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1. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Battista C, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cairoli E, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Dec;163(6):925-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONTEXT: It is unknown whether the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma (AI) can be predicted by the assessment of cortisol hypersecretion before surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of several criteria of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting the metabolic outcome after adrenalectomy.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;7(1):3 [21197705.001]
  • (PMID = 20881060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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2. Perretta S, Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Rimini M, Lezoche E: Sub-mesocolic access in laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2005 Jul;19(7):977-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: This article reports an alternative laparoscopic access to left adrenal gland.
  • Indications were Conn adenoma (55 cases), incidentaloma (64), Cushing adenoma (45), pheochromocytoma (32), adreno-genital syndrome (two), mielolipoma (two), and metastatic mass(nine).
  • Of 209, in 12 cases the left adrenalectomy was performed through a submesocolic access (seven pheochromocytoma, two incidentaloma, two Cushing adenoma, one Conn adenoma,).
  • The identification and closure of the adrenal vein with minimal gland manipulation resulted the main benefit of this approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Left adrenal lesions, as selected cases of pheochromocytoma, can be safely treated by laparoscopic submesocolic access.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15920687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Cherifi-Gatta B, Gaye D, Laurent F, Tabarin A: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Rev Prat; 2008 May 15;58(9):979-89
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass, generally more than 1 cm in diameter, that is discovered serendipitously during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas is at least 1% in patients who underwent abdominal CT examination.
  • Surgery is mandatory in patients with secretory tumours (pheochromocytoma, secreting cortical adenomas) and with adrenal cancer.
  • However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are benign cortical adenomas and surgery is mandatory only in a minority of patients.
  • Systematic aetiological investigation of adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be performed in order to guide the decision on surgical or non surgical management.
  • The optimal duration and modalities of follow-up for patients with adrenal incidentalomas are uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18672664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Kim KA, Kim SW, Park G, Kwak BS, Choi JS, Kim SH, Yeo JS, Kim EJ: Simultaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma and sarcoidosis. South Med J; 2009 May;102(5):537-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma and sarcoidosis.
  • Because he had a history of excessive alcohol use, an abdominal computed tomography scan was obtained, which revealed a left adrenal mass.
  • The suspected diagnosis was asymptomatic pheochromocytoma with sarcoidosis.
  • Histologic tissue analysis confirmed an adrenal pheochromocytoma and sarcoid granulomas in the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • This case highlights the difficulty in determining the appropriate work up of patients presenting with an adrenal incidentaloma and concomitant systemic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications


5. Lee JA, Zarnegar R, Shen WT, Kebebew E, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma. Arch Surg; 2007 Sep;142(9):870-3; discussion 73-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS: Forty-two consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas (defined as adrenal tumors identified during routine imaging for another condition) who were treated at the UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) Medical Center between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2005.
  • INTERVENTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma based on size criteria and preoperative hormonal test results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thirty percent of patients with adrenal incidentaloma and borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels had a pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Metanephrine / blood. Metanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / urine

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  • (PMID = 17875842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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6. Wani NA, Kosar T, Rawa IA, Qayum A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association. Urol Ann; 2010 Sep;2(3):130-3
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies.
  • We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT.
  • One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

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  • (PMID = 20981204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7834
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Bochdalek hernia / multidetector-row CT / myelolipoma
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7. Gomha AM, Osman Y, El-Mekresh M, Abou El-Ghar M, Eraky I: Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal tumors: a single-center experience with 238 cases. Urol Int; 2009;83(4):433-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal tumors: a single-center experience with 238 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of this study to review and analyze clinical data on the diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1976 and 2005, 238 patients admitted to our institute with adrenal masses were reviewed.
  • Incidentaloma was diagnosed in 49 patients (20.6%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography is recommended as the first diagnostic modality to define and characterize adrenal masses.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently replacing open surgery as the standard surgical management of adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19996651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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8. Bergamini C, Prosperi P, Bruscino A, Leahu A, Bargellini T, Poma A, Valeri A: [Update on the laparoscopic adrenal surgery in the second decade of the century: "doubts no more?]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):328-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Update on the laparoscopic adrenal surgery in the second decade of the century: "doubts no more?].
  • Laparoscopic adrenal surgery has significantly improved during the last years.
  • Thus at the moment it is possible to define such technique as the therapeutic "Gold Standard" option in the treatment of the adrenal tumors.
  • However, some doubts are still remaining concerning the feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in case of malignant adrenal tumors, hyper-vascular tumors (pheochromocytoma) and indeterminate incidentaloma.
  • Nearly no respond has been given to others issues such as "the single port techniques" in laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the role of radiofrequency laparoscopic ablation of the adrenal tumor, the kind of treatment of stadium I and II adrenocortical carcinoma and big size (> 8 cm) tumors, the management of non-functioning incidentaloma of 4-6 cm, the role of the robot, and, finally, the approach of the bilateral tumors.
  • We conclude that, despite many issues on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopy in the adrenal surgery have been definitely clarified, so that such technique has been declared the "Gold Standard" method in the treatment of the adrenal tumor, doubts still remain in some aspects of this method.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20646385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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9. Masserini B, Morelli V, Bergamaschi S, Ermetici F, Eller-Vainicher C, Barbieri AM, Maffini MA, Scillitani A, Ambrosi B, Beck-Peccoz P, Chiodini I: The limited role of midnight salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jan;160(1):87-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The limited role of midnight salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • No data are available on the role of MSC in the diagnosis of SH.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of MSC levels in the diagnosis of SH in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI).
  • Using the cut-off of 5.1 nmol/l, the sensitivity and specificity of MSC levels for diagnosis of SH is 22.7 and 87.7% respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18835977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cholestenones; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / cholester-4-ene-3-one; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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10. Francucci CM, Caudarella R, Rilli S, Fiscaletti P, Ceccoli L, Boscaro M: Adrenal incidentaloma: effects on bone metabolism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7 Suppl):48-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: effects on bone metabolism.
  • The effects of clinically inapparent adrenal masses or adrenal incidentalomas (AI) on bone metabolism are a controversial clinical problem related to their activity.
  • However, it is controversial, up to now, if this disorder is associated with long-term morbidity and if the treatment to reverse subtle glucocorticoid excess is beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Glucocorticoids / metabolism. Osteoporosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18791352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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11. Inokuchi T, Takiuchi H, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Shima H, Hirota S, Yamamoto T: Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma: CT and MR findings. Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 Dec;24(10):1389-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma: CT and MR findings.
  • We considered that elucidation of the characteristic features of a schwannoma would provide helpful preoperative information for diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17145411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Carnevale V, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):91-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery?
  • OBJECTIVE: Few data are available regarding the need of steroid substitutive therapy after unilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma (AI).
  • It is unknown whether, before surgery, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secretion parameters can predict post-surgical hypocortisolism.

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  • (PMID = 19797503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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13. Ueshiba H: [Incidence of adrenal hypertension in adrenal incidentaloma]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Apr 10;95(4):629-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Incidence of adrenal hypertension in adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16722428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5384
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Naika Gakkai zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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14. Taub YR, Wolford RW: Adrenal insufficiency and other adrenal oncologic emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am; 2009 May;27(2):271-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency and other adrenal oncologic emergencies.
  • Normal function of the adrenal gland can be disrupted not only by metastases of nonadrenal cancers but also by their treatment.
  • In addition, tumors of the adrenal gland itself can cause disease by hypersecretion of a variety of hormones, adrenal gland destruction with inadequate production of cortisol, and by metastasis to other sites.
  • Although rare, abnormal adrenal function should be considered in the appropriate clinical settings as failure to recognize and treat can result in significant morbidity and mortality.
  • The adrenal "incidentaloma" is a frequent finding of abdominal radiologic studies.
  • All patients with an unexpected adrenal mass should be referred for further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Emergencies. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Mineralocorticoids / therapeutic use. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19447311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency medicine clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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15. Monk IP, Lahiri R, Sivaprakasam R, Malhotra S, Praseedom RK, Jah A: Adrenocortical oncocytoma: Review of imaging and histopathological implications. Int J Surg Case Rep; 2010;1(3):30-2
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  • Oncocytomas are rare tumours of the adrenal glands whose malignant potential is difficult to assess with certainty.
  • We report a case of an adrenal oncocytoma and present a review of the literature particularly with regards to the radiological and histopathological features and their impact on the management.Adrenal oncocytomas are usually identified incidentally on imaging and can achieve large sizes.
  • They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any large upper abdominal lesion including those apparently arising from the liver as in this case report.

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  • (PMID = 22096671.001).
  • [ISSN] 2210-2612
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3199705
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal incidentaloma / Adrenal oncocytoma / Adrenal tumour / Adrenocortical oncocytoma
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16. Václavík J, Stejskal D, Lacnák B, Lazárová M, Jedelský L, Kadalová L, Janosová M, Frysák Z, Vlcek P: Free plasma metanephrines as a screening test for pheochromocytoma in low-risk patients. J Hypertens; 2007 Jul;25(7):1427-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Detection of free plasma metanephrines seems to be the most exact method for biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, but their diagnostic efficacy in the common low-risk clinical settings is debated.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre study including 1260 subjects assessed the diagnostic efficacy of free plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine in low-risk patients screened for resistant or markedly accelerated hypertension, paroxysmal hypertension, 'flushes' and, in a small proportion, for adrenal incidentaloma or genetic predisposition to pheochromocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Pheochromocytoma was identified and verified by histology in 25 subjects (2%), with the diagnosis not confirmed by long-term follow-up or use of imaging techniques in the remaining 1235 individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods. Metanephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17563565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0263-6352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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17. Frazzetta M, Tornambè A, Barrera T, Sciortino A, Lucania M, Frazzetta F, Sammartano A, Bonventre S, Vetri R: [Adrenal incidentaloma: case report and synthesis of indication and thresholds of surgery therapy]. G Chir; 2010 Nov-Dec;31(11-12):534-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: case report and synthesis of indication and thresholds of surgery therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso di incidentaloma surrenalico: sintesi delle indicazioni e limiti della terapia chirurgica.
  • In 1982, the term "incidentaloma" was introduced to indicate lesions detected on adrenal regions, found unexpectedly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


18. Odagiri E, Naruse M, Tanabe A, Ohmura M, Oki T, Katabami T, Saitoh J, Nishika T, Shibata H, Doi M, Hirata Y: [Problems of cortisol assay: confusion in the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndorme]. Rinsho Byori; 2007 Jun;55(6):549-54
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  • [Title] [Problems of cortisol assay: confusion in the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndorme].
  • Cortisol assay is used for the diagnosis of hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal disorders.
  • The Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma has been increasing with advances in imaging tools.
  • The criteria for the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome in Japan was made by the Nawata group supported by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1995.
  • The presence of adrenal adenoma, a lack of overt signs of Cushing's syndrome and autonomic cortisol secretion are essential for the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • For the diagnosis of autonomy of cortisol secretion, cortisol should not be suppressed by either low dose dexamethasone (DEX) of 1 mg (cortisol > or =3 microg/dl) or high dose DEX of 8 mg (cortisol > or =1 microg/dl).
  • We have reported that two doses of DEX suppression tests revealed a discrepancy in several cases of adrenal incidentaloma; therefore, we studied the cortisol values of DEX suppression tests in 47 cases with adrenal incidentaloma using four different cortisol kits (TFB, SPAC, TDX and TOSOH).
  • These results revealed that the clinical diagnosis varies according to the cortisol kit used.
  • It is suggested that standardization of the cortisol assay is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests / methods. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic / standards

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  • (PMID = 17657989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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19. Valeri A, Bergamini C, Manca G, Mannelli M, Presenti L, Peri A, Borrelli A, Tonelli P: Adrenal incidentaloma: the influence of a decision-making algorithm on the short-term outcome of laparoscopy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2005 Oct;15(5):451-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: the influence of a decision-making algorithm on the short-term outcome of laparoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: At the present time, the precise indications for laparoscopic surgery of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) have yet to be completely clarified.
  • The most controversial issue is the role of laparoscopy in the treatment of potentially malignant and large adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Decision Support Techniques. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16185116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Duenschede F, Bittinger F, Heintz A, Musholt T, Korenkov M, Kann P, Ewald P, Gockel I, Junginger T: Malignant and unclear histological findings in incidentalomas. Eur Surg Res; 2008;40(2):235-8
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  • STUDY DESIGN: Clinical charts of 65 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for an incidentaloma were reviewed.
  • There were 9 cases of adrenal hyperplasia, and two cysts and two hematomas were found in 4 patients.
  • In 1 patient, an adrenal cortical carcinoma of 10.0 cm in diameter was operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18032908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9921
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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21. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Nov-Dec;107(6):670-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determinate the MRI and CT scanning appearance of adrenal ganglioneuroma and correlate the imaging with histological features.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In the last 10 years, eight patients with a pathologically proven adrenal ganglioneuroma were operated on in our department of endocrine surgery.
  • To our knowledge, these patients represent one the largest reported cohorts of adrenal ganglioneuroma treated in a single institution.
  • RESULTS: The most relevant characteristics of adrenal GN resected in our patients were: No hormonal hypersecretion, Presence of calcifications; no vessel involvement; and a non-enhanced attenuation of less than 40 HU on CT, A low non-enhanced T1W signal, a slightly high and heterogeneous T2W signal, a late and gradual enhancement on dynamic MRI, especially if associated with a whorled pattern.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even if many aggressive tumours, mainly adrenal carcinoma, may share some of these radiological features, the presence of all or most of them must made the clinician evoke the diagnosis of GN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18274182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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23. Kolańska K, Owecki M, Nikisch E, Sowinski J: High prevalence of obesity in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2010;31(3):418-22
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  • [Title] High prevalence of obesity in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In contrast, the association between obesity and non-secreting adrenal incidentaloma has never been proven.
  • METHODS: 143 patients with benign non-secreting adrenal incidentalomas treated in the Department of Endocrinology at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences between the years 2000-2007 were examined.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This clinical research study demonstrates a strong association between obesity and incidentally discovered non-functioning adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Incidental Findings. Obesity / complications. Obesity / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20588242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Bourne AE, Bell SW, Wayment RO, Schwartz BF: Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4694-6
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  • [Title] Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation.
  • Adrenal "incidentalomas" are commonly found on body imaging, and treatment of these lesions 4 cm-6 cm in size is controversial.
  • Most of these lesions are benign adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Lymphoma is a rare disease manifestation in the adrenal gland, and the overwhelming majority are metastatic lesions.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma has never been reported as a primary adrenal lesion.
  • We present a very unique case report of a 5 cm adrenal "incidentaloma" that represents the first reported case of primary Hodgkin lymphoma in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hodgkin Disease / surgery


25. Sanz C, Vezzosi D, Pigny P, Bennet A, Caron P: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a and germ line C634G RET mutation diagnosed in an 80-year-old patient. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Apr;70(2):141-4
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  • Concomitantly, a chest-abdominal computed tomography was performed and revealed a 22 mm right adrenal incidentaloma.
  • After right adrenalectomy which confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy with dissection of the central lymph node compartment and right parathyroidectomy.
  • The diagnosis of Men2a at the age of 80 years and the absence of lymph node metastasis of the multiple MTC in a carrier of C634G mutation were unusual and argued for the possible role of genetic modifier(s) in this MEN 2a patient.

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  • (PMID = 19201392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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26. Gazula S, Mammen KJ: Schwannoma with concomitant tuberculosis in the adrenal gland. Indian J Urol; 2007 Oct;23(4):469-70
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  • [Title] Schwannoma with concomitant tuberculosis in the adrenal gland.
  • We present a case in which a retroperitoneal mass arising from the adrenal gland was excised and histopathology revealed a schwannoma with coexisting tuberculosis.
  • This case report highlights the need to be aware of the potential coexistence of tuberculosis in any case of incidentaloma, especially due to resurgence of tuberculosis as a global epidemic with the increasing incidence of HIV and AIDS.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a schwannoma and tuberculosis coexisting in the adrenal gland.

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  • [Cites] Prog Urol. 2002 Jun;12(3):450-3 [12189753.001]
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  • (PMID = 19718306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721582
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal schwannoma / granulomatous inflammation / tuberculosis
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27. Will OC, Hansmann A, Phillips RK, Palazzo FF, Meeran K, Marshall M, Clark SK: Adrenal incidentaloma in familial adenomatous polyposis: a long-term follow-up study and schema for management. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Sep;52(9):1637-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma in familial adenomatous polyposis: a long-term follow-up study and schema for management.
  • PURPOSE: Adrenal incidentaloma is often diagnosed in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, because they frequently undergo abdominal imaging and have a raised incidence of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • This study investigates the natural history of adrenal incidentaloma in familial adenomatous polyposis, and suggests a schema for management.
  • METHODS: An original cohort of 14 familial adenomatous polyposis patients with adrenal incidentaloma, identified prospectively 12 years ago, was followed up clinically and radiologically.
  • For both cohorts, characteristics of patients (genotype, age at diagnosis, concomitant diagnoses) and incidentaloma (size, laterality, rate of growth, outcome) are described.
  • A further three lesions were radiologically suspicious for malignancy at the time of diagnosis; one was in a patient who was unfit for surgery but died of nonadrenal causes after nine years.
  • None of the lesions radiologically benign at diagnosis showed an aggressive course, but one patient required referral for surgery after 12 years because of a slow increase in size of the lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Familial adenomatous polyposis-associated adrenal incidentaloma may warrant long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Incidental Findings


28. Toniato A, Merante-Boschin I, Opocher G, Pelizzo MR, Schiavi F, Ballotta E: Surgical versus conservative management for subclinical Cushing syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas: a prospective randomized study. Ann Surg; 2009 Mar;249(3):388-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical versus conservative management for subclinical Cushing syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas: a prospective randomized study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcome of patients with subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS) due to an adrenal incidentaloma (the autonomous hypersecretion of a small amount of cortisol, which is not enough to cause clinically-evident disease) who underwent surgery or were managed conservatively.
  • Another 3 patients randomly assigned to conservative management crossed over to the surgical group due to an increasing adrenal mass >3.5 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / surgery


29. Tenenbaum F: [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):444-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination].
  • [Transliterated title] Différentes explorations d'un incidentalome surrénalien en médecine nucléaire.
  • In the setting of adrenal incidentaloma, nuclear medicine evaluation is only indicated after biological and imaging work-up has been completed.
  • To characterize lesions of the adrenal cortex, iodocholesterol scintigraphy is performed to confirm the origin of the adenoma and the benign or malignant nature of the lesion since benign adenomas show tracer uptake and malignant lesions show no tracer uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19421135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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30. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Buziak-Bereza M, Fedorowicz A, Kuźniarz-Rymarz S, Stochmal E, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1270-5
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  • [Title] [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome].
  • In the last twenty years the introduction of new imaging techniques has caused increasing incidence of accidental detection of adrenal tumors, which are usually mild and in most cases are hormonally inactive adenomas.
  • Among hormonal disorders in patients with adrenal incidentalomas the hypercortisolism is often described, which, if not treated properly, leads to multiple organ complications, and further to the patient's death.
  • The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of the group of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, verified by histopathology for assessment of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Among the group of 225 patients: 62 men and 163 women with incidentally detected adrenal tumors in age from 19 to 81 years diagnosed and treated in the Department of Clinical Endocrinology, University Hospital in Krakow, 59 patients was sent to surgery: 15 men and 42 women.
  • Group A consisted of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma: 38 people (11 men and 27 women).
  • In group B there were people with so-called other hormonal inactive adrenal tumors - 17 people (4 men and 13 women).
  • A detailed analysis of the clinical signs, meticulously carried out and repeated hormonal diagnosis with the use of functional tests should be focused on the detection of subclinical hormonal disorders, which is crucial in preventing organ damage and making a decision of the right treatment of the patient, which is surgical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 21591352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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31. Tiberio GA, Piardi T, Cerea K, Ronconi M, Bertoloni G, Frassi E, Portolani N, Giulini SM: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: an initial experience]. Chir Ital; 2005 May-Jun;57(3):273-81
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  • The surgical indication was primary hyperaldosteronism in 32 cases, pheochromocytoma in 7, Cushing syndrome and disease in 5 and 2 cases, respectively, incidentaloma in 11 and metastasis in 8 cases.
  • In one case we produced an iatrogenic lesion by sectioning a peripheral recurrent branch of the left renal artery with consequent partial renal infarction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16231814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Cotesta D, Petramala L, Serra V, Pergolini M, Crescenzi E, Zinnamosca L, De Toma G, Ciardi A, Carbone I, Massa R, Filetti S, Letizia C: Clinical experience with pheochromocytoma in a single centre over 16 years. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev; 2009 Dec;16(4):183-93
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  • Pheochromocytoma occurs in 0.1-2% of people with hypertension, while the incidence rises to 4-5% in patients with incidental adrenal mass.
  • AIM: To analyse the presentation, diagnosis and localization, pathology, molecular genetic aspects, surgical management and long-term outcome of a large series of patients with pheochromocytoma referred to a single centre.
  • In the group with the hereditary form, the mean age at diagnosis was significantly lower than the mean age of the group with the sporadic form (38 vs 48 years; p < 0.001).
  • In 12% of patients, the pheochromocytoma was discovered during radiological images (adrenal incidentaloma).
  • The unilateral adrenal localization was observed in 78% of patients, bilateral in 15% and extra-adrenal in 7% of patients.

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  • (PMID = 23334910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-9879
  • [Journal-full-title] High blood pressure & cardiovascular prevention : the official journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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33. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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34. Villar JM, Moreno P, Ortega J, Bollo E, Ramírez CP, Muñoz N, Martínez C, Domínguez-Adame E, Sancho J, del Pino JM, Couselo JM, Carrión A, Candel M, Cáceres N, Octavio JM, Mateo F, Galán L, Ramia JM, Aguiló J, Herrera F: Results of adrenal surgery. Data of a Spanish National Survey. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):837-43
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  • [Title] Results of adrenal surgery. Data of a Spanish National Survey.
  • Most frequent indications were pheochromocytoma (23.2%), aldosteronoma (16.7%), incidentaloma (12.2%), metastasis (10.3%), Cushing adenoma (9.6%), and carcinoma (3.8%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Hospital Mortality / trends. Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparotomy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Hospitals, Public / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Male. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Population Surveillance. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Risk Assessment. Spain. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 20658299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Rychlewski D, Bednarz W, Dawiskiba J: [Cavernous hemangiomas of the adrenal glands--rare incidentaloma type tumors]. Wiad Lek; 2005;58(1-2):95-8
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  • [Title] [Cavernous hemangiomas of the adrenal glands--rare incidentaloma type tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Naczyniaki jamiste nadnerczy--rzadkie guzy z grupy incidentaloma.
  • Cavernous hemangiomas of the adrenal glands are extremely rare benign lesions and most are incidental findings.
  • The increasing frequency of the adrenal masses detection is due to the widespread use of the contemporary imaging techniques.
  • We review incidence, pathology, clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of the adrenal cavernous hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Hemangioma, Cavernous. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 15991561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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36. Ferreira EV, Czepielewski MA, Faccin CS, Accordi MC, Furtado AP: [Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma at computed tomography (chest and abdominal) in a general hospital in Brazil]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):769-75
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  • [Title] [Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma at computed tomography (chest and abdominal) in a general hospital in Brazil].
  • [Transliterated title] Prevalência de lesão adrenal incidental em pacientes submetidos a tomografia computadorizada de tórax e abdome em um hospital geral brasileiro.
  • OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions at computed tomography (CT) at an University Hospital in Brazil.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to evaluate 3,382 consecutive patients with no known adrenal disease or malignancies who underwent chest and abdominal CT scans over a ten-month period.
  • The cases of adrenal incidentaloma were defined by the presence of any change in gland contour, size or density.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and one incidental adrenal masses were identified, corresponding to 83 cases and a prevalence of 2.5% (CI 95%: 1.0%-3.2%).
  • Male patients presented a higher prevalence of incidentaloma than female (3.3% vs. 1.5%; p= 0.01).
  • There was a significant association between older age and higher frequency of incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma detected by CT was similar to that of various published retrospective clinical series.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 16444359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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37. Naumann UK, Käser L, Vetter W: [Incidentaloma (adrenal). Chief symptoms: incidental radiologically detected, asymptomatic adrenal space occupying (mostly) &gt; 1 cm]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 Jun 20;96(25-26):1009-14; quiz 1015-6
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  • [Title] [Incidentaloma (adrenal). Chief symptoms: incidental radiologically detected, asymptomatic adrenal space occupying (mostly) > 1 cm].
  • [Transliterated title] Inzidentalom (adrenal). Leitsymptome: zufällig radiologisch entdeckte, asymptomatische adrenale Raumforderung (meist) > 1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis


38. Binyousef HM, Al-Zaben MA, Murshid EM, Al-Shahid MA: Minimally invasive retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Saudi Med J; 2007 Dec;28(12):1901-3
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  • The minimally invasive MI approach has become the gold standard in removing the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of MI retroperitoneal adrenalectomy for right adrenal incidentaloma in a recently diagnosed breast cancer patient with multiple medical problems, and emphasize the advantage of this approach over the MI transperitoneal approach in the presence of patient's co-morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18060226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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39. Singh PK, Buch HN: Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;61(11):1168-73
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered incidental to imaging studies performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • Although most adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning benign adenomas, their increasing prevalence presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • The assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at deciding whether or not the tumour should be surgically removed.
  • Biochemical screening for tumour hypersecretion is mandatory in all adrenal incidentalomas, since hormone secreting tumours may be clinically silent.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is of paramount importance because of its life-threatening complications.
  • Non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas need assessment for risk of malignancy, and this is based on the size of the tumour and its imaging characteristics.
  • The duration and frequency of reassessment remains unclear, as the natural history of adrenal incidentalomas has yet to be clearly defined, and there is a lack of controlled studies comparing surgical intervention with observation.
  • However, the possibility of acquiring autonomous hypersecretion or conversion to malignancy in an incidentaloma diagnosed to be a benign non-functioning lesion is very low, and most patients may be safely discharged after an initial follow-up period of 2 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Long-Term Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18955573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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40. Vierhapper H: Determination of the aldosterone/renin ratio in 269 patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Sep;115(8):518-21
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  • [Title] Determination of the aldosterone/renin ratio in 269 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • To determine the prevalence of primary aldosteronism among patients with incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas ('incidentalomas') plasma concentrations of aldosterone (PA) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in 269 patients (100 normotensives, 169 hypertensives) newly referred incidentaloma patients.
  • Among the 100 normotensives a PA [ng/dl]/PRA [ng/ml.h]-ratio (A/R-R) >50 and a concomitant elevation of PA (>15 pg/ml) was initially seen in two cases but further investigations excluded the presence of primary aldosteronism in both patients suggesting a prevalence of primary aldosteronism of <1% among normotensive patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Among the 169 hypertensive incidentaloma patients 14 presented with both, an elevated PA [>15 pg/ml] and an A/R-R >50.
  • Primary aldosteronism was confirmed in 6 of this cases resulting in a prevalence of primary aldosteronism among hypertensive incidentaloma patients of 4%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17853335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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41. Hammarstedt L, Muth A, Wängberg B, Björneld L, Sigurjónsdóttir HA, Götherström G, Almqvist E, Widell H, Carlsson S, Ander S, Hellström M, Adrenal Study Group of Western Sweden: Adrenal lesion frequency: A prospective, cross-sectional CT study in a defined region, including systematic re-evaluation. Acta Radiol; 2010 Dec;51(10):1149-56
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  • [Title] Adrenal lesion frequency: A prospective, cross-sectional CT study in a defined region, including systematic re-evaluation.
  • BACKGROUND: incidentally detected adrenal lesions have become a growing clinical problem.
  • PURPOSE: to prospectively estimate and validate the prevalence of incidentally detected adrenal lesions (adrenal incidentaloma) in patients with or without malignant disease undergoing CT.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: during 18 months all adult patients with incidentally discovered adrenal lesions detected at CT were prospectively reported from the radiology departments of all hospitals in Western Sweden (1.66 million inhabitants).
  • Frequencies of adrenal lesions initially reported at CT and at a systematic re-evaluation were compared.
  • The interobserver variation in blindly assessing adrenal lesions was also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: adrenal lesions were reported and verified in 339 patients (193 females; mean age 69 years, range 30-94 years).
  • The mean frequency of originally reported adrenal lesions was 0.9% (range 0-2.4% between hospitals).
  • The re-evaluation revealed 177 cases with adrenal lesions, 30% of these were submitted by the local radiologist in accordance with the study design, 23% were described in the local radiology report but not submitted to the study center, while 47% were neither locally reported nor submitted.
  • CONCLUSION: adrenal lesions are under-reported in clinical practice.
  • Prevalence figures for adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be interpreted with caution, especially in multi-center settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20969508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Babińska A, Sworczak K, Siekierska-Hellmann M, Lewczuk A, Błaut K, Obołoiczyk L, Wiśniewski P, Zielonko J, Kaska L, Lachiński A: [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):744-50
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  • [Title] [Incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Hemostatic Disorders, Medical University of Gdansk].
  • Clinically silent adrenal masses (incidentaloma) are incidentally discovered lesions when noninvasive imaging methods (ultrasonography--USG, computer tomography--CT, magnetic resonance imaging--MRI) are performed for the reason other than known or suspected adrenal disease.
  • Most of studies report the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma range between 1 and 10% in radiological series.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1993 and 03.2004 we observed 198 patients with incidentalomas of adrenal glands (144 females--72.7% and 54 males--27.3%).
  • Adrenocortical adenoma was diagnosed in 54.9%, adrenal hyperplasia in 8.5%, adrenal carcinoma in 6.7%, pheochromocytoma in 12.9% (in 3.1% of all cases malignant pheochromocytoma was diagnosed), in 4.9% others malignant tumors (primary or metastatic), in 4.9% adrenal cysts and in 7.1% other rare adrenal pathologies were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / epidemiology. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Female. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Prevalence. Radiography, Abdominal. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17427485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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43. Koppeschaar HP: Adult clinical session. Introduction. Endocrine incidentaloma. Horm Res; 2007;68 Suppl 5:189-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adult clinical session. Introduction. Endocrine incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Autopsy. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prevalence. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18174743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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44. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • It was discovered as incidentaloma in ultrasound examination.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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45. Toniato A, Boschin I, Bernante P, Foletto M, Guolo AM, Pelizzo MR, Opocher G, Ballotta E, Mantero F: Factors influencing the rising rates of adrenal surgery: analysis of a 25-year experience. Surg Endosc; 2009 Mar;23(3):503-7
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  • [Title] Factors influencing the rising rates of adrenal surgery: analysis of a 25-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal surgery has been radically changed by laparoscopy and it is reasonable to wonder whether the increase in the number of adrenalectomies is entirely justified.
  • RESULTS: More procedures were performed after the advent of LA, i.e., 55 (19.7%) beforehand versus 224 (80.3%) afterwards, irrespective of the type of disease, for instance: incidentaloma, 17.6% versus 82.4% (p \ 0.0001); pheochromocytoma, 20.7% versus 79.3% (p\0.0001); Conn's disease, 19.8% versus 80.2% (p \ 0.0001); Cushing's disease, 17.2% versus 82.8% (p\0.0001); cortical carcinoma, 30% versus 70% (p\0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The progressive increase in the number of adrenalectomies performed is due more to a better understanding of adrenal disease than to the availability of minimally invasive techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18626702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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47. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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48. Tahrani AA, Macleod AF: A diagnostic dilemma in diagnosing and managing an incidental phaeochromocytoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Apr;114(4):204-7
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  • Incidental adrenal tumours are a common radiological finding.
  • We report a patient who had a phaeochromocytoma presented as an incidental adrenal mass on abdominal CT during investigations for recurrent chest infections.
  • MIBG scan showed increased uptake in the adrenal mass.
  • Histological examination of the adrenal mass was consistent with phaeochromocytoma.
  • Removal of the adrenal mass resulted in normalisation of blood pressure and abolishing of the patient's symptoms.
  • This case highlights the difficulty in deciding on further management of patients presenting with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / administration & dosage. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Catecholamines / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16705554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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49. Minami I, Tateno T, Yoshimoto T, Doi M, Izumiyama H, Akashi T, Hirata Y: Subclinical Cushings disease with amelioration of metabolic comorbidities after removal of pituitary tumor. Intern Med; 2006;45(21):1231-5
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  • A 49-year-old woman with hypertension, obesity and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was admitted for evaluation of pituitary incidentaloma.
  • Although she presented no Cushingoid feature, endocrine examination of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis showed elevated basal plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, their lack of circadian rhythm, non-suppressibility to low-dose (1 mg) dexamethasone, and responsiveness to CRH, suggesting autonomous ACTH secretion from a pituitary tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / surgery


50. El Malki HO, Benkabbou A, Lahmidani S, Mohsine R, Ifrine L, Belkouchi A: [Surgical management of bilateral pheochromocytoma]. Tunis Med; 2009 Jan;87(1):17-21
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  • AIM: the aim of this retrospective study was to assess our experience in surgical management of bilateral pheochromocytoma (BP) and to report diagnosis methods and therapeutic results of a series of 10 patients treated in "surgical clinique A" department.
  • For the two asymptomatic cases: the first one was an incidentaloma and the second one was discovered in a MEN IIb screening.
  • In postoperative phase we assess a death case of sepsis chock, an acute adrenal insufficiency, an acute pancreatitis and a liver metastasis one year after the adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


51. De Martin M, Pecori Giraldi F, Cavagnini F: Cushing's disease. Pituitary; 2006;9(4):279-87
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  • Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can alter the course of the disease and are therefore mandatory.
  • In patients with equivocal results, second line tests, such as the dexamethasone-suppressed CRH test and desmopressin stimulation, usually enable the diagnosis to be confirmed.
  • Measurement of plasma ACTH then allows the distinction between ACTH-dependent (e.g., pituitary or extrapituitary neuroendocrine tumors) and ACTH-independent causes (e.g., adrenal tumors).
  • Visualisation of the tumor at pituitary imaging is helpful but not required for the diagnosis, as microadenomas often remain undectected by MRI and/or CT scan and, on the other hand, visualisation of a non-secreting incidentaloma may be misleading.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers / urine. Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Endocrine System Diseases / therapy. Eye Diseases / etiology. Eye Diseases / therapy. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Hypophysectomy. Mental Disorders / etiology. Mental Disorders / therapy. Osteoporosis / etiology. Osteoporosis / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17077950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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52. Katabami T, Obi R, Shirai N, Naito S, Saito N: Discrepancies in results of low-and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests for diagnosing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Endocr J; 2005 Aug;52(4):463-9
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  • According to the diagnostic criteria for adrenal preclinical Cushing's syndrome (PreCS) established by a group headed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests (DSTs) must be performed to prove autonomous cortisol secretion, i.e., > or =3 microg/dL serum cortisol following 1-mg DST administration, and > or =1 microg/dL serum cortisol following 8-mg DST administration.
  • We therefore investigated the validity of the DST for diagnosing PreCS by performing 1-mg and 8-mg DSTs in 39 patients with adrenal incidentaloma, but no characteristic Cushingoid symptoms.
  • In about half of these patients (20/39, 51.3%), high-dose DST was positive but low-dose was negative, and one or more of the other abnormalities of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction was seen in 75% of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Dexamethasone. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16127216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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53. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Incidentaloma--one of the greatest challenges of modern endocrinology]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Jul;21(121):73-9
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  • [Title] [Incidentaloma--one of the greatest challenges of modern endocrinology].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentaloma--jedno z najwiekszych wyzwań współczesnej endokrynologii.
  • Most of these lesions, frequently referred to as incidentalomas, are clinically insignificant benign and hormonally inactive adenomas that neither pose a risk to a patient's health nor warrant the risks of further diagnosis and treatment.
  • The purpose of his article is to give an overview on the recent advances in diagnosis and management of pituitary and adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Incidental Findings. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine / standards. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prevalence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17007299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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54. Yener S, Genc S, Akinci B, Secil M, Demir T, Comlekci A, Ertilav S, Yesil S: Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):365-70
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  • [Title] Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited.
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT.
  • Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled.
  • The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Arteries / pathology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Tunica Intima / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atherosclerosis / complications. Atherosclerosis / diagnosis. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / pathology. Body Mass Index. Case-Control Studies. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19277910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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55. Ercolino T, Becherini L, Valeri A, Maiello M, Gaglianò MS, Parenti G, Ramazzotti M, Piscitelli E, Simi L, Pinzani P, Nesi G, Degl'Innocenti D, Console N, Bergamini C, Mannelli M: Uncommon clinical presentations of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in two different patients affected by two distinct novel VHL germline mutations. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):762-8
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  • CONTEXT: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an inherited multitumour disorder characterized by clinical heterogeneity and high penetrance.
  • Extra-adrenal Pheos (paragangliomas, PGLs) are rare.
  • One patient was studied for the presence of an adrenal incidentaloma and the other for the presence of a neck tumour.
  • We identified two novel VHL point mutations: a L198V missense mutation in a 32-year-old female affected by a right adrenal compound and mixed tumour constituted by an epinephrine secreting Pheo, a ganglioneuroma and an adrenocortical adenoma, and a T152I missense mutation in a 24-year-old female affected by a left carotid body tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics


56. Grogan RH, Mitmaker E, Vriens MR, Harari A, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises? Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):392-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentaloma remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • METHODS: We catalogued adrenal incidentalomas from a retrospective review of 500 consecutive adrenalectomies at a single institution.
  • The outcome measures studied were patient demographics, preoperative biochemical analysis, imaging characteristics, tumor size, type of operation performed, and postoperative histologic diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Current guidelines accurately predict the functional status of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • However, even with the most up-to-date diagnostic tools available, most adrenal incidentalomas resected are benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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57. Ghosh S, Jones M, Swaminathan K: Adrenal incidentalomas: a simple guide to a disease of modern technology. J R Coll Physicians Edinb; 2010 Dec;40(4):314-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: a simple guide to a disease of modern technology.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal masses (adrenal incidentalomas) found during radiological procedures are a by-product of modern-day medicine.
  • Incidental findings of such adrenal masses pose uncertainties and dilemmas in evaluation and management.
  • We report two patients with 'adrenal incidentalomas' with different outcomes during the course of evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentIn] J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2011 Jun;41(2):190; author reply 190 [21677931.001]
  • (PMID = 21132138.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-8189
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Coll Physicians Edinb
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Adrenal incidentaloma
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58. Iacconi P, Donatini G, Iacconi C, De Bartolomeis C, Cucinotta M, Puccini M, Miccoli P: Unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region in a series of 420 patients submitted to adrenal surgery. Review of our experience. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Oct;31(10):873-6
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  • [Title] Unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region in a series of 420 patients submitted to adrenal surgery. Review of our experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is reported to be up to 30% in the current literature; nevertheless, in some patients undergoing surgery, a final diagnosis of non-adrenal origin of the mass is performed.
  • In this paper we present our experience of 13 patients with unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region.
  • Pre-operative diagnosis was: incidentaloma (34.0% of patients), Conn's adenoma (29.0%), Cushing's adenoma (13.9%), pheochromocytoma (8.8%), suspicious metastasis (7.3%), Cushing's disease (6.0%), other (1.0%).
  • RESULTS: Final histology revealed an unexpected diagnosis of non-adrenal origin of the mass in 13 patients (3.1%).
  • In the other 3 patients diagnosis was respectively of lymphnode, hemangioma and a gastric metastasis of melanoma.
  • Mean operative time in this group was higher compared to laparoscopic resection for adrenal lesion (95.3 min vs 73.2 min).
  • CONCLUSION: A small percentage of our patients (3.1%) demonstrated unexpected findings of the lesion pre-operatively misinterpreted as an adrenal mass.
  • Despite a complete pre-operative assessment, adrenal lesions might reveal a different origin, increasing the surgical challenge as well as the morbidity for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Laparoscopy. Male. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19092291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Schalin-Jäntti C: [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(9):1037-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma].
  • An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor larger than 1 cm, incidentally detected in imaging studies carried out for other reasons than adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20593627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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60. Mazzuco TL, Bourdeau I, Lacroix A: Adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2009 Jun;16(3):203-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal incidentaloma has become a frequent clinical dilemma.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Different protocols and threshold values to define normal cortisol secretion and diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome have been proposed, including recent practice guidelines for the diagnosis of overt Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Hydrocortisone / blood. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Algorithms. Biomarkers / blood. Disease Progression. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 19390321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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61. Ng VW, Ma RC, So WY, Choi KC, Kong AP, Cockram CS, Chow CC: Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Dec 13;170(22):2017-20
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  • [Title] Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered inadvertently.
  • We undertook this study to review the clinical characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentalomas who presented to a tertiary endocrine center in Hong Kong.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of all 139 cases of adrenal incidentalomas that were referred to the Endocrine Centre of the Prince of Wales Hospital between June 1, 2000, and May 31, 2007.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (43.9%) had nonfunctional benign adrenal adenomas, 52 (37.4%) had functional lesions, 15 (10.8%) had malignant adrenal lesions, and the remaining 11 (7.9%) had varying adrenal disease.
  • Only 5 of the 27 patients with cortisol-secreting adrenal incidentalomas had symptoms or signs of excess cortisol levels at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentaloma is a commonly encountered clinical problem.
  • Functional or primary malignant adrenal incidentalomas can be detected at an earlier stage during hormonal and radiological evaluations, which provides an opportunity for further management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Catecholamines / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 21149760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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62. Ogo A, Matoba Y, Sakai Y, Hiramatsu S: A case of adrenal incidentaloma with 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showing high uptake despite no significant physical or endocrinological abnormalities. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2010 Jun;101(6):128-31
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  • [Title] A case of adrenal incidentaloma with 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showing high uptake despite no significant physical or endocrinological abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20865902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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63. de Bruijne EL, Burgmans JP, Krestin GP, Pols HA, van den Meiracker AH, de Herder WW: [Adrenal incidentaloma: a clinical problem related to imaging]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Aug 13;149(33):1821-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: a clinical problem related to imaging].
  • During the diagnostic work-up, an unsuspected adrenal mass was found in both patients.
  • Wider application and improvement of abdominal imaging procedures have caused an increase of incidentally detected adrenal masses, posing a common clinical problem.
  • Typically, a diagnosis can be made on the basis of the characteristic radiological image.
  • An algorithm is presented for the management of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16128177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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64. Todorov G, Iarŭmov N, Lukanova Ts, Angelov K: [Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy for cavernous adrenal hemangioma]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2007;(5):58-9
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  • [Title] [Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy for cavernous adrenal hemangioma].
  • Adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are rare non-functional tumors.
  • This article describes the case of a patient with a cavernous adrenal hemangioma.
  • Prior to surgery, the mass was diagnosed as an incidentaloma.
  • It was successfully removed by means of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy without any intraoperative, nor postoperative complications and histologycally verified as "adrenal cavernous hemangioma".
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18580836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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65. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnostic imaging. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 6B3QJ94C7P / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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66. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Adrenalectomy was performed in 274 patients of whom 73 (27%) were characterized pre-operatively as incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • ACC presenting as incidentaloma appear to have a more favorable prognosis than symptomatic or functioning ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Venkatasubramanian R, Wadhwa A, Sharma A, Khullar R, Soni V, Baijal M, Chowbey PK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy - a review of initial 24 consecutive patients. Indian J Surg; 2007 Aug;69(4):129-35
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  • The indications for adrenalectomy were pheochromocytoma (13 patients), Cushing's syndrome (5 patients), myelolipoma (2 patients), adrenal cyst (2 patients), aldosteronoma (1 patient) and adrenal incidentaloma (1 patient).
  • Nineteen of our patients with functioning adrenal tumours were prepared preoperatively for periods ranging up to 2 weeks by the endocrinologist.
  • A careful preoperative preparation in functioning adrenal tumours aids in the faster recovery of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 23132964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Laparoscopy / Pheochromocytoma
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68. Ermetici F, Malavazos AE, Corbetta S, Morricone L, Dall'Asta C, Corsi MM, Ambrosi B: Adipokine levels and cardiovascular risk in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Metabolism; 2007 May;56(5):686-92
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  • [Title] Adipokine levels and cardiovascular risk in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) have been associated with an increased incidence of several cardiovascular risk factors, similar to overt Cushing syndrome.
  • In conclusion, patients with AI may show increased levels of adipokines (apparently not related to the presence of diabetes, hypertension, or obesity), which may be affected by the presence of the adrenal adenoma.
  • For some adipokines, a direct production from the adrenal gland may be hypothesized even if other studies are needed to better investigate the role of adipokines in states of altered cortisol secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Atherosclerosis / blood


69. Gockel I, Heintz A, Domeyer M, Trinh TT, Dünschede F, Junginger T: [Indications for conventional adrenalectomy]. Zentralbl Chir; 2008 Jun;133(3):255-9
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  • RESULTS: Indications for conventional adrenalectomy were - as compared with the minimally invasive procedure - significantly more frequent adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), especially in the context of multivisceral resections, as well as adrenal metastases (synchronous and metachronous).
  • In contrast, adrenal Cushing's disease (including 19 patients with bilateral tumours), pheochromocytoma, incidentaloma and Conn's syndrome constituted a more frequent indication for minimally invasive adrenalectomy.
  • Conventionally operated adrenal pathologies with on average 6.0 (range: 1.2-19.0) cm diameter were significantly larger than the endoscopically removed tumours with on average 3.3 (range: 0.2-9.2) cm diameter (p < 0.0001).
  • The side localisation and the frequency of bilateral adrenal tumours did not differ significantly in the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Since the establishment of the minimally invasive technique in 1994, conventional adrenalectomy has been selected for 26 % of all resected adrenal pathologies at our clinic and, therefore, still plays an important role even in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • The benefit of the laparoscopic procedure in the case of malignant pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and isolated adrenal metastases at a locally confined stage is still unclear and requires prospective, randomised studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / utilization. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18563692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. Gockel I, Heintz A, Kentner R, Werner C, Junginger T: Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc; 2005 Nov;19(11):1491-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients with hormone-inactive incidentaloma and its possible influence by the surgical approach.
  • Over the same period of time, endoscopic adrenalectomy was carried out in 80 patients with incidentaloma.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal gland was resected using the retroperitoneal in 25 and the transperitoneal approach in 15 patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • The increase in intraoperative blood pressure in patients with Conn's syndrome was significantly higher, for both systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.0037) readings, compared to that in patients with incidentaloma undergoing endoscopic adrenalectomy during the same period of time.

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Endosc. 2006 Jan;20(1):180. Wetner, C [corrected to Werner, C]
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  • (PMID = 16222471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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71. Donckier JE, Michel L: Phaeochromocytoma: state-of-the-art. Acta Chir Belg; 2010 Mar-Apr;110(2):140-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sites.
  • Extra-adrenal phaeochromocytomas are called paragangliomas.
  • A diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is suspected by typical paroxysmal symptoms, unusual or refractory hypertension, discovery of an adrenal incidentaloma or a family history of phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma, possibly associated with other genetic syndromes (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 A or B, neurofibromatosis type 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease).
  • Increased serum chromogranin-A levels, combined with high catecholamine or metanephrine in a patient with normal renal function is also a tool, virtually diagnostic of phaeochromocytoma.
  • Once a biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is made, a CT scan or MRI of the abdomen and pelvis should be performed first.
  • Phaeochromocytoma during pregnancy is also rare and its diagnosis easily missed because of its clinical resemblance to pre-eclampsia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Pheochromocytoma


72. Nieman LK, Biller BM, Findling JW, Newell-Price J, Savage MO, Stewart PM, Montori VM: The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 May;93(5):1526-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After excluding exogenous glucocorticoid use, we recommend testing for Cushing's syndrome in patients with multiple and progressive features compatible with the syndrome, particularly those with a high discriminatory value, and patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18334580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD008833-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2386281
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73. Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Lezoche E: Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up. J Endourol; 2006 May;20(5):321-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: To report our experience with in situ laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 2000 to May 2002, two men, 81 and 71 years old, and one woman, 75 years old, were referred to our department for right renal clear-cell carcinoma <3.5-cm diameter.
  • Moreover, a simultaneous large right adrenal incidentaloma (myelolipoma) and a right colon cancer were known to be present in the second and third patient, respectively.
  • The aforementioned findings suggested the laparoscopic route as a preferable technique to treat both the renal and the other morbidities.
  • CONCLUSION: When percutaneous access is not feasible or the patient should undergo another laparoscopic procedure simultaneously, laparoscopic RFA of renal tumors is feasible and effective, as shown by long-term follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 16724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Chevalier N, Carrier P, Piche M, Chevallier A, Wagner K, Tardy V, Benchimol D, Fénichel P: Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):56-9
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Large adrenal tumors are rarely associated with adrenal enzymatic deficiency, except in 11-ss-hydroxylase insufficiency.
  • His evaluation at 36 years of age showed a four-centimeter mass in the left adrenal gland, with most characteristics suggestive of malignancy (CT and positron emission tomography [PET] scan).
  • We performed a surgical resection that established the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor of uncertain prognosis (Weiss's score: 3).
  • Even though malignant tumors are unusual in adrenal deficiency, our observation shows the need for a replacement therapy during adulthood, with a regular CT scan follow up in order to diagnose early isolated adrenal adenoma and remove it in case of malignancy suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; EC 1.14.99.10 / CYP21A2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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75. Tica I, Tica VI, Mihailov C: Rare association of adrenal tumors. Rom J Intern Med; 2007;45(1):107-11
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  • [Title] Rare association of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas represent a true problem both in the clinical diagnosis and in their treatment.
  • A great variety of pathologies may be found under the umbrella of this concept: benign adenomas - functioning or not, myelolipomas, hamartomas, or granulomatous infiltrations of the adrenal.
  • The possibility of malignancy should be considered in each case, especially in patients with a known extra-adrenal primary.
  • We present an interesting case because of the surprising association of two adrenal tumors, with a long time lapse between them, with ascites and pleurisy and because of the difficulty of treatment in a patient refusing surgery.
  • A right adrenal incidentaloma of 21/15 mm - in association with ascites and pleurisy - was found at CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ascites / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pleurisy / complications

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  • (PMID = 17966451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-4749
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Intern Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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76. Jakowski JD, Wakely PE Jr, Jimenez RE: An uncommon type of adrenal incidentaloma: a case report of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla with cytological, histological, and ultrastructural correlation. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):356-61
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  • [Title] An uncommon type of adrenal incidentaloma: a case report of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla with cytological, histological, and ultrastructural correlation.
  • Benign nerve sheath tumors of the adrenal gland are an extremely uncommon cause of an incidentaloma.
  • We report a case of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla in an asymptomatic 51-year-old woman, which was discovered incidentally on a computed tomography scan after routine workup for her degenerative joint diseases of the lumbar spine.
  • The diagnosis of a nerve sheath tumor was based on classic histological findings, supported by S-100 positivity, and ultrastructurally by the finding of typical Schwann cells.
  • The cytological diagnosis from the fine-needle aspiration biopsy material obtained at the time of gross examination was much more challenging on retrospective review.
  • A review of the histogenesis and differential diagnosis of this common nerve sheath tumor in this unusual location is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18774499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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77. Poiana C, Carsote M, Chirita C, Terzea D, Paun S, Beuran M: Giant adrenal cyst: case study. J Med Life; 2010 Jul-Sep;3(3):308-13
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal cyst: case study.
  • One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst.
  • During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered.
  • The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia.
  • The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20945822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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78. Tsvetov G, Shimon I, Benbassat C: Adrenal incidentaloma: clinical characteristics and comparison between patients with and without extraadrenal malignancy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Sep;30(8):647-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: clinical characteristics and comparison between patients with and without extraadrenal malignancy.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is frequently found in patients with a history of malignancy and, as such, is not always considered a true incidental finding.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term clinical and biochemical behavior of adrenal incidentalomas between oncology and non-oncology patients.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series of 100 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentaloma, followed from 1995 to 2005 in the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary university medical center.
  • During follow-up, adrenal function remained unchanged in all patients, but tumor growth was seen in 12.5%.
  • None of the other patients had clinical or radiological findings suggesting adrenal malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a similar clinical behavior of adrenal incidentaloma in oncology and non-oncology patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17923795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
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79. Refaat MM, Idriss SZ, Blaszkowsky LS: Case report: an unusual case of adrenal neuroblastoma in pregnancy. Oncologist; 2008 Feb;13(2):152-6
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  • [Title] Case report: an unusual case of adrenal neuroblastoma in pregnancy.
  • Neuroblastomas are the fourth most common malignancy of childhood and account for most adrenal tumors in children.
  • We present herein an extremely rare case of adrenal neuroblastoma occurring in a 25-year-old woman during her first trimester of pregnancy.
  • She had a spontaneous abortion secondary to chorioamnionitis and she was operated on for an "incidentaloma."
  • Adult adrenal neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignancy and, to our knowledge, there was no case of this tumor occurring in pregnancy ever described in the English literature.
  • The case presentation is followed by a general discussion with an emphasis on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of neuroblastoma and its association with pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis


80. Nieman LK: Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4106-13
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  • [Title] Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Unsuspected adrenal masses, or incidentalomas, are increasingly found with the widespread use of thoracic and abdominal imaging.
  • This is particularly important before surgical resection, which is routinely recommended for masses larger than 4 cm in diameter without a clear-cut diagnosis and for others with hormonal secretion or ominous imaging characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Algorithms. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20823463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2936073
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81. Onoda N, Ishikawa T, Toyokawa T, Takashima T, Wakasa K, Hirakawa K: Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic surgery. JSLS; 2008 Oct-Dec;12(4):420-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of left adrenal schwannoma in a 62-year-old man, incidentally discovered on an abdominal computed tomography.
  • METHODS: On admission, no remarkable findings were recognized in the patient's blood and urine examination, including adrenal function.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed with the diagnosis of a nonfunctioning adrenal tumor.
  • RESULTS: Macroscopically, the tumor (45 mm x 30 mm, 60 g) arose from the medulla of the adrenal gland with a clear border distinguishing it from surrounding tissues.
  • The diagnosis of adrenal schwannoma was made.
  • CONCLUSION: Although an increasing number of adrenal incidentaloma have been identified with the recent advances in imaging techniques, only a few cases of schwannoma of the adrenal gland have been reported.

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  • (PMID = 19275863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015997
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82. Ermetici F, Dall'Asta C, Malavazos AE, Coman C, Morricone L, Montericcio V, Ambrosi B: Echocardiographic alterations in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jun;31(6):573-7
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  • [Title] Echocardiographic alterations in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: While left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been described in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), data concerning morphologic and functional cardiac alterations in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses [adrenal "incidentaloma" (AI)], without overt hypercortisolism, are lacking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 18591893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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83. Chang TH, Lee YC, Liu CC, Huang CH, Wu WJ: Adrenal leiomyoma treated by hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2006 Nov;22(11):575-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal leiomyoma treated by hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report.
  • A left adrenal incidentaloma was found by abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in a 53-year-old woman who had a history of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • Abdominal CT showed a well-circumscribed adrenal mass (5.5 x 4.5 x 3.5 cm) with low density (32HU) on precontrast scan and heterogeneous enhancement on postcontrast scan.
  • Laboratory examinations revealed a nonfunctional adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Leiomyoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17110347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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84. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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85. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy


86. Shibata H: [Adrenal incidentaloma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:714-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16776257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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87. Mathonnet M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jun;130(5):303-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure].
  • [Transliterated title] Conduite à tenir face à un incidentalome surrénalien associé à une hypertension artérielle.
  • HTA is present in half of the patients who have an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinical data, hormonal sampling, computed tomography and adrenal scintigraphies are necessary to identify hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • If HTA seems to be not in relation with the adrenal mass, it is recommended to recognize a congenital enzymatic block in order to ovoid an unnecessary adrenalectomy and to search for a preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • The removal of the adrenal mass improves the HTA for half of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15935786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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88. Alexandraki KI, Michail OP, Nonni A, Diamantis D, Giannopoulou I, Kaltsas GA, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Syriou V, Michail PO: Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review. Endocr J; 2009;56(6):817-24
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review.
  • We report a 66-year-old woman with a mixed corticomedullary tumor of the left adrenal gland.
  • The patient was found to harbor an adrenal incidentaloma while investigated for a spigelian hernia.
  • Due to the atypical radiological features and the relatively large size of the adrenal lesion she underwent a left adrenalectomy following endocrine testing to exclude a functional lesion.
  • The finding of this case highlights the importance of this extremely rare entity which should be included in the long list of causes of adrenal incidentaloma since cases with intra-operative complications have been described.
  • The previously reported reappearance of this tumor in the contralateral adrenal gland emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hernia, Abdominal / complications

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  • (PMID = 19461165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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89. Berker D, Isik S, Erden G, Tutuncu YA, Ozcan HN, Caner S, Tekelek B, Aydin Y, Guler S: Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):419-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels can be used as a diagnostic tool in determining the functioning status of benign adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, medical records of patients with adrenal tumors who consecutively presented to an endocrinology clinic between August 2005 and October 2008 were evaluated.
  • Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma was larger than 4 cm or when a hypersecreting tumor was suspected.
  • Findings were compared among patients with functioning adrenal tumors, patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors, and control participants.
  • RESULTS: Of 370 patients with adrenal tumors, 50 with adrenal incidentaloma met the inclusion criteria.
  • Group 1 included 20 patients with functioning adrenal tumors (14 with Cushing syndrome and 6 with pheochromocytoma), and Group 2 included 30 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • MMP-9 levels were higher in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors and functioning adrenal tumors than in control participants (P<.001).
  • MMP-9 levels in patients with functioning adrenal tumors were significantly higher than those in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (P = .002).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum MMP-9 levels may be useful in differentiating benign subclinical functioning adrenal tumors from benign nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood

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  • (PMID = 20061295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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90. Bertherat J: [Clinical and biological work-up of adrenal incidentalomas]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):422-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical and biological work-up of adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalome de la loge surrénale: explorations cliniques et biologiques.
  • Adrenal tumors diagnosed after work-up of an incidentaloma can be responsible for excessive secretion of steroids or catecholamines.
  • On the other hand, an infiltrative process (metastases, infection...) involving both adrenals can cause adrenal insufficiency.
  • Screening for cortisol secreting tumors, often responsible for Cushing's syndrome of moderate severity (pre-clinical) in patients with incidentaloma, will be performed using the overnight dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg).
  • In patients with bilateral incidentalomas, the normal synacthen test and ACTH assay are also performed to exclude adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Metanephrine / blood. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19421133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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91. Ivović M, Vujović S, Penezić Z, Zarković M, Drezgić M: [Insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Jul-Aug;134(7-8):315-9
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  • [Title] [Insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma].
  • INTRODUCTION: Frequent use of modern imaging methods (such as ultrasound, CT and MRI) results in high incidence of accidentally discovered adrenal mass.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are accidentally discovered adrenal tumors by imaging methods without any prior suspicion of adrenal disease.
  • Some studies have shown decreased insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentalom a.
  • METHOD: A total of 22 patients with accidentally discovered adrenal mass confirmed by CT/MRI were evaluated in our study.
  • RESULTS: Our results showed significantly lower insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentalomas comparing to the control group (4.95 +/- 0.58 vs. 6.62 +/- 0.47, p=0.015).
  • CONCLUSION: Our patients with adrenal incidentalomas manifested lower insulin sensitivity what suggested further follow up and assessment of insulin sensitivity during endocrine evaluation of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Insulin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 17009611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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92. Lifante JC, Cenedese A, Fernandez Vila JM, Peix JL: [Impact of laparoscopy on the management of adrenal diseases. A retrospective study of 220 patients]. Ann Chir; 2005 Oct;130(9):547-52
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  • [Title] [Impact of laparoscopy on the management of adrenal diseases. A retrospective study of 220 patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: Soon after its introduction in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy became the gold standard in the surgical management of most adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: The indications of adrenalectomy were: Cushing syndrome 18%, pheochromocytoma 31%, Conn syndrome 16%, incidentaloma 21%, and malignant tumours 13%.
  • The video-asisted adrenalectomy had not changed the management of the adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15993374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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93. Tancić-Gajić M, Vujović S, Tatić S, Stojanović M, Ivović M, Drezgić M: [Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2008 May-Jun;136(5-6):295-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1].
  • CASE OUTLINE: A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT).
  • Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy).
  • The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


94. Türemen EE, Arslan BC, Tarkun I, Cantürk Z: Cushingoid striae and facial appearance in a patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):103-4
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  • [Title] Cushingoid striae and facial appearance in a patient with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary-Adrenal System. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16524866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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95. Chiodini I, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Eller-Vainicher C, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Pellegrini F, Copetti M, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Trischitta V, Scillitani A: Beneficial metabolic effects of prompt surgical treatment in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma causing biochemical hypercortisolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;95(6):2736-45
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  • [Title] Beneficial metabolic effects of prompt surgical treatment in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma causing biochemical hypercortisolism.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with adrenal incidentalomas, subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the surgical and conservative approaches on the metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.
  • PATIENTS: One hundred eight patients with adrenal incidentalomas were studied for the presence of SH, which was diagnosed in the presence of more than two of the following: urinary free cortisol greater than 70 microg per 24 h (193 nmol per 24 h), cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test greater than 3.0 microg/dl (83 nmol/liter), ACTH less than 10 pg/ml (2.2 pmol/liter).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the various components of the metabolic syndrome, in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and SH, surgery is beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;95(6):2618-20 [20525910.001]
  • (PMID = 20375210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cholesterol, LDL; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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96. Giraudo G, Pantuso G, Festa F, Farinella E, Morino M: Clinical role of gasless laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Aug;19(4):329-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Preoperative diagnosis was Cushing in 5 cases, pheochromocytoma in 1 case, incidentaloma in 1 case, and Conn in 2 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pneumoperitoneum, Artificial / contraindications

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  • (PMID = 19692884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Crosta F, Arnaldi G, Boscaro M, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Mar;30(3):200-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update.
  • Nowadays, the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal incidentalomas (AI), considering their biologic behavior, is still debated.
  • Surgery is mandatory in cases of hyperfunctioning adrenal masses, in the presence of suspect radiological malignancy, in cases of discordant computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy findings and when the maximum diameter is 4 cm or more.
  • Twenty-one large adrenal lesions (exceeding 6 cm) were removed (27%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17505152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Giovanella L: Serum chromogranin-A assay in differential diagnosis of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1547-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum chromogranin-A assay in differential diagnosis of incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are defined as asymptomatic adrenal masses occasionally discovered during high-resolution imaging procedures such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR).
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is a member of the granin family contained in secretory vescicles of chromaffin adrenal cells.
  • This study investigated the performance of serum CgA assay in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma among patients affected by adrenal incidentaloma.
  • We enrolled 104 patients affected by adrenal incidentally discovered masses and 100 healthy blood donors as controls.
  • A cytological or histological diagnosis was obtained in all cases.
  • Circulating CgA assay was positive in 12 out of 12 patients with pheochromocytoma and negative in 92 out of 92 patients with non-chromaffin adrenal nodules.
  • Serum levels of CgA clearly increased from blood donors and patients with non-chromaffin adrenal nodules to patients with pheochromocytoma (p<0.0001).
  • Serum CgA assay is effective in evaluating the presence of chromaffin tumour among patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Chromogranins / blood. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Chromogranin A. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16033058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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99. Plaggemars HJ, Targarona EM, van Couwelaar G, D Ambra M, García A, Rebasa P, Rius X, Trias M: [What has changed in adrenalectomy? From open surgery to laparoscopy?]. Cir Esp; 2005 Mar;77(3):132-8
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  • INTRODUCTION: After the introduction of the laparoscopic approach in adrenal surgery, this technique has become the gold standard in surgical adrenal diseases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our experience of adrenal surgery over a 14-year period, before and after the introduction of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and to analyze the influence of this technique on the surgical management of adrenal diseases.
  • Distribution by surgical indication was similar in both periods concerning primary hyperaldosteronism, hypercortisolism, and pheochromocytoma, with a significant increase in surgical cases indicated by malignancy (1 vs 4) or incidentaloma (2 vs 13) (p<.001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16420904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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100. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B: Adrenal incidentaloma detected on triphasic helical CT: evaluation with modified relative percentage of enhancement washout values. Br J Radiol; 2008 Jul;81(967):526-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma detected on triphasic helical CT: evaluation with modified relative percentage of enhancement washout values.
  • The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess adrenal incidentalomas detected by triphasic helical CT using modified relative percentage of the enhancement washout (mRPEW) values.
  • 42 adrenal incidentalomas in 35 patients were detected on CT and confirmed by either pathological examination or follow-up CT examination.
  • The mRPEW values were calculated using the attenuation values of the adrenal masses seen on the images from portal phase and delayed phase CT performed 3 min after intravenous injection of contrast material.
  • The final diagnosis was an "adenoma" and a "metastasis" in 9 and 33 cases, respectively.
  • In conclusion, a substantial number of adrenal incidentalomas may be characterized using the mRPEW values from triphasic helical CT without the need for dedicated adrenal CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18559901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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