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1. Sasano H: [Endocrine tumor]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Jan;32(1):121-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Endocrine tumor].
  • Endocrine tumor occurs in endocrine organs which in general synthesize and secrete hormones.
  • Endocrine tumors produce and secrete hormones produced and secreted in putative tissues and/or cells of origin, or hormones which may be produced and secrete de novo as a result of neoplastic transformation of these cells.
  • Therefore, the analysis of tumor markers in endocrine tumors is usually performed by measuring the levels of these hormones or their precursors and/or metabolites as accurately as possible in serum or urine.
  • 1) early detection of endocrine neoplasms including challenge or loading tests;.
  • 2) definitive diagnosis and/or prediction of clinical course and/or prognosis of the patients mainly using immunohistochemistry of the resected specimens: and 3) early detection of recurrence of the tumor through analyzing the serum and/or urinary hormones or their metabolites levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Early Diagnosis. Homeodomain Proteins. Hormones / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Prognosis. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear. Recurrence. Steroidogenic Factor 1

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  • (PMID = 15675597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors
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2. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Olivares R, Soffia P, Contreras M: Laparoscopic resection of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Aug;17(4):351-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are of rare occurrence.
  • Since first reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of adrenal tumors, the feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the setting of pheochromocytoma has also been established given a careful preoperative planning.
  • Literature on the laparoscopic treatment of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas is lacking.
  • We report a hypertensive 54-year-old male patient (body mass index, 26.2) with elevated urinary catecholamines and a 6-cm solid mass under the right renal hilum diagnosed after a magnetic resonance.
  • The patient underwent complete transperitoneal laparoscopic excision of the tumor.
  • Recovery was uneventful and final histopathologic examination showed an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • We believe that transperitoneal laparoscopic excision of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is a feasible and reproducible technique that allows for complete removal of tumoral tissue with low morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and minimal convalescence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17710068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Rondeau G, Nolet S, Latour M, Braschi S, Gaboury L, Lacroix A, Panzini B, Arjane P, Cohade C, Bourdeau I: Clinical and biochemical features of seven adult adrenal ganglioneuromas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jul;95(7):3118-25
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  • [Title] Clinical and biochemical features of seven adult adrenal ganglioneuromas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions, and its clinical presentation is not well known.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the clinical, biochemical, and radiological features of adrenal GNs in adults.
  • METHODS: Seven adults underwent endocrine investigation for adrenal lesions that were confirmed to be adrenal GNs.
  • Average tumor diameter was 5.0 cm (range, 1.5 to 10.4 cm).
  • In five patients, the adrenal lesions were found incidentally.
  • Bilateral adrenal venous sampling revealed testosterone production from her right adrenal lesion.
  • All tumors showed nonenhanced attenuation between 25 and 40 Hounsfield units on computed tomography scan.
  • Three tumors were composite pheochromocytoma-GN.
  • Microsatellite instability study and immunohistochemical analysis of MSH2 protein in a patient carrying a MSH2 mutation showed normal MSH2 protein expression and low microsatellite instability, indicating that the adrenal GN was not related to the patient's MSH2 germline defect.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe one of the largest series of adult adrenal GNs.
  • Adrenal GNs may secrete testosterone or be part of a composite tumor with pheochromocytoma.
  • The association of adrenal GN with MSH2 mutation seems to be a coincidental finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20427489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / MLH2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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4. Thiel EL, Trost BA, Tower RL: A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 1;54(7):1032-4
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  • [Title] A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland.
  • At surgery, the mass was noted to arise from the right adrenal gland.
  • The final diagnosis was a cystic composite-pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • This compound adrenal tumor is only the fourth case reported in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


5. Børglum T, Rehfeld JF, Drivsholm LB, Hilsted L: Processing-independent quantitation of chromogranin a in plasma from patients with neuroendocrine tumors and small-cell lung carcinomas. Clin Chem; 2007 Mar;53(3):438-46
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  • [Title] Processing-independent quantitation of chromogranin a in plasma from patients with neuroendocrine tumors and small-cell lung carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Most neuroendocrine tumors express chromogranin A (CgA).
  • The posttranslational processing of neuroendocrine proteins such as CgA is often specific for the individual tumor.
  • To cope with this variability and improve tumor diagnosis, we developed a processing-independent analysis (PIA) method to measure the total CgA product.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of the CgA PIA and 3 sequence-specific assays for CgA were evaluated on plasma samples from patients with neuroendocrine tumors and small-cell lung carcinomas.
  • Furthermore, we investigated whether the CgA plasma concentrations correlated with the tumor burden.
  • RESULTS: Size-exclusion chromatography of plasma showed that CgA immunoreactivity mainly consisted of high-molecular-weight forms, indicating that neuroendocrine tumors may secrete large amounts of poorly processed CgA.
  • Accordingly, trypsination of plasma from 54 patients with neuroendocrine tumors or small-cell lung carcinomas increased the CgA(340-->) immunoreactivity up to 500-fold.
  • Both the CgA(340-->) assay and the PIA measured significantly higher plasma concentrations in patients with very extensive disease than in patients with less widespread disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The CgA(340-->) assay and CgA PIA are both useful for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors and small-cell lung carcinomas and both assays correlate with tumor burden.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Chromogranin A / blood. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Plasma. Reference Values. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17259235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A
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6. Umemoto S, Miyoshi Y, Nakaigawa N, Yao M, Takebayashi S, Kubota Y: Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):245-7
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  • [Title] Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan.
  • Heterotropic splenic tissue in renal fossa is characteristically asymptomatic and is usually an incidental finding that has been reported to mimic renal or adrenal tumors.
  • A 55-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma had undergone radical nephrectomy together with splenectomy because of disrupture of the splenic capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Splenosis / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Splenectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17430265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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7. Cotesta D, Petramala L, Serra V, Giustini S, Divona L, Calvieri S, De Toma G, Ciardi A, Corsi A, Massa R, Reale MG, Letizia C: Pheochromocytoma associated with adrenocortical tumor in the same gland. Two case reports and literature review. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;31(2):183-9
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma associated with adrenocortical tumor in the same gland. Two case reports and literature review.
  • Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumours arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal paraganglionic system that show 2 distinctive features, rarity and clinical variability.
  • Pheochromocytoma occasionally is associated with pathological lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • We present 2 cases of patients referred to our hospital with a finding of clinical suspected pheochromocytoma.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed in both cases with laboratory analysis and the lesion was achieved by employing 3 imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzilguanidine (MIBG).
  • The patients underwent adrenalectomy and in the same adrenal gland we found a pheochromocytoma associated with a nonfunctioning cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16682942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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8. Patel VG, Babalola OA, Fortson JK, Weaver WL: Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg; 2006 Jul;72(7):649-54
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature lipomatous and hemopoietic tissue.
  • Although it is often discovered as an incidental finding on imaging of the abdomen for some other reason or at autopsy, adrenal myelolipoma has been reported to present with symptoms such as flank pain resulting from tumor bulk, necrosis, or spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Myelolipomas are hormonally inactive but have also been reported to coexist with other hormonally active tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a patient with symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed on computed tomography scan and confirmed on computed tomography-guided biopsy.
  • We also review the literature to evaluate the presentation and optimal management of this rare adrenal tumor that is not encountered by most general surgeons and therefore not well known to most surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16875091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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9. Lendvai G, Monazzam A, Velikyan I, Eriksson B, Josephsson R, Långström B, Bergström M, Estrada S: Non-hybridization saturable mechanisms play a role in the uptake of (68)Ga-Labeled LNA-DNA mixmer antisense oligonucleotides in rats. Oligonucleotides; 2009 Sep;19(3):223-32
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  • In addition, the blockade by poly-I was statistically significant in the pancreas, adrenal gland, bone marrow, intestine, testis, urinary bladder, muscle, parotid gland, and heart, whereas poly-A also caused significant reduction in pancreas, adrenal gland, and bone marrow but not as much as in kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Gallium Radioisotopes / metabolism. Humans. Male. Poly A / metabolism. Poly A / pharmacology. Poly I / metabolism. Poly I / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19732020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] Oligonucleotides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oligonucleotides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Scavenger; 0 / chromogranin A, rat; 0 / locked nucleic acid; 24937-83-5 / Poly A; 25249-22-3 / Poly I
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10. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • DESIGN: Pools of RNA from NA and APAs were hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays.
  • Data were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from NA (n = 20) and APAs (n = 18).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • RESULTS: LH/choriogonadotropin receptor gene and CYP11B2 are indicated as having greater than 25-fold expression in one pool of APA mRNA samples over NA using microarray analysis.
  • Real-time RT-PCR analyses indicated that one APA sample (APA-LH receptor) exhibited more than 2400-fold elevation in LH receptor expression over NA.
  • Examination of LH receptor mRNA levels in 18 independent APA samples indicated elevated expression in nine samples when compared with NA.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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11. Crucitti A, Grossi U, Giustacchini P, Tomaiuolo PM, Bellantone R: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in children: report of a case and review of the literature. Updates Surg; 2010 Aug;62(1):69-72
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  • [Title] Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in children: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) of the pancreas is an infrequent neoplasm of low malignant potential, first described by Frantz in 1933 and representing less than 3% of all exocrine tumors.
  • A 15-year-old girl with a 12 × 14 × 10 cm solid mass growing from the tail and the body of the pancreas, involving spleen, left adrenal gland and kidney, stomach and some bowel loops, was referred for surgical treatment.
  • Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was a 14-cm well-circumscribed solid mass, with pseudopapillary cell architecture, showing strong cellular immunoreactivity for alpha-1 antitrypsin, vimentin, neurone-specific enolase, progesterone receptors and in part to CD10 and CAM 5.2, but not to sinaptofisin and chromogranin.
  • A 24-month post-surgical follow-up after successful surgical resection showed no evidence of recurrent disease.
  • High survival rates can be achieved in most cases, warranting aggressive treatments even in metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20845104.001).
  • [ISSN] 2038-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Updates in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Updates Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Vanderveen KA, Thompson SM, Callstrom MR, Young WF Jr, Grant CS, Farley DR, Richards ML, Thompson GB: Biopsy of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: potential for disaster. Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):1158-66
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  • BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are highly vascular neuroendocrine neoplasms that often secrete catecholamines.
  • Percutaneous biopsy has been associated with life-threatening hemorrhage, hypertensive crisis, capsular disruption with tumor implantation, and death.
  • Mean tumor diameter was 6.4 cm (range, 1-15).
  • Mean follow-up was 58 months, with 4 tumor-related deaths and 2 recurrences.
  • CONCLUSION: Biochemical testing prior to biopsy of adrenal or suspicious retroperitoneal masses is critical to exclude a catecholamine-secreting neoplasm because serious complications and increased operative difficulty can result.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Needle / adverse effects. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19958944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Markou A, Tsigou K, Papadogias D, Kossyvakis K, Vamvakidis K, Kounadi T, Piaditis G: A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):226-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • We present a 39-year old female with a benign adrenal tumor characterized by autonomous secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone.
  • CT of the adrenals revealed a 2.5 x 3.0 cm tumor with characteristics of an adenoma on the left adrenal gland.
  • Further investigations revealed suppressed basal ACTH levels, loss of diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and failure to suppress on low dose dexamethasone suppression test, suggesting autonomous cortisol secretion by the tumor.
  • Complete clinical and biochemical remission of the disease was observed after left adrenalectomy.
  • The flare-up of an autoimmune disease (multiple sclerosis) postoperatively could be coincidental or possibly related to the high normalization of the high cortisol levels acting as a precipitating factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Sclerosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16613821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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14. Wu HW, Liou WP, Chou CC, Chen YH, Loh CH, Wang HP: Pheochromocytoma presented as intestinal pseudo-obstruction and hyperamylasemia. Am J Emerg Med; 2008 Oct;26(8):971.e1-4
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  • The hyperamylasemia regressed gradually after resection of the tumor.
  • The role of catecholamines liberated from the tumor is discussed in the associated pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperamylasemia / diagnosis. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / diagnosis


15. Mansouri D, Dimet S, Couanet D, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Vasiliu V, Khalifa C, Suciu V, Vielh P: Renal cell carcinoma with an Xp11.2 translocation in a 16-year-old girl: a case report with cytological features. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Nov;34(11):757-60
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with an Xp11.2 translocation in a 16-year-old girl: a case report with cytological features.
  • We report a case of a 16-year-old girl with a left renal tumor discovered by her family practitioner.
  • The diagnosis of a special type of renal cell carcinoma was suspected, and was then confirmed after examination of the biopsy sample and the corresponding surgical specimen.
  • The histomorphologic features were those of a renal cell carcinoma associated with an Xp11.2 translocation.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed this translocation by showing nuclear positivity in tumor cells for an antibody raised against the TFE3 protein.
  • The clinical outcome was marked several months later by metastases in lymph nodes, bone, lung, and adrenal gland as well as a local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] (C) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17121199.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Hirano D, Minei S, Yamaguchi K, Yoshikawa T, Hachiya T, Yoshida T, Ishida H, Takimoto Y, Saitoh T, Kiyotaki S, Okada K: Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port. J Endourol; 2005 Sep;19(7):788-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port.
  • This study reports the outcomes of retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (RA) for adrenal tumors via a single port using a large cylinder without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with adrenal tumors were treated using RA via a single large port.
  • The average tumor size was 2.6 cm.
  • A rectoscope tube with a 4-cm diameter was inserted, and the adrenal glands were removed endoscopically via the single large port without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • Postoperative major complications, including fulminant hepatitis and pulmonary thrombosis, were observed in two patients (3.7%), and the patient with hepatic disease died on the 14th postoperative day.
  • However, no local tumor recurrence or hormonal relapse has occurred at a median follow-up of 34 months.

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  • (PMID = 16190829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Lai EW, Perera SM, Havekes B, Timmers HJ, Brouwers FM, McElroy B, Adams KT, Ohta S, Wesley RA, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K: Gender-related differences in the clinical presentation of malignant and benign pheochromocytoma. Endocrine; 2008 Aug-Dec;34(1-3):96-100
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  • Subgroup analyses and multiple regression analysis revealed gender differences to be irrespective of benign or malignant disease, use of adrenoceptor-blockade, age and biochemical phenotype.
  • We conclude female patients have significantly more self-reported pheochromocytoma signs and symptoms than male patients irrespective of biochemical phenotype and tumor presentation which may be related to distinct catecholamine receptor sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 18982461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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18. Saad DF, Gow KW, Milas Z, Wulkan ML: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for neuroblastoma in children: a report of 6 cases. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Dec;40(12):1948-50
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  • Neuroblastoma, a neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood.
  • Complete tumor resection has been shown to improve outcomes in both low- and high-risk neuroblastoma.
  • The efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for metastatic lesions, benign tumors, and small neuroblastomas (<20 mm in diameter) is well established.
  • However, the role of LA for large neuroblastomas is unclear.
  • The authors describe the technical aspects of LA in 6 children with adrenal neuroblastomas greater than 2 cm and summarize their outcomes.
  • All 6 patients underwent successful LA with removal of their tumors and surrounding lymph nodes.
  • The average size of the adrenal tumors resected was 3.3 x 3.7 x 3.3 cm, and there were no intraoperative or perioperative deaths.
  • Our preliminary data suggest LA is a safe treatment option for neuroblastoma tumors greater than 2 cm in the select children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery


19. Lehrfeld T, Natale R, Sharma S, Mendoza PJ, Schwab Ii CW, Lee DI: Robot-assisted excision of a retroperitoneal mass between the left renal artery and vein. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):447-9
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  • [Title] Robot-assisted excision of a retroperitoneal mass between the left renal artery and vein.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are rare.
  • METHODS: We present a case of a 64-year-old female with a 3.5-cm mass located between her left renal artery and vein, treated by a 4-port robot-assisted transperitoneal laparoscopic approach.
  • RESULTS: Careful dissection of the tumor away from the renal hilum was accomplished without major vascular injury.
  • A pedicle to the tumor was identified and ligated.
  • CONCLUSION: Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are rare and can present in difficult locations.
  • While surgical excision may be challenging, the da Vinci Robot may be used effectively and safely for the treatment of these perihilar masses.

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  • (PMID = 21333207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041050
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20. Bodtger U, Vilmann P, Clementsen P, Galvis E, Bach K, Skov BG: Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration of left adrenal masses in established or suspected lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Dec;4(12):1485-9
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  • [Title] Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration of left adrenal masses in established or suspected lung cancer.
  • A left adrenal gland (LAG) mass is found in 5 to 16%, and malignancy preclude surgery.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is superior to other imaging procedures in visualizing LAG, but the impact of EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) on tumor, node, metastasis (TNM)-staging, treatment, and survival is unknown.
  • RESULTS: EUS-FNA of an enlarged LAG altered the TNM staging in 70% (downstaged: 26 of 28 patients) and treatment in 48% (gained surgery 25%, avoided surgery 5%, surgically verified benign disease 5%, no cancer and no further workup 5%, and no cancer, control computed tomography, and then no further workup 8%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / surgery. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome


21. Huang SW, Lee CT, Chen CH, Chuang CH, Chen JB: Role of renal sonography in the intensive care unit. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Feb;33(2):72-5
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  • [Title] Role of renal sonography in the intensive care unit.
  • PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the role of portable renal sonography in the intensive care unit (ICU).
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 402 ICU patients who underwent renal sonography.
  • We recorded demographic data, underlying disease, type of ICU, renal function test results, etiology of renal failure, need for dialysis, and outcome for patients with acute renal failure (ARF).
  • RESULTS: The most common indication for a renal sonographic examination was ARF (320/402, 79.6%).
  • Chronic renal failure was confirmed by sonography in 40% of the patients with an indeterminate cause of renal failure.
  • Renal sonography was also useful for follow-up assessment of patients treated with percutaneous nephrostomy and patients with a history of renal tumor, hydronephrosis, adrenal tumor, hematuria of unknown cause, or fever of unknown origin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since renal disease is common in the ICU, renal sonography is a convenient and useful diagnostic tool in this setting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Kidney Injury / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Fever of Unknown Origin / ultrasonography. Follow-Up Studies. Hematuria / ultrasonography. Humans. Hydronephrosis / ultrasonography. Kidney Failure, Chronic / ultrasonography. Kidney Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrostomy, Percutaneous. Point-of-Care Systems. Retrospective Studies. Urinary Tract / abnormalities. Urinary Tract / ultrasonography. Urinary Tract Infections / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15674831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Cascón A, Montero-Conde C, Ruiz-Llorente S, Mercadillo F, Letón R, Rodríguez-Antona C, Martínez-Delgado B, Delgado M, Díez A, Rovira A, Díaz JA, Robledo M: Gross SDHB deletions in patients with paraganglioma detected by multiplex PCR: a possible hot spot? Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2006 Mar;45(3):213-9
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  • Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia, respectively.
  • Inheritance of these tumors is mainly a result of mutations affecting the VHL, RET, NF1, and SDH genes.
  • Although this is the first report describing the presence of gross deletions in patients with apparently sporadic paragangliomas, the extra-adrenal location of the tumor seems to constitute a determining factor for whether to include these patients in genetic testing for gross deletions in the SDHB gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Deletion. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Protein Subunits / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics


23. Kantorovich V, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K: Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2008 Dec;1148:462-8
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder.
  • A pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Endocrine System Diseases / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Stress Disorders, Traumatic / physiopathology. Stress, Physiological. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19120142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS66489; NLM/ PMC2693284
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24. Brown MJ, Mackenzie IS, Ashby MJ, Balan KK, Appleton DS: AT2 receptor stimulation may halt progression of pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:436-43
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  • Two patients with pheochromocytoma are described in whom treatment with a high dose of an angiotensin receptor blocker was associated with cessation of tumor growth as assessed by serial CT scanning and plasma norepinephrine estimation.
  • Similar observations in further patients should lead to a placebo-controlled study in patients with malignant or familial pheochromocytoma, or other tumors found to express the AT2 receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / therapeutic use. Biphenyl Compounds / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Receptors, Angiotensin / agonists. Tetrazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17102112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0 / Biphenyl Compounds; 0 / Receptors, Angiotensin; 0 / Tetrazoles; 138402-11-6 / irbesartan
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25. Fukumitsu N, Ashida H, Ogi S, Uchiyama M, Mori Y, Ikemoto I, Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Kawakami M: A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;20(1):69-73
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  • [Title] A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis.
  • We experienced a case in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (131I-adosterol) scintigraphy showed high uptake in the right adrenal gland.
  • We diagnosed functional cortical adenoma because of the finding of 131I-adosterol scintigraphy.
  • Unexpectedly, pathological finding showed the right adrenal gland was occupied with a large ganglioneuroma.
  • This is an instructive case in which 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showed abnormal high uptake in the adrenal gland, in spite of the fact that the adrenal gland was occupied by a tumor derived from adrenal medulla.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Ganglioneuroma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16485578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol
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26. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards


27. Mete O, Kapran Y, Güllüoğlu MG, Kiliçaslan I, Erbil Y, Senyürek YG, Dizdaroğlu F: Anti-CD10 (56C6) is expressed variably in adrenocortical tumors and cannot be used to discriminate clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2010 May;456(5):515-21
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  • [Title] Anti-CD10 (56C6) is expressed variably in adrenocortical tumors and cannot be used to discriminate clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
  • In the evaluation of retroperitoneal masses, the practicing pathologist faces a dilemma when making a diagnosis based on histology given the often overlapping morphologic appearances of the adrenocortical carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • However, its expression is not well-investigated in adrenal cortical tumors.
  • We examined CD10 expression in 47 surgically resected adrenocortical tumors (26 adenomas and 21 carcinomas) and compared with 20 clear cell RCCs and 25 HCCs.
  • Adrenocortical tumors displayed mainly cytoplasmic staining.
  • Despite the relatively small number of samples, our preliminary results revealed that adrenocortical tumors may express CD10 (Clone: 56C6).
  • This suggests that CD10 does not seem to be a useful marker for discriminating clear cell RCCs from adrenocortical tumors since CD10 expression does not rule out the possibility of adrenocortical tumors.
  • This feature should be kept in mind when constructing an antibody panel for an epithelial tumor that involves the adrenal gland and kidney, especially in small biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neprilysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / immunology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / immunology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 2008 Jan;52(2):119-29 [17825057.001]
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  • (PMID = 20390424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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28. Zabell JR, Nepple KG, Wilkinson NW, Dahmoush L, Williams RD: Hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as a large renal mass with hepatic invasion. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:301-7
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as a large renal mass with hepatic invasion.
  • Large masses are evaluated with imaging to assess primary origin and tumor spread.
  • We present the unusual case of a 53-year-old male with a 17-cm right upper quadrant mass suspected to be renal or adrenal in origin based on radiographic findings.
  • After surgical excision, the mass was subsequently discovered to be primary hepatocellular carcinoma with direct extension to the kidney and adrenal gland.
  • A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B was made postoperatively.
  • Primary hepatocellular carcinoma with direct renal extension is an exceedingly rare occurrence based on our experience and review of the published literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20191242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Bryskin R, Weldon BC: Dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate in the perioperative management of a child undergoing laparoscopic resection of bilateral pheochromocytomas. J Clin Anesth; 2010 Mar;22(2):126-9
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  • Good cardiovascular stability was achieved, but low-dose esmolol and nicardipine infusions were required during tumor manipulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / pharmacology. Anesthetics / pharmacology. Dexmedetomidine / pharmacology. Magnesium Sulfate / pharmacology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20304355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical anesthesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Anesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; 0 / Anesthetics; 67VB76HONO / Dexmedetomidine; 7487-88-9 / Magnesium Sulfate
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31. Qin Y, Buddavarapu K, Dahia PL: Pheochromocytomas: from genetic diversity to new paradigms. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):664-71
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  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors of neural crest origin caused by germline mutations in at least six distinct genes.
  • This genetic heterogeneity has provided a rich source for both the discovery and functional characterization of new tumor-related genes.
  • However, the genetic repertoire of these tumors is still not fully known, and current evidence points to the existence of additional pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes.
  • Here, the unique contributions of three hereditary models of pheochromocytoma that can advance our knowledge of the disease pathogenesis are presented.
  • In the second model, mechanisms of tumorigenesis distinct from classical pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes are discussed in the context of a novel putative suppressor of neural crest-derived tumors, the KIF1B beta gene.
  • These distinct hereditary disease models illustrate how genetic-driven progress has the potential to narrow current gaps in our knowledge of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Variation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19391076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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32. Lao XM, Chen DY, Zhang YQ, Xiang J, Guo RP, Lin XJ, Li JQ: Primary carcinosarcoma of the liver: clinicopathologic features of 5 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jun;31(6):817-26
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  • The largest dimensions of the neoplasms ranged from 6.0 to 14.0 cm.
  • Satellite nodules, portal vein tumor thrombi, direct invasion into local tissues (right diaphragm, right adrenal gland, and gastric wall) as well as metastatic foci in lungs and abdominal lymph nodes were identified.
  • Pathologically, the neoplasms consisted of carcinomatous and sarcomatous components.
  • Furthermore, the sarcomatous elements in these 5 neoplasms stained negative for all the epithelial markers we applied for IHC staining, which support the pathologic diagnosis of carcinosarcoma rather than sarcomatoid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17527068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Park SB, Cho KS, Kim JK, Lee JH, Jeong AK, Kwon WJ, Kim HH: Inflammatory pseudotumor (myoblastic tumor) of the genitourinary tract. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Oct;191(4):1255-62
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  • [Title] Inflammatory pseudotumor (myoblastic tumor) of the genitourinary tract.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe imaging features of the following genitourinary tract locations that can involve inflammatory pseudotumor: kidney, adrenal gland, retroperitoneum or pelvis, bladder, and other rare locations.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Urogenital System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18806173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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34. Martiniova L, Ohta S, Guion P, Schimel D, Lai EW, Klaunberg B, Jagoda E, Pacak K: Anatomical and functional imaging of tumors in animal models: focus on pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:392-404
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  • [Title] Anatomical and functional imaging of tumors in animal models: focus on pheochromocytoma.
  • This review focuses on anatomical (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography) imaging methods for tumor localization and identification of experimentally induced tumors in animal models, especially pheochromocytoma.
  • Although anatomical imaging can precisely locate primary and metastatic tumors, functional imaging has high specificity for some tumors, especially those of endocrine origin.
  • This is due to the fact that endocrine tumor cells take up hormone precursors, express hormone receptors and transporters, and synthesize, store, and release hormones.
  • These characteristic properties of endocrine tumors enable investigators to create highly specific radiopharmaceuticals, particularly for positron emission tomography.
  • Here we review both anatomical and functional imaging methods that are used conjointly in order to localize and identify specific characteristics of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Disease Models, Animal. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17102108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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35. Meier R, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Flahaut M, Coulon A, Fusco C, Louache F, Auderset K, Bourloud KB, Daudigeos E, Ruegg C, Vassal G, Gross N, Joseph JM: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion. PLoS One; 2007;2(10):e1016
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  • [Title] The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is a heterogeneous, and particularly malignant childhood neoplasm in its higher stages, with a propensity to form metastasis in selected organs, in particular liver and bone marrow, and for which there is still no efficient treatment available beyond surgery.
  • We show here that CXCR4 overexpression in non-metastatic CXCR4-negative NB cells IGR-NB8 and in moderately metastatic, CXCR4 expressing NB cells IGR-N91, strongly increased tumour growth of primary tumours and liver metastases, without altering the frequency or the pattern of metastasis.
  • High levels of CXCL12 were detected in the mouse adrenal gland (the primary tumour site), and in the liver suggesting a paracrine effect of host-derived CXCL12 on NB growth.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow Cells. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Gene Silencing. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17925864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1995764
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36. Ahmed AA, Nava VE, Pham T, Taubenberger JK, Lichy JH, Sorbara L, Raffeld M, Mackall CL, Tsokos M: Ewing sarcoma family of tumors in unusual sites: confirmation by rt-PCR. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):488-95
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  • [Title] Ewing sarcoma family of tumors in unusual sites: confirmation by rt-PCR.
  • Ewing sarcoma family tumors originating in the palate or adrenal gland are extremely rare and may cause difficulty in diagnosis.
  • More common tumors primary to these sites need to be excluded before one arrives at the correct diagnosis.
  • The 2nd case was diagnosed in a 28-year-old woman who presented with a mass in the right adrenal gland.
  • In both cases, the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The hard palate case is the 1st and the adrenal gland the 3rd case of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors arising in these sites, in which the diagnosis was confirmed by RT-PCR and/or cytogenetics.
  • Accurate diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors is crucial for the management of patients, and when found in such rare locations, diagnosis should be supported by immunohistochemical and/or molecular genetic studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Palate, Hard / pathology. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA, Complementary / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / analysis. Pregnancy. Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1 / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. RNA-Binding Protein EWS. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17163788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / EWS-FLI fusion protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein EWS
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37. Gorgun M, Sezer TO, Kirdok O: Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal schwannoma near the inferior vena. Ann Vasc Surg; 2010 May;24(4):551.e1-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Schwannomas are usually benign tumors that arise from the schwann cells in the neural sheaths of peripheral nerves.
  • In the retroperitoneal space, schwannomas are most commonly located near the adrenal gland.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the existence of a round, sharply demarcated retroperitoneal solid tumor, 42 x 52 mm in size, located between the anterior of the right kidney and the IVC, which was compressed but still patent.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery is very useful and feasible in the diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal schwannoma, with minimal invasiveness and early postoperative recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20144535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-5947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Vasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Nambirajan T, Leeb K, Neumann HP, Graubner UB, Janetschek G: Laparoscopic adrenal surgery for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma. Eur Urol; 2005 May;47(5):622-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenal surgery for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy (LPA) for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma (4 with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 1 with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B), who had undergone adrenal surgery previously, presented with recurrent adrenal tumours.
  • The adrenal vein could be spared in all patients except one.
  • The adrenal function was adequate in all patients without need for steroid supplementation except one patient who lost both adrenals eventually.
  • There was no correlation between the preservation of adrenal vein and adrenocortical function.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is feasible, safe and effective in recurrent phaeochromocytoma, despite previous adrenal surgery and is technically easier if the previous approach had been laparoscopic as well.
  • Patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma are prone for recurrent tumours and may need repeated surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15826753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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39. Ivanov SV, Ivanova AV, Salnikow K, Timofeeva O, Subramaniam M, Lerman MI: Two novel VHL targets, TGFBI (BIGH3) and its transactivator KLF10, are up-regulated in renal clear cell carcinoma and other tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 Jun 13;370(4):536-40
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  • [Title] Two novel VHL targets, TGFBI (BIGH3) and its transactivator KLF10, are up-regulated in renal clear cell carcinoma and other tumors.
  • Mutations in the VHL gene are associated with highly vascular tumors of kidney, brain, retina, and adrenal gland.
  • One of them, adhesion-associated TGFBI, was repressed by VHL and overexpressed in renal, gastrointestinal, brain, and other tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18359287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC008579-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-56000
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Early Growth Response Transcription Factors; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / KLF10 protein, human; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 148710-76-3 / betaIG-H3 protein; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS51643; NLM/ PMC2413015
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40. Boland GW, Blake MA, Holalkere NS, Hahn PF: PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Apr;192(4):956-62
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  • [Title] PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients with PET/CT to determine whether qualitative (visual) assessment, quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV), or standardized uptake ratio (SUR) techniques should be used when attempting to characterize adrenal masses in patients with cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 150 consecutive patients (78 men, 72 women; mean age, 60 years; range, 24-88 years) with documented adrenal lesions.
  • All patients were known to have an underlying primary malignancy and were referred for PET/CT to evaluate the underlying primary and metastatic tumor burden.
  • Definitive lesion characterization was determined by evaluating all histologic adrenal specimens and all relevant prior and follow-up CT scans, including unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and delayed contrast-enhanced washout studies.
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT is a highly accurate method for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses particularly when using qualitative, rather than quantitative, PET data.
  • Without evidence that these lesions are benign by unenhanced CT densitometry or adrenal mass stability or growth from previous CT scans, we recommend that these lesions be characterized using contrast-enhanced washout tests and that if those tests are inconclusive, using percutaneous biopsy if early lesion characterization is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19304700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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41. Hori T, Taniguchi K, Kurata M, Nakamura K, Kato K, Ogura Y, Iwasaki M, Okamoto S, Yamakado K, Yagi S, Iida T, Kato T, Saito K, Wang L, Kawarada Y, Uemoto S: Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6094-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • Computed tomography detected a left adrenal mass measuring 3.5 cm multiply 3.0 cm in diameter.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the adrenal tumor only, with a maximum standardized uptake value of 2.8.
  • Selective venography and blood sampling revealed that the concentrations of cortisol, catecholamines and CEA were significantly elevated in the vein draining the tumor.
  • A diagnosis of CEA-producing benign adenoma was made.
  • We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of CEA-producing adrenal adenoma, along with a review of the relevant literature, and discuss our laparoscopic surgery techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250898
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42. Garg K, Lee P, Ro JY, Qu Z, Troncoso P, Ayala AG: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;9(1):11-5
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are relatively uncommon benign neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts.
  • Rare extragenital adenomatoid tumors have been identified in the adrenal glands, heart, mesentery, pleura, and lymph nodes.
  • In the adrenal gland, adenomatoid tumors may pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • The differential diagnosis includes adrenocortical carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma, especially signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • Because of its glandular pattern, an adenomatoid tumor may be confused with an adenocarcinoma.
  • We present 3 cases of adrenal adenomatoid tumors, including one with a concurrent large hemorrhagic vascular adrenal cyst.
  • The adenomatoid tumors were unilateral, appeared solid and white, and varied from 1.7 to 4.2 cm in diameter.
  • One patient presented with abdominal pain due to the presence of a concurrent large adrenal cyst.
  • The tumor was an incidental radiological finding in another case and was discovered during the course of a workup for hypertension in the third case.
  • The light microscopic appearances were consistent with those of typical adenomatoid tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for calretinin and cytokeratin 5/6 were positive, confirming the tumors' mesothelial origin.
  • In our experience, the key to the diagnosis of this rare benign tumor is to consider adenomatoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of any glandular tumor occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Cysts / complications. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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43. Fournier JR, Baez-Trinidad L, Acosta A, Marrero M, Correa-Rivas M, Rodríguez-Becerra J, Nieves F: Bladder pheochromocytoma: case presentation and the use of OctreoScan for localization of extra-adrenal tumor sites in a pediatric patient. P R Health Sci J; 2008 Mar;27(1):107-11
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  • [Title] Bladder pheochromocytoma: case presentation and the use of OctreoScan for localization of extra-adrenal tumor sites in a pediatric patient.
  • An OctreoScan (111In-pentreotide) was used to rule out metastatic extension or other extra-adrenal locations of the pheochromocytoma.
  • OctreoScan data correlated well with other radiologic studies, operative findings and with the final diagnosis, validating its use on pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Indium Radioisotopes. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary


44. Binderup T, Knigge U, Mellon Mogensen A, Palnaes Hansen C, Kjaer A: Quantitative gene expression of somatostatin receptors and noradrenaline transporter underlying scintigraphic results in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology; 2008;87(4):223-32
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  • [Title] Quantitative gene expression of somatostatin receptors and noradrenaline transporter underlying scintigraphic results in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.
  • AIM: To measure, by a quantitative approach, the gene expression underlying the results of somatostatin receptor (sst) scintigraphy ((111)In-DTPA-octreotide) and noradrenaline transporter (NAT) scintigraphy ((123)I-MIBG) in patients with neuroendocrine (NE) tumors.
  • METHODS: The gene expression of somatostatin receptors 1-5 (sst) and NAT was measured quantitatively by real-time PCR in a group of patients with NE tumors (n = 14) and compared to a group of patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas (n = 15).
  • RESULTS: The sst(2) was upregulated in 13 of 14 patients (93%) with NE tumors, and the absolute level of gene expression was highest for sst(2).
  • Sst(2) was generally downregulated in the colorectal tumor group with the gene expression of the other receptors being more heterogeneous.
  • Our data support that sst(2) is the best target for visualization of NE tumors, whereas NAT is only a useful target in a subpopulation of NE tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / genetics. Digestive System Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c)2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18196892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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45. Levy MT, Braun JT, Pennant M, Thompson LD: Primary paraganglioma of the parathyroid: a case report and clinicopathologic review. Head Neck Pathol; 2010 Mar;4(1):37-43
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  • Paragangliomas are relatively uncommon neoplasms that arise in adrenal and extra-adrenal paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Our patient was a 69 year old woman who presented with a thyroid gland mass, with extension into the substernal space.
  • The patient had a history of renal cell carcinoma removed 18 months before.
  • The parathyroid tissue showed a very well defined zellballen arrangement of paraganglion cells within the parenchyma of the parathyroid gland.
  • The patient showed no stigmata of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) and has no paraganglioma in any other anatomic site.
  • Isolated paraganglioma within the parathyroid is rare, and should be separated from parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia or metastatic disease to assure appropriate management.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Chromogranins / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20237987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825535
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46. Kikuchi F, Imachi H, Murao K, Ohyama T, Miyai Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Kakehi Y, Ishida T: Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is a useful tool for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas without distant metastasis, where malignancy is suspected on the basis of histopathologic analysis. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Aug;340(2):160-3
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is a useful tool for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas without distant metastasis, where malignancy is suspected on the basis of histopathologic analysis.
  • A 69-year-old woman, who had been undergoing treatment for hypertension, was admitted to the hospital for the evaluation of a tumor in the right adrenal gland and of episodic hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 20693835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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47. Oki K, Yamane K, Nakanishi S, Nakashima R, Jitsuiki K, Kohno N: Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. Endocrine; 2009 Dec;36(3):372-6
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  • A 61-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes was referred for the evaluation of multiple bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as having ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) with subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with the aberrant expression of β-adrenergic receptors.
  • While the suppression of cortisol secretion was sustained for 24 months, glucose metabolism and adrenal size were unaffected.
  • Additional cases or controlled studies are needed to determine the potential effect of propranolol on metabolic disorders and adrenal size in patients with AIMAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19813002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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48. Ochi T, Tanji N, Shimamoto K, Ikeda T, Toshino A, Yokoyama M: Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium. Int J Urol; 2006 Mar;13(3):202-5
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  • [Title] Application of cardiopulmonary bypass for resection of renal cell carcinoma and adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the right atrium.
  • METHODS: Data were reviewed for five patients (two men and three women; mean age, 60.4 years; range, 49-79 years) with retroperitoneal tumors displaying intracardiac tumor extension.
  • Tumors originated in the right kidney in four patients, and in left adrenal gland in one patient.
  • No intra- or postoperative complications due to surgical technique were encountered, and no significant bleeding occurred during incision of the inferior vena cava or after removal of tumor thrombus.
  • Of the five patients, three died of metastatic diseases, one died of liver dysfunction and one remains disease free as of 18 months postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods. Cardiopulmonary Bypass / methods. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery


49. Chen G, Yao J, Mou L, Fang X, Huang H, Liang J, Li L, Ye L, Lin L, Wen J: Clinical analysis of 249 cases of adrenal tumors in a Chinese hospital. Urol Int; 2010;85(3):270-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical analysis of 249 cases of adrenal tumors in a Chinese hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics of adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 249 cases of adrenal masses which were confirmed at operation and by pathology were analyzed.
  • Overall, females were more commonly represented than males, especially with Cushing's syndrome and typical pheochromocytoma (female:male ratio 3.3:1.9), however the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) in males and females was similar.
  • Of 109 adrenocortical adenomas, 47 were primary aldosteronism, 31 were Cushing's syndrome, 30 were AIs, and 1 was adrenal virilization.
  • Of 14 adrenal nodular hyperplasias, 6 were Cushing's syndrome and 8 were primary aldosteronism.
  • Of the remaining 30 benign tumors, all presented as AIs.
  • The diameter of malignant tumors (10.9 ± 5.6 cm) was significantly larger than that of benign tumors (4.5 ± 3.7 cm) (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows a high rate of AIs in patients with adrenal masses selected for surgery.
  • Hormone levels should be determined in symptomatic or incidental patients with adrenal masses.
  • Imaging examination (CT and MRI) is the first method used to detect and localize adrenal masses.
  • Tumor size is an important parameter of diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses, especially AIs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. China. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Hospitals. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20606391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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50. Tong AL, Zeng ZP, Zhou YR, Yuan T, Cao CX, Zhang J, Li M: Bilateral pheochromocytoma as first presentation of von Hippel-Lindau disease in a Chinese family. Chin Med Sci J; 2009 Dec;24(4):197-201
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  • [Title] Bilateral pheochromocytoma as first presentation of von Hippel-Lindau disease in a Chinese family.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and genetic features of a Chinese family with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease revealed by bilateral pheochromocytoma.
  • In the follow-up study, the proband and his mother were found to have other VHL tumors, induding retinal and cerebellar hemangioblastomas and pancreatic tumor.
  • Neither clinical presentation of VHL disease nor gene mutation was found in other family members.
  • CONCLUSION: VHL disease should be suspected in some patients with familial pheochromocytoma, and VHL gene screening helps to achieve early diagnosis of the disease.


51. Oishi Y, Nagai S, Yoshida M, Fujisawa S, Sazawa A, Shinohara N, Nonomura K, Matsuno K, Shimizu C: Mutation analysis of the SDHB and SDHD genes in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: identification of a novel nonsense mutation (Q168X) in the SDHB gene. Endocr J; 2010;57(8):745-50
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  • Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are tumors of the autonomic nervous system.
  • The former is a tumor that occurs in only adrenal glands, and the latter can be found in the head and neck or in the thorax and abdomen.
  • A number of studies have reported that SDHB mutation-associated disease demonstrates a higher rate of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 20505258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Nonsense; 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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52. Tsuchida Y, Miyauchi J, Kuroiwa M, Suzuki N, Sakamoto J, Suzuki M, Shitara T: Histologic survey of neuroblastomas after intensive induction chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):656-62
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  • Thirty patients were >12 months of age with stage 3/4 disease, and 4 were <12 months of age but with MYCN-amplified stage 4 diseases.
  • After 3 to 7 cycles (mean, 4.3 cycles) of induction chemotherapy, patients underwent radical surgery of the primary tumor and lymph nodes in all retroperitoneal sections.
  • A single pathologist reviewed all of the specimens, and histologic chemotherapeutic effects were graded as: (+++), <1% viable tumor; (++), 1%-10% viable tumor; (+), 11%-50% viable tumor; (+/-), 51%-90% viable tumor; and (-), >91% viable tumor.
  • Histologically, metastases were found in the contralateral nodes beyond the aorta in 92% of those whose tumor originated on the left, and in 80% of those with tumors occurring on the right.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15929130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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54. Yokoyama H, Konomi I, Miyajima T, Tamaru S, Tanaka M: Interventional ultrasound for adrenal masses. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2006 Dec;33(4):245-9
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  • [Title] Interventional ultrasound for adrenal masses.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the value of interventional ultrasound (US) for adrenal masses, especially incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and pathological data were reviewed for eight patients who underwent percutaneous US-guided puncture or biopsy for adrenal masses from September 1994 through March 2002 in our institute.
  • RESULTS: US-guided intervention was successfully performed for seven patients: two with adrenal cysts, two with adrenocortical adenomas, and three with metastatic adrenal tumors (one from prostate cancer, one from lung cancer, and one from renal cell carcinoma).
  • The remaining patient had bilateral adrenal masses, and a biopsy specimen could not be obtained because safe puncture was difficult.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interventional US using the color Doppler method for adrenal masses is a useful procedure for safe puncture to reveal the orientation of adjacent viscera and blood vessels at the puncture site and to avoid complications including hemorrhage and pneumothorax.
  • In addition, pathological examination of specimens obtained by percutaneous biopsy or fine needle aspiration is useful for avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with metastatic adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 27277982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal mass / interventional ultrasound
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55. Fassnacht M, Weismann D, Ebert S, Adam P, Zink M, Beuschlein F, Hahner S, Allolio B: AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4366-70
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  • [Title] AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Activation of AKT plays a major role in a variety of human neoplasias.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was the investigation of the role of AKT in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical tumors.
  • Immunohistochemistry for total AKT and pAKT was performed in pheochromocytomas (n = 8), ACC (n = 4), and normal adrenal glands (n = 2).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of pAKT/total AKT ratio in adrenal tissues was the main outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / analysis. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15855265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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56. Johnsen IK, Hahner S, Brière JJ, Ozimek A, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Hantel C, Adam P, Bertherat J, Beuschlein F: Evaluation of a standardized protocol for processing adrenal tumor samples: preparation for a European adrenal tumor bank. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Feb;42(2):93-101
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  • [Title] Evaluation of a standardized protocol for processing adrenal tumor samples: preparation for a European adrenal tumor bank.
  • Storage and tissue handling of surgical tumor specimen have been recognized as critical steps that can potentially affect reproducibility and comparability of molecular endpoints between laboratories.
  • In the preparation of adrenal tumor tissue banking, three different protocols that simulate warm ischemia upon tumor removal (protocol I), thawing and refreezing cycles (protocol II), as well as storage of vital tumor samples (protocol III) were applied.
  • While DNA integrity was not influenced by different treatment modalities, expression levels of adrenal marker genes were more affected in samples after snap freezing in comparison to RPA pretreatment.
  • For primary cell cultures generated after storage of tumor samples similar rates of viability were observable while steroid output varied between the groups.
  • Overall, on the basis of the presented endpoints standardized operational procedures can be defined for a proposed European adrenal tumor biobank.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biological Specimen Banks / organization & administration. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Specimen Handling / standards

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.
  • (PMID = 19882499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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57. Jimenez C, Cabanillas ME, Santarpia L, Jonasch E, Kyle KL, Lano EA, Matin SF, Nunez RF, Perrier ND, Phan A, Rich TA, Shah B, Williams MD, Waguespack SG: Use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: targeting angiogenic factors in pheochromocytoma and other von Hippel-Lindau disease-related tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb;94(2):386-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: targeting angiogenic factors in pheochromocytoma and other von Hippel-Lindau disease-related tumors.
  • CONTEXT: von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by highly vascularized tumors of multiple organs.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We present a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease with multiple renal and pancreatic tumors and a malignant pheochromocytoma infiltrative of the sacrum and associated with lymph nodule metastases.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Treatment against malignant pheochromocytoma with surgery, chemotherapy, or participation in clinical trials was not feasible because of the patient's poor performance status, the presence of multiple tumors, and the extension of the pheochromocytoma into the bones.
  • Six months of treatment with sunitinib was associated with normalization of the patient's performance status and blood pressure, absence of symptoms of catecholamine excess, weight gain, disappearance of pain, shrinkage of each of the tumors (50% in the largest renal tumor, 38% in the largest islet cell tumor, 21% in the pelvic malignant pheochromocytoma), and reduction of plasma normetanephrines and chromogranin A.
  • CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that targeting tyrosine kinase receptors such as the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and the platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor may have value in the treatment of VHL-related tumors including pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / antagonists & inhibitors. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Female. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics


58. De Padua M, Rajagopal V: Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern. Indian J Med Sci; 2008 May;62(5):199-203
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors.
  • A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors.
  • We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor.
  • Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells.
  • Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18579979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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59. Ahlborn GJ, Nelson GM, Grindstaff RD, Waalkes MP, Diwan BA, Allen JW, Kitchin KT, Preston RJ, Hernandez-Zavala A, Adair B, Thomas DJ, Delker DA: Impact of life stage and duration of exposure on arsenic-induced proliferative lesions and neoplasia in C3H mice. Toxicology; 2009 Aug 3;262(2):106-13
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  • [Title] Impact of life stage and duration of exposure on arsenic-induced proliferative lesions and neoplasia in C3H mice.
  • Previous experimental studies have demonstrated increased incidence of liver, lung, ovary, and uterine tumors in mice exposed to 85 ppm (approximately 8 mg/kg) inorganic arsenic during gestation.
  • To further characterize age susceptibility to arsenic carcinogenesis we administered 85 ppm inorganic arsenic in drinking water to C3H mice during gestation, prior to pubescence and post-pubescence to compare proliferative lesion and tumor outcomes over a one-year exposure period.
  • In contrast, inorganic arsenic significantly decreased the incidence of tumors in liver (0%) and adrenal glands (0%) of male mice continuously exposed from gestation through one year, as compared to levels in control (30 and 65%, respectively) and gestation only (33 and 55%, respectively) exposed mice.
  • Together, these results suggest that continuous inorganic arsenic exposure at 85 ppm from gestation through one year increases the incidence and severity of urogenital proliferative lesions in female mice and decreases the incidence of liver and adrenal tumors in male mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Arsenites / toxicity. Carcinogens / toxicity. Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced. Oviducts / drug effects. Sodium Compounds / toxicity. Urinary Bladder / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19450653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3185
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-22; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC005488-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenites; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Sodium Compounds; 48OVY2OC72 / sodium arsenite
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS127111; NLM/ PMC3496158
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60. Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Lezoche E: Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up. J Endourol; 2006 May;20(5):321-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: To report our experience with in situ laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 2000 to May 2002, two men, 81 and 71 years old, and one woman, 75 years old, were referred to our department for right renal clear-cell carcinoma <3.5-cm diameter.
  • Because of the tumor location, the percutaneous route was not considered the approach of choice.
  • Moreover, a simultaneous large right adrenal incidentaloma (myelolipoma) and a right colon cancer were known to be present in the second and third patient, respectively.
  • The aforementioned findings suggested the laparoscopic route as a preferable technique to treat both the renal and the other morbidities.
  • CONCLUSION: When percutaneous access is not feasible or the patient should undergo another laparoscopic procedure simultaneously, laparoscopic RFA of renal tumors is feasible and effective, as shown by long-term follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 16724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Shiono S, Ishii G, Nagai K, Yoshida J, Nishimura M, Murata Y, Tsuta K, Nishiwaki Y, Kodama T, Ochiai A: Histopathologic prognostic factors in resected colorectal lung metastases. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):278-82; discussion 283
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  • However, the pathologic factors of metastatic lesions that affect survival and tumor recurrence after pulmonary resection are less well defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Vessels / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Life Tables. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Pneumonectomy / methods. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Apr;81(4):1547-8; author reply 1548 [16564324.001]
  • (PMID = 15620957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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62. Schalin-Jäntti C: [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(9):1037-45
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma].
  • An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor larger than 1 cm, incidentally detected in imaging studies carried out for other reasons than adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20593627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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63. Hanssen WE, Kuhry E, Casseres YA, de Herder WW, Steyerberg EW, Bonjer HJ: Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Br J Surg; 2006 Jun;93(6):715-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has replaced open surgery in the treatment of benign adrenal tumours.
  • METHODS: Over a period of 8 years, 123 patients underwent surgery for benign adrenal lesions using the endoscopic retroperitoneal approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Endoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16609956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Haase M, Schott M, Bornstein SR, Malendowicz LK, Scherbaum WA, Willenberg HS: CITED2 is expressed in human adrenocortical cells and regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor. J Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;192(2):459-65
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  • CITED2 gene deletion in mice leads to adrenal agenesis.
  • Therefore, we analyzed CITED2, a CBP/p300 interacting transactivator with transforming activity, in the human adrenal gland.
  • In this study, we examined CITED2 expression in human embryonic and adult adrenal glands as well as adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • We found CITED2 expression in the adult adrenal cortex as well in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • At an early stage of human adrenal organogenesis CITED2 could be located to the definitive zone of the developing adrenal gland using immunohistochemistry.
  • CITED2 is expressed in embryonic and adult human adrenal glands as well as in adrenocortical cancer.
  • This suggests a novel role for CITED2 in human adrenal growth and possibly in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Trans-Activators / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Embryonic Development. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 17283246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CITED2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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65. Hess KR, Varadhachary GR, Taylor SH, Wei W, Raber MN, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL: Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1624-33
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  • METHODS: Tumor registry data were collected between 1994-1996 on 11 primary tumor sites and 15 metastatic sites from 4399 patients.
  • The primary and metastatic sites were cross-tabulated in various ways to identify patterns, and the authors developed algorithms by using multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the locations of primary tumors based on metastatic patterns.
  • RESULTS: Three primary tumors had single, dominant metastatic sites: ovary to abdominal cavity (91%), prostate to bone (90%), and pancreas to liver (85%).
  • The liver was the dominant metastatic site for gastrointestinal (GI) primary tumors (71% of patients), whereas bone and lung metastases were noted most frequently in non-GI primary tumors (43% and 29%, respectively).
  • In a study of combinations of liver, abdominal cavity, and bone metastases, 86% of prostate primary tumors had only bone metastases, 80% of ovarian primary tumors had only abdominal cavity metastases, and 74% of pancreas primary tumors had only liver metastases.
  • A single organ was the dominant source of metastases in 7 sites: axillary lymph node from the breast (97%), intestinal lymph node from the colon (84%), thoracic lymph node from the lung (66%), brain from the lung (64%), mediastinal lymph node from the lung (62%), supraclavicular lymph node from the breast (51%), and adrenal gland from the lung (51%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Algorithms. Neoplasm Metastasis. Registries / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16518827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • During 24 months follow-up 10.2% of adenomas featured increase in tumor diameter and 2.06% developed sCS.
  • Young subjects featured more stable tumor diameter and hormonal status.
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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67. Sovinz P, Urban C, Uhrig S, Stepan V, Lackner H, Schwinger W, Benesch M, Moser A, Spuller E, Speicher MR: Pheochromocytoma in a 2.75-year-old-girl with a germline von Hippel-Lindau mutation Q164R. Am J Med Genet A; 2010 Jul;152A(7):1752-5
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  • Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of the adrenal gland occurring sporadically or as part of familial cancer syndromes.
  • Extended analyses of her relatives showed that the mutation occurred de novo in the patient's father who was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral pheochromocytomas and a retinal angioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20583150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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68. Lee IJ, Seong J, Lee CG, Kim YB, Keum KC, Suh CO, Kim GE, Cho J: Early clinical experience and outcome of helical tomotherapy for multiple metastatic lesions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Apr 1;73(5):1517-24
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  • Among these patients, 21 had metastatic bone disease.
  • Radiation dose to the gross tumor volume was 30-84 Gy, with a median fractional size of 3 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / radiation effects. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Leukopenia / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19084348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Hahner S, Stuermer A, Kreissl M, Reiners C, Fassnacht M, Haenscheid H, Beuschlein F, Zink M, Lang K, Allolio B, Schirbel A: [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2358-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to advances in conventional imaging, adrenal tumors are detected with increasing frequency.
  • Furthermore, four patients with known adrenal tumors (two metastatic adrenal adenocarcinomas, one bilateral adrenocortical adenoma, and one melanoma metastasis) were investigated with [(123)I]iodometomidate-SPECT.
  • In patients, adrenocortical tissue showed high and specific tracer uptake in both primary tumor and metastases with short investigation time and low radiation exposure, whereas the non-adrenocortical tumor did not exhibit any tracer uptake.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully completed the development of an in vivo detection system of adrenal Cyp11B enzymes by [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy in both experimental animals and humans.
  • Due to the general availability of SPECT technology, we anticipate that [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy may become a widely used tool to characterize adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / analysis. Iodine Radioisotopes. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Aged. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Etomidate / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Multigene Family. Radioactive Tracers. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18397978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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71. Pollack RP, Brett EM: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome manifesting during pregnancy. Endocr Pract; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):260-3
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  • The diagnosis of CS during pregnancy is difficult to establish because of the normal physiologic hypercortisolemia of pregnancy.
  • Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen disclosed a 3.5-cm left adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of CS during pregnancy is rare; however, when it does occur, adrenal tumors are more common than pituitary tumors.
  • Caution should be used during interpretation of laboratory tests to evaluate for CS during pregnancy because of the normal increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function during pregnancy.
  • The current case demonstrates the safety and utility of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging for localization of a tumor during pregnancy, as well as the safe use of laparoscopic surgical treatment of CS during the early third trimester.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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72. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2358-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated adrenal mass in patients with a history of cancer: remember pheochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In a patient with a history of cancer, an isolated adrenal mass is usually thought to be a metastasis.
  • This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of functional adrenal lesions in patients with a history of cancer and examine predictive factors for the type of lesion.
  • METHODS: At a single institution, 33 patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer underwent surgical treatment.
  • Patients' records were retrospectively analyzed for type of adrenal lesion and other diagnostic parameters.
  • Of these, 20 (61%) had adrenal metastases, 8 (24%) had pheochromocytomas, and 5 (15%) had adrenal adenomas.
  • Usual diagnostic criteria, including presenting symptoms, primary tumor, and other demographic characteristics, did not consistently predict the pathology of the lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 4 resected adrenal masses in patients with a history of cancer were pheochromocytomas.
  • Therefore, remember one thing in patients with an isolated adrenal mass and a history of cancer: pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Medical Records. Pheochromocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden


73. Bishop E, Eble JN, Cheng L, Wang M, Chase DR, Orazi A, O'Malley DP: Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):838-43
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are defined as mature fat associated with hematopoietic elements, often found in the adrenal gland.
  • The majority of myelolipomas also have nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation, suggesting a clonal origin for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Gene Silencing. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / genetics. Myelolipoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / chemistry. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clone Cells. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16819325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Homma K, Hayashi K, Wakino S, Irie R, Mukai M, Kumagai H, Shibata H, Saruta T: Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy. Hypertens Res; 2006 Jul;29(7):551-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy.
  • A computed tomography scan revealed no adrenal tumor but a large liver mass (5 x 5 cm), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity lesion on the T2-weighted image.
  • Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites was markedly increased, although a 123I-metaiodobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) scintigram failed to show accumulation in the hepatic mass, and no difference was noted between the catecholamine concentration in the tumor-drainage vein and that obtained from the vein draining from the non-tumor area.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization of the liver tumor was conducted and resulted in a marked (50%) decrease in the 24-h urine normetanephrine excretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17044668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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75. Perry CG, Sawka AM, Singh R, Thabane L, Bajnarek J, Young WF Jr: The diagnostic efficacy of urinary fractionated metanephrines measured by tandem mass spectrometry in detection of pheochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 May;66(5):703-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We examined the medical records of 506 patients (including 102 patients with a catecholamine-producing tumour) who underwent measurement of 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines using tandem mass spectrometry as well as adrenal imaging at Mayo Clinic, Rochester.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Metanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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  • (PMID = 17388796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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76. Berker D, Isik S, Erden G, Tutuncu YA, Ozcan HN, Caner S, Tekelek B, Aydin Y, Guler S: Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):419-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels can be used as a diagnostic tool in determining the functioning status of benign adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, medical records of patients with adrenal tumors who consecutively presented to an endocrinology clinic between August 2005 and October 2008 were evaluated.
  • Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma was larger than 4 cm or when a hypersecreting tumor was suspected.
  • Findings were compared among patients with functioning adrenal tumors, patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors, and control participants.
  • RESULTS: Of 370 patients with adrenal tumors, 50 with adrenal incidentaloma met the inclusion criteria.
  • Group 1 included 20 patients with functioning adrenal tumors (14 with Cushing syndrome and 6 with pheochromocytoma), and Group 2 included 30 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • MMP-9 levels were higher in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors and functioning adrenal tumors than in control participants (P<.001).
  • MMP-9 levels in patients with functioning adrenal tumors were significantly higher than those in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (P = .002).
  • No significant linear correlation existed between tumor volume and MMP-9 levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum MMP-9 levels may be useful in differentiating benign subclinical functioning adrenal tumors from benign nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood

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  • (PMID = 20061295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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77. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Secin FP, Kerkebe M, Arellano L: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal masses: does size matter? Urology; 2008 Jun;71(6):1138-41
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal masses: does size matter?
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of adrenal tumor size on perioperative morbidity and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in large adrenal masses (8 cm or greater) is associated with significantly longer operative time, increased blood loss, and longer hospital stay, without affecting perioperative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18336879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Coli A, Di Giorgio A, Castri F, Destito C, Marin AW, Bigotti G: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jan 15;206(1):59-65
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature.
  • The terminology and pathogenesis of such biphasic tumors remain controversial.
  • Herein, we report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland in a 75-year-old woman who presented with left abdominal pain of one month's standing.
  • The results of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large heterogeneous adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the neoplasm showed areas of adrenocortical carcinoma and areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation.
  • Twelve months after removal of the primary tumor, the patient died of her disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature.
  • We review the reported cases according to the 2004 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung tumors, and highlight the histogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical course of this very aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins. Splenectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19369012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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79. Knauf F, Desir GV, Perazella MA: A case of extreme hemodynamic lability and hypocalcemia. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Sep;338(3):241-4
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  • We herein present the case of a 44-year-old patient who presented with extreme hemodynamic lability due to an epinephrine-secreting tumor.
  • We discuss the initial management, diagnosis, and definitive therapy of this relatively rare type of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Epinephrine / metabolism. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypocalcemia / diagnosis. Hypotension / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


80. Johnsen IK, Slawik M, Shapiro I, Hartmann MF, Wudy SA, Looyenga BD, Hammer GD, Reincke M, Beuschlein F: Gonadectomy in mice of the inbred strain CE/J induces proliferation of sub-capsular adrenal cells expressing gonadal marker genes. J Endocrinol; 2006 Jul;190(1):47-57
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  • [Title] Gonadectomy in mice of the inbred strain CE/J induces proliferation of sub-capsular adrenal cells expressing gonadal marker genes.
  • Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis have the potential to give insights in the dysregulation of adrenal growth and differentiation.
  • The inbred mouse strain CE/J has been reported to develop adrenal tumors upon gonadectomy (GDX) similar to mice with targeted deletions of the inhibin alpha subunit (Inh-/-).
  • We performed a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of adrenal glands from CE/J mice 8-50 weeks of age to define the cellular origin of these tumors as well as the spatial and temporal expression of marker genes associated with tumor growth.
  • In contrast to the induction of x-zone growth upon GDX in Inh-/- mice, GDX in CE/J mice induced the appearance of sub-capsular nests of densely packed cells that progress into adrenal tumors.
  • Induction of adrenal tumor growth was accompanied by transcriptional changes that otherwise define gonadal endocrine cells.
  • The functional significance of steroid enzyme expression was demonstrated by a gradual increase of adrenal androgens after GDX.
  • Taken together these data suggest that adrenal tumors in gonad-ectomized CE/J mice are direct derivatives from cells of the proposed sub-capsular stem cell zone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 16837610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
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81. Jung SI, Kim SO, Kang TW, Kwon DD, Park K, Ryu SB: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperaldosteronism: report of a case and review of the literature. Urology; 2007 Dec;70(6):1223.e11-3
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperaldosteronism: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements.
  • Although they are not hormonally active, there is very rarely an association with functional adrenal disorders.
  • We report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first bilateral adrenal myelolipomas reported to date in association with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18158060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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82. González Poggioli N, López Amado M, Pimentel MT: Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: a rare entity. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):62-5
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  • [Title] Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: a rare entity.
  • Paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The thyroid gland is one of the anatomic sites in which paraganglia are not normally located and are exceptionally rare.
  • Patient was operated on and the neoplasm showed microscopically a typical nesting organoid pattern (zellballen).
  • The inmunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumor showed strongly and diffuse stain for NSE, Synaptophysin, Chromogranin A, and S-100 protein in the sustentacular cells, whereas no inmunoreactivity was detected with antibodies against thyroglobulin, calcitonin, TTF-1, CEA, and AE1-AE3.
  • Head and neck paragangliomas usually develop slowly, and this tumor exhibited a low proliferative activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 19259828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. Castellani MR, Seghezzi S, Chiesa C, Aliberti GL, Maccauro M, Seregni E, Orunesu E, Luksch R, Bombardieri E: (131)I-MIBG treatment of pheochromocytoma: low versus intermediate activity regimens of therapy. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Feb;54(1):100-13
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  • In 1991, at the International Meeting in Rome, it was agreed that (131)I-MIBG therapy induces significant tumor responses in about 30-50% of cases, long-term stabilization of disease in several cases and significant reduction of cathecolamine-related symptoms in almost all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy. Radiation Dosage

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  • (PMID = 20168292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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84. Haghpanah V, Soliemanpour B, Heshmat R, Mosavi-Jarrahi AR, Tavangar SM, Malekzadeh R, Larijani B: Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system. Indian J Cancer; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):80-5
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in each province were grouped according to age, gender and tumor specifics (site, morphology, behavior) and the data was coded according to the international classification of diseases for oncology.
  • RESULTS: A total of 319 cases of primary endocrine cancer were found and registered, including 313 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 6 cases of adrenal cancer.
  • For the 6 cases of adrenal cancer, 4 were neuroblastoma and 2 were pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Iodine / metabolism. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16790945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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85. Shioi K, Muraoka K, Tomoda T, Yoshida M, Takase K, Kishi H, Noguchi S: [Bilateral adrenal masses from renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Jan;52(1):19-21
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  • [Title] [Bilateral adrenal masses from renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • We report a case of bilateral adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a right renal mass.
  • A computed tomography revealed a 9 cm right renal tumor and bilateral adrenal masses (3.5 cm on the right side and 4.5 cm on the left).
  • A right radical nephrectomy and bilateral adrenalectomy demonstrated renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to bilateral adrenal glands.
  • The pathological findings of the right renal tumor showed clear cell carcinoma, G3 > G2 and both adrenal tumors showed the same pathology as the right renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nephrectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16479984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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86. Poiana C, Carsote M, Chirita C, Terzea D, Paun S, Beuran M: Giant adrenal cyst: case study. J Med Life; 2010 Jul-Sep;3(3):308-13
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal cyst: case study.
  • One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst.
  • During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered.
  • 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage.
  • The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia.
  • The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20945822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018989
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87. Ertle F, Behnisch W, Al Mulla NA, Bessisso M, Rating D, Mechtersheimer G, Hero B, Kulozik AE: Treatment of neuroblastoma-related opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome with high-dose dexamethasone pulses. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):683-7
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  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome (OMS) represents a rare neuroblastoma-associated paraneoplastic syndrome that commonly results in neurologic deficits despite tumor resection and immunosuppressive therapy.
  • All patients had MYCN non-amplified tumors that were detected 1 to 7 months after the onset of the OMS or ataxia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / complications. Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome / drug therapy


88. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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89. Arima K, Yamakado K, Suzuki R, Matsuura H, Nakatsuka A, Takeda K, Sugimura Y: Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months. Urology; 2007 Sep;70(3):407-11
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  • All tumors were in the left adrenal gland, with a mean tumor size of 2.7 +/- 0.6 cm (range 2.0 to 3.5).
  • Technical success was defined as disappearance of tumor enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging acquired within 1 week after RF ablation.
  • RESULTS: Tumor enhancement disappeared after initial RF ablation in 3 of 4 patients (technical success rate 75%).
  • The fourth patient underwent a repeat RF ablation session 3 years later, resulting in eradication of tumor enhancement.
  • All tumors showed involution (2.2 +/- 0.3 cm) at the end of the study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Fluoroscopy / methods. Radiography, Interventional / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17905083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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90. Ayub SB, Dodge J: Lipid-rich variant of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):829-34
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  • [Title] Lipid-rich variant of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) are a well-defined and well-characterized group of tumors.
  • A diagnosis of PEN was made, with a suspicion for lipid-rich variant.
  • An elective resection of the tumor was performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of lipid-rich variant of PENs.
  • CONCLUSION: Its mimickers include adrenal cortical carcinoma, metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, clear-cell PEN, foamy gland pattern of pancreatic ductal carcinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumor, and acinar cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lipids / chemistry. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Lipids
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91. Velavan P, Morris JL: Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Oct-Dec;51(4):337-8
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  • [Title] Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnosis. Tachycardia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16388187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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92. Cheng Y, Li J, Martinka M, Li G: The expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 is increased along with NF-kappaB p105/p50 in human cutaneous melanomas. Oncol Rep; 2010 Apr;23(4):973-9
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  • Recent studies demonstrated that NQO1 is overexpressed in many types of tumors, including the lung, ovary, adrenal gland, thyroid, liver, colon, breast, and pancreas.
  • Our results also revealed that the increase of NQO1 was not associated with patient age, tumor thickness, ulceration, tumor site, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and 5-year patient survival.
  • Furthermore, NQO1 expression level was significantly higher in superficial spreading melanomas compared with other tumor subtypes (P=0.020, chi2 test).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B p50 Subunit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sex Factors. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20204281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-84559; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-93810
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B p50 Subunit; EC 1.6.5.2 / NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone); EC 1.6.5.2 / NQO1 protein, human
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93. Ranganathan S, Lynshue K, Hunt JL, Kane T, Jaffe R: Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;8(4):483-8
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  • [Title] Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are uncommon neoplasms in childhood.
  • Most pediatric adrenal tumors are virilizing and carcinomas are more common than adenomas.
  • Recent molecular data suggest an adenoma-to-carcinoma progression sequence in adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with virilizing symptoms secondary to an adrenal tumor that was resected laparoscopically.
  • The bulk of the tumor was a large, yellow mass with typical features of an adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Child, Preschool. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Hirsutism / etiology. Hirsutism / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16010500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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94. Inaba H, Suzuki S, Shigematsu S, Shinomiya K, Ohfusa H, Shimojo Y, Uehara T, Hashizume K: Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Intern Med; 2009;48(8):601-5
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Five years earlier, he underwent simultaneous surgeries for an adrenal adenoma, a benign Leydig cell tumor (LCT), and a malignant lymphoma.
  • Based on the laboratory results, he was diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD).
  • On immunohistochemistry analysis using the antibody against adrenal-specific 11beta-hydroxylase antibody, the LCT showed both properties as a testicular cell and as an adrenal cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / etiology. Lymphoma / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hypoglycemia / diagnosis. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged


95. Ayala-Ramirez M, Callender GG, Kupferman ME, Rich TA, Chuang HH, Trent J, Perrier ND, Goodarzi M, Jimenez C: Paraganglioma syndrome type 1 in a patient with Carney-Stratakis syndrome. Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2010 Feb;6(2):110-5
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  • He had no family history of carotid body tumors or pheochromocytoma.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Paraganglioma syndrome type 1 in a patient with a paraganglioma, bilateral pheochromocytomas and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a somatic Asp579del KIT mutation.
  • MANAGEMENT: The patient underwent surgical excision of all tumors after adequate preparation with alpha and beta blockers.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Hypertension / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Carney Complex. Chromogranin A / blood. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Metanephrine / blood. Mutation. Neck. Positron-Emission Tomography. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Syndrome. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20098451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / SDHD protein, human; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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96. Zhang XM, Shen CY, Li W, Zhang XM: [Surgical treatment of tumor invading important vessel]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Aug 1;45(15):1044-7
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of tumor invading important vessel].
  • OBJECTIVE: To sum up preliminary experience of successful resection of tumor involving important vessel in 77 cases.
  • The tumor involving thoraco-abdominal cavity was in one case with malignant neuroblastoma.
  • The tumor from retro-peritoneum invaded into the whole inferior vena cava (IVC), and into two-thirds of the right atrium.
  • Tumor located in thoracic cavity were in 13 cases including IVC leiomyosarcoma in 2 cases, thymic carcinoma in 3 cases, malignant thymoma in 4 cases, malignant seminoma of superior mediastinum in 1 case, malignant lymphoma in 1 case, lung cancer in 2 cases.
  • The tumor located in abdominal cavity were in 24 cases including renal carcinoma with tumor thrombi in 11 cases, inflammatory pseudotumor of retro-peritoneum in 4 cases, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of retro-peritoneum in 1 case, non-Hodgkin's disease of retro-peritoneum in 1 case, lymph metastasis of retro-peritoneum in 2 cases, paraganglion tumor of the right adrenal gland in 1 case, ampullary carcinoma in 1 case, leiomyosarcoma of abdominal IVC in 1 case, leiomyosarcoma of pelvic cavity and IVC in 1 cases, fibrosarcoma of pelvic cavity in 1 case.
  • Tumor located in four extremities in 6 cases including osteogenic sarcoma in 3 cases, vascular endotheliosarcoma of the left iliac fossa in 1 case, neurofibroma of the left upper extremity in 1 case, lymphoma of double groin in 1 case.
  • Tumor located in neck in 33 cases including carotid body tumor in 32 cases and neurofibroma of the left upper extremity in 1 case.
  • RESULTS: Complete resection of tumor was in 72 cases, with a rate of 93.5%, palliative resection of tumor was in 5 cases with a rate of 6.5%.
  • Temporary shunt of carotid artery for neck tumor was used in 18 cases.
  • No death occurred for benign tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The radical resection rate for tumor involving important vessel may be improved with the help of vascular technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18005586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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97. Alesci S, Perera SM, Lai EW, Kukura C, Abu-Asab M, Tsokos M, Morris JC, Pacak K: Adenoviral gene transfer in bovine adrenomedullary and murine pheochromocytoma cells: potential clinical and therapeutic relevance. Endocrinology; 2007 Aug;148(8):3900-7
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  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer in primary bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BACC) and a murine pheochromocytoma cell line (MPC).
  • At the same time, in light of their ability to effectively deliver and express genes in pheochromocytoma cells, they may be applicable to the gene therapy of adrenomedullary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Chromaffin Cells / physiology. Genetic Therapy / methods. Genetic Vectors. Pheochromocytoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antiviral Agents. Cattle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Ganciclovir. Herpesvirus 1, Human / genetics. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Microscopy, Electron. Norepinephrine / pharmacokinetics. Thymidine Kinase / genetics. Transgenes / genetics. Tritium

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TRITIUM, RADIOACTIVE .
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  • (PMID = 17525127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43415; NLM/ PMC2527237
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98. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of hematopoietic elements in different maturation stages and without histological changes, combined with mature adipose tissue in varying proportions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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99. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Karaman G, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: The change in the principle of performing laparoscopic adrenalectomy from small to large masses. Int J Surg; 2009 Jun;7(3):266-71
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in most patients with adrenal tumors.
  • It is unclear; however, at what size an adrenal neoplasm should be resected by means of an open or a laparoscopic approach.
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large tumors with smaller tumors.
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the tumor size.
  • Group 1 (n=29) consisted of patients presenting tumors smaller than 5 cm in diameter; group 2 (n=31) consisted of patients with tumors larger than 5 cm in diameter.
  • RESULTS: Two of the 29 tumors in group 1 (6.8%) were malignant at final histology.
  • However, 11 of the 31 tumors in group 2 (35.4%) were malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a reasonable procedure for selected large adrenal tumors when a complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19410021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Gola M, Doga M, Bonadonna S, Mazziotti G, Vescovi PP, Giustina A: Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):221-9
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects.
  • Excessive peripheral production of GHRH by a tumor source would therefore be expected to cause somatotroph cell hyperstimulation, increased GH secretion and eventually pituitary acromegaly.
  • Immunoreactive GHRH is present in several tumors, including carcinoid tumors, pancreatic cell tumors, small cell lung cancers, endometrial tumors, adrenal adenomas, and pheochromocytomas which have been reported to secrete GHRH.
  • Dynamic pituitary tests are not helpful in distinguishing acromegalic patients with pituitary tumors from those harbouring extrapituitary tumors.
  • Plasma GHRH levels are usually elevated in patients with peripheral GHRH-secreting tumors, and are normal or low in patients with pituitary acromegaly.
  • Unique and unexpected clinical features in an acromegalic patient, including respiratory wheezing or dyspnea, facial flushing, peptic ulcers, or renal stones sometimes are helpful in alerting the physician to diagnosing non pituitary endocrine tumors.
  • Surgical resection of the tumor secreting ectopic GHRH should be the logical approach to a patient with ectopic GHRH syndrome.
  • Standard chemotherapy directed at GHRH-producing carcinoid tumors is generally unsuccessful in controlling the activated GH axis.
  • Somatostatin analogs provide an effective option for medical management of carcinoid patients, especially those with recurrent disease.
  • In fact, long-acting somatostatin analogs may be able to control not only the ectopic hormonal secretion syndrome, but also, in some instances, tumor growth.
  • Therefore, although cytotoxic chemotherapy, pituitary surgery, or irradiation still remain available therapeutic options, long-acting somatostatin analogs are now preferred as a second-line therapy in patients with carcinoid tumors and ectopic GHRH-syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17036195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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