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • Prominent inflammation is associated with a better prognosis, and may explain the better prognosis in medullary carcinoma compared with grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation.
  • The good prognosis of medullary carcinoma emphasises the heterogeneity of basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • Further studies are needed to investigate the difference in survival between medullary carcinoma and other forms of basal carcinomas and the role of inflammation in any such differences in behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / complications. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Inflammation / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19286369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Gul K, Ozdemir D, Ugras S, Inancli SS, Ersoy R, Cakir B: Coexistent familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with RET polymorphism. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Jul;340(1):60-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coexistent familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with RET polymorphism.
  • Familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid cancer accounts for 10% to 15% of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma and is characterized by lack of accompanying endocrine or nonendocrine diseases.
  • Simultaneous occurrence of medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma in the same patient is rare and known as collision tumor.
  • Here, the authors present familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid cancer in 4 sisters, all having RET proto-oncogene polymorphism in exon 15 at codon 904 and 2 having additional polymorphism in exon 13 at codon 769.
  • The index case had concomitant medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas, which are suggested to be completely different tumors in terms of incidence, cell origin, histopathologic features and prognosis.
  • Histopathologically, she also had Hashimoto thyroiditis in the remaining thyroid tissue and medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis in 3 cervical lymph nodes.
  • This case is the first in the literature to report coexistent familial nonmultiple endocrine neoplasia medullary thyroid cancer and papillary thyroid carcinoma related with a RET polymorphism (S904S in exon 15).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20463576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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30. Milhoua PM, Koi PT, Hakimi AA, Li M, Ghavamian R: Laparoscopic nephrectomy for the management of renal medullary carcinoma in a child. J Pediatr Urol; 2008 Feb;4(1):90-2
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic nephrectomy for the management of renal medullary carcinoma in a child.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a lethal subtype of renal cancer that afflicts patients with sickle-cell hemoglobinopathies.
  • Here we present the case of a 13-year-old boy with renal medullary carcinoma who is the first, to our knowledge, to be managed using a planned laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Medulla. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Nephrectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18631900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Strouse JJ, Spevak M, Mack AK, Arceci RJ, Small D, Loeb DM: Significant responses to platinum-based chemotherapy in renal medullary carcinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Apr;44(4):407-11
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  • [Title] Significant responses to platinum-based chemotherapy in renal medullary carcinoma.
  • Most patients with renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) have advanced disease at presentation and rarely respond to radiation or chemotherapy.
  • We describe two adolescents with metastatic disease who had significant responses to cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with gemcitabine and paclitaxel.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Kidney Medulla. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. African Americans. Anemia, Sickle Cell / complications. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Aug;47(2):228 [16514612.001]
  • (PMID = 15602719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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32. Ríos A, Rodríguez JM, Acosta JM, Balsalobre MD, Torregrosa N, Sola J, Pérez-Flores D, Parrilla P: Prognostic value of histological and immunohistochemical characteristics for predicting the recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep;17(9):2444-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic value of histological and immunohistochemical characteristics for predicting the recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: In medullary thyroid carcinoma, there is currently no consensus about the prognostic value of histological and immunohistochemical parameters.
  • This study was designed to analyze the value of various histological and immunohistochemical characteristics for predicting the recurrence of medullary carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A total of 55 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma have been reviewed.
  • The macroscopic, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumors were taken from the pathological anatomy report.
  • RESULTS: In 14 (27%) cases, there was recurrence of the disease.
  • The disease-free interval at 1 year was 88 +/- 5%; at 5 years 73 +/- 7%; at 10 years 73 +/- 7%; at 15 years 61 +/- 10%; and at 20 years or more 61 +/- 10%.
  • However, it was found that staging (P = 0.0102), as well as tumor size (P = 0.0211) and lymph node affectation (P = 0.0012), are factors significantly related to relapse of the disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The overall recurrence rate was 27%, and the main independent prognostic factor of recurrence was tumoral vascular invasion at diagnosis.
  • Staging, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis are prognostic factors of recurrence, although they are not significant in the multivariate analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20224859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Williams MD, Asa SL, Fuller GN: Medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland: an unusual site of metastasis. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Jun;12(3):199-203
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland: an unusual site of metastasis.
  • We present a case of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma involving the pituitary gland of a 23-year-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b who presented with diabetes insipidus and visual loss.
  • The diagnostic features, including cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry, used to differentiate pituitary adenoma from metastatic medullary carcinoma are discussed.
  • Pituitary metastases and tumor-to-tumor metastases in this region are also highlighted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / etiology. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Vision, Low / etiology. Vision, Low / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18486896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Vezzosi D, Bennet A, Caron P: Recent advances in treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Jun;68(2-3):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Germ-line REarranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene mutations are detected in more than 95% of patients with familial medullary carcinoma whereas somatic RET mutations are detected in 40-70% of sporadic medullary carcinomas.
  • Surgery provides successful cure in almost 100% of patients when tumor size measures a few millimeters, in almost 90% of patients with a tumor measuring less than 1 cm, and in only 50% of patients with a tumor larger than 1 cm.
  • A perspective of recent trials and research into novel treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is summarized in the following paper.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17391636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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35. Guo X, Fan Y, Lang R, Gu F, Chen L, Cui L, Pringle GA, Zhang X, Fu L: Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes differ in invasive micropapillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma of breast. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1101-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes differ in invasive micropapillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma of breast.
  • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes have been correlated with a better prognosis for some tumors and medullary carcinoma of breast is a good example.
  • However, in a recent study of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of breast, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were associated with increased lymph node metastasis and a poorer prognosis.
  • To explore possible mechanisms underlying this difference in immune responsiveness and tumor behavior, 28 cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma with prominent lymphocyte infiltration were compared with 29 cases of medullary carcinoma.
  • In both tumors, the majority of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were T lymphocytes (P<0.01) with CD8+ T lymphocytes predominant (P<0.01).
  • Significantly, functional differences in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes were identified in the two types of tumor.
  • While lymphocytes infiltrated both the stroma and epithelial components of medullary carcinoma, the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of invasive micropapillary carcinoma were almost exclusively confined to the stroma.
  • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of medullary carcinoma showed stronger expression of FasL than those in invasive micropapillary carcinoma (P<0.01) and medullary carcinoma cells exhibited stronger expression of Fas than invasive micropapillary carcinoma cells did (P<0.01).
  • In the subgroups of tumors with strong (++/+++) Fas expression, double immunohistochemistry revealed that most of the tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in medullary carcinoma, particularly those infiltrating the tumor nests, were CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, but not so in invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • Furthermore, upregulated expression of perforin, granzyme B and FasL by cytotoxic T lymphocytes was greater in medullary carcinoma than invasive micropapillary carcinoma (P<0.01, respectively).
  • The results suggest that effective immunity provided by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes varies in different tumors and the relative lack of tumor-killing cytotoxic T lymphocytes in invasive micropapillary carcinoma may explain, in part, the adverse association of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes with the biological behavior of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fas Ligand Protein / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18469794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein
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36. Mehdi G, Maheshwari V, Ansari HA, Sadaf L, Khan MA: FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature. J Cytol; 2010 Apr;27(2):66-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature.
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers.
  • Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult.
  • We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case.

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  • (PMID = 21157553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001179
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Medullary thyroid carcinoma / fine needle aspiration cytology / plasmacytoid type / spindle cell type
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37. Watanabe IC, Billis A, Guimarães MS, Alvarenga M, de Matos AC, Cardinalli IA, Filippi RZ, de Castro MG, Suzigan S: Renal medullary carcinoma: report of seven cases from Brazil. Mod Pathol; 2007 Sep;20(9):914-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: report of seven cases from Brazil.
  • We report seven cases of renal medullary carcinoma collected from several institutions in Brazil.
  • In spite of a relatively high incidence of sickle cell trait in Brazil, this is a rare tumor.
  • Most of the tumors were poorly circumscribed arising centrally in the renal medulla.
  • All seven cases described showed sickled red blood cells in the tissue and six patients were confirmed to have sickle cell trait.
  • All cases disclosed the characteristic reticular pattern consisting of tumor cell aggregates forming spaces of varied size, reminiscent of yolk sac testicular tumors of reticular type.
  • A peculiar feature was suppurative necrosis typically resembling microabscesses within epithelial aggregates.
  • The medullary carcinoma of the 69-year-old patient was associated with a conventional clear cell carcinoma.
  • The survival after diagnosis or admission ranged from 4 days to 9 months.
  • The 8-year-old African-Brazilian patient with a circumscribed mass is alive and free of recurrence 8 years after diagnosis.
  • This case raises the question whether a periodic search for renal medullary carcinoma in young patients who have known abnormalities of the hemoglobin gene and hematuria could result in an early diagnosis and a better survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Kidney Medulla / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brazil. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Child. Flank Pain / etiology. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Male. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Risk Factors. Sickle Cell Trait / complications. Sickle Cell Trait / pathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17643096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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38. Gülben K, Berberoğlu U, Boyabatli M: Prognostic factors for sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2006 Jan;30(1):84-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the thyroid parafollicular cells and accounts for 3% to 10% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of treatment for sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (SMTC) and define the prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • The effects of age, gender, tumor localization, extent of the primary surgical resection, tumor size, capsule invasion, lymph node metastasis, extranodal extension, tumor stage, local recurrence, and distant metastasis on the overall survival rate were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • Based on the univariate analysis, the extent of primary surgical resection, pathologic tumor size, capsule invasion, lymph node invasion, extranodal extension, tumor stage, local recurrence, and distant metastasis were factors that significantly affected survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / mortality. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16369705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Seiff BD, Seiff SR: Orbital metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Nov-Dec;24(6):484-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • She was given the presumptive diagnosis of progressive thyroid-associated orbitopathy.
  • This was postulated to be a rare case of metastasis of a medullary thyroid carcinoma to the left inferior rectus muscle, which was confirmed by lateral orbitotomy and excisional biopsy.
  • The presence of unilateral proptosis raises the possibility of intraorbital or intracranial disease and warrants further investigation.
  • Detection of metastases and subsequent surgical excision or debulking has palliative benefits, including prevention of compression or invasion of major structures and cooperative planning with oncology and participation in treatment regimens that may prove beneficial in patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19033850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Tominaga J, Hama H, Kimura N, Takahashi S: MR imaging of medullary carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Jun;70(3):525-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MR imaging of medullary carcinoma of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To examine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of medullary carcinoma of the breast and to correlate them with histopathologic features.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients were retrospectively evaluated with pathologically confirmed medullary carcinoma of the breast.
  • RESULTS: Medullary carcinoma showed a lobular shape and a smooth margin, either homogenous or heterogeneous enhancement and delayed peripheral enhancement in the late phase on contrast-enhanced MRI, and either a plateau or washout type with rapid initial rise on the time-intensity curve of the dynamic study.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the MRI findings showed a close relationship with histopathologic features of medullary carcinoma, it was difficult to differentiate medullary carcinoma from other histologic types of invasive breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18353587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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41. Goyal R, Nada R, Rao KL, Radotra BD: Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid with lymph node metastasis in a 7-year-old child. Pathol Int; 2006 Feb;56(2):84-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid with lymph node metastasis in a 7-year-old child.
  • On fine-needle aspiration cytology it was diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed the presence of two intermingled components: medullary carcinoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • The case was diagnosed as 'mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma' with papillary carcinoma pattern and lymph node metastasis.
  • Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma with intermingling of medullary and papillary carcinoma components is a rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Child. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16445820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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42. Sathyamoorthy K, Teo A, Atallah M: Renal medullary carcinoma in a patient with sickle-cell disease. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2006 May;3(5):279-83; quiz 289
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma in a patient with sickle-cell disease.
  • BACKGROUND: A 36-year-old black male with sickle-cell disease, asthma, and dyslipidemia presented with shortness of breath, chest pain, lethargy, and recent fever.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Renal medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Sickle Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Medullary / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


43. Todorov G, Petkov R, Lukanova Ts, Koĭchev A, Mladenovski V, Kŭtev N, Iarŭmov N: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma--current surgical aspects. Overview and retrospective analysis of 22 cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2006;(4-5):5-8
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma--current surgical aspects. Overview and retrospective analysis of 22 cases].
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5% to 10% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • Familial forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma account for the remaining 25% of cases--MEN IIa, MEN IIb and FMTC.
  • METHODS: Retrospectively 22 cases of medullary carcinoma of thyroid gland were analysed.
  • RESULTS: 18 patients were with sporadic form of medullary thyroid carcinoma, 4--with FMTC; 21 were with primary carcinoma, 1--with recurrent carcinoma Mean age--32 years (22-59).
  • At the follow-up control (max 10 years) there is no evidence of disease recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Recent advances in genetic testing allow early diagnosis and treatment of familial MTC syndromes.
  • In the familial forms medullary carcinoma is associated with well-characterized, germline mutations in the RET protooncogene.
  • Both genetic and biochemical screening are of essential significance for early diagnosis and adequate and optimal surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18846693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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44. Obara T: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2087-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].
  • Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare.
  • The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc.
  • In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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45. Fernandez Vila JM, Peix JL, Mandry AC, Mezzadri NA, Lifante JC: Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2007 May;117(5):886-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Calcitonin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The calcitonin is a sensitive marker for the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, therefore, invaluable in the follow-up of patients who have been treated.
  • Biological cure of the medullary thyroid cancer refers to a basal plasma calcitonin of less than 10 ng/l without elevation after stimulation tests.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Biochemical results of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed from a series of 35 patients who underwent 47 reinterventions.
  • RESULTS: The indications for reoperation were: hypercalcitoninemia with clinical evidence of the disease (32 cases); hypercalcitoninemia after an inadequate primary surgery (6 cases); persistent hypercalcitoninemia with biochemical evidence of the disease (2 cases); liver metastases (1 case); and palliative surgery for relieving symptoms (1 case).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study is consistent with the bibliographic reviews supporting that the cervical reoperation, eventually mediastinal, for residual hypercalcitoninemia after primary surgical treatment is indicated when the initial intervention did not follow the French Calcitonin Tumour Study Group (GETC) recommendations or when a specific lesion is evidenced by imaging studies without systemic dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17473689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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46. Afshar K, Alalawi R, Boylen CT: Micronodular radiographic pulmonary pattern in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2007 May;99(5):575-7
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  • [Title] Micronodular radiographic pulmonary pattern in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare form of all thyroid malignancies, thereby limiting the clinical nature and the ability to optimize diagnostic tools.
  • We present two cases of a micronodular radiographic pulmonary pattern in metastatic medullary thyroid cancer to enhance awareness of the disease process.
  • We reviewed the literature to examine the ideal methods to establish a diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17534017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2576072
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47. Bhatoe HS, Badwal S, Dutta V, Kannan N: Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2008 Aug;89(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature.
  • Pituitary is a rare site for metastases from thyroid cancer.
  • Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been reported.
  • We report a case of intrapituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid in a 38-year-old male, who had been operated for pituitary adenoma 5 years earlier.
  • Further evaluation revealed medullary carcinoma thyroid, cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, elevated serum calcitonin levels, and lobulated pituitary tumor.
  • After surgical excision of thyroid and lymph node clearance, he underwent craniotomy and subfrontal excision of pituitary tumor.
  • All the tumors were of identical histology, i.e., medullary carcinoma thyroid.
  • Pituitary tumor was positive for calcitonin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / analysis. Calcitonin / blood. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology. Vision, Low / pathology. Vision, Low / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18408891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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48. Ali I, Johns W, Gupta SM: Visualization of hepatic metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma on Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Oct;31(10):611-3
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  • [Title] Visualization of hepatic metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma on Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy.
  • A 35-year-old man with a history of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid underwent a whole-body bone scan for chest wall pain.
  • A case of technetium-99m MDP uptake in hepatic metastases from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is presented and the literature is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16985365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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49. Diao B, Paule B, Esquivel S, Abbou CC, Salomon L, De La Taille A: [Renal medullary carcinoma: remission with gemcitabine-cisplatin and review of therapeutic perspectives]. Prog Urol; 2010 Jul;20(7):538-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Renal medullary carcinoma: remission with gemcitabine-cisplatin and review of therapeutic perspectives].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome médullaire du rein : rapport d'une rémission sous gemcitabine-cisplatine et revue des perspectives thérapeutiques.
  • We report a case of renal medullary carcinoma concerning a 38-year-old woman.
  • Heterozygote sickle cell trait was noticed in her past medical history.
  • The CT-scan revealed a left renal mass of 48 mm x 20 mm, hypovascularised, located in the lower pole of the kidney with extension into the sinus.
  • The histological examination with immuno-histo-chemical analysis revealed a renal medullary carcinoma T1N2R0 (TNM 2002).
  • No tumor cell was found at the histological examination of the residual nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20656278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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50. Popovtzer A, Morgenstein S, Roizman P, Gutman D, Bahar G, Stern Y, Feinmesser R: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck; 2007 Jun;29(6):559-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with the carcinogenesis of numerous neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of COX-2 in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • METHODS: Tissue specimens of thyroid neoplasms were obtained from 22 patients with MTC and 15 control subjects with nonmalignant thyroid specimens.
  • A large area of staining was noted in only 2 patients in the control group (13%) compared with 18 (82%) in the medullary carcinoma group.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007.
  • (PMID = 17274057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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51. Toledo SP, Lourenço DM Jr, Santos MA, Tavares MR, Toledo RA, Correia-Deur JE: Hypercalcitoninemia is not pathognomonic of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2009;64(7):699-706
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Calcitonin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypercalcitoninemia is not pathognomonic of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hypercalcitoninemia has frequently been reported as a marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Currently, calcitonin measurements are mostly useful in the evaluation of tumor size and progression, and as an index of biochemical improvement of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although measurement of calcitonin is a highly sensitive method for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma, it presents a low specificity for this tumor.
  • Several physiologic and pathologic conditions other than medullary thyroid carcinoma have been associated with increased levels of calcitonin.
  • Several cases of thyroid nodules associated with increased values of calcitonin are not medullary thyroid carcinomas, but rather are related to other conditions, such as hypercalcemias, hypergastrinemias, neuroendocrine tumors, renal insufficiency, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, and goiter.
  • Patients with calcitonin levels >100 pg/mL have a high risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma (approximately 90%-100%), whereas patients with values from 10 to 100 pg/mL (normal values: <8.5 pg/mL for men, <5.0 pg/mL for women; immunochemiluminometric assay) have a <25% risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma.In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), RET mutation analysis is the gold-standard for the recommendation of total preventive thyroidectomy to relatives at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation (50%).
  • In this review, we focus on the differential diagnosis of hypercalcitoninemia, underlining its importance for the avoidance of misdiagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and consequent incorrect recommendation for thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / blood. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Risk. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19606248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2710445
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Calcitonin / False-positive test / RET mutation / Total thyroidectomy
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52. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Motoo Y, Iovanna JL, Tomoda C, Uruno T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Expression of p8 protein in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3419-23
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of p8 protein in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this study, p8 protein expression was investigated in human medullary thyroid carcinoma. in order to elucidate its physiological significance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated p8 expression in 69 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that p8 expression plays an important role in the progression of medullary carcinoma, but does not have an anti-apoptotic function.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16101158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P8 protein, human
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53. Jaggard MK, MacRae C, Ifeacho S, Robinson S, Tolley NS: New presentation of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma in 87-year-old patient with high-risk RET proto-oncogene codon 620 mutation. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 Jul;123(7):796-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New presentation of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma in 87-year-old patient with high-risk RET proto-oncogene codon 620 mutation.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma in an 87-year-old woman, despite the patient having a high-risk codon 620 mutation.
  • METHOD: Medline and PubMed were searched for cases and literature reviews relating to the following keywords: 'codon 620', 'medullary thyroid carcinoma', 'multiple endocrine neoplasia' and 'RET proto-oncogene'.
  • RESULTS: We report the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with a goitre, later identified as medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Genetic testing has revolutionised the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The genetic basis of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma lies with the RET proto-oncogene.
  • Several disease-causing mutations of this gene have been identified and their clinical prognosis described.
  • The penetrance of these mutations is high; as such, carriers progress to develop medullary thyroid carcinoma at a young age.
  • Mutations at the codon 620 position are classified as high-risk for early development of medullary thyroid carcinoma; thus, the current recommendation is for prophylactic thyroidectomy at five years of age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this case, the progress of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma was unique, considering the late presentation of medullary thyroid carcinoma despite the presence of the high-risk RET proto-oncogene codon 620 mutation.
  • The authors wish to highlight the importance of this case, as it may present a counter-argument to the current recommendations for early, prophylactic thyroidectomy in codon 620 mutation carriers in order to prevent early development of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Codon / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genetic Testing. Humans. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 18771606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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54. Malyuchik SS, Kiyamova RG: Medullary breast carcinoma. Exp Oncol; 2008 Jun;30(2):96-101
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  • [Title] Medullary breast carcinoma.
  • Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a type of invasive ductal breast carcinoma that usually has favorable prognosis and is characterized by the high graded structure, high mitotic rate and heavy lymphoid infiltration.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Immunotherapy / methods. Neoplasms / immunology. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / chemistry. HLA Antigens / chemistry. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18566570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HLA Antigens
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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55. Hakimi AA, Koi PT, Milhoua PM, Blitman NM, Li M, Hugec V, Dutcher JP, Ghavamian R: Renal medullary carcinoma: the Bronx experience. Urology; 2007 Nov;70(5):878-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: the Bronx experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a devastating and extremely rare malignancy primarily afflicting young men with sickle cell trait.
  • RESULTS: All 9 patients had sickle cell trait, the male/female ratio was 6:3, and the age range was 13 to 31 years.
  • Eight of the nine tumors were right sided, ranging from 4 to 12 cm in the greatest diameter.
  • One patient was deemed to have unresectable disease by the operating surgeon, and one was given initial chemotherapy after biopsy of a metastatic lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our urban setting likely explains our relatively large experience with this rare and extremely aggressive tumor.
  • An early diagnosis is critical, and a high index of suspicion should be given to any individual with sickle cell trait and new-onset hematuria, especially in the setting of a right-sided mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Kidney Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18068443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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56. Abrams J: [Globus sensation as a sign of medullary thyroid carcinoma]. HNO; 2009 Sep;57(9):910-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Globus sensation as a sign of medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • Medullary carcinomas represent 4% of all thyroid carcinomas.
  • Most important for diagnosis are ultrasound criteria and determination of serum calcitonin, using the pentagastrin test if necessary.
  • Ultrasound examination detected a small thyroid nodule with microcalcification in the right thyroid gland.
  • Serum calcitonin representing the most important tumor marker was massively increased.
  • We performed a total thyroidectomy with dissection of the paratracheal compartments and a conservative neck dissection on the side of the tumor.
  • In addition, examination for a possible hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma is required, which influences the patient's prognosis considerably and necessitates screening examinations of other relatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Conversion Disorder / etiology. Conversion Disorder / prevention & control. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19629419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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57. Yoo JL, Woo OH, Kim YK, Cho KR, Yong HS, Seo BK, Kim A, Kang EY: Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas? Radiographics; 2010 Oct;30(6):1689-702
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  • [Title] Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas?
  • Nevertheless, 10%-20% of breast malignancies are well-circumscribed masses, and these malignancies include papillary, mucinous, medullary, and metaplastic carcinomas, as well as malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • As an emerging adjunctive imaging method, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has substantial potential in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas.
  • Analysis of the lesion signal intensity on nonenhanced T2-weighted MR images, determination of the enhancement pattern, and kinetic curve assessment can greatly help differentiate malignant from benign well-circumscribed breast lesions.
  • Therefore, breast MR imaging can play a substantial role in distinguishing between well-circumscribed benign and malignant breast lesions, especially in cases that are difficult to diagnose by using conventional imaging.
  • In this article, the MR imaging findings of the subtypes of well-circumscribed malignant breast lesions-intracystic papillary carcinoma, invasive papillary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and malignant phyllodes tumor-are described and correlated with the histopathologic, mammographic, and US findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © RSNA, 2010.
  • [CommentIn] Radiographics. 2010 Oct;30(6):1703-4; discussion 1704 [21117281.001]
  • (PMID = 21071383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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58. Pacini F, Castagna MG, Cipri C, Schlumberger M: Medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Aug;22(6):475-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 5-8% of all thyroid cancers.
  • After total thyroidectomy, measurements of serum calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen are of paramount importance in the postsurgical follow-up of patients with MTC as they reflect the presence of persistent or recurrent disease.
  • On the contrary, if serum CT is detectable under basal conditions or becomes detectable after stimulation, the patient is probably not cured, but imaging techniques will not demonstrate any disease until serum CT approaches levels >150 pg/ml.
  • The tumour metastasises early to both paratracheal and lateral cervical lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mutation / genetics. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20627492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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59. Sidibé el H: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and some of its particularities]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):51-5
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and some of its particularities].
  • [Transliterated title] Le cancer médullaire de la thyroïde: réflexions sur quelques particularités.
  • Various studies of medullary thyroid carcinoma have found its apoptosis rate to be very low.
  • Tumor growth is usually progressive but in some cases, rapid progression and high proliferation are seen.
  • Five characteristics are significantly associated with poor survival: tumor necrosis, squamous histology, age older than 45 years, oxyphilic tumor cells together with a lack of intermediary cytoplasm cells, and finally, less than 50% of tumor cells immunoreactive to calcitonin.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma is rare, but practitioners must be familiar with it because it presents specific therapeutic and diagnostic problems.
  • Sensitive and specific direct genetic diagnosis of the principal mutation of the RET proto-oncongene is possible in patients with familial thyroid carcinoma or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
  • Screening is based on the immunoradiometric assay of calcitonin levels before and after pentagastrin stimulation in different populations: healthy subjects, persons with family members who have medullary thyroid carcinoma, patients with thyroid nodules or autoimmune chronic thyroiditis.
  • Recently a somatic mutation on RET codon 918 was reported in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and those with C cell hyperplasia and multiple endocrine neoplasia together.
  • This finding suggests that this particular mutation may play a role in tumorigenesis.
  • Family members of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma must be screened for this inherited disease.
  • The mutations associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid tumors together appear to be closely related to the centromeric region of chromosome 10.
  • At three months of age, Wag/Rij rats show hypersecretion under secretagogues and C cell hyperplasia; both signs are described as "pretumoral" in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 17897902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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60. Gibelin H, Essique D, Jones C, Levillain P, Maréchaud R, Kraimps JL: Increased calcitonin level in thyroid nodules without medullary carcinoma. Br J Surg; 2005 May;92(5):574-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased calcitonin level in thyroid nodules without medullary carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal calcitonin measurement is routinely performed in patients with a thyroid nodule to detect medullary carcinoma.
  • However, increased calcitonin does not always correlate with medullary carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse increased calcitonin levels in patients without medullary carcinoma and to find out whether absence of this carcinoma can be predicted with certainty.
  • RESULTS: Pathology revealed medullary carcinoma in 16 patients (group I), micromedullary carcinoma in 13 (group II) and no medullary carcinoma in 38 (group III).
  • In group III, 30 patients had C-cell hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: There is an overlap of thyroid C-cell pathology for medullary carcinoma, micromedullary carcinoma and C-cell hyperplasia that occurs when basal calcitonin is between 10 and 145 pg/ml and pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin between 10 and 205 pg/ml.
  • In these patients, since medullary carcinoma cannot be completely excluded, total thyroidectomy should be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15779075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EF0NX91490 / Pentagastrin
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61. Wartchow EP, Trost BA, Tucker JA, Albano EA, Mierau GW: Renal medullary carcinoma: ultrastructural studies may benefit diagnosis. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2008 Nov-Dec;32(6):252-6
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: ultrastructural studies may benefit diagnosis.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a recently described highly aggressive malignancy that in most instances exhibits a constellation of clinical and light microscopic features sufficiently distinctive to enable a quick and confident diagnosis.
  • Presented are three examples where, because of unusual elements in the clinical presentation, electron microscopic examination proved beneficial in establishing the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrastructure. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 19117267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Foschini MP, Eusebi V: Rare (new) entities of the breast and medullary carcinoma. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Rare (new) entities of the breast and medullary carcinoma.
  • Rare tumours are a heterogeneous group of conditions that encompass benign to malignant lesions both of stromal and epithelial origin.
  • An outline of medullary carcinoma is also presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19089740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Liu JR, Huang J, Zhang M, Wei QC, Song Y, Huang JZ, Ding MP, Jia PJ: Medullary hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Intern Med; 2007;46(9):611-5
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  • [Title] Medullary hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • We report a patient with medullary hemorrhagic infarction 6 years after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Cranial MR imaging 2 days after symptom onset showed medullary infarction, and cranial MR imaging 5 days after symptom onset showed medullary hemorrhage.
  • Radiotherapy is the first choice of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, however, it may induce fatal medullary hemorrhagic infarction.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Cerebral Infarction / etiology. Medulla Oblongata. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 17473500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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64. Haghpanah V, Lashkari A, Tavangar SM, Moradzadeh K: Hypereosinophilia as the presentation of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: a remarkable event. Am J Med Sci; 2007 Aug;334(2):131-2
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  • [Title] Hypereosinophilia as the presentation of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: a remarkable event.
  • This report is of a 37-year-old man who had eosinophilia, periodic fever, weight loss, and generalized bone pain.
  • The patient underwent surgery and histopathological study, which confirmed that the patient had medullary carcinoma of thyroid.
  • However, less frequent but malignant etiologies always should be contemplated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Eosinophilia / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17700204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Di Matteo FM, Sorrenti S, De Stefano M, Palermo S, Biancafarina A, Guarino S, Giusti D, Savino G, Di Marco C, Catania A: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a study about 28 operated patients]. G Chir; 2008 Jun-Jul;29(6-7):291-4
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma: a study about 28 operated patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma midollare della tiroide: studio su 28 casi operati.
  • In this study on 28 operated patients, the Authors show that total thyroidectomy with elective central neck dissection and ipsilateral neck dissection is the most appropriate surgical treatment for medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Neck Dissection. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18544268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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66. Lorente Ramos RM, del Valle Sanz Y, Alcaraz Mexía MJ, Jareño Dorrego E: [Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a malignant lesion mimicking a benign one]. Radiologia; 2006 May-Jun;48(3):165-8
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  • [Title] [Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a malignant lesion mimicking a benign one].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma medular de mama: una lesión maligna que simula benignidad.
  • Medullary carcinoma of the breast is an unfrequent type of tumor.
  • We present a case of medullary carcinoma of the breast.
  • We review the radiological findings of this type of tumor which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions with well-circumscribed margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17058639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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67. Pino Rivero V, González Palomino A, Trinidad Ruíz G, Marcos García M, Keituqwa Yáñez T, Carrasco Claver F, Blasco Huelva A: [Recidived medullary thyroid carcinoma with neck metastases and tracheal invasion]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2005;32(5):445-52
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  • [Title] [Recidived medullary thyroid carcinoma with neck metastases and tracheal invasion].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma medular de tiroides recidivado con metástasis ganglionares e invasión traqueal.
  • Medullary carcinoma represents about 5% of all malignant tumors located in thyroid gland and it can appear as sporadic or hereditary form.
  • We report the case of a 58-year-old female who was initially operated by General Surgery Department of an infiltrating medullary carcinoma with cervical metastasic nodes having its origin on left thyroid lobe (LTL).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tracheal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16318087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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68. Chow SM, Chan JK, Tiu SC, Choi KL, Tang DL, Law SC: Medullary thyroid carcinoma in Hong Kong Chinese patients. Hong Kong Med J; 2005 Aug;11(4):251-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma in Hong Kong Chinese patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical parameters and treatment outcome of medullary thyroid carcinoma in Hong Kong Chinese patients.
  • PATIENTS: Patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma who were identified among 1656 patients with thyroid malignancies seen in a single institute in Hong Kong from January 1960 to June 2003.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two (1.3%) patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma were identified.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 43.7 (standard deviation, 16.5) years.
  • Lymph node metastasis was present in seven (31.8%) patients at diagnosis.
  • Patients with pT1N0 disease (n=3) had an excellent prognosis: all were disease-free following total thyroidectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early stage (T1N0) medullary thyroid carcinoma is associated with a very good prognosis.
  • Postoperative external radiation therapy can achieve good locoregional control in patients with lymph node metastasis or locally advanced disease.

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  • (PMID = 16085941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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69. Nangue C, Bron L, Portmann L, Volante M, Ris HB, Monnier P, Andrejevic-Blant S: Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: report of a case and review of the literature. Head Neck; 2009 Jul;31(7):968-74
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  • [Title] Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma denotes a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors displaying morphological and immunophenotypical features of both origins within the same lesion.
  • METHOD: We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with a lump in the right side of the neck, increasing in pain and size over several weeks.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology suggested a diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological examination yielded a diagnosis of medullary carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe, closely intermingled with a nonencapsulated classical papillary carcinoma.
  • One ipsilateral lymph node showed micrometastasis of the medullary counterpart.
  • CONCLUSION: When compared with other cases reported in literature, this particular presentation should be recognized, if required, morphologic and functional criteria are used.
  • The treatment is mostly surgical, driven by the medullary component.
  • The presence of micrometastasis in 1 ipsilateral cervical lymph-node underlines the importance of cervicomediastinal lymph-node dissection and careful searching for metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19260112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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70. Niccoli-Sire P, Conte-Devolx B: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Oct;68(5):325-31
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer médullaire de la thyroïde.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT).
  • Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker.
  • MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET.
  • Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed.
  • Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. France. Humans. Incidence. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17572372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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71. Nosé V: Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):226-40
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  • [Title] Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: an update.
  • Familial thyroid cancer can arise from follicular cells (familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC)) or from the calcitonin-producing C-cell (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma).
  • This is usually a component of multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) IIA or IIB, or as pure familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome.
  • The genetic events in the familial C-cell-derived tumors are known and genotype-phenotype correlations are well established.
  • In contrast, the case for a familial predisposition of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma is only now beginning to emerge.
  • Although the majority of papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) are sporadic, familial tumors account for over 5% of cases.
  • The presence of multifocal papillary carcinoma is a common feature of FNMTC.
  • The familial follicular cell-derived tumors or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas encompass a heterogeneous group of diseases, including diverse syndromic-associated tumors and non-syndromic tumors.
  • The first includes familial syndromes characterized by a predominance of non-thyroidal tumors, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), Carney complex type 1, and Werner syndrome.
  • The second group includes familial syndromes characterized by a predominance of NMTC, such as pure familial (f) PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma, and fPTC with multinodular goiter.
  • Some characteristic morphologic findings should alert the pathologist of a possible familial cancer syndrome, which may lead to further molecular genetic evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18931957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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72. Koksal Y, Sahin M, Koksal H, Orhan D, Unal E, Alagoz E: Thyroid medullary carcinoma in a teenager with Cowden syndrome. Laryngoscope; 2007 Jul;117(7):1180-2
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  • [Title] Thyroid medullary carcinoma in a teenager with Cowden syndrome.
  • In addition, two nodules in the thyroid gland were detected.
  • Histopathologic examination of the specimen revealed thyroid medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17603316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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73. Racz MM, Pommier RF, Troxell ML: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of medullary breast carcinoma: report of two cases and review of the literature with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jun;35(6):313-8
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of medullary breast carcinoma: report of two cases and review of the literature with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
  • Medullary carcinoma is a rare variant of breast carcinoma with a relatively good clinical prognosis as strictly defined.
  • Characteristic features on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) allow medullary carcinoma to be considered in the cytologic differential diagnosis.
  • We present two FNAC cases with such features, including high cellularity with clusters and single intact malignant cells, bizarre stripped nuclei with prominent nucleoli in a lymphoplasmacytic background, and illustrate one case in liquid-based preparation.
  • Surgical excision revealed that one patient had medullary carcinoma, while the second patient had high-grade infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • Breast FNAC samples with syncytial fragments, bizarre nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate should raise the possibility of medullary carcinoma.
  • However, the differential diagnosis also includes high-grade ductal carcinoma, lymphoma, or metastasis to breast or intramammary lymph nodes; thus, histopathologic analysis is required for definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17497662.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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74. Kleer CG: Carcinoma of the breast with medullary-like features: diagnostic challenges and relationship with BRCA1 and EZH2 functions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Nov;133(11):1822-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the breast with medullary-like features: diagnostic challenges and relationship with BRCA1 and EZH2 functions.
  • This case presentation reviews the histologic distinction between pure medullary carcinoma and breast carcinomas with medullary-like features.
  • This particular case prompts us to analyze the relationship among medullary carcinoma, basal-like breast carcinomas and carcinomas associated with germline BRCA1 mutations.
  • In addition to now well-defined features, such as expression of high-molecular-weight cytokeratins and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), basal-like tumors have a deficiency or dysfunction of BRCA1.
  • These concepts illustrate the important relationships among histopathologic features; genomic profile; single gene abnormalities, such as BRCA1 and EZH2; and growth regulation in this subset of breast carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19886718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107469
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2; EC 6.3.2.- / BRAP protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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75. Włoch J, Oczko-Wojciechowska M, Szpak-Ulczok S, Jarzab B: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma: from molecular studies to clinical decision]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 May-Jun;56(3):362-9
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma: from molecular studies to clinical decision].
  • [Transliterated title] Rak rdzeniasty tarczycy: od badań molekularnych do kliniki.
  • The paper is focused on guidelines of practice in inherited medullary thyroid cancer, diagnosed on the basis of DNA analysis.
  • In MEN2A/FMTC the clinical picture is diversified - in some patients the course of disease is mild, however in some other cases the progression of disease and even death occur regardless of the proper treatment.
  • Unfortunately, there are no molecular prognostic markers in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In conclusion it is to be emphasized that although inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare disease, the diagnostic algorithm is well established and maximizes the chance for early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16350733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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76. Oskam IM, Hoebers F, Balm AJ, van Coevorden F, Bais EM, Hart AM, van den Brekel MW: Neck management in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;34(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Neck management in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIMS: The aims of this study were to retrospectively evaluate incidence and patterns of lymph node metastases, surgical treatment and prognostic factors of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Out of a group of 70 MTC patients data of 67 patients were collected.
  • Of the 12 elective neck dissections, 5 were tumor positive.
  • Level VI was positive in 91% of the cases where a dissection was done, whereas preoperatively only 16% were scored tumor positive.
  • The most important factors that were correlated with a worse prognosis of survival were late stage of disease (stage III and IV) (p=0.0014), high number of positive lymph nodes (p=0.0023) and incomplete surgical resection (p=0.0002).
  • A routine central and ipsilateral selective neck dissection of levels II-V should be considered in all MTC patients based on the high incidence of metastases and the relative low morbidity of a unilateral neck dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Neck Dissection / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17555910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Correia-Deur JE, Toledo RA, Imazawa AT, Lourenço DM Jr, Ezabella MC, Tavares MR, Toledo SP: Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical data from a university hospital. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2009 May;64(5):379-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: clinical data from a university hospital.
  • INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%).
  • These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients.
  • In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored.
  • PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied.
  • RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (+/- 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females.
  • There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6-15 cm).
  • The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were highly useful for diagnosing s-medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The rate of complete patient recovery was low, and none of the parameters analyzed were useful predictors of the thyroid tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Female. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Hospitals, University. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 19488601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694239
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78. Torres de Aguirre A, Martínez Carol A, Cabello Laureano R, García Valles C, Gómez Gila A, del Valle Núñez J: [Prophylactic thyroidectomy in children at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma]. Cir Pediatr; 2005 Jul;18(3):106-8
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  • [Title] [Prophylactic thyroidectomy in children at risk for medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Tiroidectomía profiláctica en pacientes pediátricos con riesgo de carcinoma medular tiroideo.
  • The medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neoplasia occurring during childhood.
  • At present time the molecular examination of the proto-oncogen RET, related to syndromes of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN II) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) to allows identify patients with risk of suffering of medullary thyroid carcinoma in early ages, before the disease becomes clinically pronunced.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / prevention & control. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / prevention & control. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16209369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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79. Dicorato P, Calvanese A, Maiuolo A, D'Alessandri M, Grani G, Ruggieri M, Fumarola A: Medullary thyroid carcinoma and tuberous sclerosis. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(2):141-4
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma and tuberous sclerosis.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare tumor and accounts for 5-10% of thyroid cancers.
  • In literature, a few endocrine neoplasias have been reported in association with TS, but never a case of TS associated with sporadic MTC.
  • The case reported shows one more circumstance and suggests thyroid screening in patients with diagnosis of TS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19424876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Erdogan MF, Gursoy A: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: Turkish experience. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev; 2006 Aug;3 Suppl 3:503-7
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: Turkish experience.
  • MEN 2 has three distinct subtypes, which are MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Identification of a disease gene has enabled a DNA-based strategy for detection of direct mutation in patients with MEN 2 syndromes and in patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The identification of mutations responsible for MEN 2 syndromes has resulted in the routine identification of gene carriers early in life before the development of disease, causing timely prophylactic thyroidectomy in these patients.
  • This report includes our clinical and molecular experience on Turkish MEN 2 families and patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed and treated between 1994 and 2005.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 Sep;5(1):470
  • (PMID = 17551473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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81. Choi WJ, Lee YY, Kim S, Kim YK, Kim ES, Seo SO, Jo JH, Lee SM, Lee HJ: A case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the skin metastasis was concurrently present and response occurred to chemotherapy. Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;40(4):202-6

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  • [Title] A case of medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the skin metastasis was concurrently present and response occurred to chemotherapy.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for 3% of all thyroid gland malignancies.
  • We report a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma with cutaneous metastases, which responded to chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19688131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2697479
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / Cutaneous metastases / Medullary thyroid carcinoma
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82. Leitão VA, da Silva W Jr, Ferreira U, Denardi F, Billis A, Rodrigues Netto N Jr: Renal medullary carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):184-6
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Young patients with sickle cell trait or disease present a higher risk for renal medullary carcinoma, an aggressive renal tumor, with dismal prognosis, with a median survival of 4 months from the time of diagnosis.
  • Pathological evaluation revealed a medullary carcinoma and the patient died after 4 months, despite adjuvant treatment.
  • Whenever a patient with sickle cell trait or disease presents with hematuria and/or flank pain, the possibility of a renal medullary carcinoma should always be kept in mind, with thorough investigation and expeditious treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Kidney Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16888429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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83. Arai T, Kasahara I, Sawabe M, Kanazawa N, Kuroiwa K, Honma N, Aida J, Takubo K: Microsatellite-unstable mucinous colorectal carcinoma occurring in the elderly: comparison with medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Pathol Int; 2007 Apr;57(4):205-12
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  • [Title] Microsatellite-unstable mucinous colorectal carcinoma occurring in the elderly: comparison with medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Mucinous carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the large intestine have a high frequency of microsatellite instability, and their occurrence increases gradually with age.
  • To elucidate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of microsatellite-unstable mucinous carcinoma and compare the tumor with medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, the clinicopathological status and expression of mucin core and hMLH1 proteins were studied in 15 microsatellite-unstable and 20 microsatellite-stable mucinous colorectal carcinomas occurring in elderly patients, and compared with 23 cases of medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which 21 cases were microsatellite-unstable.
  • Thirteen (87%) of 15 microsatellite-unstable carcinomas exhibited absent hMLH1 expression compared with three (15%) of 20 microsatellite-stable carcinomas (P < 0.01).
  • The proportion (87%) of positive MUC5AC expression in microsatellite-unstable mucinous carcinoma was significantly higher than that (45%) in microsatellite-stable mucinous carcinoma (P = 0.01).
  • Compared with microsatellite-stable mucinous carcinoma, microsatellite-unstable mucinous carcinomas were significantly associated with a proximal location, intra- and peritumoral inflammatory cell infiltration, frequent MUC5AC expression, a low incidence of lymph node metastasis and absent hMLH1 protein expression, which is not different to medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma except for MUC2 expression and age-related occurrence.
  • These results suggest that microsatellite-unstable mucinous carcinoma occurring in the elderly shares clinicopathological and molecular features with medullary type poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and that microsatellite instability with absent hMLH1 expression plays an important role in the development of these two carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Aging / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Instability. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mucin 5AC. Mucins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17316416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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84. Banville N, Geraghty R, Fox E, Leahy DT, Green A, Keegan D, Geoghegan J, O'Donoghue D, Hyland J, Sheahan K: Medullary carcinoma of the pancreas in a man with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer due to a mutation of the MSH2 mismatch repair gene. Hum Pathol; 2006 Nov;37(11):1498-502
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  • [Title] Medullary carcinoma of the pancreas in a man with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer due to a mutation of the MSH2 mismatch repair gene.
  • Medullary carcinoma of the pancreas is a recently described rare variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  • We describe a man with colorectal carcinoma who subsequently developed pancreatic medullary carcinoma.
  • The tumor displayed microsatellite instability and loss of expression of the mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH6.
  • Mutational analysis of the mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MSH2 demonstrated a pathogenic nonsense mutation within the MSH2 gene, which is consistent with a diagnosis of HNPCC.
  • This report adds support to an association between HNPCC and pancreatic adenocarcinoma displaying the medullary phenotype, suggesting that medullary features in a pancreatic carcinoma may point toward a genetic cancer predisposition.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of medullary carcinoma of the pancreas in a patient with HNPCC due to a mutation of the MSH2 gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis / genetics. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology


85. Vu-Nishino H, Tavassoli FA, Ahrens WA, Haffty BG: Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcome of patients with medullary breast carcinoma managed with breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jul 15;62(4):1040-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcome of patients with medullary breast carcinoma managed with breast-conserving therapy (BCT).
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome of medullary carcinoma to infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast in a large cohort of conservatively managed patients with long-term follow-up.
  • Forty-six cases (1971-2001) were identified with medullary histology; 1,444 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma served as a control group.
  • RESULTS: The medullary cohort presented at a younger age with a higher percentage of patients in the 35 years or younger age group (26.1% vs. 6.6%, p < 0.00001).
  • Twelve patients with medullary histology underwent genetic screening, and 6 patients were identified with deleterious mutations.
  • The medullary cohort was also significantly associated with greater T stage and tumor size (37.0% vs. 17.2% T2, mean size 3.2 vs. 2.5 cm, p = 0.00097) as well as negative ER (84.9% vs. 37.6%, p < 0.00001) and PR (87.5% vs. 48.1%, p = 0.00001) status.
  • As of February 2003, median follow-up times for the medullary and control groups were 13.9 and 14.0 years, respectively.
  • Although breast relapse-free rates were not significantly different (76.7% vs. 85.2%), 10-year distant relapse-free survival in the medullary cohort was significantly better than in the control group (94.9% vs. 77.5%, p = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite poor clinicopathologic features, patients with medullary histology demonstrate favorable long-term distant relapse-free survival.
  • Local control rates of patients with medullary and infiltrating ductal carcinoma are comparable.
  • These findings suggest that patients diagnosed with medullary carcinoma are appropriate candidates for BCT and are associated with favorable long-term prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15990007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Hasney CP, Amedee RG: Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report. Laryngoscope; 2010;120 Suppl 4:S153
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  • [Title] Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report.
  • With fewer than 40 cases described in the otolaryngology literature, mixed medullary papillary thyroid carcinoma represents a rare but phenotypically distinct tumor.
  • While isolated medullary carcinoma may be admixed with normal follicular structures, true mixed carcinoma displays morphological and immunological characteristics of medullary and papillary carcinoma within a single lesion.
  • We report the case of a 73-year old woman initially evaluated for a multinodular thyroid goiter.
  • The patient denied a family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma or other endocrine neoplasms.
  • Fine needle aspiration of a nodule of the thyroid isthmus suggested a follicular neoplasm with abundant Hurthle cells and colloid present.
  • Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen revealed a medullary thyroid carcinoma measuring 0.4 cm in size.
  • Within this lesion, a distinct focus of papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, measuring 0.1 cm was also identified.
  • Mixed medullary-papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare clinical entity but merits consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules particularly in patients with a family history of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 21225751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Sobrino-Mota V, Lagarejos-Bernardo S, Varela-Mezquita B, Castro Y, Segura-González C, Pérez-Milán F: Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. J Clin Ultrasound; 2008 Mar-Apr;36(3):166-8
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  • [Title] Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who complained of a rapid enlargement of a pre-existing breast mass and yellowish nipple discharge.
  • The histopathologic examination revealed an atypical medullary carcinoma with high mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Mastitis / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18241044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Kuroda H, Tamaru J, Sakamoto G, Ohnisi K, Itoyama S: Immunophenotype of lymphocytic infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast. Virchows Arch; 2005 Jan;446(1):10-4
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  • [Title] Immunophenotype of lymphocytic infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast.
  • Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast is characterized by large anaplastic cells and infiltration by benign lymphocytes.
  • Patients with this pattern of breast carcinoma are considered to have a better prognosis than those with other histological subtypes.
  • We reviewed cases of primary breast carcinoma that were surgically resected between 1990 and 2004.
  • Of these, 13 cases of medullary carcinoma of the breast with lymphocyte infiltration were reported.
  • However, MC had a significantly greater percentage of CD3, CD8, TIA-1, and granzyme B lymphocytes infiltrating the stroma of the tumor.
  • Furthermore, more CD8-positive than CD4-positive T-cell lymphocytes were present within the tumor cell nests in MC, as opposed to the proportion in usual ductal carcinoma.
  • The infiltrating cytotoxic/suppressor T cells in MC represent host resistance against cancer, and the high grading of the T-cell infiltration could explain, in part, a key mechanism controlling the good prognosis for this type of tumor and solve the pathological paradox of MC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma, Medullary / immunology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15660281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Poly(A)-Binding Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TIA1 protein, human
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89. van Veelen W, de Groot JW, Acton DS, Hofstra RM, Höppener JW, Links TP, Lips CJ: Medullary thyroid carcinoma and biomarkers: past, present and future. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):126-40
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma and biomarkers: past, present and future.
  • The clinical management of patients with persistent or recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is still under debate, because these patients either have a long-term survival, due to an indolent course of the disease, or develop rapidly progressing disease leading to death from distant metastases.
  • Biomarkers, indicators which can be measured objectively, can be helpful in MTC diagnosis, molecular imaging and treatment, and/or identification of MTC progression.
  • Recent discoveries, like the prognostic value of plasma calcitonin and carcino-embryonic antigen doubling-time and the presence of somatic RET mutations in MTC tissue, may be useful tools in clinical decision making in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19522831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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90. Dorairajan N, Siddharth D, Kanna S: Review analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: a 15-year Indian experience. Int Surg; 2006 May-Jun;91(3):162-7
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  • [Title] Review analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: a 15-year Indian experience.
  • The aim of this study was to emphasize the importance of adequate primary surgery in cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 44 cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid treated in Government General Hospital, Chennai between 1987 and 2002.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcitonin / blood. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16845858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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91. Jiménez C, Hu MI, Gagel RF: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):481-96, x-xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is responsible for 13.4% of the total deaths attributable to thyroid cancer in human beings and research on MTC over the last 40 years has identified the RET proto-oncogene as a very relevant component of development of both sporadic and hereditary MTC.
  • The recognition of RET proto-oncogene mutations by genetic sequencing has allowed us to differentiate hereditary from sporadic MTC, so that it is now possible to identify and treat children at risk for this disease before development of metastasis.
  • Thanks to this discovery, we can now establish the association of MTC with other tumors in the context of MEN2 syndrome; determine adequate follow-up, prognosis, and treatment for patients with hereditary disease; and use this information to develop new therapies against both sporadic and hereditary MTCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Mutation / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / physiology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 18502338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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92. Cañizo A, Fanjul M, Cerdá J, Menárguez J, Parente A, Laín A, Carrera N, Rodríguez-Arnao MD, Rodríguez-Sánchez A, Polo JR, Vázquez J: [Is immediate prophylactic thyroidectomy indispensable in familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma?]. Cir Pediatr; 2008 Apr;21(2):100-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Is immediate prophylactic thyroidectomy indispensable in familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma?].
  • [Transliterated title] Es imprescindible la tiroidectomía profiláctica inmediata en el carcinoma medular de tiroides familiar?
  • PURPOSE: To emphasize the importance of genetic studies in family members and early prophylactic thyroidectomy in oncogene mutation carriers in the management of familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of families with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma treated at our center in the last 7 years was performed.
  • RESULTS: In all families the index case were patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting at a mean age of 37.25 years (range 23-42).
  • Fourteen gene carriers were identified with a mean age of 20 years (range 7-37), eleven of whom had medullary thyroid carcinoma at the time of surgery.
  • Five of the gene carriers were children, with a mean age of 11 years (range 7-16), four of whom had microcarcinoma and one had metastatic carcinoma at the time of surgery.
  • No pediatric patient has presented with phaeochromocytoma or hypoparathyroidism to date Four of the five children have normal calcitonin levels (< 2 pg/ml) and they are free of disease.
  • The one who presented metastatic carcinoma has recurrent disease and is awaiting surgical treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic studies of family members related to patients with familiar medullary thyroid carcinoma and RET mutations is indispensable.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / prevention & control. Thyroid Neoplasms / prevention & control. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18624279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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93. Sand M, Gelos M, Sand D, Bechara FG, Bonhag G, Welsing E, Mann B: Serum calcitonin negative medullary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:97

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum calcitonin negative medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7% of thyroid neoplasms.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 73-year-old female patient with a rare case of a serum calcitonin negative medullary thyroid carcinoma who suffered fulminant post-operative course and died of multiple metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: This case shows that in very rare cases MTCs do not secrete calcitonin making diagnosis and tumour follow-up difficult.

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  • (PMID = 17184544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1769382
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94. Weber T, Schilling T, Büchler MW: Thyroid carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):30-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnostic methods and treatment options for differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma are continuously influenced by new trends and techniques.
  • Our review therefore displays the most recent clinical practices for diagnosis and operative treatment of differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • A second step to diagnose medullary thyroid carcinoma is calcitonin measurement before surgery, which is sensitive and specific enough to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • Surgical treatment for differentiated or medullary thyroid carcinoma mostly consists of total or near-total thyroidectomy.
  • An additional central or lateral modified-radical neck dissection might help to reduce local recurrence, especially in medullary carcinoma, but still does not influence significantly the survival rates.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnosis and treatment of thyroid carcinoma are still subjected to changes and the different options of surgical treatment in particular will be continuously discussed in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16357561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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95. Brandão LG, Cavalheiro BG, Junqueira CR: Prognostic influence of clinical and pathological factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a study of 53 cases. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2009;64(9):849-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic influence of clinical and pathological factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a study of 53 cases.
  • OBJECTIVES AND INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, a neoplasia of intermediate prognosis and differentiation, does not always respond predictably to known treatments.
  • The clinical status of patients at the end of the study period was characterized to determine correlations with a range of disease aspects.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (41.5%) were alive and disease-free at the end of the follow-up period; twenty-three patients (43.4%) had persistent disease; and eight patients (15.1%) had recurrent disease.
  • Four patients (7.6%) died from medullary thyroid carcinoma with clinical and/or imaging evidence of neoplasia.
  • The following aspects demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the final medical condition: positive initial cervical examination (p = 0.002); neoplastic extensions to the thyroid capsule (p = 0.004) and adjacent tissues (p = 0.034); cervical lymph node metastases (p < 0.001); diameter of neoplasia (p = 0.018); TNM (tumor, node and metastasis) Stage (p = 0.001) and evidence of distant and/or cervical diseases in the absence of a cure (p = 0.011).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and pathological aspects of patients with surgically treated medullary thyroid carcinomas are predictors of disease progression.
  • Specifically, even treated cervical lymph node metastases are significantly correlated with disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19759878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2745148
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cervical lymph node / Medullary thyroid carcinoma / Multiple endocrine neoplasia / Prognosis / Thyroid neoplasms
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96. Konstantinou E, Sapsakos Mariolis T, Fotis T, Mitsos A, Restos S, Mamoura K, Soultati A, Elefsiniotis I, Kapellakis G: Preventive thyroidectomy in patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma found heterozygote for mutant RET proto-oncogene. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev; 2010 Dec;8(2):108-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preventive thyroidectomy in patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma found heterozygote for mutant RET proto-oncogene.
  • The currently available genetic tests for identification of the RET proto-oncogene mutation offer the possibility of prospective successful therapy before the hyperplasia of C-cells evolve to Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.
  • We present our experience regarding the preventive thyroidectomy of family members with history of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, who were found to be heterozygote for mutant RET proto-oncogene.
  • We have retrospectively reviewed 19 members of 6 families with history of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, who were heterozygote for mutant RET protooncogene and underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy.
  • The Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma was asymptomatic and the mutation of RET protooncogene has been also documented pre-operatively in all of them.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Child. Family Health. Heterozygote. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2011 Dec;9(2):608. Evangelos, Konstantinou [corrected to Konstantinou, Evangelos]; Theodoros, Mariolis S [corrected to Sapsakos Mariolis, Theodoros]; Theofanis, Fotis [corrected to Fotis, Theofanis]; Aristotelis, Mitsos [corrected to Mitsos, Aristotelis]; Stilianos, Restos [corrected to Restos, Stylianos]; Konstantinia, Mamoura [corrected to Mamoura, Konstantina]; Aspasia, Soultati [corrected to Soultati, Aspasia]; Ioannis, Elefsiniotis [corrected to Elefsiniotis, Ioannis]; George, Kapellakis [corrected to Kapellakis, George]
  • (PMID = 21150841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, medullary
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97. Nofech-Mozes S, Mackenzie R, Kahn HJ, Ehrlich L, Raphael SJ: Breast metastasis by medullary thyroid carcinoma detected by FDG positron emission tomography. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Feb;12(1):67-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast metastasis by medullary thyroid carcinoma detected by FDG positron emission tomography.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon thyroid cancer comprising 5% to 8% of thyroid neoplasms.
  • In contrast to common thyroid tumors, this tumor originates from the calcitonin-producing C cells.
  • Regional metastases to cervical lymph nodes occur early in the disease, whereas distant metastasis occurs late.
  • Common metastatic sites include the liver, bone, brain, and adrenal medulla.
  • (1) metastasis to the breast is an extremely rare occurrence and could be easily confused clinically and pathologically with a primary breast neoplasm and (2) this is the first reported case of detection of breast metastasis by an MTC using FDG ((18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) positron emission tomography with an accompanying histologic description.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Palliative Care

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 18164420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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98. Desai SS, Sarkar S, Borges AM: A study of histopathological features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: cases from a single institute in India. Indian J Cancer; 2005 Jan-Mar;42(1):25-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A study of histopathological features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: cases from a single institute in India.
  • BACKGROUND: The microscopic features of medullary carcinoma have been described in world literature, together with its behavior and molecular biology.
  • AIMS: This study aims to analyse the clinical, and especially the pathological features of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and the surrounding thyroid.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study a total of 234 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) were gathered over a period of 3 decades.
  • The histology revealed certain interesting features like the presence of apoptosis in over half of the tumors, in addition to the other common and not so common histological findings (encapsulated variant, small cell variants, follicular pattern, rosettes, oncocytic change, osteosarcoma-like pattern, and cribriform pattern).
  • The adjacent thyroid in about 19% of the cases showed optically clear nuclei in the follicles that were close to the tumor cells.
  • These features were similar to those seen in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The thyroid adjacent to MTC showed nuclear changes, which are also found in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The occasional concurrent occurrence of these two tumors and the involvement of the RET gene in both medullary and papillary carcinomas, makes this observation worth discussing and studying further.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15805688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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99. Khomsi F, Ben Bachouche W, Bouzaiene H, Chargui R, Ben Hassouna J, Mtaalah MH, Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Benna F, Boussen H, Gamoudi A, Rahal K: [Typical medullary carcinoma of the breast: a retrospective study about 33 cases]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Nov;35(11):1117-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Typical medullary carcinoma of the breast: a retrospective study about 33 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome médullaire typique du sein : étude rétrospective à propos de 33 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Typical medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare histological form of breast carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study about 33 cases of typical medullary carcinoma managed at the Salah-Azaïz Institute during a period of six years between 1994 and 1999.
  • The five-year free-disease survival was about 85%.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Typical medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare histological form of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17977045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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100. Börcek P, Asa SL, Gentili F, Ezzat S, Kiehl TR: Brain metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brain metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The brain is an exceedingly rare site of metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • Histopathologic exam demonstrated a metastatic tumour composed of nodules and sheets of large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm.
  • This case report highlights the unique features of an unusual metastatic brain tumour, which followed an indolent course for a long time despite multiple distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029950
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