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1. Maruna P, Duskova J, Limanova Z, Dvoraková S, Vaclavikova E, Bendlova B: Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid in a 71-year-old man with history of malignant melanoma. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Apr;14(4):CS31-6
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  • [Title] Mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma of the thyroid in a 71-year-old man with history of malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed medullary-follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with a pleomorphic pattern is a rare malignant epithelial tumor characterized by clinical and immunohistochemical features of follicular and parafollicular thyroid cells.
  • Different molecular mechanisms for mixed thyroid tumors have been suggested.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a 71-year-old man with a history of malignant melanoma with mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Cytology results of a fine needle aspiration biopsy were suspicious of a thyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a mixed medullary and follicular cell carcinoma that showed characteristic patterns and calcitonin and thyroglobulin positivities in many of the tumor cells.
  • The tumor was not associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A mixed differentiated thyroid tumor is a diagnostic challenge with fine needle aspiration.
  • Definitive diagnosis remains the domain of histology because of the necessity of topographic information.
  • The origins of this rare tumor entity are unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18376354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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2. Fernandes R, Gopalan P, Spyridakou C, Joseph G, Kumar M: Predictive indicators for thyroid cartilage involvement in carcinoma of the larynx seen on spiral computed tomography scans. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Oct;120(10):857-60
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  • [Title] Predictive indicators for thyroid cartilage involvement in carcinoma of the larynx seen on spiral computed tomography scans.
  • The objectives of our study were: to assess the accuracy of pre-operative spiral CT in predicting thyroid cartilage involvement in patients with carcinoma of the larynx; and to elucidate the factors that would accurately indicate cartilage involvement.
  • These criteria included: soft tissue asymmetry; loss of medullary space; spiky or irregular surface; distortion of cartilage framework; and abnormal soft tissue on both sides of the cartilage.
  • The radiological findings were then correlated with the histopathological evidence of cartilage invasion by the tumour.
  • The most specific criterion to predict thyroid cartilage involvement was the presence of tumour on both sides of the cartilage (specificity of 91 per cent, sensitivity of 66 per cent).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiography. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Cartilage / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / radiography. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Wales

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  • (PMID = 17038232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Rumiantseva UV, Il'in AA, Rumiantseva PO, Medvedev VS, Abrosimov AIu, Zaletaev DV: [Familial well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Familial well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • Medical Research Institute of Radiology, Russian Academy Forty-eight cases of familial disease (24 families) (4.3%) were identified among 1,118 patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had been either examined or treated at the Clinic of Medical Research Institute of Radiology (1995-2004).
  • In 86% of the study group, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was associated with tumor of the identical histological pattern while the remaining families revealed association with follicular or medullary thyroid cancer.
  • Carcinoma inheritable from mother was the most frequent (75%).
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Alanine. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Female. Glycine. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16715702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; OF5P57N2ZX / Alanine; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
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4. Saint-Vil D, Emran MA, Lambert R, Alos N, Turpin S, Huot C: Cumulative doses of adjunct 131I treatment depend on location of residual thyroid tissue after total thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 May;42(5):853-6
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  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to review the outcome after adjunct postoperative 131I therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) treated with total thyroidectomy (excluding medullary thyroid carcinoma).
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review: Management protocol is total thyroidectomy with cervical node sampling, 131I whole-body scan 3 weeks postoperatively to document residual thyroid tissue or metastatic lesions.
  • Patients are considered disease free if 2 consecutive 131I whole-body scan are negative with undetectable thyroglobulin level.
  • Whole-body scan postoperatively revealed uptake in the thyroid bed (TB) in 10 patients, in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in 9 patients, and in CLN and lungs in 2 patients.
  • With a mean follow-up of 7.8 years (range, 1-16 years), overall survival is 100% but disease-free survival is 100%, 66%, and 0% respectively for patients with residual disease in TB, CLN, and lungs.
  • CONCLUSION: Patient with residual thyroid tissue in the TB required a significantly lesser number of treatments and doses of 131I compared to patients with cervical node metastases with a 100% disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Whole-Body Counting

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  • (PMID = 17502198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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5. Machens A, Dralle H: Angiography-proven liver metastases explain low efficacy of lymph node dissections in medullary thyroid cancer patients. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;31(9):1051-2
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  • [Title] Angiography-proven liver metastases explain low efficacy of lymph node dissections in medullary thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


6. Ribechini A, Bottici V, Chella A, Elisei R, Vitti P, Pinchera A, Ambrosino N: Interventional bronchoscopy in the treatment of tracheal obstruction secondary to advanced thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):131-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Surgery is the choice treatment for symptomatic tracheal obstruction due to malignant thyroid disease.
  • SETTING: Pulmonary and Endocrinology Units of a University Hospital.
  • PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: From January 2, 2000 to March 1, 2004 14 consecutive patients [5 males, mean age: 62.2+/-10.7 (SD) yr] underwent IB due to tracheal obstruction for anaplastic (ATC: 7 patients), differentiated (DTC: 5), medullary (MTC:.
  • 1) and non-epithelial malignant (NEMN:.
  • Eight out of 14 patients had local advanced inoperable disease, 6 had local relapse after surgery, 1311 or RT.
  • In 4 patients airway patency was maintained by insertion of a stent; in 3 the tracheal lesion was removed by Nd-YAG laser; in 7 both procedures were performed.
  • All but 4 DTC patients died 11.9+/-14.2 months after the diagnosis (4.20+/-5.1 after IB).
  • In 4 DTC patients still alive 90.7+/-59.2 since diagnosis and 16.7+/-9.2 months since IB, the airway dilatations allowed further treatments like 131-I and/or RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / surgery. Bronchoscopy / methods. Carcinoma / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Trachea / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16610238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
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7. Sromek M, Czetwertyńska M, Skasko E, Zielińska J, Czapczak D, Steffen J: The frequency of selected polymorphic variants of the RET gene in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and in the general population of central Poland. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Sep;21(3):178-85
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  • [Title] The frequency of selected polymorphic variants of the RET gene in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and in the general population of central Poland.
  • The object of this work was to compare the frequency of three polymorphic changes in the RET proto-oncogene: L769L, S836S, and S904S in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; n = 246) and in the general population (n = 420 for single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] L769L and S904S; n = 411 for SNP 836).
  • We tried to investigate how the harbored SNPs affect the age at onset of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (sMTC) and MTC in carriers of known pathogenic mutations at codons 634 and 791 of the RET gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Middle Aged. Mutation. Poland / epidemiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20521125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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8. Okoń K: Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(3):129-76
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  • [Title] Pathology of renal tumors in adults. Molecular biology, histopathological diagnosis and prognosis.
  • Malignant renal tumors constitute 3% of human cancers, although their frequency differs greatly in various areas.
  • Since the fifties, the incidence of renal cancers has been increasing, but at the some time the prognosis has been improving.
  • In particular, in the last years, several new treatment modalities have been introduced, relying on the understanding of renal cancer biology.
  • The identified etiological factors include smoking, increased body mass, dietary factors and chronic renal disease.
  • There are several renal tumor types differing in morphology, molecular genetics and biology.
  • Inactivation of the VHL gene leads to formation of the most frequent form in adults, namely clear cell carcinoma.
  • Papillary carcinomas depend mainly on the HGF receptor gene (c-Met) activating mutations.
  • At least two types of papillary carcinomas exist, which have different morphology and prognosis.
  • The molecular biology of chromophobe carcinoma and oncocytoma is poorly understood.
  • Differential diagnosis of these tumors is particularly difficult and may require extensive immunohistochemical and molecular studies.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma and medullary carcinoma are extremely aggressive but rare tumors.
  • Some renal tumors have been described or recognized only relatively recently; these newer entities include multilocular cystic clear cell carcinoma, spindle cell papillary mucinous carcinoma, tubulocystic carcinoma, renal epithelial and stromal tumor, epithelioid and oncocytic angiomyolipoma.
  • Besides histological typing, the prognostic factors include tumor stage, grade and several immunohistochemical and molecular markers that are currently under elaboration.
  • The improved prognosis in renal cancer depends on earlier detection, but also on refinement of therapeutic methods.
  • Small tumors may currently be treated by partial nephrectomy or radiofrequency ablation and larger ones by a laparoscopic approach.
  • Renal carcinoma is notorious for its low sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • With this progress, perfect understanding of renal tumor biology and exact histological diagnosis have become of prime practical importance.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms


9. Nanni C, Rubello D, Fanti S, Farsad M, Ambrosini V, Rampin L, Banti E, Carpi A, Muzzio P, Franchi R: Role of 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT imaging in thyroid cancer. Biomed Pharmacother; 2006 Sep;60(8):409-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), the lacking of 131Iodine trapping by metastatic tissue does not allow 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy to visualize matastatic spread as well as the use of 131Iodine therapy to cure such metastatic spread.
  • In these patients an early diagnosis of non-functioning metastasis and their surgical extirpation remains the optimal therapeutic approach.
  • In this view, a high sensitive localizing imaging different form 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy is required.
  • Various tumor-seeking radiotracers have been proposed, mainly using SPECT as 201Thallium, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Tetrofosmin with good results.
  • The typical indication to performing with examination is the DTC patient previously treated by total thyroidectomy and 131Iodine ablative therapy, with increased serum thyroglobulin (Tg) or anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies during follow-up but with negative 131Iodine whole body scintigraphy even obtained after high, therapeutic 131Iodine doses.
  • Lastly, the role of PET and PET/CT fusion imaging systems seem to be promising also in patients affected by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), especially for the detection of neck and mediastinal lesions, with a sensitivity superior to the other currently available imaging methods, however the data reported on medullary cancer are little and further studies are needed to elucidate the preliminary promising results.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / radiography. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Early Diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Gland / radiography. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16891093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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10. Tanaka H, Sumiyama Y, Watanabe M, Asai K, Enomoto T, Osawa A, Kanai R, Matsukiyo H, Nagao J, Kusachi S, Saida Y, Okamoto Y, Takahashi K: [A case of resectable solitary liver metastasis from breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1798-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was medullary carcinoma.
  • A solitary tumor in the right lobe of the liver at S6 was found 10 months after mastectomy by ultrasonography.
  • With a diagnosis of liver metastasis from breast cancer, right hepatectomy was performed in May 2001.
  • At present, she remains disease free for 4 years after hepatectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary


11. Fialkowski E, DeBenedetti M, Moley J: Long-term outcome of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):754-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome of reoperations for medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Most patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have persistent disease after primary surgery, as evidenced by calcitonin elevation.
  • Four patients died of disease (4.3% of 93).
  • Follow-up data demonstrate that at least one third of such patients have long-term eradication of their disease following reoperation, as evidenced by biochemical and imaging studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Microdissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcitonin / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Reoperation. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18188643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009621; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA53524; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA09621
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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12. Rossi ED, Raffaelli M, Mulè A, Zannoni GF, Pontecorvi A, Santeusanio G, Minimo C, Fadda G: Relevance of immunocytochemistry on thin-layer cytology in thyroid lesions suspicious for medullary carcinoma: a case-control study. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Dec;16(6):548-53
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  • [Title] Relevance of immunocytochemistry on thin-layer cytology in thyroid lesions suspicious for medullary carcinoma: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration cytology represents the most important tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, mostly in discriminating malignant from benign lesions.
  • The diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may present some problems related to its deceptive morphologic picture.
  • This diagnosis may be supported by immunocytochemistry (ICC), which may be difficult to carry out on the conventional smears.
  • DESIGN: The diagnostic efficacy of ICC for the diagnosis of MTC with respect to other thyroid neoplasms on slides processed by thin-layer cytology (TLC) is evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-three thyroid cytologic cases had ICC on the TLC slides, including 22 follicular proliferations and 11 malignant lesions.
  • CONDENSED ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration cytology is an excellent technique for diagnosing malignant neoplasms of the thyroid, especially those derived from the follicular cells.
  • A correct preoperative diagnosis of C-cell-derived tumors (MTC), which is essential for both the surgical approach to the primary tumor and the management of the patient, should rely not only on the morphologic picture but also on the immunocytochemical yielding using an immunopanel, which is particularly satisfactory on the TLC slides.

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  • (PMID = 18685492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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13. Yu Y, Gao M: [Advances of biotherapy in medullary thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;42(10):794-6
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  • [Title] [Advances of biotherapy in medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine

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  • (PMID = 18229601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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14. Sehestedt T, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Johansen C: Iodine intake and incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Aug;65(2):229-33
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  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied all thyroid cancers notified to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1973-1997, focusing on the four most frequent subtypes: papillary, follicular, anaplastic and medullary thyroid cancer.
  • A slight but nonsignificant increase in total incidence, resulting mainly from a significant increase in the incidence for the papillary subtype, was observed in both regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / deficiency. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Denmark / epidemiology. Dietary Supplements. Female. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16886965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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15. Pałyga I, Kowalska A, Gąsior-Perczak D, Tarnawska-Pierścińska M, Słuszniak J, Sygut J, Góźdź S: The role of PET-CT scan with somatostatin analogue labelled with gallium-68 (⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TATE PET-CT) in diagnosing patients with disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):507-11
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  • [Title] The role of PET-CT scan with somatostatin analogue labelled with gallium-68 (⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TATE PET-CT) in diagnosing patients with disseminated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • INTRODUCTION: Calcitonin is a very sensitive marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • High concentrations of basal or pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin in patients with MTC is a signal of recurrence or metastatic disease.
  • The aim of the study was to present examples of the use of ⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TATE PET-CT examinations in the diagnosis of patients with MTC and concomitant elevated serum calcitonin concentrations.
  • A total body scan was performed using ⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-TATE PET-CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Gallium Radioisotopes
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21049467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; Thyroid cancer, medullary
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16. Bachleitner-Hofmann T, Strohschneider M, Krieger P, Sachet M, Dubsky P, Hayden H, Schoppmann SF, Pfragner R, Gnant M, Friedl J, Stift A: Heat shock treatment of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells enhances their capacity to elicit antitumor T cell responses against medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4571-7
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  • [Title] Heat shock treatment of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells enhances their capacity to elicit antitumor T cell responses against medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) can stimulate antitumor T cell responses against medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • The aim of our investigations was to evaluate whether heat shock also increases the capacity of human monocyte-derived DCs to stimulate antitumor T cell responses against MTC tumor cells.
  • METHODS: DCs from six patients with metastatic MTC were pulsed with tumor lysate derived from allogeneic MTC tumor cells and were heat shocked for 12 h at 40 C or kept at 37 C.
  • Finally, the cytotoxic activity of T cells against MTC tumor cells was measured in vitro.
  • RESULTS: In all patient samples, cytotoxic T cell responses against MTC tumor cells could be induced.
  • Notably, heat-shocked DCs were more potent stimulators of cytotoxic T cell responses than control DCs, with T cells stimulated with heat-shocked DCs displaying a significantly increased cytotoxic activity against MTC tumor cells as compared with T cells stimulated with control DCs.
  • In none of the experiments was a cytotoxic T cell response against unrelated pancreatic tumor cells (PANC-1) observed, using both control and heat-shocked DCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / immunology. Dendritic Cells / metabolism. Dendritic Cells / pathology. Hyperthermia, Induced / methods. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Extracts / immunology. Female. Genes, MHC Class I. HLA Antigens / metabolism. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Heat-Shock Response. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. In Vitro Techniques. Lymphocyte Activation / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Toll-Like Receptor 2 / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16954161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Cell Extracts; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 2; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
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17. Borchhardt KA, Heinzl H, Gessl A, Hörl WH, Kaserer K, Sunder-Plassmann G: Calcitonin concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease and medullary thyroid carcinoma or c-cell hyperplasia. Kidney Int; 2006 Dec;70(11):2014-20
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  • [Title] Calcitonin concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease and medullary thyroid carcinoma or c-cell hyperplasia.
  • It is currently not known which level of pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin serum concentration indicates medullary thyroid carcinoma in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
  • We examined CKD stage 3-5 patients who had total thyroidectomy because of a pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin concentration greater than 100 pg/ml, and tested the diagnostic performance of basal and pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin levels for differentiating medullary thyroid carcinoma and C-cell hyperplasia in this patient population.
  • Seven of these 22 patients presented with a medullary thyroid carcinoma, all other patients showed C-cell hyperplasia.
  • Patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma showed higher unstimulated (212 pg/ml (36-577) vs 42 pg/ml (17-150); P < 0.001) and higher maximum pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin concentrations (862 pg/ml (431-2423) vs 141 pg/ml (102-471); P < 0.001) as compared to patients with C-cell hyperplasia.
  • The sensitivity (100%) and specificity (93%) estimates suggested that a maximum pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin concentration greater than 400 pg/ml indicates the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma in patients with CKD.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pentagastrin. ROC Curve. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2007 May;3(5):246-7 [17389879.001]
  • (PMID = 17051143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-2538
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EF0NX91490 / Pentagastrin
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18. Roman S, Lin R, Sosa JA: Prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma: demographic, clinical, and pathologic predictors of survival in 1252 cases. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2134-42
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  • [Title] Prognosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma: demographic, clinical, and pathologic predictors of survival in 1252 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare cancer.
  • METHODS: All patients with a diagnosis of MTC with active follow-up in the SEER database from 1973 to 2002 were included.
  • Although many variables were significant on univariate analysis, SEER stage and age at diagnosis were found to be the strongest predictors of survival in the multivariate analysis.
  • Prognosis was poor in patients with advanced disease (hazards ratio [HR], 4.47), or those age >65 years (HR, 6.55).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage of disease and age at diagnosis were found to be the strongest predictors of survival for patients with MTC.
  • To the authors' knowledge there has been no change in stage at diagnosis or a significant improvement in survival noted over the last 30 years.
  • Many patients underwent surgery that was deemed less than optimal for stage of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / mortality. SEER Program. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17019736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Anderson WF, Chen BE, Jatoi I, Rosenberg PS: Effects of estrogen receptor expression and histopathology on annual hazard rates of death from breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Nov;100(1):121-6
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  • We hypothesized that annual mortality rates from breast cancer after initial diagnosis (hazard rates) might also vary by ER and histopathology.
  • METHODS: We accessioned the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER, 1992-2002) program to estimate hazard rates according to ER (positive and negative) and histopathology (duct, tubular, lobular, medullary, inflammatory, papillary, and mucinous types).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / mortality. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mortality / trends. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / mortality. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Risk Factors. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16685588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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20. Zebic-Sinkovec M, Kadivec M, Podobnik G, Skof E, Snoj M: Mammographycally occult high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as second primary breast cancer, detected with MRI: a case report. Radiol Oncol; 2010 Dec;44(4):228-31
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  • [Title] Mammographycally occult high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as second primary breast cancer, detected with MRI: a case report.
  • The majority of patients harbouring CLB tumours develop the invasive disease.
  • Almost all invasive carcinomas are believed to begin as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the case of a woman who was treated with breast conserving therapy 10 years ago.
  • At that time the invasive medullary carcinoma was diagnosed in the left breast.

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  • (PMID = 22933920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1581-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3423706
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MRI / high-grade DCIS / second primary breast cancer
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21. Siqueira D, Rocha AP, Puñales MK, Maia AL: Identification of occult metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma by calcitonin measurement in washout fluid from fine needle aspiration of cervical lymph node. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2009 Jun;53(4):479-81
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  • [Title] Identification of occult metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma by calcitonin measurement in washout fluid from fine needle aspiration of cervical lymph node.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may occur sporadically or as a manifestation of an autosomal-dominant inherited syndrome, the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
  • MTC synthesize and secrete calcitonin, a well established tumor marker and postoperative level of serum calcitonin, indicates whether residual disease was left behind and whether reintervention is necessary.
  • This paper brings a report of an illustrative case of a patient with MTC diagnosed by molecular screening, who persisted with detectable levels of serum calcitonin after surgical procedure.
  • After 48 months, an increase in serum calcitonin impelled us to investigate the disease focus.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19649389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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22. Lewiński A, Wojciechowska K: Genetic background of carcinogenesis in the thyroid gland. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2007 Apr;28(2):77-105
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  • [Title] Genetic background of carcinogenesis in the thyroid gland.
  • Therefore, we attempted to bring closer the problem of neoplastic transformation in the thyroid gland.
  • We have presented results of the most recent studies referred to molecular biology of thyroid neoplasms.
  • We have demonstrated not only the genetic background of cancers, derived from the thyroid follicular cell, but also genetic aspects related to medullary thyroid carcinoma and some benign thyroid lesions.
  • Additionally, we discuss overexpression of cyclin D1 gene in benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Genes, Suppressor. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Models, Biological. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology


23. Toledo SP, dos Santos MA, Toledo Rde A, Lourenço DM Jr: Impact of RET proto-oncogene analysis on the clinical management of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2006 Feb;61(1):59-70
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma, primary hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
  • Since 1993, when the first missense RET proto-oncogene (RET) mutations were reported in MEN2, up to 46 different RET-causing disease mutations have been described.
  • We discuss the large impact of RET proto-oncogene analysis on the clinical management of MEN2 and the role of early RET molecular DNA diagnosis in providing clinicians and surgeons with valuable information that enables them to indicate early total thyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


24. Aide N, Bardet S: Would patient selection based on both calcitonin blood level and doubling time improve 18F-FDG PET sensitivity in restaging of medullary thyroid cancer? J Nucl Med; 2007 Sep;48(9):1574; author reply 1574-5
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  • [Title] Would patient selection based on both calcitonin blood level and doubling time improve 18F-FDG PET sensitivity in restaging of medullary thyroid cancer?
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • [CommentOn] J Nucl Med. 2007 Apr;48(4):501-7 [17401085.001]
  • (PMID = 17785732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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25. Lakhani VT, You YN, Wells SA: The multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Annu Rev Med; 2007;58:253-65
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  • Mutations in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene cause MEN2A, MEN2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC).
  • Specific codon mutations within RET correlate with disease phenotype and severity.
  • Also, children from families with MEN2A, MEN2B, or FMTC, who are found to have inherited a mutated RET allele, can be managed by prophylactic thyroidectomy, thus preventing the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), the dominant endocrinopathy in patients with these hereditary syndromes.


26. Machens A, Hauptmann S, Dralle H: Prediction of lateral lymph node metastases in medullary thyroid cancer. Br J Surg; 2008 May;95(5):586-91
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  • [Title] Prediction of lateral lymph node metastases in medullary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), there is a concordance between central and lateral neck involvement, but this relationship has not been assessed quantitatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Copyright] 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18300267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Abdul Rashid S, Rahmat K, Jayaprasagam K, Alli K, Moosa F: Medullary carcinoma of the breast: Role of contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of multiple breast lesions. Biomed Imaging Interv J; 2009 Oct;5(4):e27
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  • [Title] Medullary carcinoma of the breast: Role of contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of multiple breast lesions.
  • Medullary carcinoma is a rare breast carcinoma with a syncytial growth pattern and high-grade cytology.
  • The authors report a case of a 25-year-old female who presented with multifocal breast lumps diagnosed with medullary carcinoma and fibroadenomas.
  • Imaging and pathological correlation with contrast-enhanced MRI are presented in the diagnosis of these lesions.

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  • [Cites] J Ultrasound Med. 2007 Jun;26(6):817-24 [17526613.001]
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  • (PMID = 21610994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1823-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical imaging and intervention journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Imaging Interv J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3097716
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fibroadenoma / medullary carcinoma breast / ultrasonography
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28. Shyla PR, Nair RM, Somanathan T: Rare case of orbital tumor. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Jun;59(2):174-5
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  • [Title] Rare case of orbital tumor.
  • Orbital metastasis from thyroid malignancy is rare (3.6%) and is usually from follicular and medullary carcinoma thyroid.
  • Here we are presenting the case report of a lady who presented with loss of vision and on evaluation was found to have orbital metastasis from papillary carcinoma thyroid.

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  • (PMID = 23120424.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451786
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Orbital metastasis / Thyroid carcinoma
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29. Harzallah F, Barlier A, Feki M, Enjalbert A, Slimane H: Unusual presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A in a patient with the C634R mutation of the RET-protooncogene. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Dec;69(6):523-5
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  • Laboratory evaluation and imaging findings confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • During cervicotomy, the parathyroid adenoma was resected and the thyroid node was suspected to be a carcinoma.
  • Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma and revealed a multifocal and bilateral medullary carcinoma.
  • These findings led to the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • Imaging findings were compatible with the diagnosis of bilateral pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. DNA / genetics. Diabetes Mellitus / etiology. Female. Humans. Hyperglycemia / diagnosis. Hyperglycemia / etiology. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy


30. Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Cui B, Gu L, Zhu S, Li J, Liu J, Yin M, Zhao T, Yin Z, Yu C, Chen C, Wang L, Xiao B, Hong J, Zhang Y, Tang Z, Wang S, Li X, Ning G: RET proto-oncogene mutations are restricted to codons 634 and 918 in mainland Chinese families with MEN2A and MEN2B. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Oct;67(4):570-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, which includes multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), type 2B (MEN 2B), and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC).
  • The incidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PCC) and hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in the 37 MEN2A patients was 91.9, 56.8 and 10.8%, respectively; the onset of MTC in MEN2A patients was earlier than that of PCC and HPT.

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  • (PMID = 17573899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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31. Dralle H, Lorenz K, Machens A: [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Nov;80(11):1069-82; quiz 1083
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  • [Title] [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma].
  • The 5 main types of thyroid cancer (papillary, PTC, follicular, FTC, poorly differentiated, PDTC undifferentiated, UTC, medullary, MTC) not only differ regarding morphology, pathogenesis, genetics,and pathophysiology (iodine metabolism, thyroglobulin and calcitonin production), but also concerning tumor biology, metastatic behavior (lymphogenous, locally invasive and hematogenous routes) and prognosis.
  • Differentiated carcinomas may have an acceptable prognosis despite local invasion of the cervical aerodigestive system, thus resections are justified when technical prerequisites are given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / mortality. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate. Trachea / pathology. Trachea / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19902289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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32. Böckmann M, Hilken G, Schmidt A, Cranston AN, Tannapfel A, Drosten M, Frilling A, Ponder BA, Pützer BM: Novel SRESPHP peptide mediates specific binding to primary medullary thyroid carcinoma after systemic injection. Hum Gene Ther; 2005 Nov;16(11):1267-75
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  • [Title] Novel SRESPHP peptide mediates specific binding to primary medullary thyroid carcinoma after systemic injection.
  • Peptides possess appropriate properties to serve as tumor-targeting agents.
  • Thus, finding new cancer-selective peptides directing gene transfer to neoplastic cells by reducing transduction of normal cells is a central goal for molecular targeting.
  • We have previously reported identification of a peptide (HTFEPGV) that selectively binds to human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)-derived TT cells in vitro and transplanted tumor xenografts in vivo, using phage display.
  • In the present study, we have performed this approach in primary orthotopically growing murine MTCs of RET-C634R transgenic mice as a clinically relevant model for thyroid cancer by intravenous injection of a complex peptide library.
  • Two rounds of screening on primary tumors yielded multiple copies of a phage that displays a cyclic 7-amino acid peptide, SRESPHP, with a 3000-fold increase in titer between rounds 1 and 2.
  • The selected phage showed highly specific binding to the tumor after systemic administration, whereas binding to other organs such as lung, liver, kidney, and heart was reduced up to 90%.
  • After tail vein injection, homing to the tumor was substantially reduced in the presence of synthetic SRESPHP peptide, indicating that tumor phage interaction strictly depends on the displayed peptide.
  • Moreover, this peptide also mediates binding to human MTC cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting abundant expression of its cognate receptor in murine and human medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Because the SRESPHP peptide is also efficiently internalized into MTC cells, it likely provides the basis for a new selective therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Oligopeptides / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16259560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-0342
  • [Journal-full-title] Human gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligopeptides
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33. Favia G, Iacobone M: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: state of the art. G Chir; 2005 Nov-Dec;26(11-12):405-9
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma: state of the art.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) constitutes about 3-10% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Surgery is the only successful treatment for MTC, as there is no effective adjuvant therapy for residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genotype. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Phenotype. Reoperation. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16472416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Editorial; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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34. Pakarinen MP, Rintala RJ, Koivusalo A, Heikkinen M, Lindahl H, Pukkala E: Increased incidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma in patients treated for Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Oct;40(10):1532-4
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma in patients treated for Hirschsprung's disease.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are responsible for the development of inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • RET mutations are encountered in patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Hirschsprung Disease / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16226978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Lai AZ, Gujral TS, Mulligan LM: RET signaling in endocrine tumors: delving deeper into molecular mechanisms. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):57-67
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  • [Title] RET signaling in endocrine tumors: delving deeper into molecular mechanisms.
  • The rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is implicated in the development of endocrine tumors of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  • In humans, activating RET mutations are found in the inherited cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 and in sporadic medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • The specific type and location of RET mutations are strongly correlated with the disease phenotype and have both diagnostic and prognostic value.
  • Recent advances have begun to provide a deeper understanding of the receptor's function, and dysfunction, in human tumors that may guide this process.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / physiology. Signal Transduction / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17916994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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36. Yin Q, Cheng W, Cheng MY, Fan SZ, Shen W: Intrathecal injection of anti-CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody delayed and attenuated pain facilitation in rat tibial bone cancer pain model. Behav Pharmacol; 2010 Oct;21(7):595-601
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  • Syngeneic Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were injected into the tibia medullary cavity to establish the rat model of bone cancer pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neutralizing. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma 256, Walker / complications. Pain / immunology. Pain Management. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Hyperalgesia / physiopathology. Hyperalgesia / therapy. Injections, Spinal. Molecular Targeted Therapy / trends. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Pain Measurement / psychology. Pain Threshold / drug effects. Pain Threshold / psychology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tibia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20736819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5849
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioural pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neutralizing; 0 / CX3CR1 protein, rat; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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37. Balice P, Theintz G: [Goitre and thyroid nodules in children and adolescents]. Rev Med Suisse; 2007 Apr 18;3(107):981-5
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  • Systematic examination of the thyroid gland allows discovering diffuse or multinodular goitres as well as solitary nodules.
  • Goitre may be the only clinical manifestation of an underlying thyroid disease.
  • Thyroid ultrasonography is of critical importance to assess the diagnosis.
  • Multinodular goitre and solitary thyroid nodule are rare in the paediatric age group: both conditions can reveal a malignant lesion.
  • Long term outcome is excellent with an exception for medullary carcinoma which can be part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN type 2 A).
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter, Nodular / blood. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Humans. Mass Screening. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / blood. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17526371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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38. John N: A review of clinical profile in sickle cell traits. Oman Med J; 2010 Jan;25(1):3-8
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  • [Title] A review of clinical profile in sickle cell traits.
  • Sickle cell trait is not usually regarded as a disease state because it has complications that are either uncommon or mild.
  • A previous study was earlier conducted to study Sickle cell traits and it revealed that there was enhanced lipid per oxidation along with imbalance in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with sickle cell anaemia.
  • Moreover, sickle cell traits present with varied problems including increased urinary tract infection in women, gross hematuria, complications of hyphema, splenic infarction with altitude hypoxia or exercise, life-threatening complications of exercise etc.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma in the young, early onset of end stage renal, as well as disease from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are other well-known occurrences in sickle cell traits.
  • In view of the above facts, this article aims to review the literature to analyze the health status in sickle cell traits.

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  • (PMID = 22125689.001).
  • [ISSN] 2070-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] Oman medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oman Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Oman
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3215393
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39. Santarpia L, El-Naggar AK, Sherman SI, Hymes SR, Gagel RF, Shaw S, Sarlis NJ: Four patients with cutaneous metastases from medullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Aug;18(8):901-5
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  • [Title] Four patients with cutaneous metastases from medullary thyroid cancer.
  • Cutaneous metastasis from thyroid cancer, especially medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is rare.
  • The first patient had a remote history of MTC and initial presentation of the recurrence was a rapidly progressing cutaneous lesion; on subsequent disease staging, widely metastatic disease was discovered.
  • Definitive diagnosis of cutaneous metastases of MTC was made on biopsy of the lesions with cells that stained positive for neuroendocrine markers.
  • Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis from MTC is important because it is a negative prognostic factor indicative of multisystemic disease.
  • Thus, MTC metastases should be included in the differential diagnosis of erythematous maculopapular eruptions and nodular lesions of the skin, especially when these metastases occur in the upper part of the body and if the patient has a history of MTC.
  • The appearing of cutaneous metastasis is a negative prognostic factor since all the patients here described died within one year from the diagnosis of cutaneous metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


40. de Groot JW, Sijmons RH, Links TP, Plukker JT, Hofstra RM: Medullary thyroid cancer in a patient with Hirschsprung disease with a C609Y germline RET-mutation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 Feb;40(2):226-9
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid cancer in a patient with Hirschsprung disease with a C609Y germline RET-mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Hirschsprung Disease / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 15699703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Oskam IM, Hoebers F, Balm AJ, van Coevorden F, Bais EM, Hart AM, van den Brekel MW: Neck management in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;34(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Neck management in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIMS: The aims of this study were to retrospectively evaluate incidence and patterns of lymph node metastases, surgical treatment and prognostic factors of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Out of a group of 70 MTC patients data of 67 patients were collected.
  • Of the 12 elective neck dissections, 5 were tumor positive.
  • Level VI was positive in 91% of the cases where a dissection was done, whereas preoperatively only 16% were scored tumor positive.
  • The most important factors that were correlated with a worse prognosis of survival were late stage of disease (stage III and IV) (p=0.0014), high number of positive lymph nodes (p=0.0023) and incomplete surgical resection (p=0.0002).
  • A routine central and ipsilateral selective neck dissection of levels II-V should be considered in all MTC patients based on the high incidence of metastases and the relative low morbidity of a unilateral neck dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Neck Dissection / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17555910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Chen H, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Van Gompel JJ: Medullary thyroid cancer: the functions of raf-1 and human achaete-scute homologue-1. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):511-21
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid cancer: the functions of raf-1 and human achaete-scute homologue-1.
  • Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a prototypic neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid C cells.
  • In this review, we detail recent studies that suggest that targeting specific signaling pathways may be a viable strategy to control MTC tumor progression.
  • Specifically, we discuss the role of the raf-1 and achaete-scute homologue-1 pathways in the MTC tumor growth and differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / enzymology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology


43. Fialkowski EA, DeBenedetti MK, Moley JF, Bachrach B: RET proto-oncogene testing in infants presenting with Hirschsprung disease identifies 2 new multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A kindreds. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Jan;43(1):188-90
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  • [Title] RET proto-oncogene testing in infants presenting with Hirschsprung disease identifies 2 new multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A kindreds.
  • BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A (MEN 2A) is a genetic syndrome manifesting as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
  • Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a rare manifestation of MEN 2A and has been described in known MEN 2A families.
  • METHODS: Here we describe 2 MEN 2A families that were only identified after the diagnosis of HSCR.
  • All 3 had thyroidectomies demonstrating C-cell hyperplasia.
  • Total thyroidectomies revealed metastatic MTC in the father and C-cell hyperplasia in both children.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hirschsprung disease can be the initial presentation of MEN 2A.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Genetic Testing. Hirschsprung Disease / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


44. Selves J: [Histological types and prognostic factors in colorectal cancer]. Med Sci (Paris); 2009 Mar;25 Spec No 1:9-12
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  • Medullary carcinoma and serrated adenocarcinoma are two variants of colon cancer which are associated to particular pathways.
  • Medullary carcinoma is invariably associated with MSI while serrated adenocarcinoma is characterized by excess of methylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. DNA Mismatch Repair. Humans. Inflammation / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19361404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0767-0974
  • [Journal-full-title] Médecine sciences : M/S
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Sci (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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45. Meijer JA, le Cessie S, van den Hout WB, Kievit J, Schoones JW, Romijn JA, Smit JW: Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling times as prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a structured meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Apr;72(4):534-42
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  • [Title] Calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen doubling times as prognostic factors in medullary thyroid carcinoma: a structured meta-analysis.
  • CONTEXT: In the management of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), calcitonin doubling time (dt) has gained interest as an independent predictor of recurrence and survival.
  • METHODS: Ten studies containing data on the post-operative kinetics of tumour marker(s) and (recurrence free) survival were included.
  • CEA dt has a higher predictive value than calcitonin dt and therefore measuring both tumour markers is essential for proper risk stratification.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19563448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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46. Giove E, Merlicco D, Nacchiero E, Marzaioli R: [Conservative treatment of chyle fistula of the neck following a reintervention of cervical bilateral lymphectomy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Case report]. Ann Ital Chir; 2010 Sep-Oct;81(5):361-4
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  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of chyle fistula of the neck following a reintervention of cervical bilateral lymphectomy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento conservativo di fistola chilosa del collo in paziente sottoposta a reintervento chirurgico di linfectomia bilaterale per carcinoma midollare della tiroide. Case report.
  • Poor is the literature concerning chyle fistula, due to its rarity, and mostly case reports; still debated--prevalently empiric--is the management of this disease.
  • The Authors report a case of chyle fistula following a reintervention of cervical bilateral lymphectomy for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in a 75 years old female.
  • The injection of a sclerosant agent (4 g of sterile medical talc diluted in isotonic sodium chloride solution) into the supraclavicular wound bed, through the drainage tube (clamped for 2 hours), determined rapid decline in fistula output, hence obviating surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Chyle. Cutaneous Fistula / etiology. Neck Dissection / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21298879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Leitão VA, da Silva W Jr, Ferreira U, Denardi F, Billis A, Rodrigues Netto N Jr: Renal medullary carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):184-6
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Young patients with sickle cell trait or disease present a higher risk for renal medullary carcinoma, an aggressive renal tumor, with dismal prognosis, with a median survival of 4 months from the time of diagnosis.
  • Pathological evaluation revealed a medullary carcinoma and the patient died after 4 months, despite adjuvant treatment.
  • Whenever a patient with sickle cell trait or disease presents with hematuria and/or flank pain, the possibility of a renal medullary carcinoma should always be kept in mind, with thorough investigation and expeditious treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Kidney Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16888429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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48. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Nakamura Y, Tomoda C, Uruno T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Kakudo K, Miyauchi A: Expression of Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 and p27 (Kip1) in thyroid medullary carcinoma. Pathology; 2005 Jun;37(3):216-9
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  • [Title] Expression of Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 and p27 (Kip1) in thyroid medullary carcinoma.
  • AIMS: p27 is a prominent regulator of cell proliferation by universally inhibiting the cell cycle, while Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab1), a multifunctional cell signaling protein, contributes to carcinoma progression by degrading p27.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of these proteins in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically examined Jab1 and p27 expression in 64 medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • The p27 expression level was inversely linked to tumour size as well as plasma calcitonin level.
  • The incidence was higher than those in papillary and follicular carcinomas, which were previously reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that (1) decrease in p27 expression may contribute to local tumour growth;.
  • (2) Jab1 expression is related to the progression of medullary carcinoma by decreasing the amount of p27 in the cell and accelerating its degradation; and (3) Jab1 may play a more vital role in the pathogenesis of medullary carcinoma than papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Peptide Hydrolases / biosynthesis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16175894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / p27 antigen; EC 3.4.- / Peptide Hydrolases; EC 3.4.-.- / COPS5 protein, human
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49. Sherman SI: Targeted therapy of thyroid cancer. Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Sep 1;80(5):592-601
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Systemic chemotherapies for advanced or metastatic thyroid carcinomas have been of only limited effectiveness.
  • For patients with differentiated or medullary carcinomas unresponsive to conventional treatments, novel therapies are needed to improve disease outcomes.
  • Multiple novel therapies primarily targeting angiogenesis have entered clinical trials for metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Partial response rates up to 30% have been reported in single agent studies, but prolonged disease stabilization is more commonly seen.
  • The most successful agents target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, with potential targets including the mutant kinases associated with papillary and medullary oncogenesis.
  • Additional agents targeting tumor vasculature, nuclear receptors, epigenetic abnormalities, and the immune response to neoplasia have also been investigated.
  • Treatment for patients with metastatic or advanced thyroid carcinoma now emphasizes clinical trial opportunities for novel agents with considerable promise.
  • Alternative options now exist for use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are well tolerated and may prove worthy of regulatory approval for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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50. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Iacobone M, Toniato A, Sattarova S, Erlic Z, Martella M, Mian C, Merante Boschin I, Zambonin L, De Lazzari P, Murgia A, Pelizzo MR, Favia G, Mantero F: Familial nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:149-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • His brother died of malignant pheochromocytoma and his nephew died suddenly of an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma.
  • The proband of family 2 is a female who had a 5-cm benign adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 34 years, while her cousin (maternal branch) had a monolateral pheochromocytoma at the age of 42 years.
  • No other tumors had been reported in either family.
  • Several other tumors were recorded in this family, including laryngeal cancer, leukemia, and a case of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in one brother.
  • The proband also had a melanoma and bilateral renal cysts.
  • In family 5, the proband was a female who had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at the age of 50 years and a breast cancer at 49 years of age.
  • Her mother had had a right adrenal pheochromocytoma at 61 years of age.
  • Although other molecular mechanisms, such as particular variants in untranslated regions or partial gene deletions, cannot be ruled out, we think finding families with nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma without any RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, or EGLN3 mutation may argue in favor of the presence of other pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17102081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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51. Raue F, Frank-Raue K: Genotype-phenotype relationship in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Implications for clinical management. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jan-Mar;8(1):23-8
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal dominant tumour syndrome caused by germline activating mutations of the RET proto-oncogene.
  • It has a strong penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and can be associated with bilateral pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (MEN2A) within a single patient or family.
  • MEN2 provides a unique model for early prevention and cure of cancer and for stratified roles of mutation-based diagnosis of carriers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Genotype. Humans. Phenotype. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / prevention & control. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 19269918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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52. Dvoráková S, Dvoráková K, Malíková M, Skába R, Vlcek P, Bendlová B: A novel Czech kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hirschsprung's disease. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Jun;40(6):e1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel Czech kindred with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and Hirschsprung's disease.
  • Activating germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene cause the development of familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) or medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome.
  • Inactivating germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are detected in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR).
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Hirschsprung Disease / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15991157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitogens; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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53. Portela-Gomes GM, Grimelius L, Wilander E, Stridsberg M: Granins and granin-related peptides in neuroendocrine tumours. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):12-20
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  • This review focus on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), with special reference to the immunohistochemical analysis of granins and granin-related peptides and their usefulness in identifying and characterizing the great diversity of NET types.
  • Granins, their derived peptides, and complex protein-processing enzyme systems that cleave granins and prohormones, have to some extent cell-specific expression patterns in normal and neoplastic NE cells.
  • Some expression patterns of granin-related peptides seem valuable in differentiating between some benign and malignant NETs, some may also provide prognostic information, among which: well-differentiated NET types expressed more CgA epitopes than the poorly differentiated ones, except insulinomas, where the opposite was noted; medullary thyroid carcinomas containing few cells immunoreactive to a CgB antibody were related to a bad prognosis; C-terminal secretoneurin visualized a cell type related to malignancy in phaeochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromogranins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20211659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Secretogranin II; 149146-12-3 / secretoneurin
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54. da Silva Kotze LM, Nisihara RM, da Rosa Utiyama SR, Piovezan GC, Kotze LR: Thyroid disorders in Brazilian patients with celiac disease. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2006 Jan;40(1):33-6
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  • [Title] Thyroid disorders in Brazilian patients with celiac disease.
  • INTRODUCTION/AIM: Patients with celiac disease (CD) can develop a gluten related autoimmune disorder that affects not only the small intestine but other tissues as well.
  • The patients of Group 2B presented clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism before the diagnosis of CD, and 5 of these patients were receiving levothyroxine.
  • One woman (Group 2C; 1.92%) had a medullary carcinoma.
  • There was statistical significance between the age when thyroid disease was diagnosed (current age) and the age of CD diagnosis between Groups 1 and 2B.
  • Screening for associated diseases is recommended for patients with CD, independent of age at diagnosis or treatment duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Celiac Disease / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16340631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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55. You YN, Lakhani V, Wells SA Jr, Moley JF: Medullary thyroid cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):639-60
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid cancer.
  • The goal in managing patients who have MTC is to detect and surgically remove disease at an early stage.
  • Tumor marker-based biochemical screening and DNA-based genetic screening have created the opportunity for effective prophylactic surgery in patients at risk for hereditary MTC.
  • Complete surgical resection is critical for cure because cervical reoperation for persistent or recurrent disease benefits only select patients.
  • With the advent of therapies that target the RET-activated pathways, new hope may be emerging for patients who have locally advanced or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16882502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA101695; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32DK007012
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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56. Cardot-Bauters C, Leteurtre E, Leclerc L, Vantyghem MC, Do Cao C, Wemeau JL, d'Herbomez M, Carnaille B, Barbu V, Pinson S, Pigny P, Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE): Does the RET variant G691S influence the features of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Sep;69(3):506-10
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  • [Title] Does the RET variant G691S influence the features of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: The RET (rearranged during transfection) proto-oncogene G691S variant is over-represented in the germline of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (sMTC) vs. normal controls but so far is not associated with any medical or pathological features of the tumour.
  • The former group did not differ from the wild-type group in terms of MTC size, prevalence of C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) or papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • Moreover, this variant is an independent predictor of a higher basal calcitonin synthesis rate in patients with sMTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Genetic Variation / physiology. Glycine / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Serine / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18331611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
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57. Suárez C, Rodrigo JP, Ferlito A, Cabanillas R, Shaha AR, Rinaldo A: Tumours of familial origin in the head and neck. Oral Oncol; 2006 Nov;42(10):965-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Individuals with inherited cancer syndromes are at significant risk of developing both benign and malignant tumours as a result of a germline mutation in a specific tumour suppressor gene.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 1 are characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of at least two of the three main related endocrine tumours: parathyroid, enteropancreatic and anterior pituitary.
  • No clear correlation of MEN-1 genotype with genotype has emerged to date, and MEN-1 mutation testing in tumours is not used clinically because it have not implications for tumour staging.
  • Hallmarks of MEN-2A (the commonest phenotypic variant) include medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism.
  • The molecular genetic basis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas remains unknown, but there is evidence for the linkage of these tumours to chromosome 3p.
  • Finally, the high rate of p16 mutations in squamous cell carcinomas and the association of p16 with familial melanoma propose p16 as an ideal candidate gene predisposing to familial squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16857415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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58. Zafar N, Jamal S, Mamoon N, Luqman M, Anwar M: Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Apr;15(4):221-4
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study.
  • Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade.
  • Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma.
  • Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly.
  • CONCLUSION: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate.
  • In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15857595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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59. Browning L, Bailey D, Parker A: D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):293-6
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  • [Title] D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The morphological similarities between the cells of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and those of the adrenal cortex impose diagnostic difficulties, for example in the context of a solitary nodule in the adrenal gland in a patient with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • D2-40, an antibody commonly used to highlight lymphatic endothelial cells, is consistently positive in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • AIMS: To investigate the utility of D2-40 in distinguishing neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortical cells from those of CCRCC, and from phaeochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: D2-40 antibody was applied to tissue sections from 10 normal adrenal glands, 15 renal carcinomas (13 clear cell, 2 papillary variants), 1 metastatic CCRCC in the adrenal gland, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 5 adrenal cortical adenomas, 3 adrenal cortical carcinomas, and 4 phaeochromocytomas.
  • RESULTS: D2-40 was strongly and diffusely positive in the cells of the neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortex, but negative in the cells of the CCRCC, both primary and metastatic, in 100% of the cases.
  • The cells of the adrenal medulla, and those of the phaeochromocytomas, were negative for D2-40.
  • CONCLUSIONS: D2-40 may be a useful marker for distinguishing primary adrenal cortical neoplasms from both metastatic CCRCC and phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytoplasm / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry


60. Gosnell JE, Maa J, Clark OH, Duh QY: Medullary thyroid carcinoma manifesting as an ovarian mass: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):351-7
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma manifesting as an ovarian mass: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the uncommon case of a woman with abdominal pain and a complex adnexal mass, who was subsequently found to have medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) metastatic to the ovary.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical history, physical findings, laboratory and imaging studies, and pathologic findings in a woman with metastatic MTC and locally aggressive disease.
  • After laparoscopic left oophorectomy, histopathologic analysis of the resected ovary suggested the presence of a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor.
  • The patient underwent left thyroid lobectomy and selective lymph node dissection but later required tracheostomy because of tumoral invasion of the trachea, laser debulking of the tumor, and external beam radiation therapy.
  • One year postoperatively, development of a metastatic lesion in her right ovary necessitated a second oophorectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18463043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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61. de Groot JW, Plaza Menacho I, Schepers H, Drenth-Diephuis LJ, Osinga J, Plukker JT, Links TP, Eggen BJ, Hofstra RM: Cellular effects of imatinib on medullary thyroid cancer cells harboring multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2A and 2B associated RET mutations. Surgery; 2006 Jun;139(6):806-14
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  • [Title] Cellular effects of imatinib on medullary thyroid cancer cells harboring multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2A and 2B associated RET mutations.
  • BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in the RET gene, which encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor, often cause medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • We evaluated imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, as a potential drug for systemic treatment of MTC, in 2 MTC-derived cell lines expressing multiple endocrine neoplasia-associated mutant RET receptors.
  • We determined the effects on cell proliferation by a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and we used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis with annexin V/propidium iodide staining to study imatinib-induced cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cell death.
  • Dose-dependent decreases in cell proliferation of both cell lines after exposure to imatinib with inhibitory concentration of 50% levels of 23 +/- 2 micromol/L and 25 +/- 4 micromol/L were seen.
  • These values are high, compared with those for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
  • We further could show that imatinib induced cell-cycle arrest, and apoptotic and nonapoptotic cell death.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imatinib inhibits RET-mediated MTC cell growth affecting RET protein levels in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Mutation. Piperazines / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Benzamides. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Phosphorylation


62. Drosten M, Pützer BM: Mechanisms of Disease: cancer targeting and the impact of oncogenic RET for medullary thyroid carcinoma therapy. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2006 Oct;3(10):564-74
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of Disease: cancer targeting and the impact of oncogenic RET for medullary thyroid carcinoma therapy.
  • The outstanding role of the RET proto-oncogene in the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is well established.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Therapy / trends. Humans. Oncogenes. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17019434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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63. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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64. Kwon GY, Hong SA, Hong ME, Park ES, Yoo JH, Lee TJ: Fine needle aspiration biopsy for the diagnosis of thymoma metastatic to the breast: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):798-802
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy for the diagnosis of thymoma metastatic to the breast: a case report.
  • Here we report the cytologic findings on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis of a case of thymoma metastatic to the breast.
  • FNAB was performed: the cytologic specimen showed epithelial cell clusters with a few entrapped lymphocytes, suggestive of metastatic thymoma.
  • However, the differential diagnosis also included a primary malignancy such as poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma or medullary carcinoma of the breast.
  • CONCLUSION: An FNAB-based diagnosis of this rare entity can be an appropriate, simple and minimally invasive procedure in the right clinical setting and with the appropriate patient history.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Castellone MD, Verrienti A, Magendra Rao D, Sponziello M, Fabbro D, Muthu M, Durante C, Maranghi M, Damante G, Pizzolitto S, Costante G, Russo D, Santoro M, Filetti S: A novel de novo germ-line V292M mutation in the extracellular region of RET in a patient with phaeochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma: functional characterization. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Oct;73(4):529-34
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  • [Title] A novel de novo germ-line V292M mutation in the extracellular region of RET in a patient with phaeochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma: functional characterization.
  • CONTEXT: In multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), rearranged during transfection (RET), gene testing has been extensively exploited to characterize tumour aggressiveness and optimize the diagnostic and clinical management.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENT: Occult medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man who had presented with unilateral phaeochromcytoma.
  • DNA extracted from the blood and tumour tissues was analysed for mutations in RET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Humans. Male. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20039896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, medullary
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66. Kraeber-Bodéré F, Rousseau C, Bodet-Milin C, Ferrer L, Faivre-Chauvet A, Campion L, Vuillez JP, Devillers A, Chang CH, Goldenberg DM, Chatal JF, Barbet J: Targeting, toxicity, and efficacy of 2-step, pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using a chimeric bispecific antibody and 131I-labeled bivalent hapten in a phase I optimization clinical trial. J Nucl Med; 2006 Feb;47(2):247-55
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  • Safety, targeting, and antitumor efficacy of pretargeted radioimmunotherapy using anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) hMN-14 x m734 bispecific antibody (BsmAb) and 131I-di-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-indium hapten were evaluated in a phase I study performed on patients with CEA-expressing tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty-two patients with nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (non-MTC) (group I, 13 patients) or medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) (group II, 9 patients) were enrolled.
  • Toxicity and tumor response were assessed in 20 patients who received a therapeutic (>2.2 GBq) hapten dose of radioactivity.
  • RESULTS: The percentage of lesions detected by immunoscintigraphy after injection of the therapeutic dose of hapten was 70% on an anatomic-site basis.
  • Nine cases of tumor stabilization of 3 mo to more than 12 mo were observed (45%), 6 in the MTC group and 3 in the non-MTC group.
  • The rate of disease stabilization was significantly higher with 75 mg/m2 of BsmAb (64%) than with 40 mg/m2 (22%) (P = 0.04).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Bispecific / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Haptens / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Radioimmunotherapy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Injuries / diagnosis. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Radiopharmaceuticals / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Assessment / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2006 Feb;47(2):196-9 [16455623.001]
  • (PMID = 16455630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bispecific; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Haptens; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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67. Wygoda Z, Oczko-Wojciechowska M, Gubała E, Pawlaczek A, Kula D, Wiench M, Włoch J: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma: the comparison of the hereditary and sporadic types of cancer]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):407-14
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma: the comparison of the hereditary and sporadic types of cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Rak rdzeniasty tarczycy: porównanie postaci dziedzicznej i sporadycznej.
  • INTRODUCTION: The assessment of frequency and type of mutation and differences in prognosis between sporadic and hereditary type of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), based on own DNA analysis, was performed.
  • The family history consisted of information about MTC, pheochromocytoma and other neoplasms and hyperparathyroidism in relatives.
  • The age of diagnosis was ranged between 7 and 71 years (mean age: 39 +/- 15.2 years, median age: 41 years).
  • In hereditary MTC the mean age of diagnosis was 27 +/- 13.9 years and was significantly lower than in sporadic one, where it was 45.7 +/- 14.3 years.
  • The relationship between diagnosis, age and subtypes of hereditary MTC was assessed--no significant differences in examined subgroups were observed.
  • The mean age of diagnosis in MEN 2A/FMTC and MEN 2A syndrome was 28-29 years, in MEN 2B - 21 years.
  • Analysis performed after excluding suprarenal causes of death revealed no statistically significant differences in overall survival between both subtypes of MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / classification. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. DNA, Neoplasm. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / classification. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Risk Factors


68. Chougnet C, Brassard M, Leboulleux S, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: Molecular targeted therapies for patients with refractory thyroid cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Aug;22(6):448-55
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  • The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to reconsideration of the treatment strategy in patients with distant metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma who are resistant to radioiodine therapy, and in patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered, preferably in the context of a prospective trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Disease Progression. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20554167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors
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69. Zhou YL, Zhu SX, Li JJ, Liu JB, Yin M, Xiao BY, Yu CL, Wang LM, Gu LQ, Cui B, Ning G, Li XY, Zhao YJ: [The clinical patterns and RET proto-oncogene in fifteen multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A pedigrees]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jun;46(6):466-70
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  • The mean age at which the members of the former group were diagnosed as MEN2A was significantly later than those of the latter group [(43.0 +/- 13.9) yr vs (9.8 +/- 7.4) yr, P < 0.01]; The incidences of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PCC) and hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in 37 MEN2A patients were 91.9%, 56.8% and 10.8%; Five germline mutations which all located in codon 634 of exon11 in RET proto-oncogene were detected in the fifteen MEN2A pedigrees.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


70. Erdogan MF, Gursoy A: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: Turkish experience. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev; 2006 Aug;3 Suppl 3:503-7
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma: Turkish experience.
  • MEN 2 has three distinct subtypes, which are MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Identification of a disease gene has enabled a DNA-based strategy for detection of direct mutation in patients with MEN 2 syndromes and in patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The identification of mutations responsible for MEN 2 syndromes has resulted in the routine identification of gene carriers early in life before the development of disease, causing timely prophylactic thyroidectomy in these patients.
  • This report includes our clinical and molecular experience on Turkish MEN 2 families and patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed and treated between 1994 and 2005.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


71. Argiris A, Agarwala SS, Karamouzis MV, Burmeister LA, Carty SE: A phase II trial of doxorubicin and interferon alpha 2b in advanced, non-medullary thyroid cancer. Invest New Drugs; 2008 Apr;26(2):183-8
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of doxorubicin and interferon alpha 2b in advanced, non-medullary thyroid cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, radioiodine- refractory thyroid cancer, excluding medullary carcinoma, were treated with interferon alpha-2b 12 million units/m2 subcutaneously on days 1-5 and doxorubicin 40 mg/m2 intravenously, on day 3, every 28 days.
  • RESULTS: 17 patients, 15 with well differentiated and 2 with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, were enrolled; median age was 69 years.
  • In 16 patients assessable for response, 1 patient (6%), who had follicular carcinoma, achieved a partial response and 10 patients (62.5%) stable disease as best response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Doxorubicin and interferon alpha was associated with considerable toxicities but modest antitumor activity in patients with advanced, non-medullary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Recombinant Proteins. Survival Rate. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroglobulin / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17909728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Kiyamova R, Kostianets O, Malyuchik S, Filonenko V, Usenko V, Gurtovyy V, Khozayenko Y, Antonuk S, Old L, Gout I: Identification of tumor-associated antigens from medullary breast carcinoma by a modified SEREX approach. Mol Biotechnol; 2010 Oct;46(2):105-12
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  • [Title] Identification of tumor-associated antigens from medullary breast carcinoma by a modified SEREX approach.
  • Medullary breast carcinoma (MBC) is a relatively rare malignancy with heavy lymphocytic infiltration that despite cytologically anaplastic features and high mitotic index has more favorable prognosis than other types of breast cancer.
  • Lymphocytic infiltration of tumors reflects ongoing immune response against tumor antigens which could represent a great interest as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy.
  • Here, we describe a novel approach for generating cDNA expression libraries from MBC tumor samples which are depleted of IgG cDNA clones and, therefore, are suitable for the identification of novel tumor-associated antigens (TAA) by SEREX approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20440581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Immune Sera
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73. Kosowicz J, Mikołajczak R, Czepczyński R, Ziemnicka K, Gryczyńska M, Sowiński J: Two peptide receptor ligands (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-(D)Glu-octagastrin for scintigraphy of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2007 Oct;22(5):613-28
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  • [Title] Two peptide receptor ligands (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-(D)Glu-octagastrin for scintigraphy of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Somatostatin and gastrin receptors are overexpressed in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cells; hence, both of them are potential targets for peptide receptor scintigraphy and radiotherapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty (30) patients, 20 females and 10 males, 22-83 years of age (mean, 52.7) with the diagnosis of MTC in different stages of the disease (preoperative, postsurgery, remission, recurrence, or metastatic disease) were included in this study.
  • The diagnosis of MTC was confirmed in all cases by histopathology of the removed tumor and immunohistochemical staining giving positive reactions for calcitonin and chromogranin A.
  • Scans of the whole body, head, neck, and chest were performed 2 and 4 hours after injections of the tracer, 500-600 MBq in each case, using a double-head Varicam (Elscint, Israel) gamma camera.
  • The new gastrin analog, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-(D)Glu-octagastrin, is well tolerated, shows no renal retention, and in some cases of MTC, provides additional information on the expression of gastrin receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Gastrins. Organotechnetium Compounds. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Edetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Edetic Acid / chemistry. Female. Humans. Hydrazines / chemistry. Indium Radioisotopes / chemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Nicotinic Acids / chemistry. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17979564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1084-9785
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid; 0 / Gastrins; 0 / Glu-Octagastrin; 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Nicotinic Acids; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium 99m EDDA-HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide; 5657-17-0 / EDDA; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid
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74. Sheu SY, Schmid KW: [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31(6):449-54
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome with the major components medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism.
  • Due to the clinical course three distinct subtypes are distinguished, MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The disease is caused by germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene and the localization of these mutations correlates with the onset of the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, which is crucial for the clinical course and outcome of the disease.
  • This review summarizes the morphology and clinic of MEN 2-associated tumors and their respective precursor lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Family. Genotype. Hirschsprung Disease / epidemiology. Hirschsprung Disease / etiology. Hirschsprung Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hyperthyroidism / pathology. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Risk Assessment. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Pathologe. 2011 Feb;32(1):82
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  • (PMID = 20960196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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75. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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76. Takeuchi K, Kitazawa S, Hamanishi S, Inagaki M, Murata K: A case of alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with a hepatoid component as a potential source for alpha-fetoprotein in a postmenopausal woman. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1442-5
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  • Although case reports of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing adenocarcinoma other than hepatocellular carcinoma have gradually increased in number, AFP-producing adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is very rare.
  • Radiologic imaging and endoscopy did not provide evidence of any primary carcinoma in the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Histologic study showed a mixture of major AFP-negative endometrioid adenocarcinoma and minor medullary proliferation of the AFP-positive hepatoid adenocarcinoma cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and hyaline globules.
  • The possible existence of AFP-producing adenocarcinoma of the endometrium should be considered in a postmenopausal woman even if there is no vaginal bleeding, when AFP-producing tumor is clinically suspected and the imaging studies fail to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secretion. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secretion. alpha-Fetoproteins / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16803544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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77. Erdogan MF, Gulec B, Gursoy A, Pekcan M, Azal O, Gunhan O, Bayer A: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B presenting with pseudo-Hirschsprung's disease. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 May;98(5):783-6
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B presenting with pseudo-Hirschsprung's disease.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is a rare syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma and typical phenotypic features, such as marfanoid habitus, multiple mucosal ganglioneuromas and thickened corneal nerves.
  • Individuals with MEN 2B may develop megacolon and pseudo-obstruction due to intestinal ganglioneuromatosis simulating Hirschsprung's (HSCR) disease.
  • We hereby describe the clinical and genetic features of a 21-year-old male patient with MEN 2B associated with pseudo-HSCR disease.
  • Genetic testing revealed a de novo ret proto-oncogene germline mutation in codon 918 in exon 16.
  • Megacolon and pseudo-obstruction similar to the HSCR disease may develop in patients with MEN 2B.
  • However, the observed dysmotility is the result of an abnormal proliferation of intramural ganglion cells in contrast to the absence of enteric ganglia which were present in the HSCR disease.
  • Attentiveness about the phenotypic characteristics and unusual findings might lead to early and correct diagnosis of the MEN 2B syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hirschsprung Disease / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


78. Gursoy A, Erdogan MF, Kamel N: Severe reversible dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):363-6
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging detected a large mass lesion in the right adrenal gland.
  • The clinical condition of excess catecholaminemia (and thus, arterial hypertension and the abnormality of the glucose metabolism) subsided with complete resolution of the congestive heart failure following the surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Evaluation for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) revealed an elevated calcitonin level demonstrated by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • An overwhelming secretion of catecholamine might cause severe cardiomyopathy and impair glucose metabolism, as evidenced by the improvement of both conditions following the medical treatment of catecholaminemia and surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications


79. Verga U, Morpurgo PS, Vaghi I, Radetti G, Beck-Peccoz P: Normal range of calcitonin in children measured by a chemiluminescent two-site immunometric assay. Horm Res; 2006;66(1):17-20
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  • [Title] Normal range of calcitonin in children measured by a chemiluminescent two-site immunometric assay.
  • Calcitonin (CT) assay is of considerable importance in the routine evaluation of thyroid nodules and for screening and follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and their relatives.
  • Aim of this study was to assess the reference ranges for CT levels in healthy children and to evaluate possible differences in CT levels between sex and age.
  • Serum CT levels were measured by a commercially available two-site chemiluminescence immunometric assay (sensitivity = 0.2 pg/ml).
  • In conclusion, this study provide normal range for children population at different age with a sensible two-site chemiluminescent immunoassay.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aging / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Reference Values. Sex Characteristics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16636574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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80. Ardito G, Rossi ED, Revelli L, Moschella F, Giustozzi E, Fadda G, Marzola MC, Rubello D: The role of fine-needle aspiration performed with liquid-based cytology in the surgical management of thyroid lesions. In Vivo; 2010 May-Jun;24(3):333-7
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  • The cytological diagnoses were classified according to the British Thyroid Association into 5 groups: Thy1, inadequate; Thy2, non-neoplastic or benign group including goiter, thyrocytic hyperplasia without nuclear atypia and thyroiditis; Thy3 or indeterminate/follicular proliferation, including follicular neoplasm not otherwise specified and oxyphilic follicular neoplasm; Thy4, suspicious for malignancy, including follicular lesion with nuclear pleomorphism; Thy5, diagnostic for malignancy including papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Overall 164 patients were included in the Thy2, 97 in the Thy3, 49 in the Thy4, and 43 in the malignant Thy5 group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / standards. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroiditis / pathology. Thyroiditis / surgery. Unnecessary Procedures. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20555009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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81. Talbot JN, Montravers F, Younsi N, Zanotti-Fregonara P, Grahek D, Kerrou K, Gutman F, Périé S, Maurel G, Saint Guily JL, Devaux JY, Duron F: [PET in thyroid cancers]. Presse Med; 2006 Sep;35(9 Pt 2):1377-85
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  • [Transliterated title] La TEP dans le cancer de la glande thyroïde.
  • FDG PET can detect thyroid cancer in patients referred for exploration of a different cancer.
  • Because of its lack of specificity, however, this modality is not indicated for examination of thyroid nodules: ultrasonography and fine needle biopsy with cytology allow histological diagnosis, which can be completed by iodine-123 scintigraphy when an autonomous nodule is suspected.
  • In follow-up of medullary carcinoma, FDG PET detects residual tissue better than any other scintigraphic procedures, especially when serum levels of CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) are rising rapidly.
  • [MeSH-major] Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroidectomy

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  • [ErratumIn] Presse Med. 2007 Oct;36(10 Pt 2):1518. Younsi, Nassima [corrected to Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo]
  • (PMID = 16969334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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82. Danko ME, Skinner MA: Surgical intervention in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2006 Jun;18(3):312-5
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  • RECENT FINDINGS: The review focuses first on medullary thyroid carcinoma and performing prophylactic thyroidectomy for the prevention or cure of this disease.
  • The timing and extent of surgery as well as additional surgical intervention for persistent or recurrent disease is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery


83. Ricciato MP, Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Rosa A, Corsello SM: Metastatic breast involvement from medullary thyroid carcinoma: a clue to consider the need of early diagnosis and adequate surgical strategy. Thyroid; 2010 Jul;20(7):831-2
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  • [Title] Metastatic breast involvement from medullary thyroid carcinoma: a clue to consider the need of early diagnosis and adequate surgical strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Early Detection of Cancer. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentOn] Thyroid. 2009 Feb;19(2):197-9 [19191751.001]
  • (PMID = 20465531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Shah NA, Urusova IA, D'Agnolo A, Colquhoun SD, Rosenbloom BE, Vener SL, Geller SA, Younes M, Lechago J, Heaney AP: Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor presenting as Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Apr;30(4):327-33
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  • [Title] Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor presenting as Cushing's syndrome.
  • Hepatic carcinoid tumors are very uncommon; most are clinically non-functional and very few present with the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • ACTH-producing carcinoid tumors most commonly originate in the lung or thymus and present insidiously with bronchospasm and/or chest mass.
  • Occasionally, ectopic ACTH syndromes have been reported in association with pancreatic islet cell tumors, medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, small-cell lung carcinoma, and rarely, ovarian and prostate tumors.
  • We report here a patient with an ectopic ACTH-secreting primary hepatic carcinoid tumor who presented with cushingoid appearance, profound proximal muscle weakness, severe lower extremity edema, and markedly elevated urinary free cortisol.
  • Following surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, histopathology confirmed an ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (NET), the patient had complete resolution of hypercortisolemic symptoms and remains in remission, now 4 yr after hepatic tumor resection.
  • Interesting aspects of this case include the presence of a pituitary incidentaloma, the low normal ACTH, and photopenia on 18FDG-PET imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Radiography, Abdominal


85. Niccoli-Sire P, Conte-Devolx B: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Oct;68(5):325-31
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer médullaire de la thyroïde.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT).
  • Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker.
  • MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET.
  • Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed.
  • Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. France. Humans. Incidence. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17572372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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86. Izikson L, English JC 3rd, Zirwas MJ: The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Aug;55(2):193-208
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  • [Title] The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment.
  • However, in some cases, accurate diagnosis requires further laboratory, radiologic, or histopathologic studies to differentiate several important clinicopathologic entities.
  • If this work-up is unrevealing, rare causes, such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pancreatic cell tumor, renal carcinoma, and others, should be considered.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVE: At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the mechanisms of flushing, its clinical differential diagnosis, the approach to establish a definitive diagnosis, and management of various conditions that produce flushing.
  • [MeSH-major] Flushing / etiology. Neoplasms / complications. Rosacea / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Eruptions. Humans. Menopause. Mental Disorders / complications. Nervous System Diseases / complications. Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16844500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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87. Weigelt B, Horlings HM, Kreike B, Hayes MM, Hauptmann M, Wessels LF, de Jong D, Van de Vijver MJ, Van't Veer LJ, Peterse JL: Refinement of breast cancer classification by molecular characterization of histological special types. J Pathol; 2008 Oct;216(2):141-50
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  • Most invasive breast cancers are classified as invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS), whereas about 25% are defined as histological 'special types'.
  • The molecular classification is derived from mainly IDC NOS and it is unknown whether this classification applies to all histological subtypes.
  • We aimed to refine the breast cancer classification systems by analysing a series of 11 histological special types [invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), tubular, mucinous A, mucinous B, neuroendocrine, apocrine, IDC with osteoclastic giant cells, micropapillary, adenoid cystic, metaplastic, and medullary carcinoma] using immunohistochemistry and genome-wide gene expression profiling.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis confirmed that some histological special types constitute discrete entities, such as micropapillary carcinoma, but also revealed that others, including tubular and lobular carcinoma, are very similar at the transcriptome level.
  • When classified by expression profiling, IDC NOS and ILC contain all molecular breast cancer types (ie luminal, basal-like, HER2+), whereas histological special-type cancers, apart from apocrine carcinoma, are homogeneous and only belong to one molecular subtype.
  • Our analysis also revealed that some special types associated with a good prognosis, such as medullary and adenoid cystic carcinomas, display a poor prognosis basal-like transcriptome, providing strong circumstantial evidence that basal-like cancers constitute a heterogeneous group.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Signal Transduction / genetics. Statistics, Nonparametric


88. Lanzi C, Cassinelli G, Nicolini V, Zunino F: Targeting RET for thyroid cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol; 2009 Feb 1;77(3):297-309
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  • The limited efficacy of conventional treatments in progressive thyroid carcinomas indicates the need for new therapeutic options.
  • Activating mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase-encoding RET gene have been identified as driving oncogenic events in subsets of papillary (PTC) and medullary (MTC) thyroid carcinomas suggesting the interest of targeted therapy.
  • Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including sorafenib, sunitinib, motesanib and vandetanib, which have already shown efficacy against other neoplastic diseases, are being evaluated in clinical trials for treatment of thyroid carcinomas.
  • Preclinical evidence supports the relevance of Ret oncoproteins as therapeutic targets for a subset of thyroid neoplastic diseases and, although targeting the original causal genetic change may not be sufficient to control the disease efficiently, the available knowledge outlines therapeutic opportunities for exploiting Ret inhibition.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy


89. Kim JM, Chung KW, Kim SW, Choi SH, Min HS, Kim JN, Won WJ, Kim SK, Lee JI, Chung JH, Kim SW: Spurious hypercalcitoninemia in patients with nodular thyroid disease induced by heterophilic antibodies. Head Neck; 2010 Jan;32(1):68-75
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  • [Title] Spurious hypercalcitoninemia in patients with nodular thyroid disease induced by heterophilic antibodies.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum calcitonin is the most useful tumor marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Heterophile / metabolism. Calcitonin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 19536770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Heterophile; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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90. Santarpia L, Ye L, Gagel RF: Beyond RET: potential therapeutic approaches for advanced and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):99-113
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  • [Title] Beyond RET: potential therapeutic approaches for advanced and metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin-producing neuroendocrine tumour that originates from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland.
  • The RET proto-oncogene encodes the RET receptor tyrosine kinase, which has essential roles in cell survival, differentiation and proliferation.
  • Activating mutations of RET are associated with the pathogenesis of MTC and have been demonstrated in nearly all hereditary and in 30-50% of sporadic MTC cases, making this receptor an excellent target for small-molecule inhibitors for this tumour.
  • Despite the importance of the RET receptor in MTC, it is clear that other signal transduction pathways, tyrosine kinase receptors, and tumour suppressor genes are involved in MTC tumourigenesis and progression.
  • Finally, there is evidence that immunological-based therapy using dendritic cell vaccination strategies have been effective for reducing tumour mass in a small number of patients.
  • The identification of additional MTC-specific tumour antigens and a better understanding of specific epitopes in these tumour antigens may lead to improvement of response rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 19522829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2796
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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91. Müller S, Poehnert D, Müller JA, Scheumann GW, Koch M, Lück R: Regulatory T cells in peripheral blood, lymph node, and thyroid tissue in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1481-7
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  • [Title] Regulatory T cells in peripheral blood, lymph node, and thyroid tissue in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Immunological response of the human body is controlled by the suppressive characteristics of regulatory T cells (Tregs).
  • For example, whereas Tregs are reduced in auto-immunological processes, an increase of Tregs is found with various malignant tumors.
  • Regarding medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) no such studies have been performed to date.
  • This result was confirmed immunohistochemically in lymph node and thyroid tissue, as well as in carcinoma tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An increase of FoxP3+ lymphocytes could be shown in peripheral blood of patients with MTC but not in patients with benign goiter; this increase also correlates with findings in lymph nodes and thyroid gland.
  • Therefore, FoxP3+ lymphocytes are a good diagnostic criterion for malignancy in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, and their presence at staging may influence therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / immunology. Lymph Nodes / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20162276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
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92. Ning L, Greenblatt DY, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H: Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid activates Notch-1 signaling and induces apoptosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells. Oncologist; 2008 Feb;13(2):98-104
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  • [Title] Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid activates Notch-1 signaling and induces apoptosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neuroendocrine (NE) malignancy that frequently metastasizes and has limited treatments.
  • Furthermore, with Notch-1 activation there was a concomitant decrease in achaete-scute complex-like 1 (ASCL-1), a downstream target of Notch-1 signaling, as well as the NE tumor marker chromogranin A (CgA).
  • Importantly, SBHA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Receptor, Notch1 / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18305053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109053; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK064735; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK066169
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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93. Giraudet AL, Vanel D, Leboulleux S, Aupérin A, Dromain C, Chami L, Ny Tovo N, Lumbroso J, Lassau N, Bonniaud G, Hartl D, Travagli JP, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: Imaging medullary thyroid carcinoma with persistent elevated calcitonin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Nov;92(11):4185-90
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  • [Title] Imaging medullary thyroid carcinoma with persistent elevated calcitonin levels.
  • PURPOSE: Because calcitonin level remains elevated after initial treatment in many medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) patients without evidence of disease in the usual imaging work-up, there is a need to define optimal imaging procedures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-five consecutive elevated calcitonin level MTC patients were enrolled to undergo neck and abdomen ultrasonography (US); neck, chest, and abdomen spiral computed tomography (CT); liver and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); bone scintigraphy; and 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan (PET).
  • Ten patients had no imaged tumor site despite elevated calcitonin level (median 196 pg/ml; range 39-816).
  • CONCLUSION: The most efficient imaging work-up for depicting MTC tumor sites would consist of a neck US, chest CT, liver MRI, bone scintigraphy, and axial skeleton MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / radionuclide imaging. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole-Body Counting

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  • (PMID = 17726071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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94. Hunt JL: Unusual thyroid tumors: a review of pathologic and molecular diagnosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2005 Sep;5(5):725-34
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  • [Title] Unusual thyroid tumors: a review of pathologic and molecular diagnosis.
  • The most common thyroid neoplasms are either follicular derived (papillary, follicular and Hürthle cell lesions) or C-cell derived (medullary carcinoma).
  • The diagnosis of these tumors can usually be made at the histologic level, with immunohistochemical stains necessary in some circumstances.
  • Specific molecular mutations have been described that can be diagnostically useful or explain, in part, their pathogenesis, including the well-known Ret/PTC and PPARgamma-PAX8 translocations, point mutations in the Ret, Ras and BRAF genes, and loss of heterozygosity of multiple different tumor suppressor genes.
  • Some unusual tumors of the thyroid gland are more difficult to diagnose.
  • These less common thyroid tumors include tall cell and cribriform-morular variants of papillary carcinoma, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, mucoepidermoid and sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • The diagnostic features of these rare tumors, including the histology, immunohistochemical expression profiles and the known molecular mutational profiles of each, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16149875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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95. Terezakis SA, Lee NY: The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 May;8(5):532-40; quiz 541
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  • [Title] The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer.
  • Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a neuroendocrine tumor derived from parafollicular or C cells of the thyroid gland.
  • Although the role of EBRT in the management of these tumors has thus far been poorly defined, EBRT should be considered as a treatment option for patients with locally advanced MTC to optimize locoregional control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy


96. Weinberger PM, Adam BL, Gourin CG, Moretz WH 3rd, Bollag RJ, Wang BY, Liu Z, Lee JR, Terris DJ: Association of nuclear, cytoplasmic expression of galectin-3 with beta-catenin/Wnt-pathway activation in thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 May;133(5):503-10
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  • [Title] Association of nuclear, cytoplasmic expression of galectin-3 with beta-catenin/Wnt-pathway activation in thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize the localization of galectin-3 in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms and to correlate this with alterations in beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression.
  • RESULTS: Both cytoplasmic (56%) and nuclear (42%) galectin-3 expression was observed in most malignant neoplasms but was absent in benign thyroid specimens (P<.001).
  • Among carcinomas, cytoplasmic galectin-3 expression was observed in papillary thyroid carcinomas (82%) and follicular (33%) and medullary (9%) carcinomas but was absent in anaplastic carcinomas (P<.001).
  • Galectin-3 nuclear expression was observed in papillary thyroid carcinomas (62%) and follicular carcinomas (33%) but was undetectable in medullary, anaplastic carcinomas (P<.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Cytoplasmic and nuclear galectin-3 expression seem to be associated with activation of the Wnt-signaling pathway in well-differentiated thyroid neoplasms, suggesting that galectin-3 plays a role in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / genetics. Galectin 3 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / genetics. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17515507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / cytoplasmic activator protein, human
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97. Nabarra B, Pontoux C, Godard C, Osborne-Pellegrin M, Ezine S: Neoplastic transformation and angiogenesis in the thymus of transgenic mice expressing SV40 T and t antigen under an L-pyruvate kinase promoter (SV12 mice). Int J Exp Pathol; 2005 Dec;86(6):397-413
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  • Using several techniques, we have assessed morphological characteristics of a malignant thymic tumour in SV12 transgenic (Tg) mice expressing SV40 T and t antigens under control of an L-PK promoter.
  • We describe the development of a carcinoma originating from thymic hyperplasia and followed by the formation of a benign tumour composed chiefly of medullary epithelial cells expressing the transgene and of lymphocytes, a pathology very rarely reported in mice.
  • Our study of the SV12 Tg mice represents the first description of a model of a pure malignant thymic tumour associated with extensive angiogenesis maintained in numerous descendants.
  • The formation of a large tumoral neovascular network, observed here, has never been described in human and/or experimental thymic tumours.
  • Tumoral transformation and angiogenesis are demonstrated by immunolabelling with antibodies against various cytokeratins (CKs) of different molecular weights, vascular endothelial cell markers and VEGF/receptor-2 (Flk-1) present on the neovascular endothelial cells.
  • These include the medullary nature of the cells expressing the SV40 transgene and their relationship with the tumoral development.
  • The subset of different molecular weight CK components and their modifications are also considered, as well as the presence of type IV epithelial cells, progenitors of medullary epithelial cells.
  • Finally, the cell signals involved in angiogenesis and the possible action of an angiogenic factor, probably secreted by the tumoral cells themselves, are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Pyruvate Kinase / genetics. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Immunoelectron. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16309545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.40 / Pyruvate Kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517450
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98. Charfi S, Ayadi L, Ellouze S, Ghorbel R, Khabir A, Gouiaa N, Bahri I, Fakhfakh I, Makni S, Sellami-Boudawra T: [Composite pheochromocytoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Jun;28(3):225-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Phéochromocytome composite associé à une néoplasie endocrine multiple de type 2B.
  • Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla are rare and have been reported in both the presence and the absence of phacomatosis.
  • Composite pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B has not been reported so far.
  • We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with marfanoid habitus and numerous mucosal neuromas of the oral cavity and the eyelids.
  • Clinical investigations revealed a left adrenal medullary tumor and bilateral thyroid nodules.
  • Histologic examination confirmed the presence of typical pheochromocytoma with large areas of ganglioneuroma and multifocal medullary carcinoma with cervical lymph nodes metastases.
  • Our report is the first to describe composite pheochromocytoma with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B; this report underlines the diversity of neoplasms that could be encountered in this disease and the complex mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


99. Volante M: [Sporadic C-cell hyperplasia associated with multinodular goiter]. Pathologica; 2006 Apr;98(2):160-3
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  • [Title] [Sporadic C-cell hyperplasia associated with multinodular goiter].
  • INTRODUCTION: C cell hyperplasia may arise in a familial setting, associated to MEN2 syndromes, or sporadic, associated to other thyroid diseases.
  • Sporadic C cell hyperplasia may be associated to elevated serum calcitonin levels, and routinary calcitonin screening tests on the search of early medullary carcinomas, have born to an increase of its diagnosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report herein the case of a 47-years old female, submitted to total thyroidectomy for nodular goiter, with slightly increased serum calcitonin levels and positive pentagastrin test.
  • CASE REPORT: Histological examination revealed in the setting of a multinodular goiter, the occurrence of C cell hyperplasia, demonstrated by means of calcitonin immunoistochemistry, in the absence of foci of medullary carcinoma.
  • Morphological features (no atypia) were consistent with a sporadic physiologic form of C cell hyperplasia, as opposed to neoplastic C cell hyperplasia in the context of MEN2.
  • DISCUSSION: The prevalence of C cell hyperplasia is not well defined, and differently from the familial form, its progression to sporadic medullary carcinoma should still be proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcitonin / analysis. Calcitonin / blood. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged. Pentagastrin. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16929791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EF0NX91490 / Pentagastrin
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100. Maru D, Middleton LP, Wang S, Valero V, Sahin A: HER-2/neu and p53 overexpression as biomarkers of breast carcinoma in women age 30 years and younger. Cancer; 2005 Mar 1;103(5):900-5
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu and p53 overexpression as biomarkers of breast carcinoma in women age 30 years and younger.
  • BACKGROUND: Although p53 and HER-2/neu overexpression are found in 30% of breast carcinomas in women of all ages and are associated with high rates of lymph node metastases, their role in women age < 30 years has not been studied extensively.
  • METHODS: The institutional breast cancer data base was searched to identify young women (23-30 years) with breast carcinoma.
  • Positive staining for p53 was defined as nuclear staining in > 10% of tumor cells.
  • RESULTS: Among 44 patients, 1 patient had medullary carcinoma, and 1 had mixed ductal/lobular carcinoma.
  • All remaining patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Tumors with lymph node metastasis had a significantly greater incidence of HER-2/neu overexpression (P=0.04).
  • HER-2/neu overexpression was associated significantly with lymph node involvement and, thus, may be a marker for aggressive clinical behavior in patients with breast carcinoma age < or = 30 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lymphatic Metastasis

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.
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  • [Copyright] 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15643600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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