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1. Rumińska M, Welc-Dobies J, Lange M, Maciejewska J, Pyrzak B, Brzewski M: [Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates: risk factors and diagnostic and clinical procedure]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2008 Jan-Mar;12(1):457-62
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  • [Title] [Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates: risk factors and diagnostic and clinical procedure].
  • Prenatal and neonatal adrenal haemorrhage is being increasingly frequently reported.
  • We present a group of 13 neonates with adrenal haemorrhage, hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology of Warsaw Medical University from 2003 to 2007.
  • THE AIM: of this study was to analyse: the perinatal history, haemorrhage predisposing factors, its size, localization and progress estimated by ultrasonography, as well as clinical, biochemical and hormonal findings indicating adrenal insufficiency.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: the study group comprised 13 neonates hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Warsaw Medical University, from 2003 to 2007, due to adrenal haemorrhage diagnosed by ultrasonography in the first week of life.
  • One neonate had bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, others were unilateral - predominantly right-sided.
  • Only one patient with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage showed sings of adrenal insufficiency and supplementation with glyco- and mineralcorticoids was necessary.
  • Complete resolution of adrenal haemorrhage was reported after an average time of 3.5 months of observation.
  • Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates rarely leads to development of adrenal insufficiency.
  • 2. In neonates with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage an extended hormonal diagnosis is required.
  • Unilateral haemorrhage should be differentiated from neuroblastoma.
  • 4. Scrotal haematoma may be a symptom of adrenal haemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / ultrasonography. Hemorrhage / ultrasonography. Infant, Newborn, Diseases / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


2. Mugishima H, Chin M, Suga M, Schichino H, Ryo N, Nakamura M, Harada K: Hypercalcemia induced by 13 cis-retinoic acid in patients with neuroblastoma. Pediatr Int; 2008 Apr;50(2):235-7
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  • [Title] Hypercalcemia induced by 13 cis-retinoic acid in patients with neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dermatologic Agents / adverse effects. Hypercalcemia / chemically induced. Isotretinoin / adverse effects. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18353067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-200X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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3. Kamoun M, Mnif MF, Rekik N, Belguith N, Charfi N, Mnif L, Elleuch M, Mnif F, Kamoun T, Mnif Z, Kamoun H, Sellami-Boudawara T, Hachicha M, Abid M: Ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland in a patient with Turner syndrome. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Apr;14(2):133-6
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  • [Title] Ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland in a patient with Turner syndrome.
  • Computed tomography disclosed a well-defined solid lesion in the left adrenal measuring 6.5 x 5 cm with minimal contrast enhancement.
  • Histologic examination revealed an encapsulated mass originated from the left adrenal medulla.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as left adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • Patients with this syndrome are predisposed to the development of neuroblastoma and related tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / complications. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Turner Syndrome / complications

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20227019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Tajiri S: [Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA)]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Aug;63 Suppl 8:399-403
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers / analysis. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Chronic Disease. Depressive Disorder / diagnosis. Hepatitis / diagnosis. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Multiple System Atrophy / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Reference Values. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 16149539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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5. Köksal Y, Varan A, Kale G, Tanyel FC, Büyükpamukçu M: Bilateral adrenal cystic neuroblastoma with hepatic and splenic involvement in a newborn. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Dec;27(12):670-1
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal cystic neuroblastoma with hepatic and splenic involvement in a newborn.
  • Bilateral cystic adrenal neuroblastoma is an unusual variant of neuroblastoma, and only two cases have been reported in the neonatal period until now.
  • The authors describe a newborn with splenic and hepatic involvement of bilateral adrenal cystic neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary


6. Nishio N, Mimaya J, Nara T, Takashima Y, Horikoshi Y, Urushihara N, Hasegawa S, Aoki K, Hamasaki M: Results for 79 patients with neuroblastoma detected through mass screening at 6 months of age in a single institute. Pediatr Int; 2006 Dec;48(6):531-5
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  • [Title] Results for 79 patients with neuroblastoma detected through mass screening at 6 months of age in a single institute.
  • BACKGROUND: In Japan, mass screening for neuroblastoma has been performed at 6 months of age to improve the prognosis of this condition for more than 20 years.
  • METHODS: The authors established non-treated observation criteria in 1997 and criteria for observation of residual tumor after first-line chemotherapy in 1999, and have made an effort to reduce the intensity of medical treatment for neuroblastoma.
  • The authors examined outcomes of 79 patients who were found in the Shizuoka neuroblastoma mass screening at 6 months of age and who received medical treatment or underwent observation in Shizuoka Children's Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan, between December 1981 and December 2004.
  • None of the patients died due to progression of neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Homovanillic Acid / urine. Humans. Infant. Japan / epidemiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vanilmandelic Acid / urine

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  • (PMID = 17168969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1328-8067
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
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7. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • [Title] Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: In 2003, the Japanese government halted the national mass screening program for neuroblastoma (NB), which had been running since the mid-1980s.
  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.


8. Isobe K: [Dopamine -beta-hydroxylase]. Nihon Rinsho; 2010 Jul;68 Suppl 7:419-21
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroblastoma / enzymology. Pheochromocytoma / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20960808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.17.1 / Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase
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9. Hoshi N, Sugino T, Suzuki T: Expression of endothelin system in neuroblastic tumors: close association of endothelin-1 and endothelin B receptor expression with differentiation of tumor cells. Med Mol Morphol; 2009 Jun;42(2):110-7
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  • We immunohistochemically examined for localization of ET-1, ET-3, ET-A receptor (ET-A), and ET-B receptor (ET-B) in 24 ganglioneuromas, 8 ganglioneuroblastomas, 37 neuroblastomas, 14 normal sympathetic ganglia, and 10 fetal adrenal glands with regard to neuroblastic cell differentiation.
  • Neuroblasts in fetal adrenal glands expressed ET-B (100%) alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Endothelin-1 / analysis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / chemistry. Neuroblastoma / chemistry. Receptor, Endothelin B / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Cell Differentiation. Endothelin-3 / analysis. Endothelins. Fetus. Ganglia, Sympathetic / chemistry. Ganglia, Sympathetic / embryology. Humans. Neurons / chemistry. Neurons / pathology. Receptor, Endothelin A / analysis. Stem Cells / chemistry. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19536618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Endothelin-3; 0 / Endothelins; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B
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10. Ertle F, Behnisch W, Al Mulla NA, Bessisso M, Rating D, Mechtersheimer G, Hero B, Kulozik AE: Treatment of neuroblastoma-related opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome with high-dose dexamethasone pulses. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):683-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of neuroblastoma-related opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome with high-dose dexamethasone pulses.
  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome (OMS) represents a rare neuroblastoma-associated paraneoplastic syndrome that commonly results in neurologic deficits despite tumor resection and immunosuppressive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / complications. Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome / drug therapy


11. Poliani PL, Mitola S, Ravanini M, Ferrari-Toninelli G, D'Ippolito C, Notarangelo LD, Bercich L, Wagener C, Memo M, Presta M, Facchetti F: CEACAM1/VEGF cross-talk during neuroblastic tumour differentiation. J Pathol; 2007 Apr;211(5):541-9
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  • In keeping with these observations, VEGF expression was found in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during differentiation after retinoic acid treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Antigens, CD / physiology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / physiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. Neuroblastoma / physiopathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Child. Child, Preschool. Endothelial Cells / chemistry. Female. Ganglia / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Infant. Male. Mediastinum / blood supply. Microcirculation. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17310502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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12. Heath JA, Moore K, Spriggs M, Waters KD: When two worlds collide. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Sep 1;25(25):4015-7; discussion 4018-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / economics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Delivery of Health Care / economics. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Referral and Consultation / economics


13. Gambini JP, López Lerena JJ, Quagliata A, Hermida JC, Heuguerot C, Alonso O: 99mTc-HYNIC octreotide in neuroblastoma. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;22(9):817-9
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  • [Title] 99mTc-HYNIC octreotide in neuroblastoma.
  • Disease status assessment of neuroblastoma patients requires computed tomography (or magnetic resonance imaging), bone scan, metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan, bone marrow tests, and urine catecholamine measurements.
  • An 8-year-old boy already diagnosed with stage-IV neuroblastoma received chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide may be a promising radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of neuroblastoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neuroblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Organotechnetium Compounds

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  • (PMID = 19039561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr(3)-octreotide; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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14. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years).
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17339140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1828369
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15. Tsuchida Y, Miyauchi J, Kuroiwa M, Suzuki N, Sakamoto J, Suzuki M, Shitara T: Histologic survey of neuroblastomas after intensive induction chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):656-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Histology after intensive induction chemotherapy is expected to become a beacon indicating when and how extensively radical surgery and lymph node dissection should be performed in advanced neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15929130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Tanno B, Mancini C, Vitali R, Mancuso M, McDowell HP, Dominici C, Raschellà G: Down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptor activity by NVP-AEW541 has an antitumor effect on neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Nov 15;12(22):6772-80
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptor activity by NVP-AEW541 has an antitumor effect on neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • Neuroblastoma is sensitive to IGF.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed the ability of NVP-AEW541, a recently developed small molecule that selectively inhibits IGF-IR activity, for neuroblastoma growth effects in vitro and in vivo.
  • Our data showed that, in a panel of 10 neuroblastoma cell lines positive for IGF-IR expression, NVP-AEW541 inhibited in vitro proliferation in a submicromolar/micromolar (0.4-6.8) range of concentrations.
  • Oral administration of NVP-AEW541 (50 mg/kg twice daily) inhibited tumor growth of neuroblastoma xenografts in nude mice.
  • In addition, in Matrigel-coated chambers and in severe combined immunodeficient mice tail vein injected with neuroblastoma cells, tumor invasiveness was significantly reduced by this agent.
  • Analysis of IGF-IR expression in a series of 43 neuroblastoma primary tumors revealed IGF-IR positivity in 86% of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data indicate that NVP-AEW541 can be considered as a novel promising candidate for treatment of neuroblastoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / pharmacology. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Down-Regulation. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / prevention & control. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous / pathology. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 17121898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NVP-AEW541; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Pyrroles; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
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17. Bagatell R, Rumcheva P, London WB, Cohn SL, Look AT, Brodeur GM, Frantz C, Joshi V, Thorner P, Rao PV, Castleberry R, Bowman LC: Outcomes of children with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma after treatment stratified by MYCN status and tumor cell ploidy. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8819-27
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  • [Title] Outcomes of children with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma after treatment stratified by MYCN status and tumor cell ploidy.
  • PURPOSE: The goal of Pediatric Oncology Group 9243 was to improve outcomes for children with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma (NB).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Ploidies
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16314642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104605; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA39771; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA29139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98413-01
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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18. Oguzkurt P, Ince E, Temiz A, Demir S, Akabolat F, Hicsonmez A: Prenatal diagnosis of a mass in the adrenal region that proved to be a teratoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 May;31(5):350-1
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  • [Title] Prenatal diagnosis of a mass in the adrenal region that proved to be a teratoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 57 x 50 mm mass in the left adrenal region displacing the kidney inferiorly.
  • Prenatally detected suprarenal masses are likely to be neuroblastoma or adrenal hemorrhage, but may be rare benign lesions such as extralobar pulmonary sequestration, bronchogenic cyst, or renal dysplasia.
  • Although teratoma in the adrenal region is extremely rare, it should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of prenatally detected suprarenal masses.
  • Total excision of the mass for histologic diagnosis is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / congenital. Teratoma / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 19415017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Yoshida H, Nakamura H, Ono T, Kushikata T, Ishihara H, Hirota K: [Safe management of anesthesia with total intravenous anesthesia using propofol, fentanyl and ketamine for a patient treated with intraoperative radiotherapy]. Masui; 2006 May;55(5):614-6
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  • A 3-year-old girl with neuroblastoma was scheduled for intraoperative radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Anesthesia, Intravenous / methods. Intraoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 16715919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 690G0D6V8H / Ketamine; UF599785JZ / Fentanyl; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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20. Brouwers FM, Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Pacak K: Emergencies caused by pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, or ganglioneuroma. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2006 Dec;35(4):699-724, viii
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  • [Title] Emergencies caused by pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, or ganglioneuroma.
  • It is vital to think about this disease in any emergency situation when conventional therapy fails to achieve control or symptoms occur that do not fit the initial diagnosis.
  • The importance of keeping this diagnosis in minds is underscored by the fact that, in 50% of pheochromocytoma patients, the diagnosis is initially overlooked.
  • Two other tumors of the sympathetic nervous system, neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma, are less commonly associated with emergency conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Ganglioneuroma / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications


21. Dober I, Stranzinger E, Kellenberger CJ, Huisman TA: [Periorbital ecchymosis--trauma or tumor?]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 May 16;96(20):811-4
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  • Neuroblastoma was subsequently diagnosed based on the clinical history, physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging findings.
  • Neuroblastoma is the second most frequent solid tumor in infancy.
  • Prognosis of neuroblastoma depends on various factors including initial tumor staging, tumor biology and the child's age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ecchymosis / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Orbital Diseases / etiology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Bone Marrow / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17566417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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22. Raffel DM, Jung YW, Gildersleeve DL, Sherman PS, Moskwa JJ, Tluczek LJ, Chen W: Radiolabeled phenethylguanidines: novel imaging agents for cardiac sympathetic neurons and adrenergic tumors. J Med Chem; 2007 May 3;50(9):2078-88
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  • The norepinephrine transporter (NET) substrates [123I]-m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and [11C]-m-hydroxyephedrine (HED) are used as markers of cardiac sympathetic neurons and adrenergic tumors (pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma).

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  • (PMID = 17419605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL079540-24; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL079540; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL079540-24; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL079540
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-hydroxyphenethylguanidine; 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Guanidines; 0 / N-guanyl-m-octopamine; 0 / Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 14O50WS8JD / Octopamine; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS62260; NLM/ PMC2625310
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23. Nzegwu MA, Aghaji A: Neuroblastoma occurring in a 38-year old Nigerian man: a rare finding. Rare Tumors; 2009;1(1):e15
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma occurring in a 38-year old Nigerian man: a rare finding.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common malignancy in children, but rarely occurs in adults.
  • In adults, abdomen/retroperitoneum are the primary sites and in children the adrenal gland.
  • This study emphasizes the need for a standard treatment regime for adult onset neuroblastoma and its recognition as a possible differential in intra-abdominal mass in adults.

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  • (PMID = 21139886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994447
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adult. / neuroblastoma
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24. Stefanowicz J, Izycka-Swieszewska E, Drozyńska E, Pienczk J, Połczyńska K, Czauderna P, Sierota D, Bień E, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Kosiak W, Balcerska A: Neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome--clinical and pathological characteristics. Folia Neuropathol; 2008;46(3):176-85
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome--clinical and pathological characteristics.
  • The suprarenal gland was the primary localization of the tumour in 3 of the children and in one the tumour was located in the retroperitoneal area.
  • The group included two ganglioneuroblastomas, one ganglioneuroma and one differentiating neuroblastoma.
  • Children with OMA and neuroblastoma despite a good oncological prognosis often present permanent neurological and developmental deficits.


25. Adaletli I, Kurugoglu S, Aki H, Mihmanli I: Simultaneous presentation of congenital neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins: a case of possible twin-to-twin metastasis. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Apr;186(4):1172-5
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  • [Title] Simultaneous presentation of congenital neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins: a case of possible twin-to-twin metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Diseases in Twins / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Twins, Monozygotic


26. Kimura I, Nakayama Y, Konishi M, Kobayashi T, Mori M, Ito M, Hirasawa A, Tsujimoto G, Ohta M, Itoh N, Fujimoto M: Neuferricin, a novel extracellular heme-binding protein, promotes neurogenesis. J Neurochem; 2010 Mar;112(5):1156-67
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  • At postnatal stage, it was widely expressed in the brain, heart, adrenal gland, and kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Bromodeoxyuridine / metabolism. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Cloning, Molecular / methods. Cytochromes b5 / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Embryo, Mammalian. Embryonic Stem Cells / drug effects. Embryonic Stem Cells / physiology. Mice. Mutation. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19968755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bax protein, mouse; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Hemeproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / heme-binding protein; 0 / neuferricin protein, mouse; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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27. Boyd DT, Hayeri MR, Kadom N: Parotid metastasis from adrenal neuroblastoma. Pediatr Radiol; 2010 Dec;40 Suppl 1:S113-5
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  • [Title] Parotid metastasis from adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • In contrast, salivary gland tumors are uncommon in children, accounting for only 1% of all pediatric neoplasms.
  • We present a case of a parotid metastasis from a neuroblastoma with in-depth description and discussion of its ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary


28. Tajiri T, Souzaki R, Kinoshita Y, Tanaka S, Koga Y, Suminoe A, Matsuzaki A, Hara T, Taguchi T: Risks and benefits of ending of mass screening for neuroblastoma at 6 months of age in Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Dec;44(12):2253-7
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  • [Title] Risks and benefits of ending of mass screening for neuroblastoma at 6 months of age in Japan.
  • PURPOSE: The mass screening (MS) for neuroblastoma (NB) at 6 months of age in Japan was discontinued in 2004.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data. Mass Screening / utilization. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors


29. Deeg KH, Dachert C, Glöckel U, Langer T: The different features of congenital neuroblastomas: report about the sonographic diagnosis of three cases. Ultraschall Med; 2007 Jun;28(3):313-20
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  • [Title] The different features of congenital neuroblastomas: report about the sonographic diagnosis of three cases.
  • We report on three infants with congenital neuroblastoma.
  • Diagnosis was established by ultrasonography showing hypoechoic tumours without significant calcifications.
  • Colour coded Doppler sonography revealed perfusion of the tumours distinguishing the suprarenal masses from adrenal haemorrhage.
  • The right-sided mediastinal neuroblastoma showed infiltration of the intervertebral foramina and spinal canal without spinal cord compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neuroblastoma / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17262249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Bozzi F, Gambirasio F, Luksch R, Collini P, Brando B, Fossati-Bellani F: Detecting CD56+/NB84+/CD45- immunophenotype in the bone marrow of patients with metastatic neuroblastoma using flow cytometry. Anticancer Res; 2006 Sep-Oct;26(5A):3281-7
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  • [Title] Detecting CD56+/NB84+/CD45- immunophenotype in the bone marrow of patients with metastatic neuroblastoma using flow cytometry.
  • BACKGROUND: In order to identify neuroblastoma cells infiltrating the bone marrow, a triple-color flow-cytometric assay was developed combining CD56 and CD45 with the intracellular anti-NB84 specific antibody.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bilateral aspirates obtained from 27 consecutive children over the age of one year with stage 4 neuroblastoma were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Neuroblastoma cells were detected in the bone marrow of 17/27 (63%) and 19/27 (70%) cases using cytomorphology and triple-color flow-cytometry, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: By combining CD45 and CD56 with the specific antibody, NB84, directed against neuroblastoma cells, we developed a rapid and reliable cytometric assay that can be associated with conventional cytomorphological bone marrow evaluation to detect infiltrating neuroblastoma cells, especially in cases of dubious positivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17094441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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31. Messina M, Di Maggio G, Garzi A, Molinaro F, Amato G, Ferrara F: [Neonatal neuroblastoma and prenatal diagnosis]. Minerva Pediatr; 2009 Jun;61(3):349-54
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  • [Title] [Neonatal neuroblastoma and prenatal diagnosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Neuroblastoma neonatale e diagnosi pre-natale.
  • The authors present a case of neonatal neuroblastoma diagnosed in prenatal age and managed with a multidisciplinary approach.
  • The echographic morphological prenatal diagnosis showed an abdominal mass of 3x2 cm located on the upper side of the kidney, which was not apparently involved.
  • Postnatal ultrasound evaluations confirmed that diagnosis.
  • These exams confirmed the presence of a mass, probably due to a neuroblastoma.
  • The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of neuroblastoma Stage I without medullary involvement.
  • In conclusion, the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary approach of neonatal neuroblastoma is higher in the early diagnosis and in an accurate staging of the disease, which is fundamental for the favourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Radioisotope Renography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Prenatal


32. Yang AS, Chiang TC, Shen LH: Acute intravenous injection toxicity study of MIBG in mice. Drug Chem Toxicol; 2010;33(1):17-9
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  • I-131-labeled MIBG has been thought to be safe and effective in the evaluation of neuroendocrine tumors, mainly in neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / administration & dosage. 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / toxicity. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Injections, Intravenous / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Burden. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lethal Dose 50. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Norepinephrine. Organ Size. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Radiation Dosage. Radiopharmaceuticals. Radiotherapy Dosage / standards

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  • (PMID = 20001216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6014
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug and chemical toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Chem Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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33. Kumar J, Kumar A, Seith A, Agarwala S, Bakhshi S: Multifocal neuroblastoma with stage IV disease in an 8-year-old boy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 May;30(5):408-9
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  • [Title] Multifocal neuroblastoma with stage IV disease in an 8-year-old boy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Child. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [CommentOn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Sep;29(9):652-5 [17805045.001]
  • (PMID = 18458582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Sugito K, Kusafuka T, Hoshino M, Inoue M, Goto H, Ikeda T, Hagiwara N, Koshinaga T, Fukuzawa M, Nakamura M, Shichino H, Chin M, Mugishima H, Saito T, Tanaka Y: Intraoperative radiation therapy for advanced neuroblastoma: the problem of securing the IORT field. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Dec;23(12):1203-7
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  • [Title] Intraoperative radiation therapy for advanced neuroblastoma: the problem of securing the IORT field.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and the problem of securing the IORT field in advanced pediatric neuroblastoma.
  • Between 1996 and 2005, 12 children received IORT for advanced pediatric neuroblastoma patients.
  • Nine patients were alive 17-120 (mean 48 months) after diagnosis.
  • For advanced neuroblastoma patients, IORT produced excellent local control after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Intraoperative Care / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17968560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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35. Pederiva F, Andres A, Sastre A, Alves J, Martinez L, Tovar JA: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is different. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Dec;17(6):393-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is different.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is rare and can be due to multifocal primary or contralateral metastasis.
  • The present study examines the clinical, biological and therapeutic features of bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastomas fit neither into stage 4 s nor into stage 4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18072022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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36. Haberal M, Ozcay F, Sevmis S, Karakayali H, Moray G, Torgay A, Coskun M, Demirhan B, Sarialioglu F, Arslan G: Liver transplant in an infant with bilateral cystic neuroblastoma complicated by hepatic metastases and life-threatening consumption coagulopathy. Pediatr Transplant; 2008 May;12(3):358-62
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  • [Title] Liver transplant in an infant with bilateral cystic neuroblastoma complicated by hepatic metastases and life-threatening consumption coagulopathy.
  • Here we report a patient with stage-4 bilateral cystic adrenal neuroblastomas with disseminated liver metastases and consumption coagulopathy who underwent liver transplant.
  • Our patient was initially diagnosed with infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma and bleeding into the adrenal glands secondary to consumption coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome).
  • Liver transplant was performed as a life-saving procedure under this diagnosis.
  • We discuss this unique patient because of the diagnostic pitfalls of this rare disease and the successful clinical outcome after LT and subsequent chemotherapy for neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Transplantation / methods. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Living Donors. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome


37. Nevo I, Sagi-Assif O, Edry Botzer L, Amar D, Maman S, Kariv N, Leider-Trejo LE, Savelyeva L, Schwab M, Yron I, Witz IP: Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants. Neoplasia; 2008 Aug;10(8):816-27
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  • [Title] Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most commonly occurring solid tumor in children.
  • The disease usually arises in the adrenal medulla, and it is characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity in its progression.
  • Most NB patients with an advanced disease have massive bone marrow infiltration at diagnosis.
  • SH-SY5Y and MHH-NB-11 NB cells were inoculated orthotopically into the adrenal glands of athymic nude mice.
  • Neuroblastoma cells metastasizing to the lungs were isolated from mice bearing adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18683320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; J06Y7MXW4D / Deferoxamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504768
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38. Baldisserotto M, Peletti AB, Angelo de Araújo M, Pertence AP, Dora MD, Maciel EO, Gaiger AM: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma: sonography and MRI findings. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Nov;35(11):1132-4
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  • [Title] Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma: sonography and MRI findings.
  • The association of this syndrome with malignant tumors is well documented.
  • We report a child with this syndrome associated with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neuroblastoma / diagnostic imaging. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Radiography. Severity of Illness Index. Ultrasonography / methods


39. Batra S, Gupta A, Peddinti R: A 20-year-old male with back pain. Neuroblastoma. Pediatr Ann; 2010 Oct;39(10):610-3
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  • [Title] A 20-year-old male with back pain. Neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / etiology. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20954606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-4481
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine
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40. Hattori Y, Kanamoto N, Kawano K, Iwakura H, Sone M, Miura M, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Arai H, Akamizu T, Nakao K, Maitani Y: Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma. Int J Oncol; 2010 Sep;37(3):695-705
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma.
  • Adrenal neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma have the same embryonic origin from neural crest cells and mainly arise from the adrenal medulla.
  • Recently, transgenic mice exhibiting tumors in the bilateral adrenal medulla by the expression of SV40 T-antigen were developed.
  • In this study, we investigated mRNA expression in adrenal tumors of transgenic mice and compared them with human pheochromocytoma by DNA microarray analysis.
  • To compare mouse adrenal tumors and human pheochromacytoma, we found that the expressions of noradrenergic neuron-related genes, including dopa decarboxylase, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and chromogranin B, were up-regulated in humans but not in mice; however, the expression of neuroblastoma-related genes, including Mycn, paired-like homeobox 2b, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta3 subunit, islet 1 and kinesin family member 1A, was up-regulated in both species.
  • From the gene expression profiles, the characterization of mouse adrenal tumor, may be similar to that of human adrenal neuroblastoma rather than pheochromacytomas.
  • This mouse model would be a useful tool for the development of anti-cancer drugs and for understanding the etiology of adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics


41. Berrebi D, Lebras MN, Belarbi N, Couturier J, Fattet S, Faye A, Peuchmaur M, de Lagausie P: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma occurring synchronously in a child with Fanconi's anemia and VACTERL syndrome. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jan;41(1):e11-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma occurring synchronously in a child with Fanconi's anemia and VACTERL syndrome.
  • Such association led quickly to the diagnosis of FA.
  • At age of 11 months, she developed simultaneously a renal tumor in a horseshoe kidney and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • The left adrenal mass was removed, and partial nephrectomy was performed.
  • Histological analysis concluded to adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Fanconi Anemia / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology


42. McGarvey CK, Applegate K, Lee ND, Sokol DK: False-positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scan for neuroblastoma in a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth). J Child Neurol; 2006 Jul;21(7):606-10
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  • [Title] False-positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scan for neuroblastoma in a child with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (acth).
  • We describe the case of a 2-year-old girl with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome treated with chronic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in which a metaiodobenzylguanidine scan showed abnormal radiotracer uptake in the left adrenal gland region, interpreted as the site of an occult neuroblastoma.
  • As this finding was not corroborated by previous or subsequent metaiodobenzylguanidine scans or by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we attribute the finding to being a false-positive result from adrenal hyperplasia owing to chronic use of ACTH and not to neuroblastoma.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy is an extremely important nuclear medicine examination tool used for the evaluation and staging of pediatric neuroblastoma.
  • We highlight the need for cautious interpretation of metaiodobenzylguanidine as a screening tool for neuroblastoma in patients treated with ACTH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormones / therapeutic use. Neuroblastoma / diagnostic imaging. Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome / drug therapy


43. Zhang N, Lin LK: Presumed primary orbital neuroblastoma in a 20-month-old female. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Sep-Oct;26(5):383-5
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  • [Title] Presumed primary orbital neuroblastoma in a 20-month-old female.
  • Neuroblastoma is the most common malignant disease of childhood, and it often arises from either the adrenal gland or along the sympathetic chain.
  • The authors report a case of a 20-month-old female with a presumed primary neuroblastoma of the orbit.
  • To the best of the authors' knowledge, primary orbital neuroblastoma has only been previously reported once in children, although it has been reported twice in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20622692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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44. Comstock JM, Willmore-Payne C, Holden JA, Coffin CM: Composite pheochromocytoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular comparison with ordinary pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jul;132(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Composite pheochromocytoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular comparison with ordinary pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.
  • Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare adrenal tumor composed of ordinary pheochromocytoma and other components, most frequently neuroblastic elements.
  • Little is known about its biologic potential, therefore creating a clinical dilemma on diagnosis.
  • This study investigates the clinical characteristics and N-myc amplification status of 4 cases of composite pheochromocytoma and compares them with selected cases of ordinary pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


45. Wu XR, Zhu MH, Zhang ZD: [Expression of KAI1/CD82 in neuroblastoma and its correlation to prognosis]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jul;24(7):885-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of KAI1/CD82 in neuroblastoma and its correlation to prognosis].
  • Our study was designed to investigate the expression of KAI1/CD82 in neuroblastoma, and explore its correlation to clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of patients with neuroblastoma.
  • METHODS: The EnVision immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of KAI1/CD82 in 90 specimens of neuroblastoma (28 specimens of ganglioneuroblastoma and 62 specimens of neuroblastoma).
  • RESULTS: Positive rate of KAI1/CD82 was significantly higher in ganglioneuroblastoma than in neuroblastoma (39.3% vs. 14.5%, P=0.014).
  • Its expression was negatively correlated to clinical stage of neuroblastoma (P=0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The change of KAI1/CD82 expression is an early event in tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma.
  • Its down-regulation may be considered as a potential indicator to judge the differentiation and metastasis of neuroblastoma, which can serve as one of the combined indexes to clinical assessment of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Antigens, CD82 / metabolism. Ganglioneuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphatic Vessels / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16004821.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD82; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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47. d'Herbomez M, Do Cao C, Vezzosi D, Borzon-Chasot F, Baudin E, groupe des tumeurs endocrines (GTE France): Chromogranin A assay in clinical practice. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Sep;71(4):274-80
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  • Numerous studies have suggested that CgA determination may be of interest for the diagnosis and the follow-up of various endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranin A / blood. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Female. Humans. Ileal Neoplasms / chemistry. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / secretion. Immunoassay. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemistry. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Secretory Vesicles / chemistry. Secretory Vesicles / secretion. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secretion

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20538257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A
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48. Pellkofer HL, Voltz R, Goebels N, Hohlfeld R, Dornmair K: Cross-reactive T-cell receptors in tumor and paraneoplastic target tissue. Arch Neurol; 2009 May;66(5):655-8
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  • BACKGROUND: According to established criteria, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis with adrenal neuroblastoma comprises a definite paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome.
  • Patient A 22-year-old woman having paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis with adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared the T-cell receptor repertoires expressed in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and neuroblastoma tumor tissue using complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratyping and clone-specific polymerase chain reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Neuroblastoma / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / immunology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / classification. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid. Cell Lineage / immunology. Clone Cells / immunology. Cross Reactions / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphocyte Activation / immunology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / analysis. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / classification. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Neurol. 2009 Oct;66(10):1299-300; author reply 300 [19822792.001]
  • (PMID = 19433667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
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49. Genc H, Haciyanli M, Haciyanli SG, Gelal F, Avci Uçarsoy A, Dag F: An adult adrenal neuroblastoma: a case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Nov-Dec;105(6):673-6
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  • [Title] An adult adrenal neuroblastoma: a case report.
  • Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland is an extremely rare tumour in adulthood although it is one of the most common malignancies in childhood.
  • In this report, we present a 52-year-old man who had a left adrenal mass on preoperative imaging.
  • The histopathological examination of the specimen revealed the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.
  • He had no metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis and received chemotherapy after the operation.
  • Although neuroblastoma of adrenal gland is rare in adulthood, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16438086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid
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50. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • We report a patient with composite neuroblastoma (NB), adrenocortical tumor (ACT), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Point Mutation. Virilism / etiology


51. Iwanaka T, Kawashima H, Uchida H: The laparoscopic approach of neuroblastoma. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2007 Nov;16(4):259-65
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  • [Title] The laparoscopic approach of neuroblastoma.
  • Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors, and the biopsy and excision of this tumor are often required as part of a planned multimodal treatment.
  • In 1995, Holcomb and coworkers first reported endosurgical procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric malignancies; however, the usefulness of laparoscopic procedures for abdominal neuroblastoma is still unclear.
  • Twenty-five laparoscopic biopsies for advanced abdominal neuroblastoma and nine laparoscopic excisions for localized abdominal neuroblastoma performed at Saitama Children's Medical Center were evaluated.
  • Also, the blood loss of laparoscopic excision of localized neuroblastoma was significantly little compared with that of open excision.
  • Precise indications of laparoscopic procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of abdominal neuroblastoma provide better prognosis and quality of life for infants and children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Neuroblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hemostasis, Surgical. Humans. Infant. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Seeding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


52. Kinlaw WB, Scott SM, Maue RA, Memoli VA, Harris RD, Daniels GH, Porter DM, Belloni DR, Spooner ET, Ernesti MM, Noll WW: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A due to a unique C609S RET mutation presents with pheochromocytoma and reduced penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Dec;63(6):676-82
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  • Of the 15 mutation-positive family members, 11 agreed to undergo further evaluation by physical examination, calcium and pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin levels, measurement of urinary metanephrines, adrenal imaging and serum calcium levels.
  • Biochemical characterization of the mutation was by transient transfection of human neuroblastoma cells and Western blot analysis.
  • Transfection experiments using human neuroblastoma cells showed that the mutant RET, unlike the wild-type receptor, is constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of ligand, and thus resembles other previously characterized MEN 2A mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calcitonin / blood. Calcium. Catecholamines / urine. Child. Codon. Female. Humans. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Pentagastrin. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Vanilmandelic Acid / urine


53. Ozono R: [Dopamine]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Aug;63 Suppl 8:388-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / genetics. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers / urine. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase / deficiency. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Parkinson Disease / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Reference Values. Shy-Drager Syndrome / diagnosis. Sodium, Dietary / adverse effects. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 16149536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Sodium, Dietary; EC 1.14.17.1 / Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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54. Wilczek E, Mazurkiewicz M, Otto M, Sladowski D, Górnicka B, Wilczyński GM, Wasiutyński A: [The effect of retinoic acid on primary cultures of human pheochromocytoma cells]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:82-7
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  • On the basis of this capability it was introduced, e.g. in the therapy of neuroblastoma.
  • In cells derived from neural crest, such as neuroblastoma cells, retinoic acid initiates differentiation into neurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Tretinoin / pharmacology


55. Pagès PM, Dufour C, Fasola S, Michon J, Boutard P, Gentet JC, Hartmann O: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Feb;52(2):196-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is extremely rare.
  • PROCEDURES: We retrospectively identified and reviewed 15 cases of bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma, treated between 1988 and 2004, by the French Society of Pediatric Oncology.
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 4 months in our cohort whereas it was 3 months in the literature.
  • Ten out of 15 patients in our cohort and 18/39 cases in the literature were classified as stage 4S according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS).
  • The incidence of stage 4S was significantly higher than that described in other neuroblastoma cohorts (P = 10(-4)).
  • In our series, bilateral neuroblastoma was neither associated with familial cases nor with any risk factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of bilateral neuroblastoma carry a favorable prognosis.
  • Exceptional cases exhibiting risk factors, such as amplified MYCN, are comparable to high-risk unilateral neuroblastoma cases with the same poor prognostic features.
  • The therapeutic strategy could be similar to that used against unilateral neuroblastoma, except for surgery.
  • However, the low incidence of relapse and the risk of adrenal failure if radical surgery is performed, argue against an aggressive surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology


56. Ghzili H, Grumolato L, Thouënnon E, Tanguy Y, Turquier V, Vaudry H, Anouar Y: Role of PACAP in the physiology and pathology of the sympathoadrenal system. Front Neuroendocrinol; 2008 Jan;29(1):128-41
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  • In addition, PACAP and its receptors have been described in neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma, and the neuropeptide regulates the differentiation and activity of sympathoadrenal-derived tumoral cell lines, suggestive of an important role in the pathophysiology of the sympathoadrenal lineage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide / physiology. Sympathetic Nervous System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18048093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6808
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Neuroendocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • [Number-of-references] 175
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57. Kazanowska B, Reich A, Jelen M, Chybicka A: Chronic metastatic neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Apr;50(4):898-900
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  • [Title] Chronic metastatic neuroblastoma.
  • The diversity of neuroblastoma and its clinical course depends on histology, biology and clinical features.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination of a subcutaneous nodule and elevated urinary markers.
  • We suggest the use of the "chronic neuroblastoma" as a term to describe patients with neuroblastoma showing indolent disease course over a very long period of time, but never achieving complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17914736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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58. Mc Dowell H, Losty P, Barnes N, Kokai G: Utility of FDG-PET/CT in the follow-up of neuroblastoma which became MIBG-negative. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Apr;52(4):552
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  • [Title] Utility of FDG-PET/CT in the follow-up of neuroblastoma which became MIBG-negative.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neuroblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Dec;51(6):828-31 [18680162.001]
  • (PMID = 19058210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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59. Tajiri T, Souzaki R, Kinoshita Y, Tanaka S, Koga Y, Suminoe A, Hara T, Kohashi K, Oda Y, Masumoto K, Ohira M, Nakagawara A, Taguchi T: Concordance for neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Dec;45(12):2312-6
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  • [Title] Concordance for neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins: case report and review of the literature.
  • Resection of an adrenal tumor and a liver tumor biopsy were performed.
  • Screening by abdominal ultrasonography showed multiple masses in the liver but no adrenal mass.
  • All primary tumor and liver tumor specimens from twin 2 and the liver tumor of twin 1 had the same histologic classification of neuroblastoma and nearly identical genetic aberrations, including a chromosome gain or loss using array-comparative genomic hybridization.
  • In the literature, 9 pairs of concordant twin neuroblastomas, including the current twin, have been presented; and the clinical findings of 5 twin pairs may represent placental metastases from one twin with congenital neuroblastoma to the other twin.
  • This study is the first report presenting the possibility of twin-to-twin metastasis in monozygotic twins with neuroblastoma based on an analysis of the clinical features and genetic aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / embryology. Diseases in Twins / embryology. Fetofetal Transfusion. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / embryology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Placenta / pathology. Twins, Monozygotic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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60. Franzius C, Schmidt M, Hero B, Pfluger T, Hahn K, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (DGN), Neuroblastom-Studiengruppe der Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH): [Procedure guidelines for MIBG-scintigraphy in children]. Nuklearmedizin; 2008;47(3):132-8
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  • For the first time this guideline was generated in consensus with the neuroblastoma study group of the Association of Paediatric Haematologie and Oncology (GPOH) with the result of an interdisciplinary recommendation.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neuroblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 18493694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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61. Sasaki M, Sanada H: [3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Aug;63 Suppl 8:384-7
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  • [MeSH-minor] Addison Disease / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis. Biomarkers / analysis. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Humans. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Parkinson Disease / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Reference Values. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 16149535.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 102-32-9 / 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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62. Avni FE, Massez A, Cassart M: Tumours of the fetal body: a review. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Nov;39(11):1147-57
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  • Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Fetal Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms / congenital. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis / methods. Ultrasonography / methods


63. Gupta R, Dinda AK: Ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: a rare case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):782-4
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  • [Title] Ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: a rare case.
  • Ganglioneuromas, which are benign tumors of sympathetic nervous system, are rare to arise in adrenal gland.
  • Currently, histopathology is the only tool to diagnose ganglioneuroma and to differentiate it from ganglioneuroblastoma and neuroblastoma.
  • We discuss the case of a 40-year-old female found to have a right adrenal mass during investigation of dull ache in right upper abdomen.
  • Histological examination showed the mass to be a ganglioneuroma arising in the adrenal gland.
  • In conclusion, ganglioneuroma occurs rarely in adrenal gland and pre-operative diagnosis is difficult since the symptoms are usually non-specific.
  • Histological examination is the mainstay of diagnosis and should be thorough to exclude neuroblastomatous foci, portending a worse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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64. Chan EL, Harris RE, Emery KH, Gelfand MJ, Collins MH, Gruppo RA: Favorable histology, MYCN-amplified 4S neonatal neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):479-82
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  • [Title] Favorable histology, MYCN-amplified 4S neonatal neuroblastoma.
  • We report a neonate with 4S neuroblastoma and MYCN amplification, but favorable Shimada histology, successfully treated with chemotherapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid without stem cell transplantation.
  • MYCN amplification in neuroblastoma is usually associated with unfavorable Shimada histology; the presence of these features in infants with 4S disease confers a poor prognosis.
  • A small number of infants with 4S neuroblastoma and MYCN amplification have favorable Shimada histology.

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  • (PMID = 16333837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD043005; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD43005-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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65. Malaise O, Vandenbosch K, Uyttebroeck A, Renard M, Bricteux G: [Exploring . . . a retroperitoneal mass in children]. Rev Med Liege; 2010 Mar;65(3):156-62
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  • Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma, the most frequent, will be presented more in detail including their clinical and biological characteristics, their diagnostic tests and their primary therapeutic treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome


66. Avanzini S, Conte M, Granata C, Zamorani EM, Sementa AR, Garaventa A, Buffa P, Sorrentino S: Life-threatening bilateral adrenal cystic neuroblastoma in an infant. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Dec;31(12):963-4
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  • [Title] Life-threatening bilateral adrenal cystic neuroblastoma in an infant.
  • A case of neonatal bilateral adrenal mass causing severe respiratory distress and requiring an emergency debulking surgical procedure is reported.
  • Histopathology revealed a cystic neuroblastoma stroma poor, poorly differentiated, without MYCN amplification and 1p deletion.
  • Both adrenal masses and hepatic nodules showed progressive decrease in size, till complete disappearance.
  • The authors encourage a multidisciplinary approach to develop the best patient-related strategy for cystic neuroblastoma, thus reducing complications rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19887960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Fuchs D, Christofferson R, Stridsberg M, Lindhagen E, Azarbayjani F: Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments. J Transl Med; 2009;7:16
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  • [Title] Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments.
  • BACKGROUND: High-risk neuroblastoma has an overall five-year survival of less than 40%, indicating a need for new treatment strategies such as angiogenesis inhibition.
  • The aim of this study was primarily to characterize tumor spread in an orthotopic, metastatic model for aggressive, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and secondarily to study the effects of daily administration of the chemotherapeutic agent CHS 828 on tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and spread.
  • METHODS: MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32, 2 x 10(6)) were injected into the left adrenal gland in SCID mice through a flank incision.
  • RESULTS: The orthotopic model resembled clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread.
  • CONCLUSION: The metastatic animal model in this study resembled clinical neuroblastoma and is therefore clinically relevant for examining new treatment strategies for this malignancy.
  • Our results indicate that daily scheduling of CHS 828 may be beneficial in treating patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Compartmentation. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Autopsy. Calgranulin A / blood. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyanides / toxicity. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Guanidines / toxicity. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19284605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Cyanides; 0 / Guanidines; 0 / N-(6-chlorophenoxyhexyl)-N''-cyano-N''-4-pyridylguanidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667491
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68. Miwa Y, Uchida K, Nakayama H, Asaki N: Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Sep;72(9):1229-32
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret.
  • The excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland, and some neoplastic cells were beta III-tubulin-, doublecortin- and neurofilament-positive.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was considered to be a neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20431253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Isobe K, Nakai T: [Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Aug;63 Suppl 8:391-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis. Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Biomarkers / blood. Diabetic Neuropathies / diagnosis. Humans. Hypotension, Orthostatic / diagnosis. Mental Disorders / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Polymorphism, Genetic. Radioimmunoassay. Shy-Drager Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16149537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 1.14.17.1 / Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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70. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • In the absence of fibrinogen/thrombin for clot formation, much of the injected material was extruded to the outside of the gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • As a model neoplastic cell of neural crest origin, we used SK-N-AS human neuroblastoma cells.
  • Orthotopic transplantation of 3 x 10(5) cells resulted in extensive invasion and destruction of the gland by 26 days.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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71. Al-Shanafey S, Habib Z: Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children: special emphasis on neoplastic lesions. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Apr;18(2):306-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in children became a viable option for the resection of adrenal lesions.
  • In this paper, we report our experience with LA over the last 10 years, with special emphasis on malignant lesions.
  • Adrenal lesions were left sided in 15, right sided in 11, and bilateral in 3 patients.
  • Twenty-one patients had malignant lesions, while 8 had benign lesions.
  • Resection margins were positive for tumor in 5 cases (17%), and all had stage IV neuroblastoma.
  • Follow-up range was from 9 months to 9.5 years (9 months to 6.3 years for malignant lesions).
  • One patient managed for bilateral neuroblastoma has stable residual disease 17 months after resection.
  • At the time of this report, 3 patients with neuroblastoma had died with progressive metastatic refractory disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data have shown the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of LA for adrenal lesions, including malignant tumors.
  • The relatively long follow-up data regarding the malignant lesions attest to its role in the management of such lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18373464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Rozovsky K, Koplewitz BZ, Krausz Y, Revel-Vilk S, Weintraub M, Chisin R, Klein M: Added value of SPECT/CT for correlation of MIBG scintigraphy and diagnostic CT in neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Apr;190(4):1085-90
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  • [Title] Added value of SPECT/CT for correlation of MIBG scintigraphy and diagnostic CT in neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: In pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, pathologic findings on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy (planar and SPECT) and on diagnostic CT are sometimes difficult to correlate.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients, three adults (age range, 27-64 years) with pheochromocytoma and eight children (age range, 16-72 months) with neuroblastoma, underwent 15 (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy (whole body and SPECT/CT) and diagnostic CT during follow-up after treatment, with a time interval of 2 to 30 days (mean, 12 days) between MIBG scintigraphy and diagnostic CT.
  • In one case of pheochromocytoma in which anatomy was distorted by previous surgery and contrast agent was not injected, SPECT/CT findings guided the diagnostic CT that had initially misinterpreted the right adrenal gland as the inferior vena cava.
  • In three of 11 studies performed for neuroblastoma, SPECT/CT facilitated the diagnostic CT reading: in one study, a small paravertebral thickening was overlooked at blind CT reading and in another case, SPECT/CT localized and characterized a soft-tissue mass medial to the iliac bone, which was missed on diagnostic CT in an area of difficult differential anatomy (bowel loops and eventual involved lymph nodes).
  • In four additional neuroblastoma studies in which a residual mass was present on diagnostic CT, planar MIBG scintigraphy was negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


73. Sherer DM, Dalloul M, Wagreich A, Sokolovski M, Duan H, Zinn H, Abulafia O: Prenatal sonographic findings of congenital adrenal cortical adenoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Jul;27(7):1091-3
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  • [Title] Prenatal sonographic findings of congenital adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of prenatally diagnosed adrenal masses includes neuroblastoma, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal and cortical renal cysts, adrenal adenoma and carcinoma, subdiaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, duplication of the renal system, Wilms tumors, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, and mesenteric and enteric duplication cysts.
  • The worldwide annual incidence of childhood adrenal cortical neoplasms ranges between 0.3 and 0.38 per 1 million children younger than 15 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / congenital. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18577675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Agayev A, Yilmaz S, Cekrezi B, Yekeler E: Extralobar pulmonary sequestration mimicking neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Sep;42(9):1627-9
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  • [Title] Extralobar pulmonary sequestration mimicking neuroblastoma.
  • Intra-abdominal extralobar sequestration should also be kept in differential diagnosis in cases of masses in the suprarenal location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


75. Kushner BH, Kramer K, Modak S, Akhurst TJ, Cheung NK: A focal lesion in the falx cerebri: Harbinger of classic stage 4 neuroblastoma in an infant cured despite residual disease after minimal therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1340-2
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  • [Title] A focal lesion in the falx cerebri: Harbinger of classic stage 4 neuroblastoma in an infant cured despite residual disease after minimal therapy.
  • An asymptomatic 11-week-old male received no treatment after he was classified as having a suspected atypical form of MYCN-nonamplified hyperdiploid stage 4S neuroblastoma (NB), with masses in an adrenal gland, subcutaneous tissues, and the falx cerebri.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19711437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA106450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106450; United States / FDA HHS / FD / FD-R-001041
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS342933; NLM/ PMC4079037
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76. Gutweiler JR, Yu DC, Kim HB, Kozakewich HP, Marcus KJ, Shamberger RC, Weldon CB: Hepatoblastoma presenting with focal nodular hyperplasia after treatment of neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2297-300
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  • [Title] Hepatoblastoma presenting with focal nodular hyperplasia after treatment of neuroblastoma.
  • Although there is no evidence for malignant degeneration, FNH can occur adjacent to a malignancy.
  • Here, the case of a 4-year-old boy with a hepatic mass and history of stage IV neuroblastoma is presented.
  • However, after left lateral segmentectomy, pathologic examination revealed a malignant tumor most consistent with small cell undifferentiated hepatoblastoma as well as 3 foci of FNH in the surrounding parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / etiology. Hepatoblastoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma


77. Quackenbush KE, Luna-Fineman S, Magee JF, Gundogan M, Golobi M, Irie T, Fernandez CV: Neuroblastoma involvement of the falx cerebri. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1337-9
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma involvement of the falx cerebri.
  • Involvement of the falx cerebri in infants with stage 4 neuroblastoma is thought to be rare.
  • The falx is derived from the neural crest and thus may be a location for primary neuroblastoma.
  • Management of neuroblastoma in this location is potentially challenging.
  • We describe two children less than 18 months of age who were successfully managed with chemotherapy alone (without radiation or surgery) for falx involvement with neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dura Mater / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Lineage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Neural Crest. Pulmonary Veins / abnormalities. Remission Induction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Waardenburg Syndrome / complications. Waardenburg Syndrome / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19821537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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78. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • In both tumors, it may be difficult to determine benign from malignant and the biologic behavior and degree of invasion may portend a more malignant course.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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79. Mena Bares LM, Benítez Velazco A, Pérez Cuenca E, Maza Muret FR, Hidalgo Ramos FJ, Pacheco Capote C, Contreras Puertas PI, Latre Romero JM: [Utility of the scintigraphy with (123)I MIBG in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma bone metastasis]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):208-9
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  • [Title] [Utility of the scintigraphy with (123)I MIBG in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma bone metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la gammagrafía con (123)I MIBG en el diagnóstico de metástasis óseas de neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Iodine Radioisotopes. Neuroblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Child, Preschool. Humans. Ilium / radionuclide imaging. Male. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate / analogs & derivatives. Tibia / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19922836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 72945-61-0 / technetium Tc 99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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80. Marabelle A, Campagne D, Déchelotte P, Chipponi J, Deméocq F, Kanold J: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in patients previously treated for pediatric neoplastic diseases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Jul;30(7):546-9
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  • However, patients previously treated for pediatric cancers are at greater risk of developing benign hepatic tumors, raising the problems of getting an accurate noninvasive diagnosis.
  • Only surgical resection led to positive diagnosis and prevented complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Wilms Tumor / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Cicatrix / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / pathology. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / radiography. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Monosomy. Pancytopenia / complications. Pancytopenia / genetics. Pancytopenia / surgery. Remission Induction


81. Zheng LD, Tong QS, Tang ST, Du ZY, Liu Y, Jiang GS, Cai JB: Expression and clinical significance of heparanase in neuroblastoma. World J Pediatr; 2009 Aug;5(3):206-10
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  • [Title] Expression and clinical significance of heparanase in neuroblastoma.
  • However, the expression of HPA in neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common extra cranial solid tumors in children, remains unknown.
  • The relationships among HPA expression, international neuroblastoma staging system (INSS) stages, histopathological classification, and postoperative survival of the NB patients were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The expression rate of HPA in NB was 61.9% (26/42), mainly in the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Glucuronidase / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19693465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8569
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of pediatrics : WJP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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82. Alcasabas P, Dettore A, Ozgönenel B, Bhambhani K, Ravindranath Y, Savaşan S: Vacuolated neuroblastoma cells mimicking FAB L(3) lymphoblasts in bone marrow aspirates. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Feb;48(2):227-9
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  • [Title] Vacuolated neuroblastoma cells mimicking FAB L(3) lymphoblasts in bone marrow aspirates.
  • Abundant cytoplasmic vacuolation of neuroblasts has been noted on bone marrow aspirate (BMA) smears of two patients with metastatic neuroblastoma.
  • Cytoplasmic vacuolations of neuroblasts may be a feature of metastatic neuroblastoma cells in BMA smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Vacuoles / pathology


83. Kremens B: [Systemic therapy in children and adolescents]. Urologe A; 2007 Oct;46(10):1404-6
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  • National and supranational treatment studies are the standard of care for pediatric cancer in Germany; they yield 5-year survival rates of almost 90% for nephroblastoma and germ cell tumors and 60% for neuroblastoma (all stages) and rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • In a multimodal treatment strategy, the role of chemotherapy as well as that of surgery and radiotherapy can differ, as is described for nephroblastoma, infant neuroblastoma, and stage 4 neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / mortality. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / mortality. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / mortality. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Survival Rate. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / mortality. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17823786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Suenobu S, Handa YS, Kuga S, Kakiuchi T, Akiyoshi K, Imai K, Izumi T: Ph+ALL in a pediatric patient with neuroblastoma in infancy. Pediatr Int; 2010 Jun;52(3):e147-9
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  • [Title] Ph+ALL in a pediatric patient with neuroblastoma in infancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neuroblastoma / genetics. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 20723114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-200X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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85. Misseri R: Adrenal surgery in the pediatric population. Curr Urol Rep; 2007 Jan;8(1):89-94
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  • [Title] Adrenal surgery in the pediatric population.
  • Adrenal tumors in children may be benign or malignant.
  • In addition, both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active, leading to hypertension, metabolic crises, and endocrinopathies.
  • Both a metabolic and a radiographic work-up are required before treatment of an adrenal tumor.
  • The primary therapy for most adrenal lesions is surgical, though some are treated medically or require chemotherapy before excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / mortality. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Male. Neuroblastoma / mortality. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / mortality. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17239322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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86. Wang J, Pei G, Yan J, Zhang G: Coexistence of a giant splenic hemangioma and multiple hepatic hemangiomas mimicking a left adrenal neuroblastoma accompanied with multifocal hepatic metastases: pyrite answer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Dec;31(12):983-4
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  • [Title] Coexistence of a giant splenic hemangioma and multiple hepatic hemangiomas mimicking a left adrenal neuroblastoma accompanied with multifocal hepatic metastases: pyrite answer.
  • A 4-month girl presenting with a giant mass in left adrenal region and multiple hepatic nodules was hospitalized.
  • On the basis of computed tomography, ultrasound and epidemiology we preferred the diagnosis of a left adrenal neuroblastoma accompanied with multiple hepatic metastases preoperatively.
  • But postoperative diagnosis was hemangiomatosis characterized by synchronous presence of a giant splenic hemangioma and multiple hepatic hemangiomas.
  • We think that it is deservedly reported because of not only its rarity but also pitfalls of preoperative differential diagnosis and management principle.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography


87. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Risk factors for scoliosis in children with neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 1;61(3):865-9
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  • [Title] Risk factors for scoliosis in children with neuroblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors for scoliosis in children treated for neuroblastoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1957 to 1997, 58 children with neuroblastoma were treated at one institution and have survived a minimum of 5 years.
  • There were 35 boys and 23 girls with a median age of 6 months (range, 2 weeks to 15 years) at initial diagnosis.
  • Primary site was located in the adrenal gland in 25 (43.1%), abdominal/nonadrenal in 16 (27.6%), thoracic in 12 (20.7%), cervical in 3 (5.3%), and pelvic region in 2 (3.5%).
  • The International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was Stage 1 in 10 (17.2%), Stage 2A in 7 (12.1%), Stage 2B in 5 (8.6%), Stage 3 in 22 (37.9%), Stage 4 in 4 (6.9%), and Stage 4S in 10 (17.2%).
  • Four had scoliosis ranging from 30 degrees to 66 degrees ; 3 of these patients required surgical intervention, whereas 1 had an underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy which manifested itself 8 years after diagnosis of neuroblastoma.
  • Gender, age at diagnosis, INSS stage, primary site, and use of chemotherapy were not found to be significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-related factors, namely laminectomy and radiotherapy, were found to increase the risk of scoliosis in patients with neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Scoliosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Laminectomy / adverse effects. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors


88. Sorrentino S, Conte M, Nozza P, Granata C, Capra V, Avanzini S, Garaventa A: Simultaneous occurrence of pancreatoblastoma and neuroblastoma in a newborn with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jul;32(5):e207-9
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  • [Title] Simultaneous occurrence of pancreatoblastoma and neuroblastoma in a newborn with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome.
  • We report the case of a newborn with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome presenting the simultaneous occurrence of a cystic pancreatoblastoma and an adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • Surgery was required to treat the pancreatoblastoma, and a "wait and see" policy was adopted for the neuroblastoma, which spontaneously regressed within a few months.
  • [MeSH-major] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Neuroblastoma / etiology. Pancreatic Cyst / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Prenatal


89. Schalk E, Mohren M, Koenigsmann M, Buhtz P, Franke A, Jentsch-Ullrich K: Metastatic adrenal neuroblastoma in an adult. Onkologie; 2005 Jun;28(6-7):353-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic adrenal neuroblastoma in an adult.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common malignancy in children, but rarely occurs in adults.
  • In adults, abdomen/retroperitoneum are the primary sites and in children the adrenal gland.
  • Tumour resection revealed adrenal NB grade III.
  • Chemotherapy according to the paediatric German Neuroblastoma Trial (NB97) was started.
  • The patient died 9 months after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary


90. Tanaka M, Kato K, Gomi K, Matsumoto M, Kudo H, Shinkai M, Ohama Y, Kigasawa H, Tanaka Y: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor with SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion in a patient with advanced neuroblastoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1416-20
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor with SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion in a patient with advanced neuroblastoma.
  • We report a case of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with an SFPQ/PSF-TFE3 gene fusion in a 14-year-old girl treated for adrenal neuroblastoma for 4 years.
  • Imaging studies revealed a tumor in the wall of the sigmoid colon, which was radiologically different from the neuroblastoma, together with several inguinal and cervical lymph node metastases of the neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19606011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / PTB-associated splicing factor; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TFE3 protein, human
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91. Tumino M, Licciardello M, Sorge G, Cutrupi MC, Di Benedetto F, Amoroso L, Catania R, Pennisi M, D'Amico S, Di Cataldo A: Kabuki syndrome and cancer in two patients. Am J Med Genet A; 2010 Jun;152A(6):1536-9
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  • Both hepatoblastoma and neuroblastoma are occasionally associated with congenital syndromes such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and trisomy 18.
  • There have been no reports of hepatoblastoma in patients with Kabuki syndrome, whereas one patient with neuroblastoma and this syndrome has been reported.
  • In this paper we present two patients with Kabuki syndrome and a neoplasm: a child of 6 years with hepatoblastoma and an infant, of 6 months affected by neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facies. Hepatoblastoma / diagnosis. Intellectual Disability / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Jun;155A(6):1504 [21548020.001]
  • (PMID = 20503331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Wang X, Liang L, Jiang Y: Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature. Acta Paediatr; 2007 Jun;96(6):930-4
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  • [Title] Nine cases of childhood adrenal tumour presenting with hypertension and a review of the literature.
  • AIM: To describe the clinical features, treatment and outcome of children adrenal tumors presenting with hypertension.
  • METHODS: The records of nine children under 16 years of age with adrenal tumours presenting with hypertension were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Abdominal mass was palpable only in one patient at diagnosis.
  • Abdominal computed topography showed adrenal mass in all patients.
  • Pheochromocytoma (n = 2), adrenocortical adenoma (n = 3), adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1), neuroblastoma (n = 2) and ganglioneuromas (n = 1) were found.
  • In one case, adrenal pheochromocytoma first occurred and non-functioning islet cell tumour successively occurred at pancreas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adrenal tumours presented with hypertension showed an atypical course, variable presentation.
  • We report a unique case of adrenal pheochromocytoma followed by the occurrence of non-functioning islet cell tumour.
  • Imaging techniques are important to detect adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vanilmandelic Acid / blood


93. Rabah R, Weber R, Serhatkulu GK, Cao A, Dai H, Pandya A, Naik R, Auner G, Poulik J, Klein M: Diagnosis of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma using Raman spectroscopy. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Jan;43(1):171-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma using Raman spectroscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Raman spectroscopy has proven to be useful in studying premalignant and malignant lesions in adults.
  • This is the first report to evaluate Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis and classification of neuroblastoma in children.
  • METHODS: A biopsy or resection of fresh tissue samples from normal adrenal glands, neuroblastomas, ganglioneuromas, nerve sheath tumors, and pheochromocytoma at our hospital were equally divided between routine histology and spectroscopic studies.
  • RESULTS: We collected 698 spectra from 16 neuroblastomas, 5 ganglioneuromas, 3 normal adrenal glands, 6 nerve sheath tumors, and 1 pheochromocytoma.
  • Raman spectroscopy differentiated between normal adrenal gland, and neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
  • It was also able to differentiate neuroblastoma from nerve sheath tumors and pheochromocytoma with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: This technique can differentiate neuroblastoma from ganglioneuroma and other tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Embedding


94. Kumar M, Gupta P, Chaubey A: The thyroid: an extremely rare primary site of neuroblastoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1357-60
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  • [Title] The thyroid: an extremely rare primary site of neuroblastoma.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is uncommon in the adolescent age group.
  • It is located at any site containing sympathetic neural tissue, with retroperitoneal and adrenal lesions being the most common.
  • The differential diagnosis was primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Vanilmandelic Acid / urine

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  • (PMID = 16949905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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95. Boutros J, Bond M, Beaudry P, Blair GK, Skarsgard ED: Case selection in minimally invasive surgical treatment of neuroblastoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Oct;24(10):1177-80
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  • [Title] Case selection in minimally invasive surgical treatment of neuroblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: The experience with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the treatment of neuroblastoma (NB) is anecdotal.
  • Six of the eight (75%) tumors were adrenal in origin and the remainder were located in the posterior mediastinum.
  • Distribution by International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was: stage 1 (3), stage 2 (2), and stage 4 (3).
  • [MeSH-major] Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Patient Selection
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18716783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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96. Ramljak V, Ranogajec I, Novosel I, Knezević F, Velemir-Vrdoljak D, Janusić R, Dosen D: Thyroid tumour in a child previously treated for neuroblastoma. Cytopathology; 2006 Oct;17(5):295-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid tumour in a child previously treated for neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects


97. Schiavetti A, Foco M, Ingrosso A, Chiriacò D, Ballesio L: Congenital stage 1 neuroblastoma evolved into stage 4s. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jan;31(1):59-60
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  • [Title] Congenital stage 1 neuroblastoma evolved into stage 4s.
  • A newborn with a prenatally detected adrenal mass underwent complete resection of a stage 1 favorable histology neuroblastoma (NB) without MYC-N amplification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genes, myc. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / prevention & control. Pregnancy


98. Mori H, Nagata M, Nishijima N, Nagura K, Igarashi H, Hamazaki M, Ozono S, Sugimura H: Malignant pheochromocytoma in a young adult forming the structure simulating Homer Wright rosette: differentiation from neuroblastoma on repeating fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pathol Int; 2008 Aug;58(8):518-23
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  • [Title] Malignant pheochromocytoma in a young adult forming the structure simulating Homer Wright rosette: differentiation from neuroblastoma on repeating fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • A peculiar adrenal tumor was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes.
  • Her serum and urine dopamine level were elevated, and a diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma was made.
  • On post-mortem an adrenal tumor composed of small round cells forming Homer Wright rosette-like structures, a feature rarely observed in pheochromocytoma, was found.
  • Because these results did not rule out a diagnosis of neuroblastoma, the tumor was further characterized on FISH with multiple BAC probes for loci known to be altered in neuroblastoma or pheochromocytoma, according to information in the literature that was for the most part obtained using comparative genomic hybridization.
  • FISH demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 11p, and gains at 16p, 19p, and 19q, a profile that favored a diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma over neuroblastoma.
  • This case demonstrates that repeating FISH is useful for differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial / chemistry. Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial / genetics. DNA Probes / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine / blood. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans


99. Joseph JM, Gross N, Lassau N, Rouffiac V, Opolon P, Laudani L, Auderset K, Geay JF, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Vassal G: In vivo echographic evidence of tumoral vascularization and microenvironment interactions in metastatic orthotopic human neuroblastoma xenografts. Int J Cancer; 2005 Mar 1;113(6):881-90
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  • [Title] In vivo echographic evidence of tumoral vascularization and microenvironment interactions in metastatic orthotopic human neuroblastoma xenografts.
  • Human neuroblastoma (NB) is the second most frequent solid tumor of childhood and represents a highly heterogeneous disease at clinical and biologic levels.
  • Results show that implantation of low numbers of NB cells directly into the adrenal gland of nude mice resulted in rapid and homogeneous tumor growth without tumor morbidity.
  • Nude mice were shown to rapidly develop highly vascularized adrenal tumors that selectively metastasized to the liver and bone marrow.
  • In addition, the newly formed mouse vessels in orthotopic but not in heterotopic tumors, were found to express the highly angiogenic alphavbeta3 integrin marker, indicating the development of a truly malignant neovasculature in orthotopic conditions only.
  • [MeSH-major] Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neuroblastoma / blood supply. Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Genes, Reporter. Green Fluorescent Proteins / analysis. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Microcirculation / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Transfection. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15514941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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100. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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