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1. Sandoval MA, Anel-Quimpo J: A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation.
  • A 51-year-old Filipino woman presenting with hypertension was unexpectedly found to have a large right adrenal mass by ultrasound.
  • As she did not have symptoms of adrenal disease, this was labelled an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a large adrenal mass on the right measuring 15 cm at its greatest diameter, with both benign and malignant features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22802369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027410
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2. Ferreira EV, Czepielewski MA, Faccin CS, Accordi MC, Furtado AP: [Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma at computed tomography (chest and abdominal) in a general hospital in Brazil]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):769-75
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  • [Title] [Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma at computed tomography (chest and abdominal) in a general hospital in Brazil].
  • [Transliterated title] Prevalência de lesão adrenal incidental em pacientes submetidos a tomografia computadorizada de tórax e abdome em um hospital geral brasileiro.
  • OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions at computed tomography (CT) at an University Hospital in Brazil.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to evaluate 3,382 consecutive patients with no known adrenal disease or malignancies who underwent chest and abdominal CT scans over a ten-month period.
  • The cases of adrenal incidentaloma were defined by the presence of any change in gland contour, size or density.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and one incidental adrenal masses were identified, corresponding to 83 cases and a prevalence of 2.5% (CI 95%: 1.0%-3.2%).
  • Male patients presented a higher prevalence of incidentaloma than female (3.3% vs. 1.5%; p= 0.01).
  • There was a significant association between older age and higher frequency of incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma detected by CT was similar to that of various published retrospective clinical series.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 16444359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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3. Ridho FE, Adam FM, Adam JM: Adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Apr;41(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor, which is unidentified before the imaging procedures conducted for an abnormality which is initially unforeseen as an adrenal disease.
  • Symptoms and/or clinical signs of adrenal tumor do not have to be present prior to a diagnosis.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma can be divided into non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, hypersecreting tumor, primary adrenal carcinoma, other adrenal mass, and metastases.
  • The majority of adrenal tumor is non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, but it is always considered as hypersecreting tumor until proven otherwise.
  • Some conditions that can be found due to hormonal activity of adrenal incidentaloma is subclinical Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma (Conn's disease), and several tumors which secrete androgen and sex hormone.
  • Diagnostic approach of adrenal incidentaloma is focused on two main problems, which are, whether the lesion is hormonally active even though lacking characteristic clinical signs, and whether the lesion is benign or malignant; thus it needs hormonal and radiologic evaluation, even a fine needle biopsy.
  • The management for adrenal incidentaloma includes surgical removal for hormonally active adrenal tumors, or inactive tumors with size less than 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Aldosterone / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Incidental Findings. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Indonesia / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends

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  • (PMID = 19390128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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4. Tancić-Gajić M, Vujović S, Tatić S, Stojanović M, Ivović M, Drezgić M: [Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2008 May-Jun;136(5-6):295-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma in neurofibromatosis type 1].
  • CASE OUTLINE: A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT).
  • Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy).
  • The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


5. Bülow B, Jansson S, Juhlin C, Steen L, Thorén M, Wahrenberg H, Valdemarsson S, Wängberg B, Ahrén B: Adrenal incidentaloma - follow-up results from a Swedish prospective study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Mar;154(3):419-23
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma - follow-up results from a Swedish prospective study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of developing adrenal carcinomas and clinically overt hypersecreting tumours during short-term follow-up in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.
  • DESIGN: 229 (98 males and 131 females) patients with adrenal incidentalomas were investigated in a prospective follow-up study (median time 25 months; range 3-108 months).
  • Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma size increased or if there was a suspicion of a hypersecreting tumour.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of the 229 patients included in the follow-up study was 64 years (range 28-84 years) and the median size of the adrenal incidentalomas when discovered was 2.5 cm (range 1-8 cm).
  • During the follow-up period, an increase in incidentaloma size of > or =0.5 cm was reported in 17 (7.4%) and of > or =1.0 cm was reported in 12 (5.2%) of the 229 patients.
  • Eleven patients underwent adrenalectomy, but no cases of primary adrenal malignancy were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adrenal incidentaloma had a low risk of developing malignancy or hormonal hypersecretion during a short-term follow-up period.

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  • (PMID = 16498055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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6. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Carnevale V, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery? Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jan;162(1):91-9
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  • [Title] Post-surgical hypocortisolism after removal of an adrenal incidentaloma: is it predictable by an accurate endocrinological work-up before surgery?
  • OBJECTIVE: Few data are available regarding the need of steroid substitutive therapy after unilateral adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma (AI).
  • It is unknown whether, before surgery, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis secretion parameters can predict post-surgical hypocortisolism.

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  • (PMID = 19797503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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7. Miehle K, Kratzsch J, Lenders JW, Kluge R, Paschke R, Koch CA: Adrenal incidentaloma diagnosed as pheochromocytoma by plasma chromogranin A and plasma metanephrines. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1040-2
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma diagnosed as pheochromocytoma by plasma chromogranin A and plasma metanephrines.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Chromogranins / blood. Metanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentOn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2004 Oct;27(9):821-5 [15648545.001]
  • (PMID = 16483187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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8. van Westreenen HL, Patijn GA, Sijbrandij ES, Oosterhuis JW: [An adrenal incidentaloma in a trauma patient; a plea for expectant management]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 Dec 8;151(49):2723-5
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  • [Title] [An adrenal incidentaloma in a trauma patient; a plea for expectant management].
  • An adrenal incidentaloma was detected in 45-year-old female driver after a car-versus-car collision.
  • Pathology examination revealed an old haematoma situated centrally in the right adrenal gland.
  • Posttraumatic adrenal haematoma is found in 25% of autopsies of traumatized patients.
  • Most adrenal haematomas have an ovoid appearance on CT and have a slight hyperattenuation.
  • Follow-up CT of an adrenal haematoma shows a decrease in size and attenuation.
  • It is therefore proposed that adrenal incidentalomas detected during trauma screening should be evaluated by repeating CT after 3 months.
  • If the mass has diminished and its density decreased, it is most probably an adrenal haematoma, in which case unnecessary surgery may be avoided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings. Wounds and Injuries

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  • (PMID = 18225794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Brunaud L, Kebebew E, Sebag F, Zarnegar R, Clark OH, Duh QY: Observation or laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma? A surgical decision analysis. Med Sci Monit; 2006 Sep;12(9):CR355-62
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  • [Title] Observation or laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma? A surgical decision analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy remains controversial for adrenal incidentaloma, 4 to 6 cm in size, nonfunctioning, and without malignant imaging characteristics.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This decision analysis model identifies the important variables for selecting the optimal management approach for adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16940927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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10. Türemen EE, Arslan BC, Tarkun I, Cantürk Z: Cushingoid striae and facial appearance in a patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):103-4
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  • [Title] Cushingoid striae and facial appearance in a patient with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary-Adrenal System. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16524866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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11. Ogo A, Matoba Y, Sakai Y, Hiramatsu S: A case of adrenal incidentaloma with 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showing high uptake despite no significant physical or endocrinological abnormalities. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2010 Jun;101(6):128-31
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  • [Title] A case of adrenal incidentaloma with 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showing high uptake despite no significant physical or endocrinological abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20865902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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12. Yi DW, Kim SY, Shin DH, Kang YH, Son SM: Pheochromocytoma crisis after a dexamethasone suppression test for adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):213-9
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma crisis after a dexamethasone suppression test for adrenal incidentaloma.
  • A 61-year-old woman was referred to our department for evaluation of an incidental adrenal mass.
  • An abdominal CT scan revealed a 4.1 cm right adrenal mass.
  • Successive low-dose and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests were ordered for evaluation of a functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • An elective laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • Patients with adrenal incidentalomas may have a functional mass that does not always manifest as a full symptomatic disease.
  • During the investigation of adrenal incidentalomas, pheochromocytoma should ideally be ruled out before administering corticosteroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Catecholamines / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / chemically induced. Hypertension / complications. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20963573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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13. Yener S, Genc S, Akinci B, Secil M, Demir T, Comlekci A, Ertilav S, Yesil S: Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):365-70
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  • [Title] Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited.
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT.
  • Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled.
  • The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Arteries / pathology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Tunica Intima / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atherosclerosis / complications. Atherosclerosis / diagnosis. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / pathology. Body Mass Index. Case-Control Studies. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19277910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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14. Ogo A, Watanabe A, Ide C, Maruta T, Sakai Y, Hiramatsu S, Uesugi N, Shigematsu K: Case of adrenal incidentaloma in which autonomous cortisol production became clear during a very short term. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2008 Jul;99(7):150-8
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  • [Title] Case of adrenal incidentaloma in which autonomous cortisol production became clear during a very short term.
  • A 57-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for the further evaluation of a left adrenal incidentaloma measuring 45 mm x 33 mm.
  • These findings indicated that subtle abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis were present in this case.
  • Adrenal scintigraphy revealed positive uptake in the left adrenal tumor with no uptake in the right adrenal gland.
  • This case indicates the ability of autonomous cortisol production to become clear during a very short term and a more detailed and careful short-time follow-up should be recommended in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18975597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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15. Calbo L, Catalfamo A, Sciglitano P, Calbo E, Plutino F, Campisi G, Didio V, Gorgone S: [Adrenal incidentaloma in elderly patients]. G Chir; 2010 Aug-Sep;31(8-9):409-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma in elderly patients].
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is a disease that, thanks to the progress of the modern diagnostic, means for the longer and more high quality of life, has given a progressive increase in its impact, which has become more apparent in the elderly population.
  • The authors after a review of literature on the impact and diagnostic, troubleshooting data endocrinology and imaging, these adrenal gland silent tumor clinically poses, envisage a therapeutic for use in older patient protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Frail Elderly. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20843449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Ermetici F, Malavazos AE, Corbetta S, Morricone L, Dall'Asta C, Corsi MM, Ambrosi B: Adipokine levels and cardiovascular risk in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Metabolism; 2007 May;56(5):686-92
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  • [Title] Adipokine levels and cardiovascular risk in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) have been associated with an increased incidence of several cardiovascular risk factors, similar to overt Cushing syndrome.
  • In conclusion, patients with AI may show increased levels of adipokines (apparently not related to the presence of diabetes, hypertension, or obesity), which may be affected by the presence of the adrenal adenoma.
  • For some adipokines, a direct production from the adrenal gland may be hypothesized even if other studies are needed to better investigate the role of adipokines in states of altered cortisol secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Atherosclerosis / blood

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  • (PMID = 17445545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-0495
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolism: clinical and experimental
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab. Clin. Exp.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADIPOQ protein, human; 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / RETN protein, human; 0 / Resistin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Legmann P: [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):426-43
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI].
  • [Transliterated title] Conduite à tenir devant un incidentalome surrénalien: scanner - IRM.
  • The adrenal gland may be affected by several pathologies, and the detection of an adrenal nodule may occur during the work-up of a biological abnormality, oncologic work-up, or be incidental.
  • Cross-sectional imaging has had a great impact on the diagnostic work-up of adrenal nodules.
  • CT, without and with intravenous contrast, is the first line imaging study for evaluation of adrenal nodules.
  • When lesions cannot be characterized, postcontrast CT or MR imaging, including in and out of phase imaging, may allow diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / radiography. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Algorithms. Biopsy. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / radiography. Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / radiography


18. Gagliardi L, Torpy DJ: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentaloma: a common problem or an artefact of current diagnostic testing? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Feb;72(2):277-8
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentaloma: a common problem or an artefact of current diagnostic testing?
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 May;70(5):674-9 [19067718.001]
  • (PMID = 19438901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Kotłowska A, Maliński E, Sworczak K, Kumirska J, Stepnowski P: The urinary steroid profile in patients diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma. Clin Biochem; 2009 Apr;42(6):448-54
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  • [Title] The urinary steroid profile in patients diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible urinary markers of hormonal activity in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas.
  • DESIGN: Urine samples were collected from 20 patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas and from 25 controls matched in terms of age, sex and BMI.
  • RESULTS: In patients with adrenal incidentalomas sum of total urinary cortisol metabolites was significantly increased in respect to the control group.
  • No significant differences in production of other urinary steroid metabolites were noted in patients with adrenal incidentalomas in respect to control group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that not only urinary free cortisol but also its metabolite such as tetrahydrocortisol and other steroids including etiocholanolone and corticosterone tetrahydrometabolite might be urinary markers for the endocrine activity of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Enhanced levels of these urinary steroid metabolites indicate an impairment of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and slightly increased activity of 5beta-reductase in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Pheochromocytoma / urine. Steroids / urine

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  • (PMID = 19297679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2933
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Steroids; 68-42-8 / tetrahydrocorticosterone; 7P2O6MFN8O / Tetrahydrocortisol; 97CGB1M48I / Etiocholanolone; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.3.1.3 / cholestenone 5 beta-reductase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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20. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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21. Ahmed M, Al-Ghamdi A, Al-Omari M, Aljurf M, Al-Kadhi Y: Autologous bone marrow transplanation for extramedullary plasmacytoma presenting as adrenal incidentaloma. Ann Saudi Med; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):219-22
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  • [Title] Autologous bone marrow transplanation for extramedullary plasmacytoma presenting as adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Extramedullary adrenal plasmacytoma (EMP) involving the adrenal glands is rarely encountered clinically.
  • We report a A 47-year-old male who presented with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Following HSCT, a serial follow-up helical CT revealed a substantial decrease in the size of both adrenal masses.
  • Our patient is the first with EMP to have received an autologous HSCT, which may prove to have a role in therapy due to the immunological effect of the infused donor marrow T-lymphocytes against the clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in extrammedullary sites.This case indicates that an EMP should be added to the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. Plasmacytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19448366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-4947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of Saudi medicine
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22. Sukor N, Saidin R, Kamaruddin NA: Epinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma in a normotensive woman with adrenal incidentaloma. South Med J; 2007 Jan;100(1):73-4
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  • [Title] Epinephrine-secreting pheochromocytoma in a normotensive woman with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Blood Pressure / physiology. Epinephrine / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17269532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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23. Nieman LK: Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4106-13
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  • [Title] Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Unsuspected adrenal masses, or incidentalomas, are increasingly found with the widespread use of thoracic and abdominal imaging.
  • This is particularly important before surgical resection, which is routinely recommended for masses larger than 4 cm in diameter without a clear-cut diagnosis and for others with hormonal secretion or ominous imaging characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Algorithms. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20823463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2936073
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24. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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25. Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Crosta F, Arnaldi G, Boscaro M, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Mar;30(3):200-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update.
  • Nowadays, the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal incidentalomas (AI), considering their biologic behavior, is still debated.
  • Surgery is mandatory in cases of hyperfunctioning adrenal masses, in the presence of suspect radiological malignancy, in cases of discordant computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy findings and when the maximum diameter is 4 cm or more.
  • Twenty-one large adrenal lesions (exceeding 6 cm) were removed (27%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17505152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Singh PK, Buch HN: Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;61(11):1168-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered incidental to imaging studies performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • Although most adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning benign adenomas, their increasing prevalence presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • The assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at deciding whether or not the tumour should be surgically removed.
  • Biochemical screening for tumour hypersecretion is mandatory in all adrenal incidentalomas, since hormone secreting tumours may be clinically silent.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is of paramount importance because of its life-threatening complications.
  • Non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas need assessment for risk of malignancy, and this is based on the size of the tumour and its imaging characteristics.
  • The duration and frequency of reassessment remains unclear, as the natural history of adrenal incidentalomas has yet to be clearly defined, and there is a lack of controlled studies comparing surgical intervention with observation.
  • However, the possibility of acquiring autonomous hypersecretion or conversion to malignancy in an incidentaloma diagnosed to be a benign non-functioning lesion is very low, and most patients may be safely discharged after an initial follow-up period of 2 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Long-Term Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18955573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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27. Tenenbaum F: [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):444-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination].
  • [Transliterated title] Différentes explorations d'un incidentalome surrénalien en médecine nucléaire.
  • In the setting of adrenal incidentaloma, nuclear medicine evaluation is only indicated after biological and imaging work-up has been completed.
  • To characterize lesions of the adrenal cortex, iodocholesterol scintigraphy is performed to confirm the origin of the adenoma and the benign or malignant nature of the lesion since benign adenomas show tracer uptake and malignant lesions show no tracer uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19421135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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28. Eller-Vainicher C, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Battista C, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cairoli E, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Dec;163(6):925-35
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  • [Title] Accuracy of several parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting before surgery the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONTEXT: It is unknown whether the metabolic effects of the removal of an adrenal incidentaloma (AI) can be predicted by the assessment of cortisol hypersecretion before surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of several criteria of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in predicting the metabolic outcome after adrenalectomy.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;7(1):3 [21197705.001]
  • (PMID = 20881060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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29. Frazzetta M, Tornambè A, Barrera T, Sciortino A, Lucania M, Frazzetta F, Sammartano A, Bonventre S, Vetri R: [Adrenal incidentaloma: case report and synthesis of indication and thresholds of surgery therapy]. G Chir; 2010 Nov-Dec;31(11-12):534-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: case report and synthesis of indication and thresholds of surgery therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso di incidentaloma surrenalico: sintesi delle indicazioni e limiti della terapia chirurgica.
  • In 1982, the term "incidentaloma" was introduced to indicate lesions detected on adrenal regions, found unexpectedly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21232199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. Tsvetov G, Shimon I, Benbassat C: Adrenal incidentaloma: clinical characteristics and comparison between patients with and without extraadrenal malignancy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Sep;30(8):647-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: clinical characteristics and comparison between patients with and without extraadrenal malignancy.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is frequently found in patients with a history of malignancy and, as such, is not always considered a true incidental finding.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term clinical and biochemical behavior of adrenal incidentalomas between oncology and non-oncology patients.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series of 100 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentaloma, followed from 1995 to 2005 in the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary university medical center.
  • During follow-up, adrenal function remained unchanged in all patients, but tumor growth was seen in 12.5%.
  • None of the other patients had clinical or radiological findings suggesting adrenal malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a similar clinical behavior of adrenal incidentaloma in oncology and non-oncology patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17923795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Villar-Taibo R, Angel Martínez-Olmos M, Fernández-Rodríguez E, Pinal-Osorio I, Prieto-Tenreiro A, Peinó-García R: Unilateral adrenal incidentaloma as a presentation of adrenal tuberculosis. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Mar;55(3):149-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unilateral adrenal incidentaloma as a presentation of adrenal tuberculosis.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses detected during radiologic examination performed for an indication otherthan evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • Diagnosis of these masses has increased due to the widespread use of ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with a left adrenal incidentaloma simulating a non-functioning adenoma and right adrenal atrophy.
  • The results of contrast-enhanced CT and subsequent histopathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal tuberculosis.
  • Hormonal study revealed partial adrenal insufficiency as a result of bilateral involvement of the adrenal tuberculosis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22967883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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32. Lee JA, Zarnegar R, Shen WT, Kebebew E, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma. Arch Surg; 2007 Sep;142(9):870-3; discussion 73-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS: Forty-two consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas (defined as adrenal tumors identified during routine imaging for another condition) who were treated at the UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) Medical Center between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2005.
  • INTERVENTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma based on size criteria and preoperative hormonal test results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thirty percent of patients with adrenal incidentaloma and borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels had a pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Metanephrine / blood. Metanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / urine

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  • (PMID = 17875842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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33. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Nov-Dec;107(6):670-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determinate the MRI and CT scanning appearance of adrenal ganglioneuroma and correlate the imaging with histological features.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In the last 10 years, eight patients with a pathologically proven adrenal ganglioneuroma were operated on in our department of endocrine surgery.
  • To our knowledge, these patients represent one the largest reported cohorts of adrenal ganglioneuroma treated in a single institution.
  • RESULTS: The most relevant characteristics of adrenal GN resected in our patients were: No hormonal hypersecretion, Presence of calcifications; no vessel involvement; and a non-enhanced attenuation of less than 40 HU on CT, A low non-enhanced T1W signal, a slightly high and heterogeneous T2W signal, a late and gradual enhancement on dynamic MRI, especially if associated with a whorled pattern.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even if many aggressive tumours, mainly adrenal carcinoma, may share some of these radiological features, the presence of all or most of them must made the clinician evoke the diagnosis of GN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18274182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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34. de Bruijne EL, Burgmans JP, Krestin GP, Pols HA, van den Meiracker AH, de Herder WW: [Adrenal incidentaloma: a clinical problem related to imaging]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Aug 13;149(33):1821-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: a clinical problem related to imaging].
  • During the diagnostic work-up, an unsuspected adrenal mass was found in both patients.
  • Wider application and improvement of abdominal imaging procedures have caused an increase of incidentally detected adrenal masses, posing a common clinical problem.
  • Typically, a diagnosis can be made on the basis of the characteristic radiological image.
  • An algorithm is presented for the management of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16128177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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35. Miyoshi T, Otsuka F, Suzuki J, Inagaki K, Kano Y, Ogura T, Kiura K, Saika T, Makino H: Abrupt enlargement of adrenal incidentaloma: a case of isolated adrenal metastasis. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):785-8
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  • [Title] Abrupt enlargement of adrenal incidentaloma: a case of isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • A 56-year-old Japanese man was referred for examination of right adrenal tumor (3 cm).
  • However, five months after the initial diagnosis the patient complained of severe right back pain with remarkable enlargement of both adrenals (~20-fold volume).
  • Although the origin of adrenal tumor was uncertain by pathological workup, positron emission tomography (PET) scan with (18)F-2-fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) eventually revealed a hot spot on left upper lung, which was consistent with a lesion of thickened bulla wall observed by chest CT.
  • The present case is a very rare example of abrupt enlargement of bilateral adrenals due to clinically isolated adrenal metastasis, suggesting the requirement of frequent observation with greatest care regarding morphologic changes of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr J. 2007 Dec;54(5):829 [17878608.001]
  • (PMID = 16410674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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36. Schalin-Jäntti C: [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(9):1037-45
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma].
  • An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor larger than 1 cm, incidentally detected in imaging studies carried out for other reasons than adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20593627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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37. Masserini B, Morelli V, Bergamaschi S, Ermetici F, Eller-Vainicher C, Barbieri AM, Maffini MA, Scillitani A, Ambrosi B, Beck-Peccoz P, Chiodini I: The limited role of midnight salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Jan;160(1):87-92
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  • [Title] The limited role of midnight salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • No data are available on the role of MSC in the diagnosis of SH.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of MSC levels in the diagnosis of SH in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI).
  • Using the cut-off of 5.1 nmol/l, the sensitivity and specificity of MSC levels for diagnosis of SH is 22.7 and 87.7% respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18835977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cholestenones; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / cholester-4-ene-3-one; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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38. Erbil Y, Ozbey N, Barbaros U, Unalp HR, Salmaslioglu A, Ozarmagan S: Cardiovascular risk in patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma: myth or reality? World J Surg; 2009 Oct;33(10):2099-105
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  • [Title] Cardiovascular risk in patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma: myth or reality?
  • BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma (NFA) increases the risk of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome or whether this type of adrenal tumor has been found more frequently in patients with cardiometabolic risk factors.
  • Age (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.9), total cholesterol (OR = 2.3), and presence of adrenal incidentaloma (OR = 10) were significant independent predictors of lower FMD (P < 0.05 for all).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Atherosclerosis / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology


39. Myśliwiec J, Rudy A, Siewko K, Myśliwiec P, Pułka M, Górska M: [Diagnostic difficulties in adrenal incidentaloma--analysis of 125 cases]. Endokrynol Pol; 2007 Sep-Oct;58(5):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic difficulties in adrenal incidentaloma--analysis of 125 cases].
  • INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic approach to incidentaloma, in spite of existing algorithms, is not always obvious due to diagnostic difficulties.
  • The aim of the study was to assess the validity of the initial diagnoses of incidentaloma which determined the qualification for the operation.
  • The patients were clinically and hormonally examined (metanephrines in daily urine collection, daily cortisol rhythm, short dexamethasone test, aldosterone, and renin plasma activity, Na, K levels in the serum) as well as computer tomography of the adrenal glands were performed.
  • The decision as to proceeding with adrenal incidentaloma should be individualized based on clinical symptoms, hormonal tests and tumor morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18058737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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40. Fallo F, Pezzi V, Sonino N, Altavilla G, Barzon L: Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):459-63
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas detected during pregnancy are very rare, and the natural history of these tumors during gestation is unknown.
  • We report a case of a pregnant woman with an adrenal mass discovered serendipitously, who was followed-up during gestation and underwent adrenalectomy shortly after delivery.
  • Estrogens may indeed influence the function and proliferation of human adrenal cells, and a state of circulating estrogen excess can represent an in vivo model to test their effect on the adrenals.
  • No evidence of adrenal change in morphology and function was found in our patient throughout pregnancy, as shown by adrenal ultrasound imaging and adrenal hormone measurements.
  • The diameter of the adrenal mass at ultrasonography correlated highly with post-partum mass diameter measured by abdominal computed tomography (CT).
  • Quantitative expression of both ERalpha and ERbeta by real-time RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting findings did not differ among adenoma, normal adjacent adrenal and normal adrenal control tissues.
  • This case of an adrenal incidentaloma discovered during pregnancy shows that a close observation with endocrine investigations and ultrasonography could be an appropriate approach, delaying the decision of surgical intervention after delivery.
  • Estrogen receptor mRNA levels in the adrenal mass similar to those observed in normal adrenals suggest that estrogen oversecretion during pregnancy was not a risk factor for tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / immunology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16075931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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41. Legierska K, Janowska M, Szewieczek J, Duława J: [Clinical characteristics of 33 patients with adrenal incidentaloma]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):790-6
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of 33 patients with adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza kliniczna 33 chorych z bezobjawowym guzem nadnerczy (incidentaloma).
  • Incidentally diagnosed, clinically asymptomatic adrenal masses (incidentaloma) have become more and more common problem in everyday clinical practice.
  • The aim of the study was a clinical analysis of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, hospitalized in the Department of Internal and Metabolic Diseases of the Medical University of Silesia.
  • The tumor was located in the right adrenal gland in 13 patients (39.4%) and in the left adrenal gland in 16 patients (48.5%).
  • 4 patients (12.1%) demonstrated bilateral adrenal masses.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinically asymptomatic adrenal tumors occurred more frequently in overweight or obese women, between 51-70 years old, with lipid disorders and hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17427493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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42. Anagnostis P, Karagiannis A, Tziomalos K, Kakafika AI, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP: Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):163-84
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedures has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for the investigation of an unrelated complaint.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are a cluster of different pathologies, the majority of which are benign and non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19671516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 181
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43. Ruotolo G, Ambrosio MR, Caroleo PR, Bonacci E, Condito AM, Merante A, Arcuri P, Rocca BJ, Palermo BV, Palermo S, Gareri P: Adrenal incidentaloma: a case of carcinoma. Clin Interv Aging; 2010;5:31-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a case of carcinoma.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedure has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • On the basis of clinical evaluation, biochemical analysis, as well as imaging procedures, a diagnosis of right adrenocortical carcinoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 20396632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical interventions in aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Interv Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2854049
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal incidentaloma / adrenal mass / adrenocortical carcinoma
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44. Ueshiba H: [Incidence of adrenal hypertension in adrenal incidentaloma]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Apr 10;95(4):629-33
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  • [Title] [Incidence of adrenal hypertension in adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16722428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5384
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Naika Gakkai zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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45. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, endocrinological and histological characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients (41, males; 38, females; age range 17-80 years) who were diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma at Korea University Hospital from 1992 to 2003 were studied retrospectively.
  • Changes in mass size and function were observed only between 10 and 26 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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46. Ivović M, Vujović S, Penezić Z, Zarković M, Drezgić M: [Insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Jul-Aug;134(7-8):315-9
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  • [Title] [Insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma].
  • INTRODUCTION: Frequent use of modern imaging methods (such as ultrasound, CT and MRI) results in high incidence of accidentally discovered adrenal mass.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are accidentally discovered adrenal tumors by imaging methods without any prior suspicion of adrenal disease.
  • Some studies have shown decreased insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentalom a.
  • METHOD: A total of 22 patients with accidentally discovered adrenal mass confirmed by CT/MRI were evaluated in our study.
  • RESULTS: Our results showed significantly lower insulin sensitivity in patients with adrenal incidentalomas comparing to the control group (4.95 +/- 0.58 vs. 6.62 +/- 0.47, p=0.015).
  • CONCLUSION: Our patients with adrenal incidentalomas manifested lower insulin sensitivity what suggested further follow up and assessment of insulin sensitivity during endocrine evaluation of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Insulin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 17009611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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47. Chan SC, Yen TC, Ng KK: Upper pole of a duplex kidney mimicking adrenal incidentaloma in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography: a pitfall in diagnosis. Br J Radiol; 2006 Aug;79(944):e50-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Upper pole of a duplex kidney mimicking adrenal incidentaloma in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography: a pitfall in diagnosis.
  • 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has proved to be valuable in the diagnosis and management of a variety of malignancies, but is still limited in providing detailed anatomical information.
  • According to the literature, an adrenal incidentaloma with high FDG uptake usually indicates malignancy and requires further investigation.
  • However, accurate localization of the adrenal gland in FDG-PET is difficult without the presence of surrounding well-visualized organs, such as the kidney or liver.
  • We present a case with right partial duplex kidney accompanied by abnormal urine retention in the upper pole, which was misinterpreted as an adrenal incidentaloma in FDG-PET.
  • A subsequent CT scan revealed a normal right adrenal gland, but a right partial duplex kidney.
  • Fusion of the PET and CT images showed that the right adrenal lesion seen in the PET image corresponded to the upper pole of the duplex kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Kidney / abnormalities. Positron-Emission Tomography / standards. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16861318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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48. Lin J, Wasco MJ, Korobkin M, Doherty G, Giordano TJ: Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(4):239-43
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature.
  • A 31-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a large right adrenal mass by computed tomography imaging and underwent a workup that included endocrinological evaluation and positron emission tomography imaging.
  • Because of concern for adrenal cortical carcinoma, the patient underwent a successful right adrenalectomy.
  • The diagnosis of leiomyoma was supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains.
  • Adrenal leiomyomas have been reported in the literature, although most are small and not preoperatively suspicious for malignancy.
  • This case illustrates that benign tumors such as leiomyomas, when large and heterogeneous on imaging, can clinically mimic adrenal cortical carcinomas and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Incidental Findings. Leiomyoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18197480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B: Adrenal incidentaloma detected on triphasic helical CT: evaluation with modified relative percentage of enhancement washout values. Br J Radiol; 2008 Jul;81(967):526-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma detected on triphasic helical CT: evaluation with modified relative percentage of enhancement washout values.
  • The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess adrenal incidentalomas detected by triphasic helical CT using modified relative percentage of the enhancement washout (mRPEW) values.
  • 42 adrenal incidentalomas in 35 patients were detected on CT and confirmed by either pathological examination or follow-up CT examination.
  • The mRPEW values were calculated using the attenuation values of the adrenal masses seen on the images from portal phase and delayed phase CT performed 3 min after intravenous injection of contrast material.
  • The final diagnosis was an "adenoma" and a "metastasis" in 9 and 33 cases, respectively.
  • In conclusion, a substantial number of adrenal incidentalomas may be characterized using the mRPEW values from triphasic helical CT without the need for dedicated adrenal CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18559901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Chiodini I, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Eller-Vainicher C, Torlontano M, Coletti F, Iorio L, Cuttitta A, Ambrosio A, Vicentini L, Pellegrini F, Copetti M, Beck-Peccoz P, Arosio M, Ambrosi B, Trischitta V, Scillitani A: Beneficial metabolic effects of prompt surgical treatment in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma causing biochemical hypercortisolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;95(6):2736-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Beneficial metabolic effects of prompt surgical treatment in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma causing biochemical hypercortisolism.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with adrenal incidentalomas, subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the surgical and conservative approaches on the metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.
  • PATIENTS: One hundred eight patients with adrenal incidentalomas were studied for the presence of SH, which was diagnosed in the presence of more than two of the following: urinary free cortisol greater than 70 microg per 24 h (193 nmol per 24 h), cortisol after 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test greater than 3.0 microg/dl (83 nmol/liter), ACTH less than 10 pg/ml (2.2 pmol/liter).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the various components of the metabolic syndrome, in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and SH, surgery is beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;95(6):2618-20 [20525910.001]
  • (PMID = 20375210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cholesterol, LDL; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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51. Jakowski JD, Wakely PE Jr, Jimenez RE: An uncommon type of adrenal incidentaloma: a case report of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla with cytological, histological, and ultrastructural correlation. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):356-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An uncommon type of adrenal incidentaloma: a case report of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla with cytological, histological, and ultrastructural correlation.
  • Benign nerve sheath tumors of the adrenal gland are an extremely uncommon cause of an incidentaloma.
  • We report a case of a schwannoma of the adrenal medulla in an asymptomatic 51-year-old woman, which was discovered incidentally on a computed tomography scan after routine workup for her degenerative joint diseases of the lumbar spine.
  • The diagnosis of a nerve sheath tumor was based on classic histological findings, supported by S-100 positivity, and ultrastructurally by the finding of typical Schwann cells.
  • The cytological diagnosis from the fine-needle aspiration biopsy material obtained at the time of gross examination was much more challenging on retrospective review.
  • A review of the histogenesis and differential diagnosis of this common nerve sheath tumor in this unusual location is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18774499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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52. Inokuchi T, Takiuchi H, Moriwaki Y, Ka T, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Shima H, Hirota S, Yamamoto T: Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma: CT and MR findings. Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 Dec;24(10):1389-93
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma presenting as an adrenal incidentaloma: CT and MR findings.
  • We considered that elucidation of the characteristic features of a schwannoma would provide helpful preoperative information for diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17145411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Shibata H: [Adrenal incidentaloma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:714-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16776257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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54. Kodera R, Otsuka F, Inagaki K, Miyoshi T, Ogura T, Tanimoto Y, Sei T, Makino H: Gastric diverticulum simulating left adrenal incidentaloma in a hypertensive patient. Endocr J; 2007 Dec;54(6):969-74
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  • [Title] Gastric diverticulum simulating left adrenal incidentaloma in a hypertensive patient.
  • A 46-year-old Japanese male with hypertension was referred for examination of left adrenal tumor incidentally detected by computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Abdominal CT demonstrated a low-density mass 2.5 cm in diameter in the left adrenal region that was observed as a high-intense lesion with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. (131) I-adosterol scintigraphy showed normal uptake of bilateral adrenals.
  • Based on the observation of a very tiny bubble in the ventral portion of the adrenal mass by careful review of CT images examined at a previous hospital, a restudy of abdominal CT with oral contrast was performed.
  • In this restudy abdominal CT we observed positive enhancement of the left adrenal mass, indicating that the adrenal mass was a diverticulum derived from posterior gastric fornix.
  • The present case study reinforces that preoperative differentiation from mimic adrenal tumors is necessary in cases of cystic adrenal mass in the left adrenal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diverticulum, Stomach / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17984572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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55. Odagiri E, Naruse M, Tanabe A, Ohmura M, Oki T, Katabami T, Saitoh J, Nishika T, Shibata H, Doi M, Hirata Y: [Problems of cortisol assay: confusion in the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndorme]. Rinsho Byori; 2007 Jun;55(6):549-54
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  • [Title] [Problems of cortisol assay: confusion in the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndorme].
  • Cortisol assay is used for the diagnosis of hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal disorders.
  • The Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma has been increasing with advances in imaging tools.
  • The criteria for the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome in Japan was made by the Nawata group supported by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1995.
  • The presence of adrenal adenoma, a lack of overt signs of Cushing's syndrome and autonomic cortisol secretion are essential for the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • For the diagnosis of autonomy of cortisol secretion, cortisol should not be suppressed by either low dose dexamethasone (DEX) of 1 mg (cortisol > or =3 microg/dl) or high dose DEX of 8 mg (cortisol > or =1 microg/dl).
  • We have reported that two doses of DEX suppression tests revealed a discrepancy in several cases of adrenal incidentaloma; therefore, we studied the cortisol values of DEX suppression tests in 47 cases with adrenal incidentaloma using four different cortisol kits (TFB, SPAC, TDX and TOSOH).
  • These results revealed that the clinical diagnosis varies according to the cortisol kit used.
  • It is suggested that standardization of the cortisol assay is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests / methods. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic / standards

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  • (PMID = 17657989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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56. Owecki M, Warmuz-Stangierska I, Majewska KA, Nikisch E, Sowiński J: [Depression and anxiety in patients with adrenal tumor incidentally found on abdominal imaging performed for other indications]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Aug;19(110):166-8
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  • [Title] [Depression and anxiety in patients with adrenal tumor incidentally found on abdominal imaging performed for other indications].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the level of anxiety and depression in patients with non-secreting adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentaloma is associated with increased anxiety and depression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anxiety / etiology. Depression / etiology. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 16245424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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57. Chervin RA, Danilowicz K, Pitoia F, Gómez RM, Bruno OD: [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(4):341-50
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  • [Title] [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio de 34 pacientes con incidentaloma suprarrenal.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma, a tumor discovered unexpectedly during imaging performed for non-adrenal related causes, has become a frequent clinical concern.
  • In the present retrospective study we analyzed 34 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Of these, 32% of the patients displayed hyperfunctioning pathologies that included subclinical Cushing's syndrome in four patients, probable primary hyperaldosteronism in two, late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one, adrerocortical carcinoma in one and pheochromocytoma in three.
  • CT and/or MRI permitted the identification of adenomas and were crucial to decide on surgery in two patients with nonfunctioning pheochromocytomas and in a patient carrying a primitive adrenocortical carcinoma, a diagnosis also suggested by a mixed pattern of hypersecretion of androgens and cortisol.
  • Nonfunctioning tumors were mainly adenomas (87%) with individual cases of histoplasmosis, pseudocyst, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia and mielolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Androgens / secretion. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17891929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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58. Marazuela M, Domínguez-Gadea L, Larrañaga E, Rodríguez-Ramos R, López-Gallardo G, Rodríguez-Eyre JL, Gómez-Pan A: [The use of suprarenal scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of suprarenal incidentaloma]. Rev Clin Esp; 2005 Jul;205(7):316-21
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  • [Title] [The use of suprarenal scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of suprarenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la gammagrafía suprarrenal en el diagnóstico diferencial del incidentaloma suprarrenal.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy for clinical evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas, and its relation with pathological diagnosis and follow-up.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have studied 46 patients with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma of size between 10 and 100 mm (average 30.5 +/- 19 mm).
  • Adrenal scintigraphy assessed uptake in adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Hormonal study included urinary catecholamines, plasma cortisol after dexamethasone, adrenal androgens, and renin and aldosterone in hypertensive patients.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma was considered nonfunctional if the lesion did not modified its size nor showed analytical alterations along a follow-up higher than 8 months.
  • RESULTS: Of 46 adrenal lesions, seven didn't show uptake (three metastases, one cyst, one adrenal carcinoma, one pheochromocytoma, and one angiomyolipoma), 34 showed excessive uptake (29 nonfunctional adrenal nodules and 5 hyperfunctional adrenal nodules), and five had normal uptake (nonfunctional adrenal nodules).
  • Adrenal scintigraphy was compatible in all cases with cytological study or the response to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of a lesion with no uptake in adrenal scintigraphy forces to carry out complementary explorations in order to rule out malignant pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16029757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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59. Kastelan D, Dusek T, Aganović I, Stern-Padovan R, Kuzmanić D, Kastelan Z, Knezević N, Crncević-Orlić Z, Kraljević I, Dzubur F, Pavlić-Renar I, Giljević Z, Jelcić J, Baretić M, Skorić T, Korsić M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma: the position statement of the Croatian referral center for adrenal gland disorders]. Lijec Vjesn; 2010 Mar-Apr;132(3-4):71-5
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  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma: the position statement of the Croatian referral center for adrenal gland disorders].
  • [Transliterated title] Dijagnostika i lijecenje incidentaloma nadbubrezne zlijezde: preporuke referentnog centra ministarstva zdravstva za bolesti nadbubrezne zlijezde.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are tumours of adrenal glands discovered during diagnostic workup for other clinical condition unrelated to adrenal glands.
  • Improvement in imaging techniques and their widespread use in everyday practice have increased detection of adrenal incidentalomas making their management one of the most important challenges of modern endocrinology.
  • Based on the relevant medical literature and guidelines of other international societies a panel of Croatian leading experts in adrenal gland disorders provide practical recommendations for the diagnostics and treatment of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 20540431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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60. Tzanela M, Effraimidis G, Vassiliadi D, Szabo A, Gavalas N, Valatsou A, Botoula E, Thalassinos NC: The aldosterone to renin ratio in the evaluation of patients with incidentally detected adrenal masses. Endocrine; 2007 Oct;32(2):136-42
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  • [Title] The aldosterone to renin ratio in the evaluation of patients with incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal masses are diagnosed with increasing frequency, especially among patients with hypertension.
  • The aim of the present study is the evaluation of aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR), using plasma renin concentration, in the diagnostic algorithm of patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • A total of 123 individuals were studied: 17 patients with proven PA (age 55.5 +/- 1.4 years), 27 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (age 60.3 +/- 1.8 years, 14 hypertensives and 13 normotensives) and 79 control subjects (age 58.7 +/- 1.4 years, 27 hypertensives and 52 normotensives).
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis disclosed that an ARR > or =32 combines a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity of 96.2% for the diagnosis of PA.
  • No difference in AlphaRR between hypertensive and normotensive individuals harbouring an adrenal incidentaloma and hypertensive and normotensive controls was found.
  • Patients with adrenal incidentalomas with subtle glucocorticoid hypersecretion demonstrated similar ARR compared to patients with normal cortisol secretion.
  • In conclusion, ARR is reliable for the exclusion of PA in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Furthermore, subtle aldosterone hypersecretion, as indicated by increased ARR, in patients with adrenal incidentalomas is not associated with the presence of hypertension or subtle glucocorticoid hypersecretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / blood. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocrine. 2013 Aug;44(1):270. Effremidis, G [corrected to Effraimidis, G]
  • (PMID = 18040893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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61. Cawood TJ, Hunt PJ, O'Shea D, Cole D, Soule S: Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink? Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Oct;161(4):513-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recommended evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas is costly, has high false-positive rates and confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal lesion becoming malignant; time for a rethink?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of current clinical recommendations for the evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Eligible studies were those deemed most applicable to the clinical scenario of a patient referred to an endocrinologist for assessment of an incidentally detected adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of functional and malignant lesions presenting as adrenal incidentaloma was similar to that quoted in most reviews, other than a lower incidence of adrenal carcinoma (1.9 vs 4.7%) and metastases (0.7 vs 2.3%).
  • This is similar to the chance of developing adrenal malignancy during 3-year follow-up of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSION: Current recommendations for evaluation of adrenal incidentaloma are likely to result in significant costs, both financial and emotional, due to high false-positive rates.
  • The dose of radiation involved in currently recommended CT scan follow-up confers a risk of fatal cancer that is similar to the risk of the adrenal becoming malignant.


62. Marcondes JA, Curi DD, Matsuzaki CN, Barcellos CR, Rocha MP, Hayashida SA, Baracat EC: Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2008 Oct;52(7):1184-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian hyperthecosis in the context of an adrenal incidentaloma in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma is not infrequent and can be found in hirsute women.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with amenorrhea and hirsutism of abrupt onset and mild signs of virilization that had an adrenal incidentaloma coexisting with ovarian hyperthecosis.
  • Pelvic ultrasonography disclosed a right ovary with 10.3 cc and a left ovary with 9.8 cc without nodules or cysts, and computerized tomography of the abdomen disclosed a normal right adrenal gland.
  • On the left adrenal gland a solid nodule with 0.8 cm was seen.
  • In conclusion, the presence of an adrenal mass in a hirsute woman can lead to a wrong diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Hirsutism / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19082308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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63. Naruse M, Tanabe A, Tsuiki M: [Concept and clinical significance of subclinical Cushing syndrome]. Rinsho Byori; 2010 Mar;58(3):232-7
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  • The clinical significance of subclinical Cushing syndrome has been widely recognized because of its high prevalence in adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Since those complications show aggravation during the clinical course and improvement after surgery, appropriate diagnosis and treatment are essential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Biomarkers / blood. Comorbidity. Dexamethasone. Glucose Metabolism Disorders / epidemiology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperlipidemias / epidemiology. Hypertension / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Obesity / epidemiology. Prevalence. Reference Standards

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  • (PMID = 20408441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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64. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Adrenalectomy was performed in 274 patients of whom 73 (27%) were characterized pre-operatively as incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • ACC presenting as incidentaloma appear to have a more favorable prognosis than symptomatic or functioning ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Mathonnet M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jun;130(5):303-8
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  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure].
  • [Transliterated title] Conduite à tenir face à un incidentalome surrénalien associé à une hypertension artérielle.
  • HTA is present in half of the patients who have an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinical data, hormonal sampling, computed tomography and adrenal scintigraphies are necessary to identify hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • If HTA seems to be not in relation with the adrenal mass, it is recommended to recognize a congenital enzymatic block in order to ovoid an unnecessary adrenalectomy and to search for a preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • The removal of the adrenal mass improves the HTA for half of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15935786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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66. Ng AC, Loh HL, Shum CF, Yip SK: A case of adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting with progressive enlargement and apparent hormonal hypersecretion. Endocr Pract; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):104-8
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  • [Title] A case of adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting with progressive enlargement and apparent hormonal hypersecretion.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a man with an adrenal cavernous hemangioma presenting as a progressively enlarging adrenal mass with apparent hormonal hypersecretion.
  • The literature is reviewed for the typical presentations of adrenal cavernous hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: A 59-year-old man presented with an adrenal incidentaloma that had an imaging phenotype suggestive of a pheochromocytoma or an adrenal carcinoma.
  • Surgery, however, proved the diagnosis to be an adrenal cavernous hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although adrenal cavernous hemangioma is a rare entity, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Its radiologic features are not specific, and the presence of hormonal hypersecretion does not exclude the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Disease Progression. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Renin / blood. Renin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18238749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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67. Alexandraki KI, Michail OP, Nonni A, Diamantis D, Giannopoulou I, Kaltsas GA, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Syriou V, Michail PO: Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review. Endocr J; 2009;56(6):817-24
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review.
  • We report a 66-year-old woman with a mixed corticomedullary tumor of the left adrenal gland.
  • The patient was found to harbor an adrenal incidentaloma while investigated for a spigelian hernia.
  • Due to the atypical radiological features and the relatively large size of the adrenal lesion she underwent a left adrenalectomy following endocrine testing to exclude a functional lesion.
  • The finding of this case highlights the importance of this extremely rare entity which should be included in the long list of causes of adrenal incidentaloma since cases with intra-operative complications have been described.
  • The previously reported reappearance of this tumor in the contralateral adrenal gland emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hernia, Abdominal / complications

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  • (PMID = 19461165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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68. Kim KA, Kim SW, Park G, Kwak BS, Choi JS, Kim SH, Yeo JS, Kim EJ: Simultaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma and sarcoidosis. South Med J; 2009 May;102(5):537-41
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  • [Title] Simultaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma and sarcoidosis.
  • Because he had a history of excessive alcohol use, an abdominal computed tomography scan was obtained, which revealed a left adrenal mass.
  • The suspected diagnosis was asymptomatic pheochromocytoma with sarcoidosis.
  • Histologic tissue analysis confirmed an adrenal pheochromocytoma and sarcoid granulomas in the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • This case highlights the difficulty in determining the appropriate work up of patients presenting with an adrenal incidentaloma and concomitant systemic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Sarcoidosis / complications


69. Chang TH, Lee YC, Liu CC, Huang CH, Wu WJ: Adrenal leiomyoma treated by hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2006 Nov;22(11):575-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal leiomyoma treated by hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report.
  • A left adrenal incidentaloma was found by abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in a 53-year-old woman who had a history of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
  • Abdominal CT showed a well-circumscribed adrenal mass (5.5 x 4.5 x 3.5 cm) with low density (32HU) on precontrast scan and heterogeneous enhancement on postcontrast scan.
  • Laboratory examinations revealed a nonfunctional adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Leiomyoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17110347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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70. Francucci CM, Caudarella R, Rilli S, Fiscaletti P, Ceccoli L, Boscaro M: Adrenal incidentaloma: effects on bone metabolism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7 Suppl):48-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: effects on bone metabolism.
  • The effects of clinically inapparent adrenal masses or adrenal incidentalomas (AI) on bone metabolism are a controversial clinical problem related to their activity.
  • However, it is controversial, up to now, if this disorder is associated with long-term morbidity and if the treatment to reverse subtle glucocorticoid excess is beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Glucocorticoids / metabolism. Osteoporosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18791352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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71. Binyousef HM, Al-Zaben MA, Murshid EM, Al-Shahid MA: Minimally invasive retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Saudi Med J; 2007 Dec;28(12):1901-3
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  • The minimally invasive MI approach has become the gold standard in removing the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of MI retroperitoneal adrenalectomy for right adrenal incidentaloma in a recently diagnosed breast cancer patient with multiple medical problems, and emphasize the advantage of this approach over the MI transperitoneal approach in the presence of patient's co-morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18060226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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72. Hiroi N, Sue M, Yoshihara A, Ichijo T, Yoshida-Hiroi M, Higa M, Yoshino G: Prevalence of adrenal masses in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetol Metab Syndr; 2010;2:71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal masses in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • INTRODUCTION: To date, there have been no reports on the prevalence of adrenal masses in type 2 diabetic patients.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.
  • SUBJECTS: We retrospectively evaluated the presence of adrenal masses using abdominal CT scans in 304 type 2 diabetic patients.
  • In those with adrenal masses, we examined the hormone production capacity of the adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients (4.6%) had an adrenal mass.
  • DISCUSSION: The reported prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in normal subjects is 0.6-4.0% in abdominal CT scan series.
  • Our results show a relatively high prevalence of adrenal tumors in diabetic patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Although further studies are needed to evaluate the prevalence of adrenal tumors in diabetic patients, our data suggest that evaluation of the presence of adrenal masses may be needed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  • (PMID = 21171971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-5996
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetology & metabolic syndrome
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetol Metab Syndr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018421
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73. Taub YR, Wolford RW: Adrenal insufficiency and other adrenal oncologic emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am; 2009 May;27(2):271-82
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency and other adrenal oncologic emergencies.
  • Normal function of the adrenal gland can be disrupted not only by metastases of nonadrenal cancers but also by their treatment.
  • In addition, tumors of the adrenal gland itself can cause disease by hypersecretion of a variety of hormones, adrenal gland destruction with inadequate production of cortisol, and by metastasis to other sites.
  • Although rare, abnormal adrenal function should be considered in the appropriate clinical settings as failure to recognize and treat can result in significant morbidity and mortality.
  • The adrenal "incidentaloma" is a frequent finding of abdominal radiologic studies.
  • All patients with an unexpected adrenal mass should be referred for further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Emergencies. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Mineralocorticoids / therapeutic use. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19447311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency medicine clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Toniato A, Boschin I, Bernante P, Opocher G, Guolo AM, Pelizzo MR, Mantero F: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma: is it really more difficult? Surg Endosc; 2007 Aug;21(8):1323-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the gold standard technique for almost all the adrenal masses, but several Authors still debate about LA in pheochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare feasibility and safety of LA for pheo and analyze the results relative to LA for incidentaloma, Conn's disease and Cushing's disease.
  • METHODS: Between January 1994 and March 2006, 167 LAs were carried out in 160 consecutive patients at our Department and 46 of them were affected by pheo, 60 by Conn's disease, 34 by adrenal incidentaloma and 20 by Cushing's disease.
  • LA for patients with Cushing's disease (average length of hospital stay and intraoperative blood loss, p < 0.023 and p > 0.002 respectively) and with adrenal incidentaloma (intraoperative blood loss p < 0.009) seems to be a more challenging procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery


75. Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Terui K, Takayasu S, Hatakeyama S, Ohyama C, Sasano H, Suda T: Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma. Intern Med; 2009;48(4):235-40
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  • [Title] Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma.
  • A 68-year-old woman was referred for characterization of a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Endocrinological examinations indicated subclinical Cushing's syndrome, whereas the large volume (10 cm in diameter) and heterogeneous configuration of the tumor raised a strong suspicion of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The puzzling image resemblance of a variation of adrenal cyst to carcinoma necessitated histological examination for confirmative diagnosis.
  • This is the first reported case of adrenal endothelial cyst associated with adrenocortical adenoma, the former of which alone is a rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19218775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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76. Bourne AE, Bell SW, Wayment RO, Schwartz BF: Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4694-6
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  • [Title] Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation.
  • Adrenal "incidentalomas" are commonly found on body imaging, and treatment of these lesions 4 cm-6 cm in size is controversial.
  • Most of these lesions are benign adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Lymphoma is a rare disease manifestation in the adrenal gland, and the overwhelming majority are metastatic lesions.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma has never been reported as a primary adrenal lesion.
  • We present a very unique case report of a 5 cm adrenal "incidentaloma" that represents the first reported case of primary Hodgkin lymphoma in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hodgkin Disease / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19497184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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77. Bakthavathsalam G, Shanmugasundaram VP, Prabakaran J, Venkatesh SP, Sowndaravalli DV, Jain CB: Nonfunctioning adrenocorticalcarcinoma. Int Surg; 2008 Mar-Apr;93(2):81-7

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  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses detected through imaging for nonadrenal disease, often referred to as adrenal incidentalomas, were first described approximately 20 years ago.
  • Despite the rarity of primary endocrine cancers of the adrenal, adrenal masses are one of the most prevalent of all human tumors.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma approaches 3% in middle age and increases to as much as 10% in the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18998286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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78. Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Huszno B, Orłowska M: [Adrenal incidentaloma as essential clinical problem in modern endocrinology]. Przegl Lek; 2005;62(8):761-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma as essential clinical problem in modern endocrinology].
  • Adrenal mass discovered during imaging for non-adrenal related causes is called incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal masses can be asymptomatic or can have clinical manifestations related to hormone overproduction.
  • The increasing number of discovered adrenal mass is by no doubt due to quick development of radiology procedures.
  • The aim of study was determination of statistical frequency of different types of adrenal tumours and related clinical symptoms based on retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed in the Department of Endocrinology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University.
  • There were 271 patients (184 female, 87 male) with incidentaloma confirmed in CT scan from January 2000 to June 2005.
  • The most common localisation was right adrenal gland (135 cases), bilaterally in 29 patients.
  • Hormone excess associated with adrenal mass was detected in 37 (13.6%) patients.
  • In patients with adrenal mass incidentaloma hormone tests should be performed before making therapeutic decisions despite no clinical symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16521492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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79. Giovanella L: Serum chromogranin-A assay in differential diagnosis of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1547-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum chromogranin-A assay in differential diagnosis of incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are defined as asymptomatic adrenal masses occasionally discovered during high-resolution imaging procedures such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR).
  • Chromogranin A (CgA) is a member of the granin family contained in secretory vescicles of chromaffin adrenal cells.
  • This study investigated the performance of serum CgA assay in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma among patients affected by adrenal incidentaloma.
  • We enrolled 104 patients affected by adrenal incidentally discovered masses and 100 healthy blood donors as controls.
  • A cytological or histological diagnosis was obtained in all cases.
  • Circulating CgA assay was positive in 12 out of 12 patients with pheochromocytoma and negative in 92 out of 92 patients with non-chromaffin adrenal nodules.
  • Serum levels of CgA clearly increased from blood donors and patients with non-chromaffin adrenal nodules to patients with pheochromocytoma (p<0.0001).
  • Serum CgA assay is effective in evaluating the presence of chromaffin tumour among patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Chromogranins / blood. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Chromogranin A. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16033058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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80. Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, Sperone P, Novello S, Berruti A, Borasio P, Fava C, Dogliotti L, Scagliotti GV, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):298-302
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  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, defined as masses discovered incidentally during imaging investigation of non-adrenal disorders, have become a rather common finding in clinical practice.
  • The aim of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas among subjects undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest in a screening program of lung cancer (Tic TAC study) in Piedmont, a region of Northwestern Italy.
  • Twenty-three patients with adrenal masses were identified: 21 adrenal adenomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 1 metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Therefore, the overall prevalence of adrenal lesions was 4.4%, and that of benign adrenal masses was 4.2%.
  • Another factor that influenced our results is that subject age is skewed towards the decades characterized by a greater occurrence of adrenal masses.
  • The outcome of this study confirms that we are presently able to identify incidentally discovered adrenal masses more often than in early years and that the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas on CT images is approaching that of autopsy series.
  • The present study provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma with currently used CT scanners.
  • Notwithstanding that our subjects were at increased risk of lung cancer, the rate of adrenal metastases was low.
  • We think that the present results can be generalized even if we may disclose the lack of histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16699294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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81. Young WF Jr: Adrenal causes of hypertension: pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2007 Dec;8(4):309-20
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  • [Title] Adrenal causes of hypertension: pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism.
  • The clinical presentations of the patient with pheochromocytoma -- a rare endocrine neoplasm -- include adrenal incidentaloma, hypertensive paroxysms, sustained apparent polygenic hypertension, hypertension in pregnancy, and hypertensive crisis induced by anesthesia.
  • Adrenal pheochromocytomas can usually be removed laparoscopically, whereas, catecholamine-secreting paragangliomas typically require an open approach.
  • In addition, molecular genetic testing for germline mutations should be considered in most patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma and in all patients with paraganglioma.
  • A plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio should be obtained in patients with hypertension and hypokalemia, resistant hypertension, adrenal incidentaloma and hypertension, onset of hypertension at a young age (e.g., < 20 years of age), severe hypertension (e.g., > or =160 mm Hg systolic or > or =100 mm Hg diastolic), or whenever the clinician is considering other forms of secondary hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications


82. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Adrenal ganglioneuroma. Am J Surg; 2007 Nov;194(5):683-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • BACKGROUND: A 20-year-old man was referred after having been discovered a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma or carcinoma.
  • Pathological examination after adrenalectomy concluded it was an adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • We studied the characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed hormonal status, computed tomography and MRI features, and histological findings of our series of 8 adrenal ganglioneuromas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even if many aggressive tumors share some of those radiological features, the presence of all or most of them must lead the clinician to consider the diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17936435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • It was discovered as incidentaloma in ultrasound examination.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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84. Onoda N, Ishikawa T, Toyokawa T, Takashima T, Wakasa K, Hirakawa K: Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic surgery. JSLS; 2008 Oct-Dec;12(4):420-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of left adrenal schwannoma in a 62-year-old man, incidentally discovered on an abdominal computed tomography.
  • METHODS: On admission, no remarkable findings were recognized in the patient's blood and urine examination, including adrenal function.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed with the diagnosis of a nonfunctioning adrenal tumor.
  • RESULTS: Macroscopically, the tumor (45 mm x 30 mm, 60 g) arose from the medulla of the adrenal gland with a clear border distinguishing it from surrounding tissues.
  • The diagnosis of adrenal schwannoma was made.
  • CONCLUSION: Although an increasing number of adrenal incidentaloma have been identified with the recent advances in imaging techniques, only a few cases of schwannoma of the adrenal gland have been reported.

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  • (PMID = 19275863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015997
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85. Zelinka T, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K: Pheochromocytoma as a catecholamine producing tumor: implications for clinical practice. Stress; 2007 Jun;10(2):195-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma should be performed not only in symptomatic subjects or in subjects with adrenal incidentaloma but also in subjects with a genetic predisposition for pheochromocytoma (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1)and mutations of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Algorithms. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Metanephrine / analysis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Paraganglioma / complications. Paraganglioma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 17514588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-3890
  • [Journal-full-title] Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stress
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0 / SDHD protein, human; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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86. Choi EK, Kim WH, Park KY: A case of a composite adrenal medullary tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma masquerading as acute pancreatitis. Korean J Intern Med; 2006 Jun;21(2):141-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of a composite adrenal medullary tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma masquerading as acute pancreatitis.
  • Composite adrenal medullary tumors, composed of both pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma, are extremely rare, as are pheochromocytomas masquerading as acute relapsing pancreatitis.
  • An abdominal computed tomographic scan revealed an enlarged pancreas and a 3-cm left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • An adrenalectomy was performed and a composite adrenal medullary tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma was confirmed during a pathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Medulla. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pancreatitis / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16913447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3890739
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87. Poiana C, Carsote M, Chirita C, Terzea D, Paun S, Beuran M: Giant adrenal cyst: case study. J Med Life; 2010 Jul-Sep;3(3):308-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant adrenal cyst: case study.
  • One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst.
  • During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered.
  • The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia.
  • The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20945822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018989
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88. Ito T, Imai T, Kikumori T, Shibata A, Horiba T, Kobayashi H, Sawaki M, Watanabe R, Nakao A, Kiuchi T: Adrenal incidentaloma: review of 197 patients and report of a drug-related false-positive urinary normetanephrine result. Surg Today; 2006;36(11):961-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: review of 197 patients and report of a drug-related false-positive urinary normetanephrine result.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and importance of functioning tumors among incidentally discovered adrenal masses in the era of laparoscopic surgery.
  • METHODS: We defined adrenal incidentaloma as a tumor detected during abdominal imaging for adrenal-unrelated reasons, and we reviewed 197 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentaloma diagnosed since we started laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • RESULTS: Incidentaloma was discovered initially in 91 (46%) patients and pheochromocytoma was detected as an incidentaloma in 21 (39%) of 54 patients.
  • One patient, a 21-year-old woman taking mesalamine for ulcerative colitis, had a remarkably elevated urinary normetanephrine level, which resulted in the initial misdiagnosis of a 10-cm right adrenal incidentaloma as a pheochromocytoma.
  • Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy resulted in a pathological diagnosis of ganglioneuroma.
  • We found that other patients medicated with mesalamine, without adrenal tumors, had elevated urinary normetanephrine levels, confirming that mesalamine metabolites interfere with urinary normetanephrine measurements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to diagnose the functional potential of adrenal incidentaloma preoperatively, and not to perform laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma without careful evaluation first.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Mesalamine / pharmacokinetics. Normetanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacokinetics. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colitis, Ulcerative / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Incidence. Laparoscopy. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17072715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine
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89. Srinivasan R, Koliyadan KS, Krishnand G, Bhat SS: Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma with lymphnode metastasis: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jan;50(1):32-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ultrasonography and CT scan of the abdomen showed a homogenous mass in the region of the right adrenal gland, extending between the inferior vena cava and the aorta.
  • A clinical and radiological diagnosis of an adrenal tumor was made.
  • The right adrenal gland was free of tumor.
  • The case is illustrative due to its clinical presentation mimicking an adrenal incidentaloma, and a rare phenomenon of a benign tumor exhibiting completely differentiated lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Radiography, Abdominal

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  • (PMID = 17474252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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90. Falhammar H, Thorén M: An 88-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: connection or coincidence? J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):449-53
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  • [Title] An 88-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: connection or coincidence?
  • An 88-yr-old woman presented with a 3x4x5 cm adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The genetic analysis showed two mutations in the CYP21-gene, V281L and 1172N consistent with mild non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • Previous reports have shown increased prevalence of CAH in patients with adrenal tumors although, to our knowledge, no one has reported the combination in a patient as old as in ours.
  • Thus, clinical signs and symptoms of CAH should be looked for in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, even in the very old ones, and if suspicion further diagnostic work-up should be carried out to provide adequate treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology


91. Shen WT, Grogan R, Vriens M, Clark OH, Duh QY: One hundred two patients with pheochromocytoma treated at a single institution since the introduction of laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;145(9):893-7
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  • Thirty-four patients (33%) presented with adrenal incidentaloma and minimal symptoms, 28 within the past decade.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


92. Lazúrová I: [Adrenal incidentalomas--is the present management rational?]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Sep;56(9 Suppl):961-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas--is the present management rational?].
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, i.e. clinically inapparent adrenal mass, are considered to be one of the most frequent tumours in human pathology.
  • At present, there is no consensus with respect to differential diagnosis and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas since the development of hormonal hyperfunction and a risk of malignancy are negligible.
  • Repeated CT scans subject the patients to ionising radiation and may carry the same or even higher risk ofcancer than the risk ofmalignant transformation of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21137168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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93. Tahrani AA, Macleod AF: A diagnostic dilemma in diagnosing and managing an incidental phaeochromocytoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Apr;114(4):204-7
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  • Incidental adrenal tumours are a common radiological finding.
  • We report a patient who had a phaeochromocytoma presented as an incidental adrenal mass on abdominal CT during investigations for recurrent chest infections.
  • MIBG scan showed increased uptake in the adrenal mass.
  • Histological examination of the adrenal mass was consistent with phaeochromocytoma.
  • Removal of the adrenal mass resulted in normalisation of blood pressure and abolishing of the patient's symptoms.
  • This case highlights the difficulty in deciding on further management of patients presenting with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / administration & dosage. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Catecholamines / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16705554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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94. Kuo CC, Hsu HL, Huang CY, Liu KL, Wu VC, Tsai CW, Wang WJ, Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation Group (TAIPAI Group): A patient with concurrent primary aldosteronism and Page kidney. Endocrine; 2010 Aug;38(1):6-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There are many factors interfering the interpretation of aldosterone-renin ratio (ARR) and could hamper in-time diagnosis of PA.
  • Here, we first report a patient with underlying Page phenomenon and an accidentally disclosed adrenal incidentaloma.
  • High renin secretion from Page phenomenon had masked higher ARR into normal ARR obscuring the diagnosis of PA.
  • However, adrenal venous sampling (AVS) confirmed the autonomous aldosterone secretion with left adrenal vein plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) 124.1 ng/dl and a lateralization ratio 3.3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hematoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hypertension, Renal / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / secretion. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Humans. Incidental Findings. Kidney / radiography. Male. Renin / blood. Renin / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Veins

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  • (PMID = 20960095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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95. Peppa M, Karamitopoulou E, Nikolopoulos P, Peros G, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):641-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of oncocytoma, a relatively rare adrenal tumor, which most commonly is detected as an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • METHODS: We present a case report, including laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings, of a 47-year-old obese woman who had hypertension and an incidentally found large, left adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of the hormonal evaluation, this mass was a nonsecreting adrenal tumor, which histologically proved to be an oncocytoma with borderline malignant characteristics.
  • A collective analysis of the few cases of adrenal oncocytoma published in the medical literature showed that our case corresponded to the previously published cases in preponderant location (left side) as well as the general size (11.4 cm in the largest dimension) and weight (372 g).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal oncocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas, especially if large tumors are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20061289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Lifante JC, Cenedese A, Fernandez Vila JM, Peix JL: [Impact of laparoscopy on the management of adrenal diseases. A retrospective study of 220 patients]. Ann Chir; 2005 Oct;130(9):547-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Impact of laparoscopy on the management of adrenal diseases. A retrospective study of 220 patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: Soon after its introduction in 1992, laparoscopic adrenalectomy became the gold standard in the surgical management of most adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: The indications of adrenalectomy were: Cushing syndrome 18%, pheochromocytoma 31%, Conn syndrome 16%, incidentaloma 21%, and malignant tumours 13%.
  • The video-asisted adrenalectomy had not changed the management of the adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15993374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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97. Mazzuco TL, Bourdeau I, Lacroix A: Adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2009 Jun;16(3):203-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal incidentaloma has become a frequent clinical dilemma.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Different protocols and threshold values to define normal cortisol secretion and diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome have been proposed, including recent practice guidelines for the diagnosis of overt Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Hydrocortisone / blood. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Algorithms. Biomarkers / blood. Disease Progression. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 19390321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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98. Hwang WR, Ma WY, Tso AL, Pan CC, Chang YH, Lin HD: Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland. J Chin Med Assoc; 2007 Jul;70(7):289-93
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A right adrenal tumor was found incidentally during abdominal computed tomography exam in a 51-year-old female patient, who had had diabetes and hypertension for more than 10 years.
  • Therefore, adrenal cortical adenoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome was highly suspected; however, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance image and 131I-6beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy failed to discriminate an additional tumor.
  • After right adrenalectomy, a small adrenal cortical adenoma and a large pheochromocytoma were noted.
  • This is an extremely rare case of an adrenal incidentaloma consisting of both medullary and cortical tumors in the same gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.
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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.
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  • (PMID = 17631466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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99. Václavík J, Stejskal D, Lacnák B, Lazárová M, Jedelský L, Kadalová L, Janosová M, Frysák Z, Vlcek P: Free plasma metanephrines as a screening test for pheochromocytoma in low-risk patients. J Hypertens; 2007 Jul;25(7):1427-31
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Detection of free plasma metanephrines seems to be the most exact method for biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, but their diagnostic efficacy in the common low-risk clinical settings is debated.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre study including 1260 subjects assessed the diagnostic efficacy of free plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine in low-risk patients screened for resistant or markedly accelerated hypertension, paroxysmal hypertension, 'flushes' and, in a small proportion, for adrenal incidentaloma or genetic predisposition to pheochromocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Pheochromocytoma was identified and verified by histology in 25 subjects (2%), with the diagnosis not confirmed by long-term follow-up or use of imaging techniques in the remaining 1235 individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods. Metanephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17563565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0263-6352
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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100. Cicala MV, Sartorato P, Mantero F: Incidentally discovered masses in hypertensive patients. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;20(3):451-66
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - High Blood Pressure.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The adrenal glands are the most likely culprits, due either to an excessive production of mineralocorticoids, catecholamines or glucocorticoids.
  • The term 'adrenal incidentaloma' indicates an adrenal mass discovered accidentally during testing or treatment for other clinical conditions unrelated to any suspicion of adrenal disease.
  • In particular, when an adrenal mass is discovered in a hypertensive subject, physicians must check whether the patient has pheochromocytoma, glucocorticoid excess or primary aldosteronism.
  • Although most adrenal masses are non-hypersecretory adenomas, hormone screening can reveal a significant number of cases of clinically unsuspected hormone-secreting adrenal tumors.
  • If the clinical history or physical examination of a patient with unilateral incidentaloma shows signs and symptoms suggestive of glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, adrenal sex hormone or catecholamine excess, which is confirmed biochemically, the treatment of choice is often adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Incidental Findings. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16980205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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