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Items 1 to 78 of about 78
1. Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP: Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):667-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare, highly malignant tumors that account for only 0.2% of deaths due to cancer.
  • Given the limited number of patients seen in most medical centers with this diagnosis, series usually reported are small and clinical trials not randomized or blinded.
  • In an attempt to answer important questions concerning the management of patients with adrenal cancer, a consensus conference was organized and held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, 11-13 September 2003, with the participation of an international group of physicians who had reported on the largest series of patients with this disease and who had recognized basic and clinical research expertise in adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition to setting up guidelines in specific areas of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cancer, the conference recommended and initiated the planning of an international prospective trial for treatment of patients with adrenal cancer in stages III and IV.
  • In terms of new therapies, first trials of dendritic cell therapy in human subjects with adrenal cancer have been started, but it is too early to comment on efficacy.
  • There are no clinical gene therapy trials for human adrenal cortical cancer.
  • The adrenals are a preferred target for adenovirus and the results of gene therapy in preclinical studies are promising.
  • In addition, there is evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitors can further enhance the rate of adenoviral infectivity in human adrenal cancer cells.
  • The use of these and other agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer should be hypothesis-driven and based on a thorough analysis of tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16172199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M 01-RR000 42
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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2. Yoon M, Kim S: Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT. Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Sep;44(3):230-1

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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT.
  • We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month.
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer.
  • The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic liposarcoma upon pathological examination.
  • When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic liposarcoma should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 24899957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-3474
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4042936
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal cancer / F-18 FDG / Liposarcoma / PET/CT / Pleomorphic / Retroperitoneal
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3. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


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4. Simi L, Malentacchi F, Luciani P, Gelmini S, Deledda C, Arvia R, Mannelli M, Peri A, Orlando C: Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:201
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  • [Title] Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer.
  • Adrenal glands show the highest levels of seladin-1 expression, which are significantly reduced in adrenal carcinomas (ACC).
  • Furthermore, to evaluate the presence of an epigenetic regulation also 'in vivo', seladin-1 methylation and its mRNA expression were measured in 9 ACC and in 5 normal adrenal glands.
  • In ACC, methylation density of seladin-1 promoter was higher (2682 +/- 686) than in normal adrenal glands (362 +/- 97; p = 0.02).
  • Seladin-1 mRNA expression in ACC (1452 +/- 196) was significantly lower than in normal adrenal glands (3614 +/- 949; p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20465827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2875219
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5. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • Initially, a kidney sparing procedure with partial tangential excision of the involved renal vein wall was performed.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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6. Krsek M: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • Adrenal cancer is a rare disease which is often diagnosed at a late stage and usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Further, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and current treatment options in patients with adrenal cancer are summarized.
  • The multidisciplinary approach as well as centralized care is necessary for successful management of patients with adrenal cancer and for improvement of their poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):6 [19227948.001]
  • (PMID = 19227956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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7. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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8. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.

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  • (PMID = 19652443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-9092
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3924130
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9. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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10. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


11. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The University of Michigan Health System has a rich tradition in the study and treatment of endocrine neoplasia.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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12. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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13. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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14. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although she underwent surgical resection of the extensive tumor as the primary treatment, the disease recurred in the lung and liver as multiple metastases shortly after surgery.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy


15. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1987 Mar 15;59(6):1112-6 [3815285.001]
  • [Cites] Brain. 1982 Mar;105(Pt 1):189-213 [7066672.001]
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  • (PMID = 19830057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740268
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16. Kato M, Higashihara E: [Urological cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Sep;32(9):1255-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Urological cancer].
  • We reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer, our experience of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Nephrectomy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16184920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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18. Fitzgerald PJ: Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer? Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;124(2):257-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer?
  • I examine evidence that the signaling molecule norepinephrine (NE) is an etiological factor in some types of cancer.
  • (ii) human studies of tricyclic antidepressant use and cancer rate;.
  • (iii) existence of pheochromocytoma, a cancer of the adrenal glands;.
  • (iv) cancer rate in families with individuals who have bipolar disorder;.
  • (v) hypertension and cancer risk;.
  • (vi) excessive body weight and cancer risk; and (vii) psychological stressors and cancer risk.
  • Three aspects of the body's NE system are consistent with it playing an etiological role in various types of cancer: (i) NE circulates in the blood and can thereby access organ systems throughout the body, in addition to direct peripheral release by the sympathetic nervous system and being released within the brain;.
  • Most importantly, use of existing pharmaceutical drugs that either lower the level of NE (such as clonidine) or block NE receptors may lower the probability of an individual developing cancer, and this hypothesis could be tested immediately by an epidemiologist through examination of existing medical records.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / chemically induced. Norepinephrine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):737-8; author reply 739 [20333678.001]
  • (PMID = 19004004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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19. Fitzgerald PJ: Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy? Seizure; 2010 Jul;19(6):311-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • (5) pheochromocytoma, which is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands that can boost NE levels;.
  • (6) comorbidity of epilepsy with bipolar disorder, hypertension, and obesity, where all four conditions may involve elevated NE; and (7) psychological stress, which is associated with increased release of NE.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / pharmacology. Bipolar Disorder / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20493725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Seizure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Seizure
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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20. Advani A, Johnson SJ, Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Vaikkakara S, Mason JI, Quinton R: Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):651-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor.
  • A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells.
  • Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA.
  • This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aromatase / genetics. Hypogonadism / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20467160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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21. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors > 6 cm is controversial because of the risk of malignancy, but data to support this position are mostly from small series.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that size is useful for predicting malignancy, and that at a size threshold of > or = 4 cm, the likelihood of malignancy doubles (to 10%) and it is more than ninefold higher for tumors > or = 8 cm (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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23. Murray SA, Nickel BM, Gay VL: Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • In the adrenal gland, as in most other tissues, intercellular communication provides the potential for regulation of a number of complex interactive cell processes including differentiation, steroidogenesis, migration, and proliferation.
  • This review is concerned with the regulation of gap junctions and cell function in cortical cells of the adrenal gland and in pathological disorders such as adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Cell Proliferation. Gap Junctions / metabolism. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Connexins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18973789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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24. Gross MD, Korobkin M, Bou-Assaly W, Rubello D: Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses. Discov Med; 2010 Jan;9(44):24-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses.
  • Unanticipated adrenal masses are frequently encountered in modern, high resolution diagnostic imaging.
  • Most often, these masses are benign adrenal adenomas, but when detected they necessitate a clinical evaluation sufficient to exclude subclinical endocrine disease, primary adrenal cancer, and remote metastases to the adrenal glands from other malignancies.
  • These "incidentally-discovered" adrenal masses or so-called "adrenal incidentalomas" can be further evaluated with CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques.
  • A substantial literature supports the use of each of these modalities to non-invasively characterize these neoplasms that have been considered by some as a 'disease' of modern imaging technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20102682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7930
  • [Journal-full-title] Discovery medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Discov Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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25. Haleblian GE, Wilson C, Haddad D, Albala DM: Adrenocortical carcinoma: role of laparoscopic surgery in treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Sep;7(9):1295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disorder with a prevalence of one case per 1.7 million people and a generally poor prognosis.
  • It accounts for 0.02% of all cancer cases and 0.2% of cancer deaths.
  • Within the past three decades, accurate diagnosis, precise radiologic localization, satisfactory preoperative medical management, appropriate anesthesia and refined surgical techniques have come together to render the surgical management of adrenal abnormalities a safe endeavor with predictable outcomes.
  • While there is a general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, controversy remains regarding the use of laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancies.
  • This paper provides an overview of adrenal cancer and reviews the literature on laparoscopic adrenalectomy for cancer, including the operative techniques, indications and contraindications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17892430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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26. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine as a radiotherapeutic drug or chemotherapeutic combination therapies that include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine are applied for systemic treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.. However, the clinical efficacy of the latter regimen needs further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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27. Narimoto K, Mizokami A, Izumi K, Mihara S, Sawada K, Sugata T, Shimamura M, Miyazaki K, Nishino A, Namiki M: Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen. Int J Urol; 2010 Apr;17(4):337-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical effects of flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen for combined androgen blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with bicalutamide as a first-line anti-androgen.
  • Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.
  • In vitro, 3 micromol/L flutamide suppressed DHEA, androstenedione and androstenediol synthesis compared with bicalutamide in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that flutamide suppresses the adrenal androgens in comparison with bicalutamide.
  • Metabolites from adrenal androgens contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / secretion. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy


28. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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29. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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31. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite direct invasion or extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava (or both), complete (R0) resection can be obtained.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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32. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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33. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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34. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • The rest patients improved, i.e. their malignant hypertension converted to a benign one.
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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35. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Indications for surgery were recommended in 20% of patients with bilateral AI, most frequently for adenomas, nodular hyperplasia, and oncological pathologies, with a good prognosis in the non-malignant group. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 69-73).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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36. Otsuki H, Ito K, Kosaka T, Mikami H, Yoshii H, Asakuma J, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):879-82
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • Right adrenal tumor was found by computed tomography and he was referred to our hospital.
  • Imaging studies revealed right adrenal tumor (8 cm) with marked swelling of surrounding lymph nodes and synchronous left renal tumor (2 cm) that was weakly enhanced by contrast media.
  • Needle biopsy of the left kidney proved to be clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the preoperative diagnosis was left RCC and right primary adrenal cancer with lymph node metastasis.
  • Pathological findings of right adrenal tumor and lymph nodes were both metastatic adenocarcinoma, which was not consistent with RCC or adrenal-derived carcinoma.
  • According to pathological findings and an elevation of carcinoembryogenic antigen, the adrenal lesion was diagnosed as adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


37. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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39. Tsuru N, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Minim Access Surg; 2005 Oct;1(4):165-72

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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We also reviewed the results separately for aldosteronoma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and primary or metastatic adrenal cancer.Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for adrenal disorders, excluding primary adrenal cancer.
  • It is important for the surgeon to remove the tumor and the surrounding fat en bloc, especially in the case of large or irregular tumors because of the potential for malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 21206659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-9941
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cushing's syndrome / adrenal cancer / adrenalectomy / aldosteronoma / pheochromocytoma
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40. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • In summary, the DRB1*01 genotype may be correlated to a higher risk for malignancy.
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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41. Stell A, Sinnott R, Jiang J: Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:259-63

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  • [Title] Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.
  • One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
  • We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Biomedical Research. Cooperative Behavior. Neoplasms. Public Health Informatics

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  • (PMID = 20543447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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42. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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43. Cherifi-Gatta B, Gaye D, Laurent F, Tabarin A: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Rev Prat; 2008 May 15;58(9):979-89
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomes et tumeurs de la loge de la surrénale.
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass, generally more than 1 cm in diameter, that is discovered serendipitously during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas is at least 1% in patients who underwent abdominal CT examination.
  • Surgery is mandatory in patients with secretory tumours (pheochromocytoma, secreting cortical adenomas) and with adrenal cancer.
  • However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are benign cortical adenomas and surgery is mandatory only in a minority of patients.
  • Systematic aetiological investigation of adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be performed in order to guide the decision on surgical or non surgical management.
  • The optimal duration and modalities of follow-up for patients with adrenal incidentalomas are uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18672664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Muehling BM, Toelkes S, Schelzig H, Barth TF, Sunder-Plassmann L: Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Feb;10(2):228-31
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  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) are increasingly used in the treatment of progressive cancers.
  • Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR.
  • Our investigation of a pilot character represents a 'biomarker-based' analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate 'tumor profiling' at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19948538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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45. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 20826579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
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46. Haghpanah V, Soliemanpour B, Heshmat R, Mosavi-Jarrahi AR, Tavangar SM, Malekzadeh R, Larijani B: Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system. Indian J Cancer; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system.
  • BACKGROUND: A population-based registry of endocrine cancer cases in four Iranian provinces, was performed for the years 1996-2000.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in each province were grouped according to age, gender and tumor specifics (site, morphology, behavior) and the data was coded according to the international classification of diseases for oncology.
  • RESULTS: A total of 319 cases of primary endocrine cancer were found and registered, including 313 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 6 cases of adrenal cancer.
  • For the 6 cases of adrenal cancer, 4 were neuroblastoma and 2 were pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Iodine / metabolism. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16790945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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47. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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48. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1319-31
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  • [Title] Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice.
  • Computed tomography (CT) is an integral tool in the assessment of adrenal masses.
  • Dedicated adrenal CT is performed for a range of indications, including hormonal abnormalities suggestive of a functional adrenal mass and adrenal cancer staging.
  • Whether an adrenal mass is identified serendipitously or is being imaged for further characterization, there are several CT findings that contribute to the diagnosis, such as lesion size, precontrast attenuation, level of enhancement at 60 seconds and on delayed images, percentage washout on delayed images, histogram analysis, and extent (involvement of the inferior vena cava and bilaterality).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Evidence-Based Medicine. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2009 Nov;29(7):2198
  • (PMID = 19755598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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49. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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50. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • Literature of the diagnosis and therapy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis rates of ultrasonography and spiral or thin-cut computed tomography (CT) were 70.0% (7/10) and 84.6% (11/13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • No evidence of tumor invasion revealed by preoperative imaging studies, no adjacent lymphadenopathy and no extraladrenal metastasis are indications of adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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51. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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52. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • We analyzed the results of a multi-centre trial that was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We obtained our data from the results of a questionnaire that was distributed by mail or email in May 2005 to several surgical units operating in the Campania Region, Italy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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53. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • In this report, we describe the fine-needle aspiration findings of a case of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that spread to the peritoneal cavity in an 80-year-old female.
  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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56. Sfaxi M, Bouzouita A, Bouasker I, Kourda N, Ben Slama MR, Ben Jilani Baltaji S, Chebil M: [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Jun;69(3):249-53
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  • [Title] [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome surrénalien primitif bilatéral de phénotype T. Un cas clinique beaucoup plus rare que le lymphome B.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare condition.
  • Adrenal lymphoma is often bilateral and in most of the cases of B-cell type.
  • The prognosis is bad and patient can die early because of acute adrenal insufficiency.
  • We report a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma.
  • Clinical features and imaging are not specific. (18)F-FDG PET Scan is an excellent mean to detect malignant tumor of adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18455145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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57. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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58. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


59. Coulter CL: Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;16(5):235-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors.
  • Conversely, tumor progression and the development of cancer probably occur through a process of dysregulation and dedifferentiation.
  • Similarities exist between normal human fetal adrenal cortex and adrenal cancers, such as high expression of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor II.
  • This review is prompted by recent gene profiling studies that have identified genes differentially expressed between normal and abnormal adrenal glands.
  • Several of these genes are specific growth factors or key cell cycle regulators, in addition to genes not previously associated with adrenal growth or function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / embryology

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  • (PMID = 15949953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Somatomedins
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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60. Han SJ, Kim TS, Jeon SW, Jeong SJ, Yun M, Rhee Y, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee EJ, Lee HC, Lim SK: Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 May;61(5):802-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning.
  • This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of adrenal masses visible in the computerised tomography (CT) scans which have been also evaluated by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), and to characterise the features of 18F-FDG PET scans associated with various adrenal endocrine tumours, especially benign functional tumours.
  • 18F-FDG PET scans of 105 patients with adrenal masses on the CT scan were analysed.
  • Positive uptakes in the 18F-FDG PET scans were seen in 60 malignant tumours (54 metastasic lesions, six primary adrenal cancers) and seven benign tumours.
  • The positive predictive value of 18F-FDG PET imaging to characterise an adrenal mass as a malignant tumour was 90%; the corresponding negative predictive value to rule out malignancy was also 90%.
  • Benign adrenal tumours were smaller than that of malignant lesions (p<0.05).
  • The mean standardised uptake value max (SUVmax) of the metastatic lesions [8.4+/-6.5 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg] was significantly higher than that of the benign adrenal tumours [2.4+/-1.2 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg, p<0.001].
  • Examination of only the primary adrenal lesions revealed that all adrenocortical carcinomas, two of three cases of pheochromocytomas, three of five neuroblastomas and two of four cases of primary aldosteronism showed positive 18F-FDG uptake.
  • In conclusion, for patients presenting adrenal masses with a high probability of malignancy, 18F-FDG PET can be used to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal lesions.
  • This study suggests that 18F-FDG PET scanning can offer supporting data to localise and characterise adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17343665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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61. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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62. Mazzaglia PJ, Vezeridis MP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: balancing the operative indications with the technical advances. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;101(8):739-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The adoption of this technique had substantial impact on the management of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be in general avoided for known primary adrenal cancers, it is appropriate for metastasectomy of isolated adrenal metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20512951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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63. Bakthavathsalam G, Shanmugasundaram VP, Prabakaran J, Venkatesh SP, Sowndaravalli DV, Jain CB: Nonfunctioning adrenocorticalcarcinoma. Int Surg; 2008 Mar-Apr;93(2):81-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses detected through imaging for nonadrenal disease, often referred to as adrenal incidentalomas, were first described approximately 20 years ago.
  • Despite the rarity of primary endocrine cancers of the adrenal, adrenal masses are one of the most prevalent of all human tumors.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma approaches 3% in middle age and increases to as much as 10% in the elderly.
  • This report describes the case of a 30-year-old man who presented primarily with complaints of deep vein thrombosis of the left leg secondary to a nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18998286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Novara G, Ficarra V, Antonelli A, Artibani W, Bertini R, Carini M, Cosciani Cunico S, Imbimbo C, Longo N, Martignoni G, Martorana G, Minervini A, Mirone V, Montorsi F, Schiavina R, Simeone C, Serni S, Simonato A, Siracusano S, Volpe A, Carmignani G, SATURN Project-LUNA Foundation: Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):588-95
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed?
  • BACKGROUND: A new edition of the TNM was recently released that includes modifications for the staging system of kidney cancers.
  • Specifically, T2 cancers were subclassified into T2a and T2b (< or =10 cm vs >10 cm), tumors with renal vein involvement or perinephric fat involvement were classified as T3a cancers, and those with adrenal involvement were classified as T4 cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate the recently released edition of the TNM staging system for primary tumor classification in kidney cancer.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed cancer-specific survival (CSS) after surgery.
  • In multivariable analysis, the novel classification of the primary tumor was a powerful independent predictor of CSS (p for trend <0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recently released seventh edition of the primary tumor staging system for kidney tumors is a powerful predictor of CSS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2011 Apr;185(4):1223 [22115474.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Oct;58(4):517-9; discussion 519-21 [20728266.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Eur Urol. 2011 Jan;59(1):182. Schiavina, Roberto [corrected to Schiavina, Riccardo]
  • (PMID = 20674150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Investigator] De Cobelli O; Schiavina R; Antonelli A; Corti S; Cosciani Cunico S; Simeone C; Castelli M; Cimino S; Favilla V; Morgia G; Billia M; Terrone C; Volpe A; Imbimbo C; Longo N; Mirone V; Carini M; Masieri L; Minervini A; Serni S; Carmignani G; Oneto F; Simonato A; Varca V; Rocco F; Artibani W; Ficarra V; Novara G; Costantini E; Porena M; Zucchi A; Morgia G; Ciciliato S; Lampropoulou N; Siracusano S; Fontana D; Gontero P; Tizzani A; Brunelli M; Martignoni G; Valotto C; Zattoni F
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65. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • Due to the fact that malignancy cannot be excluded with certainty in some patients with cortical adenomas, it is expected that the rate of laparoscopic adrenalectomy will continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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66. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


67. Li WQ, Huang JH, Gu YK, Gao F, Lu LW, Luo RG, Zhang Y, Chen L: [Experimental study of CT-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation in rabbit renal VX2 tumor]. Ai Zheng; 2009 Sep;28(9):972-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETHANOL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experimental study of CT-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation in rabbit renal VX2 tumor].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CT-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation (PEA) has been widely used in treating solid tumors such as hepatoma, lung cancer, adrenal nonfunctional adenoma.
  • This study was to explore the efficacy, safety and feasibility of CT-guided PEA in treating renal tumor in rabbit.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five rabbits carrying VX2 tumor were randomized into PEA group (15 rabbits) and control group (10 rabbits).
  • After one week, the kidneys carrying VX2 tumor were removed, tumor size in both groups and the area of the largest cross section coagulation necrosis in PEA group were measured.
  • There was no significant difference in tumor size between the two groups.
  • Tumor tissue in ablation areas showed acidophilia changes and irregular coagulation necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Female. Kidney / pathology. Kidney / radiography. Kidney / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rabbits. Random Allocation

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  • (PMID = 19728917.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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68. Winczyk K: [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):156-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands].
  • PPARgamma take part in many processes such as adipogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis and inflammation and carcinogenesis.
  • The expression of PPARgamma was detected in normal and tumor cells of endocrine glands.
  • The reports about oncostatic effects of PPARgamma agonists in pituitary adenomas, thyroid cancers and adrenal tumor are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18465691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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69. Khochikar MV: Management of urological cancers during pregnancy. Nat Rev Urol; 2010 Apr;7(4):195-205
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of urological cancers during pregnancy.
  • Urological cancers during pregnancy pose many challenges for clinicians.
  • As these tumors are very rare among pregnant women and their symptoms might mimic those of common pregnancy-related disorders, the diagnosis is often delayed.
  • Once a urological tumor is diagnosed in a pregnant patient, appropriate steps should be taken to treat her and the fetus at the same time.
  • Common urological cancers that might occur during pregnancy include renal cancer, bladder cancer and adrenal tumors, particularly pheochromocytoma.
  • The treatment outcomes of these cancers in pregnant women are no different from those in the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Urologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Rev Urol. 2010 Jul;7(7):doi:10.1038/nrurol.2010.25-c1 [20665982.001]
  • (PMID = 20212515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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70. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • Selection of patients in whom we should have a high suspicion of a malignancy is vital, so that biochemical investigation and imaging is deployed appropriately.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • The most reliable indicator of malignancy in these tumors remains the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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71. Mohammad K, Sadikot RT: Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer. South Med J; 2009 Jun;102(6):665-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer.
  • The adrenals are a common site of metastases for lung cancers; adrenal insufficiency, however, as a presenting feature of lung cancer, is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to metastases from adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • CT scans showed a right upper lobe mass and bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The frequent occurrence of constitutional symptoms, metabolic derangements, and cardiovascular compromise in patients with advanced cancer may lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of adrenal insufficiency in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


72. Kozak KR, Milne GL, Morrow JD, Cuiffo BP: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy pathogenesis: a case highlighting the potential role for cyclo-oxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol; 2006 Aug;2(8):452-6; quiz following 456
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer with adrenal metastasis, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with non-small-cell lung cancer, and hyperprostaglandinuria.
  • MANAGEMENT: Rofecoxib 25 mg daily for hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, palliative external-beam radiation (44 Gy in 22 fractions) for mediastinal mass, palliative external-beam radiation (30 Gy in 12 fractions), followed 2 years later with radiofrequency ablation, for left adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lactones / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Sulfones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16932737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8382
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77839; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK48831; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM15431; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00095
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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73. Kazarian AM, Marangos IP, Røsok BI, Rosseland AR, Edwin B: [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2010;169(4):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals].
  • An analysis was made of experience with treatment of 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinomas (in 7 patients) and metastases in adrenals (in 17 cases).
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was shown to be a safe and effective method of treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the adrenals.
  • The method can replace open operative intervention in the majority of patients with metastases to adrenals and primary cancer of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20973194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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74. Little SG, Rice TW, Bybel B, Mason DP, Murthy SC, Falk GW, Rybicki LA, Blackstone EH: Is FDG-PET indicated for superficial esophageal cancer? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007 May;31(5):791-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is FDG-PET indicated for superficial esophageal cancer?
  • OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is indicated for clinical staging of superficial cancer, we sought to determine if it accurately classifies tumor (T), regional nodal (N), and distant metastases (M), including distinguishing high-grade dysplasia (Tis) from invasive cancer (T1).
  • METHODS: Fifty-eight superficial esophageal cancer patients had preoperative positron emission tomography, 53 (91%) fused with computed tomography.
  • Tumor characteristics, esophagoscopy findings, and pTNM were compared with positron emission tomography cTNM. pT1 was subdivided into intramucosal cancers with lamina propria or muscularis mucosa invasion and submucosal cancers with inner or outer invasion.
  • Positron emission tomography detected three (5%) distant hypermetabolic sites, all synchronous tumors (papillary thyroid cancer, adrenal pheochromocytoma, rectal adenoma).
  • Only increasing tumor length was related to greater fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (P=0.004) and higher standardized uptake value (P=0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because positron emission tomography can neither differentiate pTis from T1 nor classify T, N, and M, it is not indicated in staging superficial esophageal cancer.
  • Finding a synchronous primary tumor in approximately every 20th patient is its only benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Esophageal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Esophagoscopy / methods. Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / radionuclide imaging. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17337344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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75. Frysák Z: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentOn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61 [19227956.001]
  • (PMID = 19227948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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76. Kirschner LS: Editorial: paradigms for adrenal cancer: think globally, act locally. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4250-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Editorial: paradigms for adrenal cancer: think globally, act locally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4501-4 [16895957.001]
  • (PMID = 17088440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Schteingart DE: Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2415-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1257-8; author reply 1259 [17891838.001]
  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17554125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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78. Paliutko IuI, Gakhramanov AD: [Successful surgical treatment of adrenal cancer with repeated metastasis]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(12):51-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Successful surgical treatment of adrenal cancer with repeated metastasis].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19938263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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