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1. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage, leading to life-threatening, and multiple tumors in the liver.
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Miwa Y, Uchida K, Nakayama H, Asaki N: Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Sep;72(9):1229-32
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret.
  • The excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland, and some neoplastic cells were beta III-tubulin-, doublecortin- and neurofilament-positive.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was considered to be a neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20431253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20191330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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5. Orlando R, Lumachi F, Lirussi F: Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4385-8

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  • [Title] Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies.
  • Though most of these anatomical variants have no clinical significance, an accessory spleen may simulate a tumor in the adrenal gland, pancreas, stomach or intestine.
  • Alternatively, a missed accessory spleen may be the site of the relapse of a hematological disorder.
  • We, therefore, assessed retrospectively: (i) the frequency of congenital anomalies of the spleen observed during 2650 consecutive laparoscopies and (ii) looked for possible misdiagnoses of the accessory spleen as hematological disorders or solid tumors located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • Among the 44 patients in whom an accessory spleen was discovered laparoscopically, the recognition of this anomaly prevented a relapse of a hematological disease in one case and avoided a useless exploratory laparotomy in the second, where the radiologist had interpreted this malformation as a space-occupying lesion.
  • In the third case, the accessory spleen was initially misdiagnosed as a solid tumor of the pancreas, but was eventually recognized as a congenital anomaly by a second laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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6. Sandgren J, Andersson R, Rada-Iglesias A, Enroth S, Akerstrom G, Dumanski JP, Komorowski J, Westin G, Wadelius C: Integrative epigenomic and genomic analysis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Exp Mol Med; 2010 Jul 31;42(7):484-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Epigenomic and genomic changes affect gene expression and contribute to tumor development.
  • Furthermore, genomic aberrations such as DNA copy number changes are common events in tumors.
  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare endocrine tumor of the adrenal gland that mostly occurs sporadic with unknown epigenetic/genetic cause.
  • The integrated analysis of the tumor expression levels, in relation to normal adrenal medulla, indicated that either histone modifications or chromosomal alterations, or both, have great impact on the expression of a substantial fraction of the genes in the investigated sample.
  • Candidate tumor suppressor genes identified with decreased expression, a H3K27me3 mark and/or in regions of deletion were for instance TGIF1, DSC3, TNFRSF10B, RASSF2, HOXA9, PTPRE and CDH11.
  • Our approach to associate histone methylations and DNA copy number changes to gene expression revealed apparent impact on global gene transcription, and enabled the identification of candidate tumor genes for further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genome, Human / genetics. Genomics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Dosage / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Lysine / metabolism. Methylation. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20534969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912476
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7. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Salem RR, Elefteriades J, Sosa JA: Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:109
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection.
  • Leiomyosarcomas arising from the adrenal vein are rare malignancies associated with delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 64-year old woman who presented with a 13 x 6.5 x 6.6 cm heterogeneous mass arising in the region of the right adrenal gland and extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium.
  • Biochemical evaluation excluded a functional tumor of the adrenal gland, and multiple tumor markers were negative.
  • We present the novel use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in the resection of an adrenal vein leiomyosarcoma extending into the right atrium.
  • The patient remains free of disease ten months after surgery.
  • DHCA afforded a bloodless operative field for optimal resection of disease from within the IVC.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas of the adrenal vein is one of exclusion and involves preoperative radiological imaging and biochemical evaluation to exclude other functional tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17910774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117013
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8. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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9. Kim DJ, Chung JJ, Ryu YH, Hong SW, Yu JS, Kim JH: Adrenocortical oncocytoma displaying intense activity on 18F-FDG-PET: a case report and a literature review. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;22(9):821-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report on the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) findings in a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland with the literature review of other imaging findings including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19039562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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10. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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11. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17926102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Baldi C, Mazzoni G: Mebendazole inhibits growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines implanted in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(5):809-17
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland which requires new therapeutic approaches as its early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis poor despite therapies used.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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13. Tang JY, Pan C, Chen J, Xu M, Chen J, Xue HL, Gu LJ, Dong R, Ye H, Zhou M, Wang YP: [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;44(10):770-3
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  • [Title] [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to improve the prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB) stage III and IV in children through the comprehensive therapy including chemotherapy, delayed tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and inducing differentiation and to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis.
  • Comprehensive protocol included accurate staging, delayed and/or second tumor resection for stage III and IV patients, chemotherapy of different intensity mainly composed of cell cycle nonspecific drugs and 13-cis-retinoid for inducing cell differentiation.
  • Of them, 15 were found to have the tumor in adrenal gland, 12 had the tumor extended to the retro-peritoneal space, while in 15 cases the tumor was beside the spinal column in chest and in 3 the tumor was located in other places.
  • Nine cases had stage I, 1 case had stage II, 8 cases had III, 26 cases had stage IV and 1 case had stage IVs of the tumor.
  • Depending on the age and stage of the tumor, 26 cases were aligned into high risk protocol, 10 into medium risk and 9 into low risk groups.
  • During up to 21 months median following up period (range 14 to 64 months), 24 cases (62%) kept CR (median 22 months) and 4 survived with stable disease.
  • Eleven cases died of relapse and disease progression.
  • Statistical analysis showed that the age older than 18 months, and stage III and IV of the tumor were the factors predicting poor prognosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively).
  • Patients who had the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal space, who had incomplete tumor resection, and those who did not receive ASCT had poorer prognosis, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.092, 0.55 and 0.60, respectively).
  • The origin of the tumor, completeness of tumor resection, and use of ASCT had no significant impact on the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17229383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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14. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15708063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Walz MK: [Adrenal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Nov;79(11):1087-94; quiz 1095-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal tumors can be primary or secondary entities.
  • Primary tumors are able to secrete hormones which may cause significant effects clinically.
  • Typical tumor-related adrenal diseases are Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and pheochromocytoma (catacholamine excess).
  • Primary adrenal tumors are rarely malignant, but adrenocortical neoplasias show a relation between tumor size and rate of malignancy.
  • Diagnostic methods for adrenal tumors include hormone tests and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Endoscopy. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18941729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


17. Gross MD, Avram A, Fig LM, Fanti S, Al-Nahhas A, Rubello D: PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2007 Sep;51(3):272-83
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  • [Title] PET in the diagnostic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Early experience with positron emission tomography (PET) has provided exciting results in the evaluation of a broad spectrum of neoplasms, to include primary adrenal tumors, their metastases and metastatic disease to the adrenal glands.
  • By virtue of the well-recognized propensity of malignancies to preferentially use glycolysis as an important energy source and the stimulation of mechanisms designed to absorb substrate glucose, the glucose analog, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, has become a successful radiopharmaceutical in the scintigraphic evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • Building upon prior experience gained with imaging the adrenal gland, other positron-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are finding their way into clinical use.
  • The 11b-hydroxylase inhibitor, metomidate labeled with 11C has been used to scintigraphically identify tissues of adrenocortical origin, to accurately identify recurrent and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma and may be useful in assessing the malignant potential of these tumors and predicting survival in afflicted patients.
  • Adrenomedulla imaging with 11C- and 18F-labeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs draws heavily from the experience gained from predecessor compounds, labeled with single photon emitting isotopes and, in some instances, single photon emission tomography, and has been shown to depict with high efficacy pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas and other neoplasms of neural crest origin.
  • Additional structural and functional information provided by computed tomography (CT), performed as part of hybrid PET/CT imaging directly complements PET and adds measurable diagnostic value in the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Image Enhancement / methods. Molecular Probe Techniques. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17464268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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18. Koren J, Cunderlík P: [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):111-4
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoidný tumor pravej nadoblicky: kazuistika.
  • Adenomatoid tumor of adrenal gland is a very rare primary tumor with favourable prognosis.
  • The mesothelial origin of this tumor was confirmed by multiple studies of various authors.
  • In our case report, we present an interesting case of the adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 55-year-old woman.
  • Our case is the second well-documented case of this tumor occurring in a female adult patient.
  • We emphasize the presence of an intraluminal thread-like bridging strands, generally considered to be a characteristic histologic feature of this tumor, which have not yet been reported in literature in adenomatoid tumor located in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16161457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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19. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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20. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • However, a limited visual field and a narrow working space make this approach difficult, particularly in cases of obese patients or small tumors.
  • Using multidetector row CT (MD-CT), this study investigated the use of preoperative virtual simulation (PVS) to identify tumor and central vein locations for EA, and verified these findings during EA surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Gibbs KE, White A, Kaleya R: Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature. JSLS; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic management of adrenal masses has been well described.
  • We describe a case of an enlarging smooth muscle tumor of the adrenal gland in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and review the sparse literature available on this subject.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old female with AIDS complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was found to have a left adrenal mass.
  • Pathological review found the mass to be a rare adrenal leiomyoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Benign, smooth muscle tumors arising from the adrenal glands are rare.
  • A review of the literature does reveal a propensity for these tumors to occur in the immunocompromised population.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability to manage these tumors laparoscopically is of significant benefit to patients.

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  • (PMID = 16121885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015615
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22. Wagner RA, Piché CA, Jöchle W, Oliver JW: Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Am J Vet Res; 2005 May;66(5):910-4
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  • [Title] Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and endocrine responses of ferrets with adrenocortical disease (ACD) to treatment with a slow-release implant of deslorelin acetate.
  • Plasma estradiol, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were measured before and after treatment and at relapse of clinical signs; at that time, the adrenal glands were grossly or ultrasonographically measured and affected glands that were surgically removed were examined histologically.
  • In 5 ferrets, large palpable tumors developed within 2 months of clinical relapse; 3 of these ferrets were euthanatized because of adrenal gland tumor metastasis to the liver or tumor necrosis.
  • Deslorelin may not decrease adrenal tumor growth in some treated ferrets.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / veterinary. Ferrets. Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage. Triptorelin Pamoate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15934621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; TKG3I66TVE / deslorelin
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23. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Systemische Therapie maligner Nebennierentumoren.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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24. Beland MD, Mayo-Smith WW: Ablation of adrenal neoplasms. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Sep-Oct;34(5):588-92
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  • [Title] Ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • Adrenal tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms that include multiple etiologies, each with a different prognosis, malignant potential, and recommended treatment.
  • Percutaneous techniques to treat adrenal neoplasms have been described including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and chemical ablation.
  • This article reviews the various adrenal neoplasms and the techniques of adrenal ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Cryosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Contrast Media. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18830736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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25. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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26. Zografos GN, Farfaras A, Vasiliadis G, Pappa T, Aggeli C, Vassilatou E, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • It still remains to be clarified whether the laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) or potentially malignant tumors is appropriate or not due to technical difficulties and concern about local recurrence.
  • Fifteen patients with tumors ≥ 8 cm underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Tumor size ranged from 3.2 cm to 27 cm.
  • The largest laparoscopically excised tumors were a ganglioneuroma with a mean diameter of 13 cm and a myelolipoma of 14 cm.
  • There were no conversions in the group of patients with tumors > 8 cm.
  • In the large adrenal tumor group, operative time for laparoscopic resection ranged from 150 minutes to 240 minutes.
  • The mean postoperative stay was 2 days for the group with large tumors resected by laparoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) adrenal tumors is feasible and safe.

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  • (PMID = 21333189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041032
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27. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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28. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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29. Lau SK, Weiss LM: Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):656-9
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  • [Title] Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Calcifying fibrous tumor is an uncommon entity with distinctive pathologic features.
  • Most calcifying fibrous tumors involve the peripheral soft tissues or serosal surfaces, with reports of visceral examples of this lesion being extremely limited.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of an unusual case of calcifying fibrous tumor occurring in the adrenal gland of a 32-year-old woman.
  • The morphologic diagnosis of calcifying fibrous tumor was supported by diffuse positive immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa and absence of reactivity for muscle specific actin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
  • Although rare, awareness that calcifying fibrous tumor may occur at this particular site is important so as not to confuse this lesion with other mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17078996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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30. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • These tumors arise from tissues with distinct embryonic origins.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • The tumors are frequently large enough to provide material for biological studies in addition to diagnostic investigations.
  • In France many patients with hypersecretory tumors are referred to the Hypertension Unit of Georges Pompidou European Hospital, and to the Department of Endocrinology at Cochin Hospital, Paris.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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31. Vincent C, Brewster JB, Kedar V, Sundaram CP: Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2008 May;22(5):995-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the clinical and radiologic features of unilateral adrenal hematomas in adults.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 75 patients who underwent adrenalectomies at our institution, we identified 3 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors.
  • The pathology report confirmed adrenal hematomas with no evidence of neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Unilateral adrenal hematomas sometimes are indistinguishable radiologically from neoplasms.
  • Surgery is then necessary to distinguish a hematoma from a hemorrhagic adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18393646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; A74586SNO7 / clopidogrel; OM90ZUW7M1 / Ticlopidine; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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32. Castro EC, Ferraz ML, Corrêa RR, Reis MA, Texeira VP: Cushing's disease in a 5-month infant due to a basophilic microadenoma of the pituitary gland. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;19(10):1263-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's disease in a 5-month infant due to a basophilic microadenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • We report a female patient who developed severe Cushing's disease during the fifth month of life due to a basophilic pituitary adenoma Histological findings showed a basophilic microadenoma of the pituitary gland, leading to the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.
  • The importance of the present report resides in the age of the child at diagnosis, and that it was the necropsy finding of microadenoma which clarified the cause of the Cushing's syndrome, since it was not diagnosed during life.
  • Cushing's disease is most often diagnosed in children older than 7 years, and our patient was only 5 months old when we detected the pituitary adenoma, the earliest case diagnosed so far.
  • Cushing's syndrome in pediatric patients has been rarely reported and most cases are due to functioning adrenal tumors, usually a malignant carcinoma but occasionally a benign adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Basophil / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17172089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • These patients do not typically present in hemorrhagic shock, allowing for adequate preoperative evaluation for function and assessment for primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Kuruba R, Gallagher SF: Current management of adrenal tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Jan;20(1):34-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal tumors evoke considerable interest and diagnostic challenges.
  • This rare group of tumors includes functional tumors with a gamut of clinical presentations, as well as adrenocortical carcinoma, with its advanced disease at presentation and dismal prognosis posing additional challenge.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances have been made in diagnostic imaging modalities for identifying malignancy risk in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Considerable progress has occurred in understanding adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenesis from the study of genetics at the germline level in familial carcinomas, as well as at the somatic level by analyzing molecular alterations in sporadic tumors; this research supplies opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents against a tumor with poor prognosis.
  • SUMMARY: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has emerged as standard of care in the treatment of functional benign adenomas and nonfunctional tumors larger than 4 cm when adrenocortical carcinoma is not suspected.
  • International consensus conferences have attempted to standardize diagnostic and treatment approaches in the management of adrenal tumors; further research is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18043254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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35. Barzon L, Trevisan M, Masi G, Pacenti M, Sinigaglia A, Macchi V, Porzionato A, De Caro R, Favia G, Iacobone M, Palù G: Detection of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in human adrenal tumors. Oncogene; 2008 Jan 31;27(6):857-64
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  • [Title] Detection of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in human adrenal tumors.
  • The presence of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in adrenal tumors and their role in adrenal tumorigenesis has never been investigated, even though the adrenal gland seems to be a preferential site of infection by these viruses and adrenal steroid hormones have been shown to activate their replication.
  • We examined in a large series of normal adrenal gland tissues (n=20) and adrenal tumors (n=107) the presence of herpesviruses and polyomaviruses sequences and gene expression, which were detected in a high proportion of both normal and neoplastic adrenal samples (overall, viruses were found in 15% normal adrenals, 27.8% benign adrenal tumors and 35.3% malignant tumors).
  • The polyomaviruses SV40 and BK virus were more frequently found in malignant adrenal tumors, whereas herpesviruses, especially Epstein-Barr virus and human cytomegalovirus, were more frequently detected in functioning benign adrenocortical tumors, often as coinfection.
  • Moreover, tumors from patients with severe hypercortisolism frequently showed herpesvirus coinfections at high viral genome copy number.
  • Our study suggests that the adrenal gland could be a reservoir of infection for these viruses and that hormone overproduction by the adrenal gland could represent a trigger for virus reactivation.
  • On the other hand, these viruses could also contribute to adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / virology. Herpesviridae / isolation & purification. Herpesviridae Infections / virology. Polyomavirus / isolation & purification. Polyomavirus Infections / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Viral, Tumor / analysis. Base Sequence. DNA, Viral / chemistry. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 17684484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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36. Hermsen IG, Polak MP, Haak HR: Disappearing adrenal masses. Endocrine; 2010 Oct;38(2):153-7
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  • [Title] Disappearing adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are a common finding due to the increasing use and improved technology of imaging studies.
  • Publications on reversible adrenal enlargement are sparse.
  • He was treated for rectal carcinoma 3 years before, and was now free of disease.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan showed no abnormalities other than the incidental finding of bilateral adrenal enlargement.
  • Reversible adrenal enlargements are rare.
  • Commonly described causes of adrenal enlargement are haematomas, cystic lesions and infections of the adrenal glands.
  • The current existing differential diagnosis for bilateral adrenal enlargement is not sufficient to explain the findings in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Remission, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 21046476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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38. Agha A, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):233-9
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  • [Title] [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der Nebennierenrinden-Adenome.
  • Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours.
  • The decision to use one of the available techniques depends on tumour size, body mass index, previous abdominal surgery and the experience of the surgeon.
  • Conventional surgery should be used if malignancy is suspected, especially for tumours larger than 6 cm.
  • In individual cases, even tumours up to 10 cm can be operated laparoscopically if there is no suspicion of invasive growth or lymphatic metastases.
  • The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent.
  • The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart , New York.
  • (PMID = 20549586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Broome JT, Gauger P: Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):185-93
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  • [Title] Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors.
  • As technology has advanced, the options for the surgical management of adrenal disorders have also increased.
  • An understanding of the basic evaluation of adrenal tumors, patient specific factors, and the risks and benefits of available techniques will allow the clinician to select an appropriate treatment for each individual.
  • Except in the case of pheochromocytoma, large adrenal tumors >6 cm should not be removed laparoscopically due to the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This article will review basic surgical adrenal disorders, operative approaches, and delineate principles of patient and procedure selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Length of Stay. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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40. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.
  • The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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41. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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42. Gonsior A, Pfeiffer H, Führer D, Liatsikos E, Schwalenberg T, Stolzenburg JU: [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment]. Urologe A; 2010 May;49(5):659-68; quiz 669-70
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren. Grundlagen der Diagnostik und operativen Therapie.
  • Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity.
  • Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge.
  • This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / instrumentation. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenogenital Syndrome / diagnosis. Adrenogenital Syndrome / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopes. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20449781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • In both tumors, it may be difficult to determine benign from malignant and the biologic behavior and degree of invasion may portend a more malignant course.
  • Surgical excision is the primary therapy for both tumors, including excision of metastatic and recurrent tumor.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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44. Liu XJ, Shen P, Wang XF, Sun K, Sun FF: Solitary adrenal metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer: an uncommon finding. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:7
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  • [Title] Solitary adrenal metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer: an uncommon finding.
  • Solitary adrenal metastasis is extremely rare.
  • We report the first case of IDC of the breast metastasizing solely to the adrenal gland after a modified radical mastectomy but having a long-term disease-free survival while treated merely by a left adrenalectomy.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman was found a left adrenal mass on a follow-up visit two years after taking a right modified radical mastectomy for the breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case of a patient with solitary, metachronous adrenal metastasis from IDC of the breast to be reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Mastectomy, Modified Radical

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  • [Cites] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2003 Oct;13(5):328-33 [14571170.001]
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  • (PMID = 20105336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2824745
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45. Nürnberg D: [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)]. Ultraschall Med; 2005 Dec;26(6):458-69
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  • [Title] [Ultrasound of adrenal gland tumours and indications for fine needle biopsy (uFNB)].
  • [Transliterated title] Sonographie von Nebennierentumoren--wann ist die Punktion indiziert?
  • The normal adrenal glands can be detected by high-resolution-sonography in a high percentage of cases.
  • Sonography is also highly sensitive in the diagnosis of tumours of the adrenal glands.
  • Only some of those tumours are hormonally active.
  • Amongst the benign tumours, adenomas are the most frequent (up to 8%).
  • Amongst the malignant tumours, metastases are more frequent than primary carcinomas (32.5% vs. 19.8% in uFNB-statistics).
  • The adrenal glands are the fourth most common location of metastases.
  • Bronchiogenic carcinomas, malignant melanomas, carcinomas of the breast and stomach as well as renal carcinomas metastasize into the adrenals most often.
  • Much less frequent are infiltrates of lymphomas in adrenal glands tumours (3.4%).
  • Incidentalomas are accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands without clinical symptoms.
  • Malignant tumours only represent a very small part of incidentalomas (0.2%).
  • In the case of an accidentally detected tumour, we propose a minimal laboratory profile (24-h-urinary-catecholamines, dexamethasone-test, electrolyte metabolism).
  • The uFNB of the adrenal glands has a high sensitivity (90-95%).
  • Considering the excellent imaging methods and laparoscopic surgery methods on hand, the indication of FNP is restricted to the following cases: 1. the presence of a metastasis leading to therapeutical consequences; 2. suspected lymphoma 3. undefined lesion (3-5 cm), hormonally inactive, without typical signs of a tumour 4. patients refusing surgery.
  • 5. uFNB in case of tumours of undefined dignity is only justified in specific cases.
  • Recommendations for this procedure in accidentally detected tumours of the adrenal glands: < 3 cm and hormonally inactive --> US-follow up, > 5 cm + suspected tumour --> surgery, 3-5 cm uFNB after laboratory diagnostics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16453217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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46. Ueberberg B, Tourne H, Redmann A, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):722-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) is a widely distributed peptide with growth-inhibiting effects in various tumors.
  • We investigated expression of the five ssts in various adrenal tumors and in normal adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal tissue surrounding the tumor was available for analysis in twenty-seven cases.
  • Expression of all five receptor subtypes was observed in RNA obtained from normal adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, each receptor subtype was expressed in more than 50 % of all tumors analyzed.
  • No sst5 expression was found in PHEOs, while sst1 was present in nearly all of these tumors.
  • Differential expression of ssts in various adrenal tumors may point to new aspects in the pathogenesis of these adenomas.
  • New subtype specific analogues of SRIF may be used in the future depending on the type of adrenal tumor and receptor subtype expressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Horm Metab Res. 2006 Sep;38(9):617. Redman, A [corrected to Redmann, A]
  • (PMID = 16372224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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47. Ishay A, Luboshitzky R: Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors. Fertil Steril; 2009 Aug;92(2):806-7
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  • [Title] Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • An infertile man who presents with azoospermia and bilateral adrenal tumors reveals an XX karyotype and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Azoospermia / diagnosis. Azoospermia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19100538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of its excellent negative predictive value, 18F-FDG-PET may be of help in avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with non-secreting equivocal tumors at CT scanning and low 18F-FGD uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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49. Shi BB, Li HZ, Chen C, Rong S, Fan H, Wen J, Li HJ: Differential diagnosis and laparoscopic treatment of adrenal pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Aug 5;122(15):1790-3
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis and laparoscopic treatment of adrenal pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal ganglioneuroma is a rare adrenal pathogenic disease with difficult differential diagnosis from adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • Currently, very limited literature is available to allow a differential diagnosis of these two conditions from each other.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the clinical profile, differential diagnosis and surgical treatments of both conditions.
  • METHODS: Clinical characteristics of 36 patients with adrenal pheocheomocytoma and 18 patients with adrenal ganglioneuroma were analyzed.
  • Neither (131)I-MIBG nor endocrine hormone tests were available in 9 cases of asymptomatic adrenal ganglioneuroma with tumor size less than 4 cm and there were negative findings from contrast enhanced CT scans.
  • RESULTS: Te mean age of patients in the adrenal ganglioneuroma group was 41.2 years (16 - 67 year) and in the adrenal pheochromocytoma patients 38 years (17 - 74 year).
  • Contrast enhanced CT showed that the foci were intensified in 5 cases (27.8%) of adrenal ganglioneuroma and there were obvious contrast indications in 30 (83.3%) of the pheochromocytoma.
  • Catecholamine levels in a 24-hour urine sample were normal in 4 patients with adrenal ganglioneuroma and increased in 36 (100%) cases with adrenal pheochromocytoma. (131)I-MIBG nuclear scan showed negative results in 4 patients (100%) with adrenal ganglioneuroma and positive results in 25 (96.2%) with adrenal pheochromocytom.
  • Laparoscopy for adrenal tumors was performed through a transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach during a follow-up period of (43 +/- 6) months, and all cases survived well.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CT, urinary catecholamine and (131)I-MIBG are standard and efficient tools for differential diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma from pheochromocytoma.
  • Laparoscopic surgery can be performed through a transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach depending on the finding of CT scans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • [Title] [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Przydatność ultrasonograficznego środka kontrastujacego Levovist w diagnostyce róznicowej guzów nadnerczy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • Non hormone-secreting tumors provide the most complicated diagnostic difficulties.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to define the usefulness of contrasting agent Levovist in differential diagnostics of adrenal tumors and its influence on sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination and to establish patients qualification criteria for surgical procedures.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 3D ultrasound could be useful in cases of big adrenal tumors--over 3 cm diameter after application of ultrasound contrast agents.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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51. Berker D, Isik S, Erden G, Tutuncu YA, Ozcan HN, Caner S, Tekelek B, Aydin Y, Guler S: Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):419-27
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  • [Title] Serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels in the diagnosis of functioning adrenal tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels can be used as a diagnostic tool in determining the functioning status of benign adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: In this case-control study, medical records of patients with adrenal tumors who consecutively presented to an endocrinology clinic between August 2005 and October 2008 were evaluated.
  • Operation was recommended when the incidentaloma was larger than 4 cm or when a hypersecreting tumor was suspected.
  • Findings were compared among patients with functioning adrenal tumors, patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors, and control participants.
  • RESULTS: Of 370 patients with adrenal tumors, 50 with adrenal incidentaloma met the inclusion criteria.
  • Group 1 included 20 patients with functioning adrenal tumors (14 with Cushing syndrome and 6 with pheochromocytoma), and Group 2 included 30 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • MMP-9 levels were higher in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors and functioning adrenal tumors than in control participants (P<.001).
  • MMP-9 levels in patients with functioning adrenal tumors were significantly higher than those in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (P = .002).
  • No significant linear correlation existed between tumor volume and MMP-9 levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum MMP-9 levels may be useful in differentiating benign subclinical functioning adrenal tumors from benign nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood

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  • (PMID = 20061295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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52. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.
  • Patients who have local invasion, tumors that are too large, or require organ resection require an open procedure.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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53. Komatsu S, Watanabe R, Naito M, Mizusawa T, Obara K, Nishiyama T, Takahashi K: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):606-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from adrenal gland in adulthood, diagnosed preoperatively as having non-functional adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunohistological examination revealed the definite diagnosis as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a highly malignant neoplasm, there is no evidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis 16 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16771733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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54. Ginat DT, Saad WE, Turba UC: Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):75-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcatheter renal artery embolization for management of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that is increasingly used for the management of angiomyolipomas and to augment and/or palliate the management of malignant renal and adrenal neoplasms.
  • The most common indications for renal artery embolization include (1) prenephrectomy and preradiofrequency ablation infarction of renal tumors, (2) management of renal angiomyolipomas, (3) palliations of unresectable renal malignancy, and (4) malignant renal hemorrhage (life-threatening or chronic debilitating hematuria).
  • The increasing use of renal artery embolization for these conditions reflects the procedure's effectiveness and safety.
  • Although there is less extensive literature available regarding the use of transcatheter embolization of adrenal tumors, this technique appears to be effective and safe for palliation and preadrenalectomy of adrenal metastatic disease, adrenocortical carcinomas, as well as treatment of symptomatic aldosteronomas.
  • This article reviews the indications and techniques involved in performing transcatheter arterial embolization for renal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Catheterization. Embolization, Therapeutic. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Renal Artery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20540917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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55. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years).
  • Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent in distinguishing nephrogenic rests from Wilms' tumour and the current recently altered approach regarding small lung nodules in children with Wilms' tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17339140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1828369
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56. Tsuru N, Suzuki K, Ushiyama T, Ozono S: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jun;19(5):537-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy remains a controversial procedure for large tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 178 patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, of whom 29 patients had large (>or =5 cm) tumors.
  • Their mean age was 47.9 years (range 21-72 years), and the mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range 5.0-11.0 cm).
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were <5 cm.
  • RESULTS: The large-tumor group had a mean operating time of 176 +/- 48 minutes (range 84-278 minutes) and a mean blood loss of 136.6 mL (range 10-800 mL) and required a mean of 1.8 days before starting oral intake.
  • The length of recovery was significantly longer in the large-tumor group (5.4 v 4.5 days; P < 0.05), but this was not true if a patient with a 23-day postoperative stay is excluded.
  • The overall incidence of complications was 12% in the large-tumor group, which was not significantly different from that in the control group (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The operating time, blood loss, and incidence of complications after laparoscopic adrenalectomy did not differ between the patients with large and small adrenal tumors, indicating that experienced surgeons can safely and effectively use laparoscopy for larger tumors.
  • However, it is necessary to consider carefully whether laparoscopic surgery is indicated for tumors that show infiltration on preoperative imaging or for patients who have undergone previous upper-retroperitoneal surgery.

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  • (PMID = 15989440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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58. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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59. Hirano D, Minei S, Yamaguchi K, Yoshikawa T, Hachiya T, Yoshida T, Ishida H, Takimoto Y, Saitoh T, Kiyotaki S, Okada K: Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port. J Endourol; 2005 Sep;19(7):788-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors via a single large port.
  • This study reports the outcomes of retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (RA) for adrenal tumors via a single port using a large cylinder without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with adrenal tumors were treated using RA via a single large port.
  • The average tumor size was 2.6 cm.
  • A rectoscope tube with a 4-cm diameter was inserted, and the adrenal glands were removed endoscopically via the single large port without carbon dioxide insufflation.
  • Postoperative major complications, including fulminant hepatitis and pulmonary thrombosis, were observed in two patients (3.7%), and the patient with hepatic disease died on the 14th postoperative day.
  • However, no local tumor recurrence or hormonal relapse has occurred at a median follow-up of 34 months.

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  • (PMID = 16190829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Toba A, Tamura Y, Osajima Y, Kinbara Y, Sato M, Yamaga R, Hashimoto R, Mori S, Miyakoshi S, Ota M, Ito H, Araki A: [A case of nasal NK/T cell lymphoma presenting with bilateral giant adrenal tumors]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;45(6):660-5
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  • [Title] [A case of nasal NK/T cell lymphoma presenting with bilateral giant adrenal tumors].
  • Abdominal echogram showed bilateral adrenal swelling (left adrenal 90x80 mm, right adrenal 50x20 mm) and she was admitted to the hospital for further examination.
  • A tumor was also found inside nasal cavity by enhanced computed tomography (CT), and abnormal uptake in the nasal cavity and adrenal gland was shown in gallium scintigraphy.
  • Biopsy of the nasal tumor revealed nasal natural killer or thymus-derived (NK/T) cell lymphoma.
  • After THP-COP chemotherapy regimen, both the nasal and adrenal tumors decreased in size.
  • Since she had a high level of plasma ACTH (158.0 pg/ml) and normal serum cortisol (14.6 microg/dl), partial adrenal insufficiency was suspected.
  • In addition, since her cortisol circadian rhythm was lost and cortisol levels were not completely suppressed by the 1 mg and 8 mg dexamethasone test, she met the criteria of the diagnosis of preclinical Cushing syndrome.
  • NK/T cell lymphoma with giant adrenal tumor is extremely rare, but should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / complications. Nose Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19179800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Stephenson TJ: Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):629-43
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  • [Title] Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours.
  • This review encompasses the diagnostic features of malignancy, the routinely observable prognostic features and the prognostic and predictive features emerging from research techniques in the principal endocrine neoplasms: pancreatic and extrapancreatic endocrine cell tumours, thyroid and parathyroid neoplasia, adrenal cortical neoplasms and adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • While each endocrine tissue has its own set of diagnostic features for malignancy, and prognostic features once a diagnosis of malignancy has been established, there are a few common themes.
  • For several endocrine neoplasms, definite recognition of malignancy can be difficult and may depend upon frank invasive or metastatic growth at presentation.
  • The accurate documentation of routinely observable histological features interpreted in the light of current literature has not been superseded by special techniques in the statement of diagnosis or prognosis in the vast majority of endocrine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Peptide Hormones / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Glucagon / analysis. Humans. Insulin / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16681678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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62. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumors (AT) are usually found in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • Thirty-four cases have been reported so far, more often presenting grossly as solid tumors, rarely as solid with cystic areas, and 5 cases were almost entirely cystic.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19851133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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63. Venkatesan AM, Locklin J, Dupuy DE, Wood BJ: Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):89-99
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  • [Title] Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma, and adrenal metastases.
  • Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, and chemical ablation.
  • Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland's unique anatomic and physiological features.
  • The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article.
  • Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20540918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 69
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199588; NLM/ PMC2886030
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64. Gaisa NT, Klöppel G, Brehmer B, Neulen J, Stephan P, Knüchel R, Donner A: [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours]. Pathologe; 2009 Sep;30(5):407-10
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma : A rare differential diagnosis in testosterone secreting adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Virilisierendes Ganglioneurom der Nebenniere : Eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose testosteronproduzierender Nebennierentumoren.
  • Testosterone secreting tumours of the adrenal glands are usually adrenal carcinomas or adenomas.
  • Here we report the rare case of an adrenal ganglioneuroma with ectopic Leydig cells, a so-called virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / secretion. Testosterone / secretion. Virilism / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Choristoma / pathology. Choristoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Inhibins / analysis. Laparoscopy. Leydig Cells. Male. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19396442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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65. Mezzadri NA, Catalina Mandry A, Sinagra DL, Eduardo Falco J, Fernández Vila JM: [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours]. Cir Esp; 2010 May;87(5):306-11
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic approach in the treatment of malignant adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Abordaje laparoscópico en el tratamiento de las tumoraciones adrenales malignas.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant primary or secondary adrenal tumours are uncommon.
  • Although controversy exists on this issue, the increasing experience in laparoscopic surgery extends the indication for laparoscopic adrenalectomy to potentially malignant and to metastatic adrenal tumours.
  • Our aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasias, describing the results of our consecutive series of patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 13 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant neoplasia between March 1999 and June 2009, at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidad of Buenos Aires and at the Hospital Alemán of Buenos Aires.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed due to malignant neoplasia.
  • Five patients had an adrenal carcinoma, 1 patient a malignant phaeochromocytoma, and 7 patients had metastatic tumours.
  • The cause of death was the underlying disease in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a reasonable technique for malignant adrenal tumours, when the open oncological resection can be reproduced by the laparoscopic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-147X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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66. Wang HS, Li CC, Chou YH, Wang CJ, Wu WJ, Huang CH: Comparison of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with open surgery for adrenal tumors. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2009 Aug;25(8):438-44
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  • [Title] Comparison of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with open surgery for adrenal tumors.
  • The role of laparoscopy in the management of adrenal tumors is well established.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the operative and postoperative parameters of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors and compared the results with those of traditional open adrenalectomy.
  • Eighty-eight patients with adrenal tumors underwent adrenalectomy between January 1997 and October 2008 at our institute.
  • In Group I, eight patients had adrenal tumors larger than 6 cm and no statistically significant differences were found compared with the other patients in Group I.
  • We recommend that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the gold standard procedure for adrenal tumors, irrespective of whether the tumor is benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19605338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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67. Vuorenoja S, Rivero-Müller A, Ziecik AJ, Huhtaniemi I, Toppari J, Rahman NA: Targeted therapy for adrenocortical tumors in transgenic mice through their LH receptor by Hecate-human chorionic gonadotropin beta conjugate. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):635-48
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy for adrenocortical tumors in transgenic mice through their LH receptor by Hecate-human chorionic gonadotropin beta conjugate.
  • Novel strategies are needed for the treatment of adrenocortical tumors that are usually resistant to chemotherapy.
  • To prove the principle that Hecate-CGbeta conjugate may eradicate tumors ectopically expressing plasma membrane receptors, transgenic (TG) inhibin alpha-subunit promoter (inhalpha)/Simian Virus 40 T-antigen mice, expressing LHR in their adrenal gland tumors, were used as the experimental model.
  • Wild-type control littermates and TG mice with adrenal tumors were treated with either Hecate or Hecate-CGbeta conjugate at the age of 6.5 months for 3 weeks and killed 7 days after the last treatment.
  • The Hecate-CGbeta conjugate reduced the adrenal tumor burden significantly in TG male but not in female mice, in comparison with Hecate-treated mice.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of GATA-4 and LHR colocalized only in tumor area, and a significant downregulation of gene expression was found after the Hecate-CGbeta conjugate in comparison with Hecate- and/or non-treated adrenal tumors by western blotting.
  • This finding provides evidence for a selective destruction of the tumor cells by the Hecate-CGbeta conjugate.
  • Hereby, our findings support the principle that Hecate-CGbeta conjugate is able to specifically destroy tumor cells that ectopically express LHR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Melitten / analogs & derivatives. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / pharmacology. Disease Models, Animal. Female. GATA4 Transcription Factor / genetics. GATA4 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18509010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / hecate-chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit conjugate; 20449-79-0 / Melitten; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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68. Ziegler CG, Brown JW, Schally AV, Erler A, Gebauer L, Treszl A, Young L, Fishman LM, Engel JB, Willenberg HS, Petersenn S, Eisenhofer G, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15879-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues.
  • A hallmark of adrenocortical tumor formation is the aberrant expression of peptide receptors relating to uncontrolled cell proliferation and hormone overproduction.
  • Our microarray results have also demonstrated a differential expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in tumor subtypes of human pheochromocytoma.
  • In light of these findings, we performed a comprehensive analysis of relevant receptors in both human adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tumors and tested the antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues targeting these receptors.
  • Specifically, we examined the receptor expression of somatostatin-type-2 receptor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor or GHRH receptor splice variant-1 (SV-1) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor at the mRNA and protein levels in normal human adrenal tissues, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, and cell lines.
  • In conclusion, the expression of receptors for somatostatin, GHRH, and LHRH in the normal human adrenal and in adrenal tumors, combined with the growth-inhibitory effects of the antitumor peptide analogues, may make possible improved treatment approaches to adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / analogs & derivatives. 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / pharmacology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aniline Compounds / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cytostatic Agents / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Gene Expression. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PC12 Cells. Pyrroles / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Receptors, LHRH / genetics. Receptors, LHRH / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19717419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AN 238; 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Cytostatic Agents; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 2PK59M9GFF / vapreotide; 33189-65-0 / N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-2,5-dichloroaniline; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7568-93-6 / 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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69. Plouin PF, Amar L, Lepoutre C: Phaeochromocytomas and functional paragangliomas: clinical management. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):933-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Phaeochromocytomas (PH) and functional paragangliomas (FPGL) are neoplasms of adrenal (PH) or extra-adrenal (FPGL) chromaffin tissue that synthesize catecholamines.
  • Catecholamines are converted into inactive metabolites, metanephrines, within the tumour and the diagnosis of PH/FPGL is therefore based on the quantification of plasma or urinary metanephrines.
  • The tumour can be located by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy.
  • Patients are treated by tumour resection following alpha-blockade.
  • Patients with PH/FPGL should be followed up indefinitely as the disease may recur, particularly if they have inherited or extra-adrenal tumours.
  • About 10% of tumours are malignant either at initial surgery or during follow-up.
  • Recurrences and malignancy are more frequent in cases with large or extra-adrenal tumours, and in SDHB mutation carriers.
  • Treatments for progressive malignant PH/FPGL include tumour debulking, metabolic radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and possibly tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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70. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Studies have shown that most are metastatic tumors, and clinical presentation varies with tumor type.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Patients with lymphoma had largest average tumor size.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Igaz P, Wiener Z, Szabó P, Falus A, Gaillard RC, Horányi J, Rácz K, Tulassay Z: Functional genomics approaches for the study of sporadic adrenal tumor pathogenesis: clinical implications. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2006 Oct;101(2-3):87-96
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  • [Title] Functional genomics approaches for the study of sporadic adrenal tumor pathogenesis: clinical implications.
  • Although sporadic adrenal tumors are frequently encountered in the general population their pathogenesis is not well elucidated.
  • Some studies have already been published describing gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and phaeochromocytomas.
  • Several genes coding for growth factors and their receptors, enzymes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, genes related to the regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation, adhesion and intracellular metabolism have been found to be up- or downregulated in various tumors.
  • Some alterations in gene expression appear so specific for certain tumor types that their application in diagnosis, determination of prognosis and the choice of therapy can be envisaged.
  • In this short review, the authors will present a synopsis of these recent findings that seem to open new perspectives in adrenal tumor pathogenesis, with emphasis on changes in steroidogenic enzyme expression profiles and highlighting possible clinical implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromosome Aberrations. Genomics / methods

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  • (PMID = 16891114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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72. Mezitis SG, Geller M, Bocchieri E, Del Pizzo J, Merlin S: Association of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma: unusual finding in neurofibromatosis type 1. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):647-51
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  • [Title] Association of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma: unusual finding in neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • RESULTS: A 41-year-old woman with NF1 presented for a routine gynecologic examination, at which time a right adrenal mass (4 by 3 cm) was discovered by abdominal ultrasonography and confirmed by abdominal computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy revealed uptake in the right adrenal gland, with no evidence of metastatic lesions.
  • Laparoscopic excision of the right adrenal gland yielded excellent postoperative results.
  • In patients with NF1 (von Recklinghausen's disease), a tumor consisting of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma is rare and may be more aggressive than pheochromocytoma alone.
  • An asymptomatic catecholamine-producing tumor may cause substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in patients who are undergoing surgical intervention or are under other stressors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Adult. Epinephrine / blood. Female. Humans


73. Hattori Y, Kanamoto N, Kawano K, Iwakura H, Sone M, Miura M, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Arai H, Akamizu T, Nakao K, Maitani Y: Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma. Int J Oncol; 2010 Sep;37(3):695-705
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma.
  • Adrenal neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma have the same embryonic origin from neural crest cells and mainly arise from the adrenal medulla.
  • Recently, transgenic mice exhibiting tumors in the bilateral adrenal medulla by the expression of SV40 T-antigen were developed.
  • In this study, we investigated mRNA expression in adrenal tumors of transgenic mice and compared them with human pheochromocytoma by DNA microarray analysis.
  • To compare mouse adrenal tumors and human pheochromacytoma, we found that the expressions of noradrenergic neuron-related genes, including dopa decarboxylase, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and chromogranin B, were up-regulated in humans but not in mice; however, the expression of neuroblastoma-related genes, including Mycn, paired-like homeobox 2b, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta3 subunit, islet 1 and kinesin family member 1A, was up-regulated in both species.
  • From the gene expression profiles, the characterization of mouse adrenal tumor, may be similar to that of human adrenal neuroblastoma rather than pheochromacytomas.
  • This mouse model would be a useful tool for the development of anti-cancer drugs and for understanding the etiology of adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / biosynthesis. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Up-Regulation


74. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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75. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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76. Cheren'ko SM, Larin AS, Tovkaĭ AA: [Potentialities of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in treatment of patients with adrenal tumors]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2006;165(2):41-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Potentialities of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in treatment of patients with adrenal tumors].
  • The authors emphasize the advantages of the transperitoneal approach and good perspectives of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in almost all cases of benign and non-invasive adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16752638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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77. Walz MK, Petersenn S, Koch JA, Mann K, Neumann HP, Schmid KW: Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours. Br J Surg; 2005 Jun;92(6):719-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic adrenalectomy has become the treatment of choice for small benign adrenal tumours but should not be used for malignant lesions.
  • It is debatable whether large and therefore potentially malignant primary adrenal tumours should be removed by minimally invasive techniques.
  • METHODS: Three hundred and eighty primary adrenal tumours in 368 patients (142 male and 226 female; mean(s.d.) age 48.9(14.4) years) were excised by laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Adrenal neoplasias exceeded 6 cm in diameter (range 6-13 cm) in 33 patients (18 male and 15 female; age 42.6(14.2) years).
  • Patients with large tumours had an increased conversion rate (P = 0.039), longer operating time (P < 0.001) and greater intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.007) than those with smaller lesions, but a similar overall morbidity rate (P = 0.207).
  • Six malignant tumours were identified (diameter 4-10 cm; four phaeochromocytomas and two adrenocortical carcinomas).
  • CONCLUSION: Endocopic adrenalectomy perfomed by an experienced surgeon should be the treatment of choice for tumours exceeding 6 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15856491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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78. Berber E, Siperstein A: Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Feb;20(1):58-62
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite reports of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laparoscopic ablative techniques have not been described to treat adrenal tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to describe patient selection criteria and the technique for laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • METHODS: Four patients underwent laparoscopic RFA of adrenal tumors under general anesthesia for adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included lung metastasis in 2 patients, and renal cell cancer metastasis and cortical adenoma in 1 patient each.
  • Despite normal catecholamine levels preoperatively, 2 patients had a transient hypertensive period during the ablation possibly owing to the release of catecholamines from the normal adrenal medulla.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • Laparoscopic RFA is an option for patients with unresectable adrenal tumors owing to the extent of disease or comorbidities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Catheter Ablation / methods. Hot Temperature / therapeutic use. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Fatal Outcome. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20173624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Tica I, Tica VI, Mihailov C: Rare association of adrenal tumors. Rom J Intern Med; 2007;45(1):107-11
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  • [Title] Rare association of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas represent a true problem both in the clinical diagnosis and in their treatment.
  • A great variety of pathologies may be found under the umbrella of this concept: benign adenomas - functioning or not, myelolipomas, hamartomas, or granulomatous infiltrations of the adrenal.
  • The possibility of malignancy should be considered in each case, especially in patients with a known extra-adrenal primary.
  • We present an interesting case because of the surprising association of two adrenal tumors, with a long time lapse between them, with ascites and pleurisy and because of the difficulty of treatment in a patient refusing surgery.
  • Investigations were performed including hormonal tests, ultrasound investigation, hepatic tests, and CT scan but no specific tumour markers.
  • A right adrenal incidentaloma of 21/15 mm - in association with ascites and pleurisy - was found at CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ascites / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pleurisy / complications

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  • (PMID = 17966451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-4749
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Intern Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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80. Stehr C, Velasco S, Velasco A, López M JM: [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?]. Rev Med Chil; 2007 Dec;135(12):1526-9
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  • [Title] [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?].
  • [Transliterated title] El tamaño de los tumores suprarrenales ¿está en relación al tiempo de evolución o expresa una diferencia biológica?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumor (AT) malignancy has been related to tumor size.
  • Since laparoscopic surgery is being used, smaller adrenal tumors are being excised.
  • AIM: To evaluate eventual clinical and histological differences between adrenal tumors smaller than 4 cm. and those larger than 6 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pathological reports and clinical records of patients operated for adrenal tumors, dividing them in two groups.
  • Group 1 had 29 patients aged 52 +/- 13 years with AT < 4 cm operated during the period 2000-2005, and Group 2 was formed by 52 patients aged 46 +/-18 years with AT >6 cm operated between 1984-2005- Tumors between 4 and 6 cm were not included in the study to establish clear cut differences between groups.
  • RESULTS: Tumors were functional in 40 and 41% of cases in groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • Fifty percent of functional tumors of group 1 were pheochromocytomas and the rest secreted aldosterone.
  • In group 2, 66% of tumors were pheochromocytomas and no aldosterone secreting tumors were found.
  • Fifty two and eight percent of tumors in Groups 1 and 2 were adenomas, respectively (p <0.001).
  • Nineteen tumors of group 2 were malignant, compared with one of group 1 (p <0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size of adrenal cortical tumors may represent biological differences, suggesting two different tumor populations.
  • At time of diagnosis adrenal carcinomas are almost always larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18357352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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82. Taub YR, Wolford RW: Adrenal insufficiency and other adrenal oncologic emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am; 2009 May;27(2):271-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency and other adrenal oncologic emergencies.
  • Normal function of the adrenal gland can be disrupted not only by metastases of nonadrenal cancers but also by their treatment.
  • In addition, tumors of the adrenal gland itself can cause disease by hypersecretion of a variety of hormones, adrenal gland destruction with inadequate production of cortisol, and by metastasis to other sites.
  • Although rare, abnormal adrenal function should be considered in the appropriate clinical settings as failure to recognize and treat can result in significant morbidity and mortality.
  • The adrenal "incidentaloma" is a frequent finding of abdominal radiologic studies.
  • All patients with an unexpected adrenal mass should be referred for further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Emergencies. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Mineralocorticoids / therapeutic use. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19447311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency medicine clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Jurczyńska J, Zieleniewski W, Stepień H, Komorowski J: Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in adrenal tumours. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Nov-Dec;57(6):633-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in adrenal tumours.
  • It appears that neoangiogenesis is an important factor in tumour invasion and the formation of metastases in several human cancers, and studies on pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors are therefore of considerable interest to researchers.
  • In this review we present pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors and other growth factors and their role in the formation of new blood vessels in adrenal tumours.
  • Assessment of the angiogenic status of adrenal tumours and their vascular pattern may be useful for discriminating benign from malignant lesions and knowledge of their angiogenesis may be essential to the drawing up of promising treatment strategies for patients with malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / metabolism. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17253437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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84. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Takahashi K, Totsune K, Saruta M, Fukuda T, Suzuki T, Hirose T, Imai Y, Sasano H, Murakami O: Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. Peptides; 2006 Jan;27(1):178-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • In the present study, we studied expression of Ucn3/SCP in the normal adrenal and adrenal tumors by radioimmunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • High concentrations of immunoreactive (IR)-Ucn3 were present in the normal portions of adrenal glands (4.2+/-0.51 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M., n = 14), and the levels were higher than those in the brain.
  • IR-Ucn3 was also detected in the tumor tissues of aldosterone-secreting adenomas (6.2+/-0.6 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-secreting adenomas (5.0+/-1.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.9+/-0.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 7).
  • Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that IR-Ucn3 in normal portions of adrenal glands and aldosterone-secreting adenomas was eluted mainly in the positions of Ucn3 and SCP with several minor peaks eluting earlier.
  • The RT-PCR showed expression of Ucn3 mRNA in normal portions of adrenal gland (positive ratio; 4/4), aldosterone-secreting adenomas (3/4), cortisol-secreting adenomas (1/3) and pheochromocytomas (6/7).
  • These findings indicate that Ucn3 is produced in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors (both adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas), and suggest that Ucn3 acts as an autocrine or paracrine regulator in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Urocortins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16095756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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86. Vetshev PS, Ippolitov LI, Vetshev SP, Kovalenko EI: [Disputable points and negative tendencies in diagnosis and surgical treatment of accidentally revealed adrenal tumors]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(6):11-4
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  • [Title] [Disputable points and negative tendencies in diagnosis and surgical treatment of accidentally revealed adrenal tumors].
  • Two main problems are discussed in detail: differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors before surgery, and policy of treatment of these patients.
  • Some negative tendencies in adrenal surgery are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16044119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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87. Chen JH, Yu CY, Pai CY, Chan DC, Chen CJ, Yu JC, Liu YC: Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;35(6):353-6
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  • [Title] Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review.
  • Castleman's disease is a rare disorder characterized by benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue.
  • The left suprarenal location of this localized disease may be mistaken for an adrenal tumor.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a Castleman's tumor located superomedial to the upper pole of the left kidney that mimicked an adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15928190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Xiao YY, Tian JL, Li JK, Yang L, Zhang JS: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jan;190(1):105-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous chemical ablation of primary and metastatic adrenal neoplasms under CT guidance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with 46 adrenal tumors underwent CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation.
  • The average (+/- SD) tumor diameter was 4.2 +/- 2.0 cm.
  • Eleven adrenal lesions were nonfunctional adenomas, six lesions were corticosteroid adenomas (bilateral lesions in one patient), nine lesions were aldosteronomas (bilateral lesions in two patients), and 20 were metastases (bilateral metastases in six patients).
  • RESULTS: Tumor volume decreased gradually during the first 2 years after the procedure.
  • For primary tumors, a complete response (CR) rate of 92.3% (24/26) and a partial response (PR) rate of 7.7% (2/26) were obtained, but for metastasis, a CR rate of 30% (6/20) and PR rate of 70% (14/20) were obtained 24 months after therapy.
  • The level of corticosteroid in five patients (six tumors) with Cushing's syndrome was in the normal range 3 months after the procedure.
  • Seven patients (nine tumors) with Conn's syndrome began receiving oral antihypertensive medications during the first month after the procedure to maintain normal blood pressure and the dose was gradually decreased after 1 month.
  • CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal tumors is an effective, minimally invasive, and easily performed procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetic Acid / administration & dosage. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Aug;191(2):W74; author reply W75 [18647891.001]
  • (PMID = 18094300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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89. Knezević N, Bernat MM, Kastelan Z, Krhen I, Mareković Z, Persin A, Bekavac V, Pasini J: [Laparoscopic treatment of functioning adrenal tumors]. Lijec Vjesn; 2006 Nov-Dec;128(11-12):384-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of functioning adrenal tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopy is now a widely used method for removal of functioning and non-functioning adrenal tumors.
  • This paper reports our experience in laparoscopic transperitoneal removal of functioning adrenal tumors including pheochromocytoma, Cushing's disease and aldosteronoma.
  • In 37 patients (10 patients with bilateral adrenalectomy) adrenalectomy was performed for Cushing's disease, while 28 patients had aldosteronoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for functioning adrenal tumors proved a safe and minimally invasive procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17212203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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90. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B, Kwon GY: Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Jul-Aug;32(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify adrenal masses showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of pathologically proven 400 adrenal tumors were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period.
  • We included only adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on CT and MRI performed at 15 and 5 min, respectively, after contrast material injection.
  • RESULTS: Four tumors in four patients (three men and one woman; mean age, 51 years) met the inclusion criteria.
  • All of these tumors showed gradual persistent enhancement, and highest attenuation during delayed contrast-enhanced CT or strongest enhancement during delayed contrast-enhanced MRI.
  • CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced CT and MRI should include ganglioneuroma, myelolipoma with infarction, and angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17151900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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91. Laje P, Mattei PA: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors in children: a case series. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2009 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S27-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors in children: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to present our experience with children who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors over a 4-year period, discuss the technical aspects of the procedure, and review the current literature.
  • Tumor size ranged from 3 to 7 cm maximum diameter.
  • Final diagnoses included: adrenal cortical adenoma (n = 4), ganglioneuroma (n = 2), pheochromocytoma (n = 1), and neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy appears to be a safe, effective technique in children with small, well-circumscribed adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19260791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Baron M, Hamou L, Laberge S, Callonnec F, Tielmans A, Dessogne P: Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):523-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature.
  • Metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands due to gynaecological neoplasms is a relatively rare condition.
  • The aim of our study was to present four cases of metastases to the adrenal gland due to endometrial adenocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CT scan and MRI have been previously used in an attempt to define the nature of the adrenal mass but this approach is of limited value in diagnosis.
  • Image-guided pathological confirmation of an adrenal lesion may significantly change the staging or management of the primary neoplasm.
  • The authors suggest that isolated adrenal metastasis should be routinely considered for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19051827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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93. Korzeniewska M, Kołomecki K, Stepień H, Naze M, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;56(1):39-44

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  • [Title] [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Ocena stezeń wybranych czynników pro i antyangiogennych we krwi u chorych z nieczynnymi hormonalnie guzami nadnerczy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The growth and persistence of solid tumors and their metastases is connected with angiogenesis.
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the value of serum VEGF and soluble forms of VEGF receptors concentration as a marker of malignancy in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients (18 female, 9 male; mean age 48+/-4.3 years) with adrenocortical carcinoma (N=8), adrenal metastases (N=4) and adrenocortical adenoma (N=15) were included in this study.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that determination of VEGF and sVEGFR concentration in the serum of patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors may be applied as an additional marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16335673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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94. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • TREATMENT: She underwent surgical removal of the tumour.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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95. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt K, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):625-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors.
  • Most of the adrenal tumors that are incidentally detected are benign adenomas.
  • The incidence of malignant adrenal tumors including adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rather low.
  • As many patients with ACC and PAL are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, the overall survival time of both entities remains poor.
  • Unfortunately hitherto preoperative diagnosis of potentially malignant adrenal masses is still a main problem in the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • In both cases clinical and radiological features resulted in an initially false diagnosis.
  • The patient with ACC showed tumor progression with local and systemic recurrence despite adjuvant therapy with mitotane and additional surgical therapy.
  • We propose some guidelines for diagnosis and surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18490838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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96. Liao CH, Lai MK, Li HY, Chen SC, Chueh SC: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy using needlescopic instruments for adrenal tumors less than 5cm in 112 cases. Eur Urol; 2008 Sep;54(3):640-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy using needlescopic instruments for adrenal tumors less than 5cm in 112 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy with needlescopic instruments for most adrenal tumors less than 5cm.
  • METHODS: Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy with needlescopic instruments for 112 patients with presumptively benign adrenal tumors < 5cm were enrolled from July 2000 to February 2005.
  • Larger tumors, previous abdominal surgery, and pheochromocytoma group were independent risk factors of a longer operative time.
  • Except for one leiomyosarcoma, all other tumors were benign adrenal pathologies (57 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 23 Cushing's adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, and 20 incidentalomas).
  • CONCLUSION: The safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy employing needlescopic instruments for most adrenal tumors less than 5cm was feasible with acceptable operative time.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2008 Sep;54(3):493-5; author reply 495-7 [18281144.001]
  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2009 Jan;6(1):10-1 [19048004.001]
  • (PMID = 18164803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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97. Namour F, Ayav A, Lu X, Klein M, Muresan M, Bresler L, Tramoy D, Guéant JL, Brunaud L: Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1240-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland may give rise to pheochromocytomas, which are catecholamine-producing tumors originating from the adrenal medulla, or to adrenocortical tumors, which derive from the adrenocortical cortex and may be secreting or not.
  • The genetic mechanisms underlying the formation of these tumors include somatic mutations in susceptibility genes, especially in the familial forms, and allelic loss, especially in chromosome 1.
  • Microsatellite loci were analyzed in 32 benign tumors, including 11 pheochromocytomas and 21 adrenocortical tumors, in patients with and without familial syndrome.
  • No microsatellite instability was detected in any tumor.
  • A second patient with a MEN-2A syndrome and a two-sided pheochromocytoma exhibited a loss of heterozygosity for D2S123 in the right tumor only and a retention of heterozygosity for all markers in the left tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microsatellite instability, evaluated by the five reference markers of the National Cancer Institute, is not a feature of benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16715450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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98. Rossi GP, Sticchi D, Giuliani L, Bernante P, Zavattiero S, Pessina AC, Nussdorfer GG: Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas. Int J Mol Med; 2006 Jun;17(6):975-80
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  • [Title] Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating peptide that plays an important role in adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease.
  • The adrenal gland, by secreting glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones, intervenes in cardiovascular and glucose metabolism regulation and is surrounded by adipose tissue.
  • Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that adiponectin receptor types 1 and 2 (adipo-R1 and adipo-R2) are expressed in the human adrenal gland and in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa cell-derived aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) tissue.
  • We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate the mRNA of adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 in 10 histologically normal human adrenal cortexes that were obtained from patients with renal cancer undergoing nephrectomy with ipsilateral adrenalectomy and in 10 APAs.
  • Results consistently showed the expression of specific mRNAs of adiponectin receptors in all histologically normal human adrenal cortexes and APAs.
  • This novel finding suggests that adiponectin could play a regulatory role in adrenocortical function and growth in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16685404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADIPOR1 protein, human; 0 / ADIPOR2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Adiponectin; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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99. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • The immunohistochemical study of the excised tumour showed strong positive staining of interleukin (IL)-6.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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100. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
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  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF alpha were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, nonfunctioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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