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1. Surgit O: Clipless and sutureless laparoscopic adrenalectomy carried out with the LigaSure device in 32 patients. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Apr;20(2):109-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the standard procedure for treating patents with adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: The LigaSure device was used in 32 patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal masses.
  • In 1 patient the adrenal tumor had invaded the ipsilateral kidney, so laparoscopic nephrectomy was also carried out during the same operation.
  • In another patient, a renal cell carcinoma in the left kidney had metastasized to the right adrenal gland.
  • Both the kidney and the contralateral adrenal gland were removed laparoscopically during the same operation.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal masses had a mean greatest diameter of 3.48 cm (range 2 to 11 cm).
  • Adrenal tumor types included adrenocortical adenoma (16 patients), pheochromocytoma (13 patients), malignant pheochromocytoma (1 patient), chromophobic carcinoma (1 patient), and metastasis from a renal cell carcinoma (1 patient).
  • For patients with conditions such as renal cell carcinoma combined with metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland, nephrectomy, and contralateral adrenalectomy can be carried out during the same laparoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Chromophobe / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20393338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Song JH, Lee KH, Kim SD, Cho BS: Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia. Electrolyte Blood Press; 2007 Dec;5(2):140-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Patients with Hyponatremia.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease, which leads to cortisol and aldosterone deficiency and hyperandrogenism.
  • Typical medical treatment includes oral glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid administration to suppress adrenal androgens and to compensate for adrenal steroid deficiencies.
  • Among these patients, four cases of CAH patients showing the presence of hyponatremia as an initial electrolyte disorder were found with adrenal adenoma.
  • Hypersecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and chronic poor compliance to therapy appears to be associated with the development of the adrenal tumor.
  • Two cases were managed with adrenalectomy because of increasing adrenal tumor size and virilization.
  • Therefore, it is important that patients with CAH maintain steroid medication to avoid the appearance of adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 24459514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-5997
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrolyte Blood Press
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3894515
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 21-hydroxylase deficiency / Adrenal tumor / Congenital adrenal hyperplasia / Hyponatremia
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3. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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4. [Adrenal gland tumor removed from a dog via video surgery]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd; 2007 Apr 15;132(8):308
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumor removed from a dog via video surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Bijniertumor hond via kijkoperatie verwijderd.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery / veterinary

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  • [CommentIn] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2007 May 15;132(10):407 [17580402.001]
  • (PMID = 17489377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-7453
  • [Journal-full-title] Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour.
  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • In some cases, however, these tumours have exhibited malignant behaviour.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection with subsequent imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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6. Mezzadri NA, Catalina Mandry A, Sinagra DL, Eduardo Falco J, Fernández Vila JM: [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours]. Cir Esp; 2010 May;87(5):306-11
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Abordaje laparoscópico en el tratamiento de las tumoraciones adrenales malignas.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant primary or secondary adrenal tumours are uncommon.
  • Although controversy exists on this issue, the increasing experience in laparoscopic surgery extends the indication for laparoscopic adrenalectomy to potentially malignant and to metastatic adrenal tumours.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasias, describing the results of our consecutive series of patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 13 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasia between March 1999 and June 2009, at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidad of Buenos Aires and at the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed due to malignant neoplasia.
  • Five patients had an adrenal carcinoma, 1 patient a malignant phaeochromocytoma, and 7 patients had metastatic tumours.
  • The cause of death was the underlying disease in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a reasonable technique for malignant adrenal tumours, when the open oncological resection can be reproduced by the laparoscopic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-147X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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7. Oprea I, Michel G: [Androgen-secreting tumor in an adrenal tumor discovered by accident after amenorrhea caused by a meningeal hemorrhage]. Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb; 2008;(4):517-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Androgen-secreting tumor in an adrenal tumor discovered by accident after amenorrhea caused by a meningeal hemorrhage].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur androgènosecrétante de la surrénale découverte par hasard après une aménorrhée installée brutalement suite a une hémorragie méningée.
  • Androgen-secreting tumors are uncommon among adrenal secreting tumors.
  • The case reported here concerns an adrenal tumor secreting androgens, unexpectedly found after a sudden amenorrhea caused by a meningeal haemorrhage, with positive outcome after adrenalectomy.
  • The indication of increased secretion of oestrogens and androgens, should suggest the presence of adrenal androgen-secreting tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Amenorrhea / etiology. Androgens / secretion. Hemorrhage / complications. Meningeal Arteries / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-9247
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société des sciences médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Luxembourg
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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8. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Otto M, Cichocki A, Rosłonowska E, Słowinska-Srzednicka J, Zgliczyński W, Jeske W, Papierska L, Tołłoczko T, Polański J, Słapa R: 1,161 patients with adrenal incidentalomas: indications for surgery. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 Mar;393(2):121-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 1,161 patients with adrenal incidentalomas: indications for surgery.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical data and criteria for surgery in a group of over 1,100 patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI) observed at the Department of Endocrinology.
  • RESULTS: Basing on these studies, we diagnosed 112 patients with primary malignant adrenal tumors (100 with carcinoma), 45 with metastatic infiltrations, and 1,004 with probable benign AI.
  • Imaging phenotypes (especially high density on computed tomography, CT) were characteristic of malignant and chromaffin tumors.
  • Subclinical adrenal hyperactivity was found in 8% of the patients with pre-Cushing's syndrome as the most frequent form (6.5%).
  • Chromaffin tumors were detected in 3%. CONCLUSIONS:.
  • (1) Indications for surgery include malignant tumors (both primary and metastatic), tumors with subclinical hyperfunction, and chromaffin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17994250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Soricelli E, Casella G, Rizzello M, Abbatini F, Alessandri G, Fantini A, Basso N: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and left adrenalectomy with supragastric approach. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Dec;20(6):e195-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • During the preoperative work-up, an abdominal ultrasonography and an RMN showed an incidental left adrenal tumor with a diameter of 11 cm.
  • The laboratory evaluation for the functional adrenal tumor was negative.
  • The minimally invasive treatment of coexisting abdominal pathologies such as morbid obesity and adrenal incidentalomas seem to be suitable and safe, providing several benefits in terms of surgical and anesthesiologic management and postoperative clinical outcomes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged. Obesity, Morbid / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21150401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Adrenal incidentaloma
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10. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt K, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):625-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors.
  • Most of the adrenal tumors that are incidentally detected are benign adenomas.
  • The incidence of malignant adrenal tumors including adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rather low.
  • As many patients with ACC and PAL are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, the overall survival time of both entities remains poor.
  • Unfortunately hitherto preoperative diagnosis of potentially malignant adrenal masses is still a main problem in the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • In both cases clinical and radiological features resulted in an initially false diagnosis.
  • The patient with ACC showed tumor progression with local and systemic recurrence despite adjuvant therapy with mitotane and additional surgical therapy.
  • We propose some guidelines for diagnosis and surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18490838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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11. Tatsugami K, Eto M, Hamaguchi M, Yokomizo A, Harano M, Naito S: What affects the results of a laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma? Evaluation with respect to intraoperative blood pressure and state of tumor. J Endourol; 2009 Jan;23(1):101-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What affects the results of a laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma? Evaluation with respect to intraoperative blood pressure and state of tumor.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the factors that affect the operative data and to evaluate the validity of a laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for pheochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 1993 and January 2008, 172 LAs were performed in this department, and 34 of them were for pheochromocytoma.
  • The characteristics and operative data of LAs for pheochromocytoma were examined with respect to the intraoperative systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the side of tumor.
  • RESULTS: The intraoperative SBP rose to 180 mm Hg or more in 17 (50%) cases of LAs for pheochromocytomas.
  • The tumor size was significantly associated with operative time (P < 0.05) or the blood loss (P < 0.05) in an LA for pheochromocytoma.
  • The blood loss in LAs for right adrenal tumors was greater (150 versus 79 mL) than for left tumors (P < 0.01).
  • In particular, some procedures for right large tumors had considerable blood loss and long procedural time.
  • In a comparison of the operative data between pheochromocytoma and other adrenal tumors, the tumor was larger (4.3 versus 2.5 cm) and the blood loss was greater (100 versus 30 mL) than for other adrenal tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The operative data showed no correlation with the intraoperative high SBP, but they were associated with the tumor state.
  • Although the procedure seems to be influenced by the size and state of tumor, LA is not contraindicated for pheochromocytoma, and it can therefore be performed safely.

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  • (PMID = 19119805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Fariña LA, Antón I, Fernández GC: [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Sep;33(8):913-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Large adrenal pseudocyst mimicking cystic pheochromocytoma: excision minimising laparoscopic access].
  • [Transliterated title] Seudoquiste adrenal grande que simula feocromocitoma quístico: exéresis minimizando el acceso laparoscópico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal cysts and pseudocysts are rare and usually benign and asymptomatic; they are discovered either accidentally or during examination for non-specific abdominal discomfort.
  • The differential diagnosis for adrenal cysts must consider cystic adrenal carcinoma and cystic pheochromocytoma, which are both extremely rare, but more severe and difficult to treat.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: A 55 year-old woman reported right-side flank pain; imaging studies discovered a 10 cm cystic adrenal tumour, with radiological indications of cystic pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As less invasive laparoscopic procedures become widespread, an increasing number of case reports and series of cases regarding adrenal cyst operations have recently been reported.
  • A review of the literature shows that the cysts are generally benign, but it is not always possible to identify cystic adrenal carcinoma or cystic pheochromocytoma from the radiology image.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


13. Izaki H, Fukumori T, Takahashi M, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Tanimoto S, Nishitani MA, Kanayama HO: Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):677-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumor with hypertension: usefulness of adrenocortical scintigraphy.
  • AIM: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently indicated for biochemically and clinically functional adrenal tumors and potentially malignant tumors of the adrenal glands.
  • Non-functional adenomas greater than 5 cm in diameter of the adrenal gland are generally considered to represent potentially malignant tumors.
  • The present study shows indications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors with hypertension in a retrospective fashion.
  • Forty-five patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors, and [(131)I]6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (NP-59) scintigraphy was performed for patients with preoperative hypertension.
  • Mean maximum tumor diameter was 42 mm (range, 20-105 mm).
  • All adrenal tumors were removed successfully by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Importantly, all patients who improved hypertension after adrenalectomy displayed strong accumulation in adrenal tumors with visualization of the contralateral gland on NP-59 scintigraphy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The indication of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for non-functional adrenal tumors is generally considered for lesions more than 5 cm diameter.
  • However, the present study suggests that laparoscopic surgery should be considered even in patients with tumors less than 5 cm in diameter, if both hypertension and accumulation in tumors on NP-59 scintigraphy are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16834641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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14. Okamoto T, Suzuki Y, Sugiyama N, Kudo S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Kamimura N, Oyama C: [Ganglioneuroma with calcification mimicking adrenal tumor: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Nov;56(11):621-3
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  • [Title] [Ganglioneuroma with calcification mimicking adrenal tumor: a case report].
  • Computed tomography revealed a 30 mm solid tumor with calcification in the left adrenal gland and a 8 mm nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • Endocrinological examinations revealed no activity of either adrenal mass.
  • The left adrenal tumor was extirpated, because malignancy of the tumor was not ruled out.
  • Histopathological examination proved that the tumor was ganglioneuroma arising from the extra-adrenal retroperitoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21187706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Wiedmann MW, Mössner J, Stumvoll M, Führer D: Case report: extreme CgA elevation under PPI confounding assessment of adrenal mass. Z Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul;47(7):671-3
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  • [Title] Case report: extreme CgA elevation under PPI confounding assessment of adrenal mass.
  • Measurement of chromogranin A (CgA) level in blood can be used to monitor neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Here, we report on a patient with an incidental left-sided adrenal tumour and elevated CgA level.
  • Adrenalectomy did not confirm clinically suspected diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • Postoperative follow-up was remarkable for a persistently elevated CgA level suspecting another neuroendocrine tumour which could not be detected despite extensive investigations.
  • Finally, it was discovered that continuous proton-pump inhibitor administration for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease had caused a falsely elevated CgA level.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Chromogranin A / blood. Proton Pump Inhibitors / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19606410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
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16. Falhammar H, Thorén M: An 88-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: connection or coincidence? J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):449-53
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  • [Title] An 88-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal tumor and congenital adrenal hyperplasia: connection or coincidence?
  • An 88-yr-old woman presented with a 3x4x5 cm adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Biopsy of the tumor showed benign adenoma tissue.
  • The genetic analysis showed two mutations in the CYP21-gene, V281L and 1172N consistent with mild non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • Previous reports have shown increased prevalence of CAH in patients with adrenal tumors although, to our knowledge, no one has reported the combination in a patient as old as in ours.
  • Thus, clinical signs and symptoms of CAH should be looked for in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, even in the very old ones, and if suspicion further diagnostic work-up should be carried out to provide adequate treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16075929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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17. Kamei S, Yokoi S, Takahashi Y, Deguchi T, Takeuchi T, Kanimoto Y, Fujimoto Y: [Clinical evaluation of our first 50 laparoscopic adrenalectomies]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Feb;53(2):107-12
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  • We report our experience and the outcomes of this procedure, which has become a standard surgery for adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17352160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Zwermann O, Schulte DM, Reincke M, Beuschlein F: ACTH 1-24 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical tumors in vivo. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Sep;153(3):435-44
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  • [Title] ACTH 1-24 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical tumors in vivo.
  • In vivo, potential effects of endogenous ACTH on adrenal tumori-genesis can not be separated from effects of other POMC derived peptides.
  • METHODS: Murine adrenocortical tumor cells that lack MC2-R expression (Y6(pcDNA)) and Y6 cells stablely transfected with MC2-R (Y6(MC2-R)) were generated.
  • As a syngenic tumor model, LaHeF1/J mice simultaneously received 10(7) Y6(MC2-R) and Y6(pcDNA) subcutaneously, giving rise to MC2-R positive and negative tumors within the same animal.
  • RESULTS: Twenty days of ACTH 1-24 treatment did not significantly affect corticosterone levels, endogenous ACTH levels or adrenal and thymus weight compared with saline injection.
  • However, ACTH 1-24 treatment of group B and C mice significantly reduced tumor weight in MC2-R positive tumors in a dose dependent manner (P = 0.03), while no significant difference in tumor mass was observed in MC2-R negative tumors.
  • PCNA and TUNEL staining, together with morphological characterization, demonstrated that these in vivo effects were due to reduced proliferation, while apoptosis and cellular hypertrophy within the tumor remained unchanged.
  • CONCLUSION: MC2-R expression is associated with a less aggressive adrenal tumor phenotype and anti-proliferative effects can be amplified through stimulation with physiological doses of ACTH.


19. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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20. Mokuno Y, Katayama M, Ogura Y, Kimura K, Koh K: Long-term survival after resection of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases of mucinous gastric carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(6):554-8
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after resection of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases of mucinous gastric carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of metachronous bilateral adrenal metastases from mucinous adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
  • A 68-year-old man who had undergone surgery for advanced gastric cancer 5 months earlier had a follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan, which showed a right adrenal tumor.
  • A routine follow-up CT scan done 41 months after the right adrenalectomy showed a left adrenal mass.
  • This case suggests that resection of adrenal metastasis from gastric cancer is an effective treatment option that may prolong survival in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16715429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Owecki M, Warmuz-Stangierska I, Majewska KA, Nikisch E, Sowiński J: [Depression and anxiety in patients with adrenal tumor incidentally found on abdominal imaging performed for other indications]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Aug;19(110):166-8
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  • [Title] [Depression and anxiety in patients with adrenal tumor incidentally found on abdominal imaging performed for other indications].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the level of anxiety and depression in patients with non-secreting adrenal incidentaloma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentaloma is associated with increased anxiety and depression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anxiety / etiology. Depression / etiology. Incidental Findings


22. Jandali ST, Mofti AB, Al Muhaya S, Al-Zourkany A, Hussein NM, Al-Gamal H, Takrouri MS: Anesthetic implications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in nephrotic syndrome. Middle East J Anaesthesiol; 2005 Jun;18(2):347-56
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumor excision is one of these new applications.
  • PATIENT: A 58 year old Saudi woman diagnosed to have essential hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, NIDDM, and right adrenal tumor, with the provisional diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Anesthesia for laparoscopic adrenalectomy has special problems to solve related to the pneumoperitonium effect, poly-pharmacy and the current disease state.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Cholelithiasis / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Intubation, Intratracheal / methods. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods

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  • (PMID = 16438009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0544-0440
  • [Journal-full-title] Middle East journal of anaesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Middle East J Anaesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lebanon
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23. Fukai N, Hirono Y, Yoshimoto T, Doi M, Ohtsuka Y, Homma K, Shibata H, Sasano H, Hirata Y: A case of estrogen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Endocr J; 2006 Apr;53(2):237-45
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  • A 25-year-old man was found to have a large right adrenal mass detected by abdominal echography and computed tomography, and presented with a mild gynecomastia.
  • The patient had no Cushingoid features but autonomous cortisol secretion, compatible with the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Surgical removal of the adrenal tumor led to normalization of serum and urinary excretion of estrogens and DHEA-S.
  • The disorganized expression of all the steroidogenic enzymes in individual tumor cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis, and the abundant expression of both aromatase mRNA and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II mRNA was shown by RT-PCR.
  • These data suggest the excessive secretion of estrogen as well as the ineffective steroidogenesis by the adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Dehydroepiandrosterone / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone / urine. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16618983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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24. Saad DF, Gow KW, Milas Z, Wulkan ML: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for neuroblastoma in children: a report of 6 cases. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 Dec;40(12):1948-50
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  • Neuroblastoma, a neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood.
  • Complete tumor resection has been shown to improve outcomes in both low- and high-risk neuroblastoma.
  • The efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for metastatic lesions, benign tumors, and small neuroblastomas (<20 mm in diameter) is well established.
  • However, the role of LA for large neuroblastomas is unclear.
  • The authors describe the technical aspects of LA in 6 children with adrenal neuroblastomas greater than 2 cm and summarize their outcomes.
  • All 6 patients underwent successful LA with removal of their tumors and surrounding lymph nodes.
  • The average size of the adrenal tumors resected was 3.3 x 3.7 x 3.3 cm, and there were no intraoperative or perioperative deaths.
  • Our preliminary data suggest LA is a safe treatment option for neuroblastoma tumors greater than 2 cm in the select children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery


25. Mazzuco TL, Grunenwald S, Lampron A, Bourdeau I, Lacroix A: Aberrant hormone receptors in primary aldosteronism. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jun;42(6):416-23
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  • In ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome, cortisol secretion can be regulated by the aberrant expression of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in unilateral tumors and bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • More recently, several receptors have been shown to be expressed in aldosterone-producing adrenal tumors in vitro and to regulate aberrantly renin-independent aldosterone secretion in vivo.
  • The identification of aberrant adrenal GPCRs by in vivo functional studies offers the potential for novel pharmacological therapies that either suppress the endogenous ligands or block the receptor with specific antagonists.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aldosterone / secretion. Gene Expression / physiology. Humans. Models, Biological. Receptors, Corticotropin / genetics. Receptors, Corticotropin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 20503136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MT-13-189
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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26. Johnsen IK, Slawik M, Shapiro I, Hartmann MF, Wudy SA, Looyenga BD, Hammer GD, Reincke M, Beuschlein F: Gonadectomy in mice of the inbred strain CE/J induces proliferation of sub-capsular adrenal cells expressing gonadal marker genes. J Endocrinol; 2006 Jul;190(1):47-57
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  • [Title] Gonadectomy in mice of the inbred strain CE/J induces proliferation of sub-capsular adrenal cells expressing gonadal marker genes.
  • Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis have the potential to give insights in the dysregulation of adrenal growth and differentiation.
  • The inbred mouse strain CE/J has been reported to develop adrenal tumors upon gonadectomy (GDX) similar to mice with targeted deletions of the inhibin alpha subunit (Inh-/-).
  • We performed a detailed morphological and molecular characterization of adrenal glands from CE/J mice 8-50 weeks of age to define the cellular origin of these tumors as well as the spatial and temporal expression of marker genes associated with tumor growth.
  • In contrast to the induction of x-zone growth upon GDX in Inh-/- mice, GDX in CE/J mice induced the appearance of sub-capsular nests of densely packed cells that progress into adrenal tumors.
  • Induction of adrenal tumor growth was accompanied by transcriptional changes that otherwise define gonadal endocrine cells.
  • The functional significance of steroid enzyme expression was demonstrated by a gradual increase of adrenal androgens after GDX.
  • Taken together these data suggest that adrenal tumors in gonad-ectomized CE/J mice are direct derivatives from cells of the proposed sub-capsular stem cell zone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 16837610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
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27. Malendowicz LK, Rucinski M, Belloni AS, Ziolkowska A, Nussdorfer GG: Leptin and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Int Rev Cytol; 2007;263:63-102
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  • [Title] Leptin and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Evidence has been accumulated that leptin, like other peptides involved in the central regulation of food intake, controls the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, acting on both its central and peripheral branches.
  • Leptin, along with Ob-R, is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, where it modulates corticotropin-releasing hormone and ACTH secretion, probably acting in an autocrine-paracrine manner.
  • Only Ob-R is expressed in the adrenal gland, thereby making it likely that leptin affects it by acting as a circulating hormone.
  • Although in vitro and in vivo findings could suggest a glucocorticoid secretagogue action in the rat, the bulk of evidence indicates that leptin inhibits steroid-hormone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • In contrast, leptin enhances catecolamine release from the adrenal medulla.
  • Leptin and/or Ob-R are also expressed in pituitary and adrenal tumors, but little is known about the role of this cytokine in the pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Leptin / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17725965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0074-7696
  • [Journal-full-title] International review of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Rev. Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Leptin; 0 / leptin receptor, human
  • [Number-of-references] 234
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28. Shen SJ, Cheng HM, Chiu AW, Chou CW, Chen JY: Perioperative hypertensive crisis in clinically silent pheochromocytomas: report of four cases. Chang Gung Med J; 2005 Jan;28(1):44-50
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  • Improvements in imaging have resulted in an increase in incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • The adrenal incidentalomas have been identified in at least 2%-3% of patients receiving abdominal computed tomography (CT), and pheochromocytomas are reported to occur in about 5.1%-23.0% of those patients.
  • Herein we present 4 cases of pheochromocytomas as unforeseen adrenal masses on abdominal images.
  • The characteristics of these tumors were that they (1) were noted to have no particular symptoms, (2) were confirmed biochemically and pathologically with immunophenotypic staining, (3) were benign in nature, and (4) produced apparent blood-pressure fluctuations during the operation.
  • Two cases suffered from dramatic hypotension after the tumor had been excised, and intravenous fluid expanders and ephedrine were necessary to maintain adequate blood pressure.
  • The above changes in blood pressure had no correlations with the size of the tumors.
  • Although these tumors were clinically silent, they indeed were biologically active.
  • Surgical resection of these tumors was indicated, and the risk of complications, such as hypertensive or hypotensive crises, may be no less than those of other typical tumors.
  • Thus, such tumors should be managed with great caution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications


29. Ohno Y, Izumi M, Tachibana M, Kawamura T, Yoshioka K, Aoyagi T, Ohori M, Namiki K, Sakamoto N, Nakagami Y, Hatano T, Akimoto S, Nishimura T: Characterization and gene expression analysis of novel matched primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Oncol Rep; 2008 Sep;20(3):501-9
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  • [Title] Characterization and gene expression analysis of novel matched primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • Despite recent advances in molecular biology that have clarified the mechanisms involved in the metastasis of several types of cancer, the molecular mechanism underlying the metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear.
  • Two RCC cell lines were successfully established from the surgical specimens of a matched primary tumor and adrenal metastasis from the same RCC patient, and were designated as TMK-1P and TMK-1M, respectively.
  • The RCC cell lines may be useful in studying tumor invasion and screening markers for metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


30. Katsuki Y, Suzuki S, Takahashi Y, Satoh T, Nogawa S, Tanaka K, Suzuki N, Kuwana M: [A case of Good syndrome accompanied by myasthenia gravis: immunological evaluations]. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi; 2006 Apr;29(2):102-6
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  • Good syndrome, characterized by both thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia, is a rare immunodeficient disorder.
  • Body CT revealed adrenal tumor and pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis, and he died of bacterial pneumonia.
  • [MeSH-major] Agammaglobulinemia / immunology. Autoantibodies / blood. Myasthenia Gravis / immunology. Thymoma / immunology. Thymus Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16651708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0911-4300
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai kaishi = Japanese journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Cholinergic
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31. Tsuru N, Suzuki K, Ushiyama T, Ozono S: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jun;19(5):537-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy remains a controversial procedure for large tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 178 patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, of whom 29 patients had large (>or =5 cm) tumors.
  • Their mean age was 47.9 years (range 21-72 years), and the mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range 5.0-11.0 cm).
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were <5 cm.
  • RESULTS: The large-tumor group had a mean operating time of 176 +/- 48 minutes (range 84-278 minutes) and a mean blood loss of 136.6 mL (range 10-800 mL) and required a mean of 1.8 days before starting oral intake.
  • The length of recovery was significantly longer in the large-tumor group (5.4 v 4.5 days; P < 0.05), but this was not true if a patient with a 23-day postoperative stay is excluded.
  • The overall incidence of complications was 12% in the large-tumor group, which was not significantly different from that in the control group (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The operating time, blood loss, and incidence of complications after laparoscopic adrenalectomy did not differ between the patients with large and small adrenal tumors, indicating that experienced surgeons can safely and effectively use laparoscopy for larger tumors.
  • However, it is necessary to consider carefully whether laparoscopic surgery is indicated for tumors that show infiltration on preoperative imaging or for patients who have undergone previous upper-retroperitoneal surgery.

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  • (PMID = 15989440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. International Pediatric Endosurgery Group: IPEG guidelines for the surgical treatment of adrenal masses in children. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 Mar;20(2):vii-ix
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  • [Title] IPEG guidelines for the surgical treatment of adrenal masses in children.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy and adrenal biopsy are technically feasible in children.
  • There are no absolute contraindications to the laparoscopic approach, but for neuroblastomas and other adrenal neoplasms, care must be taken to maintain the principles of cancer surgery.
  • As opposed to adults, there are fewer benign indications for adrenalectomy, but in selected cases, laparoscopic resection of the adrenal is feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Child. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20230240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Shifrin AL, Xenachis C, Fay A, Matulewicz TJ, Kuo YH, Vernick JJ: One hundred and seven family members with the rearranged during transfection V804M proto-oncogene mutation presenting with simultaneous medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas, rare primary hyperparathyroidism, and no pheochromocytomas: is this a new syndrome--MEN 2C? Surgery; 2009 Dec;146(6):998-1005
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The second generation experienced earlier disease development; onset occurred earliest in the third generation.
  • Considering that PTC is not an incidental finding, but the result of an inherited RET V804 M mutation, we propose to identify this phenotypic expression as a unique syndrome consistent with manifestations of MTC, PHPT, and PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amino Acid Substitution. Anticipation, Genetic. Female. Humans. Italy. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Penetrance. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogenes. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome


34. Wu CT, Chiang YJ, Chou CC, Liu KL, Lee SH, Chang YH, Chuang CK: Comparative study of laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy. Chang Gung Med J; 2006 Sep-Oct;29(5):468-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) had become the preferred operation for management of adrenal neoplasm.
  • Thirty patients underwent OA and the other 37 patients received LA.
  • RESULTS: LA was completed in all 37 patients without conversion to OA or mortality.
  • The surgery times (203.4 vs. 192.9, p = 0.776) were similar for both OA and LA groups.
  • There was less blood loss in the LA group (355.0 vs. 104.0, p = 0.021).
  • The postoperative pain scale rating was lower in the LA group (5.6 vs. 4.5 p = 0.035) as was analgesia demand (57.4 vs. 3.7, p < 0.001).
  • Oral feeding resumed earlier in the LA group (91.7 vs. 16.4, p < 0.001) and these patients had a shorter postoperative hospital stay (8.4 vs. 3.9, p < 0.001).
  • In the LA group, patients with primary aldosteronism had shorter surgery times and less blood loss than patients with other tumor types (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA results in good surgical outcome without increased risks.
  • We suggest that LA should be the preferred choice for management of adrenal neoplasms.
  • We also suggest that surgeons inexperienced in LA consider beginning with a case of primary hyperaldosteronism.

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  • (PMID = 17214390.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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35. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Masi G, Stefani AL, Fincati K, Palù G: Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors. Oncology; 2005;68(4-6):414-21
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  • [Title] Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • RESULTS: Ghrelin and GHS-R transcripts are expressed in normal adrenal cortex, with GHS-R1b mRNA levels being 5- to 10-fold higher than GHS-R1amRNA.
  • GHS-R1a was undetectable in about 60% of both benign and malignant tumor samples, except for cortisol-producing adenomas, which showed increased receptor expression.
  • At variance, GHS-R1b was overexpressed in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Downregulation ofGHS-R1a in adrenal tumors and the presence of high levels of GHS-R1b transcripts in adrenocortical tissue suggest a role for these receptors in adrenal function and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Ghrelin. Growth Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger. Receptors, Ghrelin. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16020971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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36. Ogilvie JB, Duh QY: New approaches to the minimally invasive treatment of adrenal lesions. Cancer J; 2005 Jan-Feb;11(1):64-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New approaches to the minimally invasive treatment of adrenal lesions.
  • The advancement of laparoscopic adrenalectomy over the past decade has completely changed the surgical approach to adrenal tumors.
  • As the incidence of incidentally discovered adrenal tumors increases, most patients with resectable lesions can undergo resection laparoscopically with minimal morbidity, shorter hospitalization, and low mortality.
  • The spectrum of surgical approaches now available make it possible to provide an appropriate resection that is matched to the specific characteristics of each tumor.
  • Experienced surgeons now resect some malignant tumors laparoscopically, with the option to convert to a hand-assisted or traditional open approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15831226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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37. Velavan P, Morris JL: Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Oct-Dec;51(4):337-8
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  • [Title] Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnosis. Tachycardia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16388187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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38. Fukagawa H, Hashiguchi M, Ayabe Y, Ando T, Nakamura K: [Anesthetic management of undiagnosed pheochromocytoma: a case report]. Masui; 2008 Oct;57(10):1241-4
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  • A 55-year-old man was scheduled for resection of an adrenal tumor under the diagnosis of a non-functioning adrenal tumor.
  • Abdominal computed tomography scans revealed a retroperitoneal abscess, which was subsequently drained effectively, and a right adrenal tumor.
  • Because of the almost normal plasma catecholamine concentration, the tumor was considered a nonfunctioning tumor.
  • However, when the surgeon manipulated the tumor during the operation, the patient's blood pressure increased suddenly to 240/120 mmHg.
  • After resection of the tumor, his blood pressure decreased to 80/40 mmHg, and the patient was treated with ephedrine, phenylephrine, and noradrenaline.
  • After surgery, the tumor was confirmed histopathologically as a pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18975540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; CZ5312222S / Nicardipine; Z468598HBV / Phentolamine
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39. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • Tumours with diameter exceeding 8 cm were excluded.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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40. Erlic Z, Neumann HP: Familial pheochromocytoma. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jan-Mar;8(1):29-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (PGL) form the group of paraganglial tumours which can occur in any paraganglia from the skull base to the pelvic floor.
  • While the World Health Organization (WHO) applies pheochromocytoma exclusively to adrenal tumours, many clinicians use the term pheochromocytoma also for extra-adrenal abdominal and thoracic tumours, since by tradition pheochromocytoma is a vasoactive tumour.
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by both biochemical testing and radiological imaging.
  • One third of patients with pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are carriers of germline mutations in one of 6 genes and thus have a hereditary disorder.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)is found in about 20% of patients in association with pheochromocytoma.
  • Other important components of VHL are hemangioblastomas of the eye and Central Nervous System (CNS), renal clear cell carcinoma, multiple pancreatic cysts and islet cell carcinoma.
  • Paraganglioma syndromes include predisposition to paraganglial tumours in any location, whereas PGL 3 patients mostly show only head and neck paragangliomas.
  • All syndromes associated with paraganglial tumours are autosomal dominantly transmitted, but patients with SDHD mutations develop tumours only if they inherit the mutation from the father.
  • Familial paraganglial tumours are characterized by younger age at diagnosis and more frequently multifocal and extra-adrenal abdominal pheochromocytomas.
  • No specific treatment has been proposed for prevention of the disease in inherited disorders.
  • Thus, early diagnosis and regular follow-up are the only means for a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19269919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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41. Lazúrová I, Závacký P, Ondic O: Adrenal actinomycosis mimicking a large tumor of the adrenal gland. J Urol; 2005 Feb;173(2):517-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal actinomycosis mimicking a large tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Actinomycosis / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


42. Suzuki K, Nakanishi A, Kurosaki Y, Nogaki J, Takaba E: Adrenal schwannoma: CT and MRI findings. Radiat Med; 2007 Jul;25(6):299-302
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma: CT and MRI findings.
  • We report a case of adrenal schwannoma, an extremely rare retroperitoneal neoplasm.
  • Although these imaging findings are nonspecific, adrenal schwannomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of solid nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


43. Chen JH, Yu CY, Pai CY, Chan DC, Chen CJ, Yu JC, Liu YC: Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;35(6):353-6
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  • [Title] Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review.
  • Castleman's disease is a rare disorder characterized by benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue.
  • The left suprarenal location of this localized disease may be mistaken for an adrenal tumor.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a Castleman's tumor located superomedial to the upper pole of the left kidney that mimicked an adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15928190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Onuki T, Yamagishi T, Teranishi J, Suzuki K, Kondo K, Nakaigawa N, Saito K, Noguchi K, Kubota Y: [Clinical study of 38 cases of pheochromocytoma --correlation between the instability of intraoperative blood pressure and 24-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jul;53(7):449-54
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  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of chromaffin tissues most commonly arising from the adrenal medulla.
  • One patient had bilateral adrenal tumors and pathological examination revealed malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • Six patients had an extra-adrenal tumor and in 2 patients the tumor occurred in the urinary bladder.
  • The 24-h urinary total metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were the most sensitive biochemical tests for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • Fifteen patients had intraoperative hypertensive reactions in the surgical manipulation or hypotension after tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension / diagnosis. Intraoperative Complications / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Vanilmandelic Acid / urine


45. Bondarenko VO, Lutsevich OE, Poliakova GA: [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2009;87(9):58-62
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  • [Title] [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)].
  • The development of two hormonally active tumours in one adrenal gland is a very rare event.
  • Classification of concomitant adrenal pathologies and proposals on its modification are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19882884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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46. Aksu G, Ulutin C, Fayda M, Saynak M: Cerebellar and multiple spinal hemangioblastomas and intraventricular meningioma managed with subtotal resection and external beam radiotherapy; report of a case with literature review. J BUON; 2005 Jul-Sep;10(3):405-9
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  • Hemangioblastomas are cystic, highly vascular benign neoplasms that constitute 1.5-2.5% of all intracranial tumors and 7-10% of primary posterior fossa tumors.
  • They occur sporadically (80%) or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease (20%).
  • This disease consists of multiple intracranial, retinal and spinal hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytoma, retinal angiomas, pancreatic cysts, renal cell carcinomas and adrenal tumors.
  • There was a positive family history (mother and brother) of VHL disease.
  • However, since hemangioblastoma is a highly vascular tumor and local invasion of critical structures is frequent and multifocality is often a characteristic of the hemangioblastomas that are associated with VHL disease, subtotal excision is frequent and adjuvant therapies such as external beam radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery represent a reasonable treatment in such cases.

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  • (PMID = 17357198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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47. Alam MM, Rahman MA, Naser MF, Hossain MS, Islam MA: Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):632-5
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  • [Title] Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient.
  • Adrenal tumours that secrete testosterone are extremely rare and we describe such a case in a 35 years old female with virilization.
  • She had left adrenal adenoma 7.5 X 6.4 cm in size, her ovaries were normal.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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48. Nanpo Y, Kuramoto T, Mori T, Nishizaw S, Iba A, Fujii R, Matsumura N, Shintani Y, Kohjimoto Y, Inagaki T, Yamagiwa K, Hara I: [Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Sep;100(6):640-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma: a case report].
  • The ultrasonographic examination revealed a giant tumor above the left kidney.
  • Radiographic examination showed a solid mass of 10 cm in diameter, smooth surface, and sharply-delimited, above the left kidney corresponding to the left adrenal gland.
  • Other organs showed no evidence of disease.
  • She was diagnosed as left non-functioning adrenal tumor, and underwent surgery.
  • The resected specimen was 11 x 10 x 7 cm, 460 g with a part of normal adrenal tissue on the surface.
  • She has no evidence of disease twenty months after the operation.
  • Primary adrenal leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19827542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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49. Gołkowski F, Jabrocka-Hybel A, Buziak-Bereza M, Husznol B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Zajac M: [Preoperative diagnostics in patients with adrenal tumors]. Folia Med Cracov; 2005;46(1-2):89-97
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  • [Title] [Preoperative diagnostics in patients with adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostyka przedoperacyjna u chorych z guzami nadnerczy.
  • In the preoperative diagnostics in 10 patients (22.2%) pheochromocytoma was found, in 8 (17.8%) Conn's syndrome, in 4 (8.9%) Cushing's syndrome and in 1 (2.2%) adrenal virilization.
  • Full accordance between histopathological findings and preoperative diagnosis was achieved in 91% of cases.
  • Four cases of discrepancy were: 1 false positive preoperative diagnosis of aldosteronoma, 1 false positive and 2 false negative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adosterol. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Catecholamines / urine. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / epidemiology. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17037291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia medica Cracoviensia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Med Cracov
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 55623-03-5 / Adosterol
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50. Białas M, Okoń K, Stachura J: Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(2):101-6
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  • [Title] Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution.
  • The incidence of primary adrenal gland tumors observed at the Pathology Department, Cracow, in the period of 16 years was examined.
  • The frequency of adrenal lesion in males and females was studied and compared.
  • The results were shown in tables and diagrams and compared with data given in the WHO Classification of Tumors and the literature on the subject.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Poland / epidemiology. Sex Factors. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18669176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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51. Ku JH, Yeo WG, Kwon TG, Kim HH: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for functioning and non-functioning adrenal tumors: analysis of surgical aspects based on histological types. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1015-21
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for functioning and non-functioning adrenal tumors: analysis of surgical aspects based on histological types.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hormonal functions of the tumor influence the operative results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and to analyse the clinical outcomes in patients with various hormonally active adrenal tumors.
  • For the comparison, patients were divided into the non-functioning tumor group (n = 22) and the functioning tumor group (n = 46).
  • The median operative time and blood loss in the two groups were similar; however, in subgroup analysis, operative time for pheochromocytoma was significantly longer than that for non-functioning tumor (P = 0.044).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this retrospective review document that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for functioning as well as non-functioning adrenal tumors, although endocrinologic features may play a significant role.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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52. Meyer A, Behrend M: Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The accidental discovery of an adrenal mass called incidentaloma has become an increasingly frequent clinical problem with the question of a correct and appropriate therapeutic approach being the subject of controversial discussions.
  • Reasons for surgery were unclear significance in 22 patients, suspicion of malignancy in 5, increase in size in 8, maximum tumor diameter of more than 5 cm in 7, fear of malignancy in 1, and subclinical secretion of cortisol in 5 patients.
  • Histopathologic examination ruled out adrenal adenoma in 32 patients, adrenal myelolipoma in 12, unilateral nodular hyperplasia in 4, cystic lesion in 3, and adrenocortical carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • Evaluating the criteria for surgical treatment regarding age of the patients and size of the lesions, 25 patients (48%), including the patient with the adrenocortical carcinoma, were younger than 60 years and had an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size.
  • During postoperative follow-up that was available for 39 patients, 3 developed contralateral tumors that were treated by resection in 1 and by close follow-up in 2.
  • Especially in patients younger than 60 years with an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size, an adrenalectomy, predominantly via an endoscopic approach, should be carried out, because a repeated and life-long close follow-up of an anxious patient who has been informed of the diagnosis will in some cases exceed the cost of a single endoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 16888426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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53. Herd A, Harman R, Taylor E: Surgical outcomes following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism) between 1999 and 2006. N Z Med J; 2010 Oct 15;123(1324):50-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism is a recognised cause of secondary hypertension with its aetiology most commonly due to a secreting aldosterone adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the adrenal tumour has now become the accepted form of intervention.

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  • (PMID = 20953222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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54. Peppa M, Karamitopoulou E, Nikolopoulos P, Peros G, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):641-5
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  • [Title] Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of oncocytoma, a relatively rare adrenal tumor, which most commonly is detected as an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • METHODS: We present a case report, including laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings, of a 47-year-old obese woman who had hypertension and an incidentally found large, left adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of the hormonal evaluation, this mass was a nonsecreting adrenal tumor, which histologically proved to be an oncocytoma with borderline malignant characteristics.
  • A collective analysis of the few cases of adrenal oncocytoma published in the medical literature showed that our case corresponded to the previously published cases in preponderant location (left side) as well as the general size (11.4 cm in the largest dimension) and weight (372 g).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal oncocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas, especially if large tumors are detected.
  • In addition, a longterm follow-up is suggested because there are no certain clues about the true potential of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20061289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare tumors characterized by an aggressive behaviour with a 5-year survival rate below 30%.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding and management of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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56. Rask E, Schvarcz E, Hellman P, Hennings J, Karlsson FA, Rao CV: Adrenocorticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy related to overexpression of adrenal luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors. J Endocrinol Invest; 2009 Apr;32(4):313-6
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  • [Title] Adrenocorticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy related to overexpression of adrenal luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors.
  • Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is rare, and rather than being of pituitary origin most patients exhibit ACTH-independent adrenal hypercortisolism.
  • We describe a case with aberrant adrenal LH/hCG receptors in a large adrenal tumor as a possible explanation for cortisol hypersecretion and tumor growth in Cushing s syndrome during pregnancy.
  • Investigations revealed hypercortisolemia, suppressed ACTH-levels, and a 6.4- cm right adrenal tumor.
  • The tumor was successfully removed by laparoscopy at 26th week of pregnancy.
  • The tumor displayed higher LH/hCG receptor mRNA and protein positivity than adjacent normal adrenal tissue as examined by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry.
  • High physiological levels of hCG, in conjunction with aberrant adrenal LH/hCG receptor overexpression, may have contributed to the development of Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Receptors, LH / metabolism

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1992 Oct 1;327(14):974-80 [1325608.001]
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  • (PMID = 19636197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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57. Iwakura H, Ariyasu H, Kanamoto N, Hosoda K, Nakao K, Kangawa K, Akamizu T: Establishment of a novel neuroblastoma mouse model. Int J Oncol; 2008 Dec;33(6):1195-9
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  • In an attempt to obtain transgenic mice carrying simian virus 40 T-antigen gene under control of tetracycline responsive elements with cytomegalovirus promoter, we found one line of mice exhibiting bilateral adrenal tumors by leakage expression of T-antigen in adrenal gland.
  • These adrenal tumors contained small round tumor cells with increased N/C ratio, showing chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase-like immunoreactivity.
  • By electron microscopy, tumor cells containing neuritic processes with synaptic vesicles surrounding them were observed.
  • MYCN expression levels were significantly elevated in these tumors.
  • These findings indicated that the adrenal tumor was a neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology


58. Ramacciato G, Mercantini P, La Torre M, De Ruvo N, Ercolani G, Stigliano A, Toscano V: Simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe for synchronous large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3):381-5
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  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe for synchronous large adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopy is now considered the gold standard for treating benign monolateral adrenal lesions.
  • We present the case of a patient affected by Cushing's syndrome due to large bilateral adrenal adenomas (7.5 cm) who underwent simultaneous laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy is a safe, effective procedure when performed by experienced hands and may be an alternative treatment for large adrenal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17212901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015693
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59. Ueda T, Oka N, Matsumoto A, Miyazaki H, Ohmura H, Kikuchi T, Nakayama M, Kato S, Imaizumi T: Pheochromocytoma presenting as recurrent hypotension and syncope. Intern Med; 2005 Mar;44(3):222-7
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  • The right adrenal tumor was excised and he was discharged in good condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hypotension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Syncope / etiology


60. Yu XY, Kong CZ, Li ZH, Sun ZX, Li ZL, Bi JB, Gong DX: [Study on multiple aldosterone-producing adenomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Dec 15;45(24):1701-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the experience on diagnosis and treatment of multiple adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA).
  • METHODS: Eighteen cases of multiple adrenal APA were analyzed retrospectively, which were admitted from October 1992 to April 2006.
  • RESULTS: Adrenalectomy was performed for 4 cases of unilateral synchronous multiple APA, which were discovered with three adenomas by 3D-CT; bilateral tumor resection was performed for 6 cases of bilateral synchronous multiple APA.
  • There were 8 cases of bilateral metachronous multiple APA, including 2 cases of ipsilateral recurrent adrenal APA after adrenal tumor removal, which underwent tumor resection.
  • Another 6 cases were contralateral APA following adrenalectomy due to adrenal APA, and underwent tumor resection.
  • After operation, the adrenal function seemed to be normal, and no recurrence had been found on follow-up.
  • Tumor resection should be performed for bilateral or asynchronous APA, and it is very important to preserve healthy adrenal tissue as much as possible.
  • 3D-CT has much value on diagnosis of small APA, unilateral multiple synchronous APA and ipsilateral recurrent adrenal APA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aldosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 18476531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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61. Feng C, Li HZ, Xiao H, Yan WG, Li YQ, Xu WF: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome:analysis of diagnosis and surgical effect]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Dec 15;45(24):1691-3
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  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome:analysis of diagnosis and surgical effect].
  • All the cases were found adrenal tumors by CT scan, 10 cases in left adrenal and 14 cases in right adrenal.
  • All the patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic operation and were pathologic diagnosed to adrenal adenomas.
  • CT scan, assays of plasma cortisol, urinary free cortisol and dexamethasone suppression test are most useful in the diagnosis.
  • The potential benefit of surgery should be considered in those who have a definite diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18476528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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62. Fukuda T, Takahashi K, Suzuki T, Saruta M, Watanabe M, Nakata T, Sasano H: Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4671-8
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  • [Title] Urocortin 1, urocortin 3/stresscopin, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in human adrenal and its disorders.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We examined in situ expression of Ucn and CRF receptors in nonpathological human adrenal gland and its disorders using immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: Ucn immunoreactivity was localized in the cortex and medulla of nonpathological adrenal glands.
  • Ucn and CRF receptors were all expressed in the tumor cells of pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical adenomas, and carcinomas, but its positivity was less than that in nonpathological adrenal glands, suggesting that Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors were down-regulated in these adrenal neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ucn1, Ucn3, and CRF receptors are all expressed in human adrenal cortex and medulla and may play important roles in physiological adrenal functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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63. Nieman LK, Ilias I: Evaluation and treatment of Cushing's syndrome. Am J Med; 2005 Dec;118(12):1340-6
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  • Cushing's syndrome results from sustained pathologic hypercortisolism caused by excessive corticotropin (ACTH) secretion by tumors in the pituitary gland (Cushing's disease, 70%) or elsewhere (15%), or by ACTH-independent cortisol secretion from adrenal tumors (15%).
  • The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome should be followed by the measurement of plasma ACTH concentration to determine whether the hypercortisolism is ACTH-independent.
  • Surgical resection of tumor is the optimal treatment for all forms of Cushing's syndrome; bilateral adrenalectomy, medical treatment, or radiotherapy are sought in inoperable or recurrent cases.
  • The prognosis is better for Cushing's disease and benign adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome than adrenocortical cancer and malignant ACTH-producing tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Ketoconazole / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16378774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7162
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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64. Messer CK, Kirschenbaum A, New MI, Unger P, Gabrilove JL, Levine AC: Concomitant secretion of glucocorticoid, androgens, and mineralocorticoid by an adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):408-12
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  • An abdominal computed tomographic scan showed a left adrenal tumor.
  • A left adrenalectomy was performed, and the histopathologic diagnosis was stage II adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / blood. Mineralocorticoids / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17669719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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65. Ueberberg B, Unger N, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Saeger W, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Mar;40(3):181-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • This study compares the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Normal adrenal tissue was obtained after autopsy.
  • In the seven normal adrenal glands analyzed, ghrelin mRNA levels were 12-fold lower than in stomach.
  • In all adrenal tumors, relevant levels of ghrelin mRNA were observed, with significantly lower expression in PHEOs and APAs than in normal adrenal gland.
  • GHS-R1a mRNA expression was detectable in normal adrenal gland, but the receptor protein was absent.
  • In adrenal tumors, detectable levels of receptor mRNA were found in 38% of PHEOs, 13% of CPAs, and 25% of NFAs.
  • GHS-R1a protein was absent in the majority of adrenal tumors.
  • Expression of ghrelin in normal adrenal gland and adrenal tumors may indicate some unknown physiological function.
  • The pathophysiological relevance of ghrelin expression in adrenal tumors remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Ghrelin / genetics. Receptors, Ghrelin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18246525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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66. Hsiao CC, Huang CC, Sheen JM, Tai MH, Chen CM, Huang LL, Chuang JH: Differential expression of delta-like gene and protein in neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma. Mod Pathol; 2005 May;18(5):656-62
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  • Neuroblastoma is an extremely malignant solid tumor in children, characterized by spontaneous differentiation and regression.
  • Three adrenal tissues from children died of diseases other than adrenal tumors and one from an adult with pheochromocytoma were severed as normal and disease controls.
  • Furthermore, higher dlk protein expression in the tumor endothelium than in the endothelium of normal adrenal gland implies that dlk may regulate the endothelial function in neuroblastic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Glycoproteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15605081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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67. Solís-López DR, Rodríguez-Hernández Z, Solís-López DH: Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Jun;29(2):130-2
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  • INTRODUCTION: Incidental adrenal tumors are commonly benign, but reports demonstrate that if the characteristics of the tumor are not clear, on images surgery is the procedure of choice.
  • Our objective through this case is to show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe approach for adrenal incidental tumor regardless of radiological findings.
  • She went for check up and a left adrenal mass on MRI described as myelolipoma was found incidentally.
  • The pathological report was adrenal cortical adenoma with central hemorrhage and not a myelolipoma as described in images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • CONCLUSION: The use of imaging for diagnosis, clinical management and decision making is very controversial.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal masses is a safe procedure for tumors of 6 cm regardless of the radiological description.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20496530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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68. Briscoe K, Barrs VR, Foster DF, Beatty JA: Hyperaldosteronism and hyperprogesteronism in a cat. J Feline Med Surg; 2009 Sep;11(9):758-62
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  • A large, lobulated left adrenal mass was identified using abdominal ultrasound.
  • CONFIRMATION OF DIAGNOSIS: Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed based on an elevated plasma aldosterone concentration and normal plasma renin activity.
  • Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of concurrent hyperaldosteronism and hyperprogesteronism in cats with adrenal tumours showing clinical signs referable to both conditions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Function Tests / veterinary. Aldosterone / blood. Animals. Cats. Female

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  • (PMID = 19712894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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69. Miwa Y, Kurosawa A, Ogawa H, Nakayama H, Sasai H, Sasaki N: Neoplasitic diseases in ferrets in Japan: a questionnaire study for 2000 to 2005. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Apr;71(4):397-402
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  • The objective of this study was to collect epidemiological data on neoplasms in pet ferrets in Japan.
  • Completed questionnaires were returned from 29 practices, and 945 neoplasms met the criteria for inclusion in the study.
  • Neoplasms were found in every organ system except the respiratory system; the endocrine (418; 44.2%), integumentary (196; 20.7%) and hemolymphatic (184; 19.5%) systems were most commonly affected.
  • The most common tumor types were pancreatic islet cell tumor (211: 22.3%), adrenal gland tumor (207; 21.9%) and lymphoma (152; 16.1%).
  • Tumor incidence was highest in ferrets between 4 and 6 years of age.
  • Most Japanese pet ferrets are imported from North America, and their husbandry including diets is similar to that in North America, which may explain the similar tendencies in the incidence of neoplasms in this study and those of findings in North America.

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  • (PMID = 19420840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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70. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Sollazzi L, Perilli V, Cazzato MT, Bellantone R: Endoscopic adrenalectomy: Is there an optimal operative approach? Results of a single-center case-control study. Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):1008-14; discussion 1014-5
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  • METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive patients successfully underwent PRA for benign adrenal tumors </=6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19041011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Tica I, Tica VI, Mihailov C: Rare association of adrenal tumors. Rom J Intern Med; 2007;45(1):107-11
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  • [Title] Rare association of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas represent a true problem both in the clinical diagnosis and in their treatment.
  • A great variety of pathologies may be found under the umbrella of this concept: benign adenomas - functioning or not, myelolipomas, hamartomas, or granulomatous infiltrations of the adrenal.
  • The possibility of malignancy should be considered in each case, especially in patients with a known extra-adrenal primary.
  • We present an interesting case because of the surprising association of two adrenal tumors, with a long time lapse between them, with ascites and pleurisy and because of the difficulty of treatment in a patient refusing surgery.
  • Investigations were performed including hormonal tests, ultrasound investigation, hepatic tests, and CT scan but no specific tumour markers.
  • A right adrenal incidentaloma of 21/15 mm - in association with ascites and pleurisy - was found at CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ascites / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pleurisy / complications

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  • (PMID = 17966451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-4749
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Intern Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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72. Walz MK: [Adrenalectomy for preservation of adrenocortical function. Indication and results]. Chirurg; 2009 Feb;80(2):99-104
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  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierenresektion zum Erhalt der adrenokortikalen Funktion. Indikationen und Ergebnisse.
  • The standard procedure for adrenal tumors is total adrenalectomy.
  • For this at least one third of one gland has to be maintained.
  • In unilateral adrenal tumors, partial adrenalectomy has mainly been used in Conn's syndrome.
  • All other adrenal tumors are exceptional indications for partial adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / deficiency. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery. Neurofibromatoses / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19145416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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73. Bertherat J, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP: New insights in the genetics of adrenocortical tumors, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Jun;37(6):384-90
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  • [Title] New insights in the genetics of adrenocortical tumors, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
  • Recent advances in the molecular genetic of adrenal tumors give new insights in the pathophysiology of these neoplasms in both hereditary and sporadic cases.
  • The practice of genetic counselling in patients with adrenal tumors have been recently changed by the identification and the understanding of new specific hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes.
  • In the case of sporadic adrenocortical tumors these progress also offer new prognosis predictors.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are also observed in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type I syndrome.
  • Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease have been observed in patients with germline PRKAR1A inactivating mutations.
  • The potential interest of these finding for the diagnosis of these tumors will be discussed.
  • Up to date, four diagnosis of familal disease (multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, von Hippel Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis type 1 and hereditary paraganglioma) should be discussed and causative mutations in six different phaechomocytoma susceptibility genes (RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB, SDHD, SDHC) could be identified.
  • We will suggest guidelines for the practice of the phaeochomocytoma genetic testing in the patients and their families, and for an early detection of tumors in the patients or in individuals determined to be at-risk of disease by the presymptomatic genetic testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16001332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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74. Heis HA, Bani-Hani KE, Bani-Hani BK: Adrenal cavernous haemangioma. Singapore Med J; 2008 Sep;49(9):e236-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal cavernous haemangioma.
  • The adrenal gland is a rare location for haemangioma.
  • We report a huge non-functioning adrenal haemangioma presenting in a 50-year-old woman with flank pain.
  • It was surgically removed and diagnosed postoperatively as adrenal haemangioma.
  • Although rare, adrenal haemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms.
  • The risks of haemorrhage, necrosis and thrombosis impose in the majority of cases surgical excision, particularly in tumours more than 3 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain. Adrenalectomy. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18830528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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75. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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76. Oki K, Yamane K, Sakashita Y, Kamei N, Watanabe H, Toyota N, Shigeta M, Sasano H, Kohno N: Primary aldosteronism and hypercortisolism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2008 Oct;12(5):382-7
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  • A 50-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of hypertension was referred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Computed tomographic scan showed 10-mm masses in each adrenal gland.
  • The results of a subsequent adrenal venous catheterization study were consistent with the presence of a left cortisol-producing tumor and a right aldosterone-producing tumor.
  • This is an extremely rare case of bilateral adrenal tumors, in which the left adrenocortical tumor produced and secreted cortisol or both cortisol and aldosterone and the right one produced and secreted both aldosterone and cortisol, as confirmed by clinical findings and pathological studies using immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18543063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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77. Ramachandran MS, Reid JA, Dolan SJ, Farling PA, Russell CF: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy versus open adrenalectomy: results from a retrospective comparative study. Ulster Med J; 2006 May;75(2):126-8
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  • The relatively new operation of laparoscopic adrenalectomy has now become the procedure of choice for the management of most benign adrenal tumours.
  • We have reviewed the data relating to the first 25 patients on whom we performed laparoscopic adrenalectomy and have made comparison with a group of 25 diagnosis-matched individuals on whom we had previously carried out open adrenalectomy.

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  • (PMID = 16755942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-6193
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ulster medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulster Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1891736
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78. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Systemische Therapie maligner Nebennierentumoren.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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79. Tessonnier L, Sebag F, Palazzo FF, Colavolpe C, De Micco C, Mancini J, Conte-Devolx B, Henry JF, Mundler O, Taïeb D: Does 18F-FDG PET/CT add diagnostic accuracy in incidentally identified non-secreting adrenal tumours? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Nov;35(11):2018-25
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  • [Title] Does 18F-FDG PET/CT add diagnostic accuracy in incidentally identified non-secreting adrenal tumours?
  • PURPOSE: The widespread use of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the investigation of the abdomen is associated with an increasing detection of incidental adrenal masses.
  • We evaluated the ability of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to distinguish benign from malignant adrenal masses when CT or MRI results had been inconclusive.
  • The visual interpretation, maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) and adrenal compared to liver uptake ratio were correlated with the final histological diagnosis or clinico-radiological follow-up when surgery had not been performed.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with 41 adrenal masses were prospectively evaluated.
  • The final diagnosis was 12 malignant, 17 benign tumours, and 12 tumours classified as benign on follow-up.
  • The visual interpretation was more accurate than SUVmax alone, tumour diameter or unenhanced density, with a sensitivity of 100% (12/12), a specificity of 86% (25/29) and a negative predictive value of 100% (25/25).
  • The use of 1.8 as the threshold for tumour/liver SUVmax ratio, retrospectively established, demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.
  • CONCLUSION: FDG PET/CT accurately characterises adrenal tumours, with an excellent sensitivity and negative predictive values.
  • Thus, a negative PET may predict a benign tumour that would potentially prevent the need for surgery of adrenal tumours with inconclusive conventional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 18566816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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80. Hirano D, Minei S, Yamaguchi K, Yoshikawa T, Hachiya T, Yoshida T, Ishida H, Takimoto Y, Saitoh T, Kiyotaki S, Okada K: Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port. J Endourol; 2005 Sep;19(7):788-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port.
  • This study reports the outcomes of retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (RA) for adrenal tumors via a single port using a large cylinder without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with adrenal tumors were treated using RA via a single large port.
  • The average tumor size was 2.6 cm.
  • A rectoscope tube with a 4-cm diameter was inserted, and the adrenal glands were removed endoscopically via the single large port without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • Postoperative major complications, including fulminant hepatitis and pulmonary thrombosis, were observed in two patients (3.7%), and the patient with hepatic disease died on the 14th postoperative day.
  • However, no local tumor recurrence or hormonal relapse has occurred at a median follow-up of 34 months.

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  • (PMID = 16190829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Bertherat J: [Clinical and biological work-up of adrenal incidentalomas]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):422-5
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  • [Title] [Clinical and biological work-up of adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalome de la loge surrénale: explorations cliniques et biologiques.
  • Adrenal tumors diagnosed after work-up of an incidentaloma can be responsible for excessive secretion of steroids or catecholamines.
  • On the other hand, an infiltrative process (metastases, infection...) involving both adrenals can cause adrenal insufficiency.
  • Screening for cortisol secreting tumors, often responsible for Cushing's syndrome of moderate severity (pre-clinical) in patients with incidentaloma, will be performed using the overnight dexamethasone suppression test (1 mg).
  • In patients with bilateral incidentalomas, the normal synacthen test and ACTH assay are also performed to exclude adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Metanephrine / blood. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19421133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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82. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • TREATMENT: She underwent surgical removal of the tumour.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


83. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Rose SA, Kyles AE, Labelle P, Pypendop BH, Mattu JS, Foreman O, Rodriguez CO Jr, Nelson RW: Adrenalectomy and caval thrombectomy in a cat with primary hyperaldosteronism. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2007 Jul-Aug;43(4):209-14
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  • A 13-year-old, castrated male, domestic longhaired cat was diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism from an adrenal gland tumor and a thrombus in the caudal vena cava.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Cat Diseases / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary. Thrombectomy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17615401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Koizumi K, Mizusawa H, Oguchi T, Domen T, Kato H: [Adult Wilms' tumor mimicking adrenal tumor: case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Sep;54(9):603-6
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  • [Title] [Adult Wilms' tumor mimicking adrenal tumor: case report].
  • A 33-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for further examination of a right adrenal mass 4.5 cm in diameter.
  • Computed tomography, magnetic resonance image and angiograpy demonstrated non-functioning adrenal tumor.
  • Right nephrectomy was performed, because the tumor adhered firmly to the upper pole of the right kidney.
  • The pathological diagnosis was nephroblastoma (nephroblastic type, complex subtype).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was started for stage III Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Nephrectomy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18975574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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86. Dubois SG, London WB, Zhang Y, Matthay KK, Monclair T, Ambros PF, Cohn SL, Pearson A, Diller L: Lung metastases in neuroblastoma at initial diagnosis: A report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) project. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):589-92
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  • [Title] Lung metastases in neuroblastoma at initial diagnosis: A report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) project.
  • We aimed to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of patients with lung metastasis at initial diagnosis using a large international database.
  • PROCEDURE: The subset of patients from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma and known data regarding lung metastasis at diagnosis was selected for analysis.
  • Cox proportional hazards methods were used to determine the independent prognostic value of lung metastasis at diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2,808 patients with INSS stage 4 neuroblastoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2002, 100 patients (3.6%) were reported to have lung metastasis at diagnosis.
  • Lung metastasis was more common among patients with MYCN amplified tumors, adrenal primary tumors, or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (P < 0.02 in each case).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lung metastasis at initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma is associated with MYCN amplification and elevated LDH levels.
  • Although lung metastasis at diagnosis was not independently predictive of outcome in this analysis, it remains a useful prognostic marker of unfavorable outcome.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 18649370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; None / None / / U10 CA098543-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS123413; NLM/ PMC2746936
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87. Cohen DL, Fraker D, Townsend RR: Lack of symptoms in patients with histologic evidence of pheochromocytoma: a diagnostic challenge. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:47-51
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  • Around 84.4% patients had adrenal pheos and 15.6% had extra-adrenal pheos.
  • Two patients had bilateral adrenal tumors, two had a history of prior pheos, and four had a family history of pheo.
  • Two patients were known to have neurofibromatosis type 1, two had von Hippel-Lindau disease, one had multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A, and one PGL/SDHD genetic mutation.
  • Twenty-six patients had sporadic tumors or had not had genetic testing.
  • Biochemical diagnosis was confirmed with 24-h urine measurements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


88. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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89. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Abourazzak S, Atmani S, Arqam LE, Chaouki S, Labib S, Harrandou M, Tizniti S, Bouabdellah Y, Bouharrou A, Hida M: Cerebral ischaemic stroke and bilateral pheochromocytoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated urinary catecholamine and by imaging (abdominal x-ray and abdominal/pelvic CT scan).
  • Bilateral adrenal gland tumours were successfully removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Stroke / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Echocardiography. Electrocardiography. Female. Humans. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


91. Segawa N, Azuma H, Takahara K, Hamada S, Kotake Y, Tsuji M, Katsuoka Y: [Renal cell carcinoma with asynchronous contralateral adrenal metastasis and liver cirrhosis (four years after surgery): a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):869-73
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  • [Title] [Renal cell carcinoma with asynchronous contralateral adrenal metastasis and liver cirrhosis (four years after surgery): a case report].
  • We report a case of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • A 52-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a left renal mass.
  • A computed tomography revealed a left renal tumor.
  • Histopathological finding was renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • Four years after surgery, computed tomography revealed the presence of a mass on the right adrenal gland.
  • He was suspected of having a non-functioning adrenal tumor.
  • It is clinically rare for an RCC metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland to occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / complications


92. Uchiyama S, Ikenaga N, Haruyama Y, Nagaike K, Hotokezaka M, Kai M, Tanaka H, Chijiiwa K: Asymptomatic extra-adrenal paraganglioma masquerading as retroperitoneal sarcoma. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Feb;3(1):13-7
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  • [Title] Asymptomatic extra-adrenal paraganglioma masquerading as retroperitoneal sarcoma.
  • A 41-year-old man without clinical symptoms was referred for treatment of an enlarging retroperitoneal tumor.
  • Enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defined and heterogeneously enhanced tumor, 4 cm in size, in the dorsal portion of the pancreas.
  • A low-density nodule was detected in the left adrenal gland, 10 mm in diameter.
  • Retroperitoneal sarcoma and nonfunctional left adrenal tumor were suspected, and surgical treatment was performed.
  • During excision of the retroperitoneal tumor, blood pressure was extremely elevated when the tumor was compressed.
  • Blood pressure normalized after excision of the tumor; thus, a diagnosis of paraganglioma was favored over that of retroperitoneal sarcoma.
  • The left adrenal gland was resected together with the adrenal tumor.
  • Microscopically, the tumor cells of the retroperitoneum had round to oval nuclei, and abundant granular amphophilic cytoplasm proliferated in nest-like fashion.
  • Extra-adrenal retroperitoneal paraganglioma was considered, and the adrenal tumor was diagnosed as cortical adenoma.
  • In patients with retroperitoneal tumor, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, we should keep in mind the possibility of extra-adrenal paraganglioma.

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 2007 Dec;51(6):743-51 [17916073.001]
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  • (PMID = 26189900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Asymptomatic paraganglioma / Extra-adrenal paraganglioma / Retroperitoneal sarcoma / Retroperitoneal tumor
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93. Kobayashi H, Kaneko G, Nishimoto K, Uchida A: [A case of pheochromocytoma associated with neurofibromatosis type 1]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Dec;55(12):749-52
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  • A 60-year-old male patient with NF1 was referred to this hospital for an incidentally discovered right adrenal mass, 7 x 6 mm in diameter.
  • The patient had multiple benign tumors and suffered from hypertension for 4 years.
  • A histopathological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made.
  • Screening of the adrenal tumor is strongly recommended for NF1 patients with hypertension, since any unfavorable events due to catecholamine such as cardiomyopathy and fatal arrhythmia can be avoided by adequate surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications


94. Hsiao HP, Chao MC, Lin CY, Chen HL, Chiou SS, Chen BH: Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case. Acta Paediatr Taiwan; 2005 Mar-Apr;46(2):97-100
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  • The boy, with no previous history of disease or treatment, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and pubic hair development (Tanner III breasts and Tanner II pubic hair).
  • After removal of the adrenal tumor, the estradiol and testosterone levels fell to normal in 2 weeks.
  • The pathology of the tumor showed compact pattern with polygonal cells containing moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm without mitotic figure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Puberty, Precocious / etiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Paediatr Taiwan. 2005 Nov-Dec;46(6):392. Chen, Shiu-Lin [corrected to Chen, Hsiu-Lin]
  • (PMID = 16302588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1608-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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95. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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96. Mukai M, Takao T, Yoshida T, Inoue H, Miyagawa Y, Yoshimura K, Okuyama A, Aozasa K, Fujii T, Takatera H: [Adrenal ganglioneuroma in a 14-year-old girl: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Aug;52(8):619-21
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  • [Title] [Adrenal ganglioneuroma in a 14-year-old girl: a case report].
  • A 14-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for examination of a right adrenal tumor, incidentally found by abdominal ultrasound sonography.
  • Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 44 x 20 mm solid tumor in the right adrenal region.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as ganglioneuroma originated from the right adrenal medulla.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Medulla. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16972624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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97. Bonatti H, Hoefer D, Rogatsch H, Margreiter R, Larcher C, Antretter H: Successful management of recurrent Epstein-Barr virus-associated multilocular leiomyosarcoma after cardiac transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2005 May;37(4):1839-44
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  • BACKGROUND: In contrast to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), EBV-associated leiomyomatous tumors have thus far only rarely been described.
  • In situ hybridization using EBV-specific EB endoplasmic reticulum-RNA showed an intensive signal in almost all tumor cells.
  • The tumor stained for EB nuclear antigen (EBNA)-2-protein.
  • Eighteen months post-liver resection, and high-resolution computed tomography scan demonstrated two paravertebral tumors.
  • Nevertheless, 2 years later the patient again developed tumor recurrence (perirectal, liver, and right adrenal gland); the tumors were surgically removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Heart Transplantation / methods. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery


98. Shimizu H, Itokawa Y, Shioaki Y, Sonoda H, Ikeda J, Koide K, Taniguchi F, Ueshima Y, Takashina K, Otsuji E: [Long-term survival of patient with gastric cancer treated by S-1 + paclitaxel combination chemotherapy against multiple liver metastases after gastrectomy and adrenalectomy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2334-6
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  • A subsequent CT evaluation after 6 courses of the regimen revealed that liver metastases maintained the clinical complete response (cCR), but a right adrenal tumor was detected.
  • We performed a right adrenalectomy after 13 months from gastrectomy, and a histopathological examination revealed that the adrenal tumor was a recurrent gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gastrectomy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Drug Combinations. Humans. Male. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Tegafur / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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99. Andía Melero VM, García Centeno R, Fernández JB, Vigovich C, Sánchez García-Cervigón P, Jara Albarrán A: [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Nov;56(9):470-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores suprarrenales feminizantes en España: aportación de un caso y revisión de los cinco pacientes descritos.
  • Feminizing adrenal tumours are very rare.
  • We report the clinical and hormonal study of a case, a 49 years old male, since his first consultation until his death 6 years after the initial diagnosis, and a review of the other 5 Spanish patients previously published.
  • His initial symptoms were gynecomastia and libido decrease, with increase of plasmatic and urinary oestrogen levels, plasma testosterone near low normal level and a right adrenal gland tumour that, after its removal, showed a benign histology and was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Three years after, initial symptoms returned, with oestrogen, glucocorticoid and androgen hypersecretion, tumour local relapse and peritoneal, liver and lung metastasis.
  • The main special feature of this case is the apparently benign initial adrenal tumour with only oestrogen hypersecretion, and its relapse 3 years later with secretion of several steroid hormones, generalized metastasis and no response to medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Feminization / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20096213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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100. Arora S, Vargo S, Lupetin AR: Computed tomography appearance of spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage in a pheochromocytoma. Clin Imaging; 2009 Jul-Aug;33(4):314-7
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  • [Title] Computed tomography appearance of spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage in a pheochromocytoma.
  • Pheochromocytomas are adrenal tumors that are diagnosed with time-consuming 24-h urine collection studies.
  • Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but serious complication of pheochromocytomas that has been reported in only about 50 cases [Sutton MG, Sheps SG, Lie JT.
  • We had a patient with a classic presentation of pheochromocytoma complicated with hypertensive crisis leading to spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods






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