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1. Takekoshi K, Isobe K, Kawakami Y: [Genetic diagnosis of pheochromocytoma]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Oct 10;97(10):2558-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Genetic diagnosis of pheochromocytoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19152461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5384
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Naika Gakkai zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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2. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.


3. Peppa M, Karamitopoulou E, Nikolopoulos P, Peros G, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):641-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of oncocytoma, a relatively rare adrenal tumor, which most commonly is detected as an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • METHODS: We present a case report, including laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings, of a 47-year-old obese woman who had hypertension and an incidentally found large, left adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of the hormonal evaluation, this mass was a nonsecreting adrenal tumor, which histologically proved to be an oncocytoma with borderline malignant characteristics.
  • A collective analysis of the few cases of adrenal oncocytoma published in the medical literature showed that our case corresponded to the previously published cases in preponderant location (left side) as well as the general size (11.4 cm in the largest dimension) and weight (372 g).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal oncocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas, especially if large tumors are detected.
  • In addition, a longterm follow-up is suggested because there are no certain clues about the true potential of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20061289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Joynt KE, Moslehi JJ, Baughman KL: Paragangliomas: etiology, presentation, and management. Cardiol Rev; 2009 Jul-Aug;17(4):159-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from the chromaffin cells of the sympathetic ganglia, and are known as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.
  • These tumors commonly present with episodic hypertension, tachycardia, headache, and diaphoresis, and can be either benign or malignant.
  • Diagnosis is made by serum and urine analysis for catecholamines and metanephrines, and confirmed with imaging studies including computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, or 123-I metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging.
  • Genetic testing should be offered to patients diagnosed with paraganglioma, particularly in patients who are young, have multiple tumors, or have a family history of malignancy.
  • The majority of these tumors are benign, but for patients with malignant disease, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy may provide modest benefit.
  • Long-term follow-up is essential, as paragangliomas can recur many years after initial diagnosis.
  • Ongoing research into the genetic underpinnings of this tumor may allow for more targeted molecular therapies in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19525677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4683
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiology in review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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5. Yu R, Nissen NN, Dhall D, Wei M: Pheochromocytoma in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis: management and clinical predictors. Endocr Pract; 2008 Nov;14(8):967-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis: management and clinical predictors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study clinical management of patients with suspected adrenal metastasis and to assess whether there are clinical predictors of pheochromocytoma in this patient population.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we reviewed medical records of patients who had adrenalectomy for adrenal lesions or had adrenal biopsy performed between January 1997 and July 2007 in a large academic hospital.
  • Patients who harbored adrenal masses that were suspected of being metastases were identified on clinical findings.
  • Pathologic diagnosis, demographic data, clinical history, imaging studies, and laboratory test results were reviewed and compared among patients whose adrenal mass was determined to be metastasis, adenoma, or pheochromocytoma.
  • RESULTS: One-hundred sixty-three patients had adrenalectomy or had adrenal biopsy during the study period.
  • Thirty patients (18%) had adrenal masses that were suspected of being metastases.
  • Of the adrenal masses, 18 (60%) were metastases, 8 (27%) were benign adenomas, and 4 (13%) were pheochromocytomas.
  • Adrenal biopsy was performed without biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma in 9 patients (30%), including 2 subsequently found to have this tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma occurs frequently in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis, but this tumor is often not considered in clinical practice.
  • The size and imaging characteristics of the adrenal mass and history of known metastasis may help clinicians in decision-making.
  • Biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma should ideally be performed in all patients suspected of having adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19095594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Umemoto S, Miyoshi Y, Nakaigawa N, Yao M, Takebayashi S, Kubota Y: Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):245-7
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  • [Title] Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan.
  • Heterotropic splenic tissue in renal fossa is characteristically asymptomatic and is usually an incidental finding that has been reported to mimic renal or adrenal tumors.
  • A 55-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma had undergone radical nephrectomy together with splenectomy because of disrupture of the splenic capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Splenosis / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Splenectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17430265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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7. Walz MK, Groeben H, Alesina PF: Single-access retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (SARA) versus conventional retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (CORA): a case-control study. World J Surg; 2010 Jun;34(6):1386-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Patients were matched with respect to gender, body mass index, diagnoses, tumor size, and tumor site.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20213204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Allwes D, Popovich ML: Empowering patients and researchers through a common health information registry: a case example of adrenocortical carcinoma patients and researchers. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2007;127:219-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical Carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that forms in the outer layer of tissue of the adrenal gland, which is a small gland situated on the anteriosuperior aspect of the kidneys.
  • These glands produce steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline that control heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions.
  • Because this cancer affects a limited number of patients, it is referred to as an Orphan disease, which is defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 people nationwide.
  • With a small number of patients, and a correspondingly small number of providers and researches, this disease is a candidate for establishing a shareable information system that is used by the patient, provider, and researcher.
  • Orphan disease registries are prime candidates for establishing health information resources that support communications between patients, providers, and researchers.
  • By empowering a common community of individuals that share a common disease, the potential to accelerate research and identify improved treatment options may also increase.
  • This paper presents a strategic plan and design for implementing Orphan disease registries within an e-health environment that specifically links patients and providers with researchers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Medical Informatics / organization & administration. Patient Participation. Registries. Research Personnel

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  • (PMID = 17901614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Hennings J, Hellman P, Ahlström H, Sundin A: Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography for evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):314-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography for evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Given the higher sensitivity of modern computed tomography (CT) scanners, adrenal incidentalomas are being discovered increasingly often.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and value of MTO-PET compared to CT and MRI in the characterisation and work-up of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Initially, we retrospectively evaluated 20 adrenal incidentalomas in patients who had undergone CT, MRI and MTO-PET and from whom we had either histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up data.
  • In the latter study, 24 incidentalomas were imaged by CT, MRI and MTO-PET and the results were correlated to those from histopathology (n=8) and clinical diagnosis after follow-up (n=16).
  • RESULTS: In the retrospective analysis, MRI and especially MTO-PET, correlated well to histopathology and clinical diagnosis after follow-up, whereas specificity with CT was low.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma may be established by CT in most patients and by MRI in an additional number.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18082990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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10. Miehle K, Kratzsch J, Lenders JW, Kluge R, Paschke R, Koch CA: Adrenal incidentaloma diagnosed as pheochromocytoma by plasma chromogranin A and plasma metanephrines. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1040-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma diagnosed as pheochromocytoma by plasma chromogranin A and plasma metanephrines.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Chromogranins / blood. Metanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromogranin A. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16483187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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11. Okamoto T, Suzuki Y, Sugiyama N, Kudo S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Kamimura N, Oyama C: [Ganglioneuroma with calcification mimicking adrenal tumor: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Nov;56(11):621-3
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  • [Title] [Ganglioneuroma with calcification mimicking adrenal tumor: a case report].
  • Computed tomography revealed a 30 mm solid tumor with calcification in the left adrenal gland and a 8 mm nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • Endocrinological examinations revealed no activity of either adrenal mass.
  • The left adrenal tumor was extirpated, because malignancy of the tumor was not ruled out.
  • Histopathological examination proved that the tumor was ganglioneuroma arising from the extra-adrenal retroperitoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21187706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Fukagawa H, Hashiguchi M, Ayabe Y, Ando T, Nakamura K: [Anesthetic management of undiagnosed pheochromocytoma: a case report]. Masui; 2008 Oct;57(10):1241-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 55-year-old man was scheduled for resection of an adrenal tumor under the diagnosis of a non-functioning adrenal tumor.
  • Abdominal computed tomography scans revealed a retroperitoneal abscess, which was subsequently drained effectively, and a right adrenal tumor.
  • Because of the almost normal plasma catecholamine concentration, the tumor was considered a nonfunctioning tumor.
  • However, when the surgeon manipulated the tumor during the operation, the patient's blood pressure increased suddenly to 240/120 mmHg.
  • After resection of the tumor, his blood pressure decreased to 80/40 mmHg, and the patient was treated with ephedrine, phenylephrine, and noradrenaline.
  • After surgery, the tumor was confirmed histopathologically as a pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18975540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; CZ5312222S / Nicardipine; Z468598HBV / Phentolamine
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13. Pillai D, Ross HA, Kratzsch J, Pedrosa W, Kema I, Hoad K, Rouaix N, Fathi M, Nader H, Mathian B, Grouzmann E: Proficiency test of plasma free and total metanephrines: report from a study group. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2009;47(6):786-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proficiency test of plasma free and total metanephrines: report from a study group.

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  • (PMID = 19445649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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14. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • The most reliable indicator of malignancy in these tumors remains the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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15. Henderson A, Douglas F, Perros P, Morgan C, Maher ER: SDHB-associated renal oncocytoma suggests a broadening of the renal phenotype in hereditary paragangliomatosis. Fam Cancer; 2009;8(3):257-60
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  • [Title] SDHB-associated renal oncocytoma suggests a broadening of the renal phenotype in hereditary paragangliomatosis.
  • Renal tumours are also increasingly being reported as component tumours in hereditary paragangliomatosis associated with mutations in SDHB.
  • We present the first reported case of a family in whom an individual shown to carry a mutation in SDHB developed a renal oncocytoma.
  • We review other reports of renal tumours associated with SDHB-associated hereditary paragangliomatosis and suggest that various histological subtypes of renal tumours are part of this condition.
  • This observation indicates that SDHB-associated hereditary paragangliomatosis is unlike most tumour predisposition syndromes associated with the development of renal tumours which are usually associated with specific histological sub-types.
  • The increasing recognition of the involvement of renal tumours in SDHB mutation carriers suggests that renal screening is likely to be valuable for these patients.
  • SDHB mutations should also be considered in the context of genetic testing when renal tumours, regardless of histopathology, present in families with other tumours consistent hereditary paraganglioma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Germ-Line Mutation. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Case-Control Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Male. Pedigree. Phenotype. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19184535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] Familial cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fam. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
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16. Dubois LA, Gray DK: Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytomas: in search of a syndrome. World J Surg; 2005 Jul;29(7):909-13
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  • Unlike norepinephrine-and epinephrine-secreting tumors, dopamine-secreting pheochromocytomas lack a classic clinical presentation and are often asymptomatic.
  • Urinary and serum metabolites cannot be relied on to make the diagnosis, and serum or urine dopamine levels (or both) must be measured when dealing with a potential pheochromocytoma.
  • Dopamine-secreting tumors are less likely to enhance with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning and may benefit from the use of positron emission tomography.
  • Metyrosine is a medication that can be useful for preoperative control of symptoms from these tumors.
  • The prognosis for patients with these tumors is worse than for those with an epinephrine- and norepinephrine-secreting tumor.
  • Because of their asymptomatic nature, dopamine-secreting pheochromocytomas tend to be detected later and are more likely to be malignant at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Dopamine / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15951922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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17. Sovinz P, Urban C, Uhrig S, Stepan V, Lackner H, Schwinger W, Benesch M, Moser A, Spuller E, Speicher MR: Pheochromocytoma in a 2.75-year-old-girl with a germline von Hippel-Lindau mutation Q164R. Am J Med Genet A; 2010 Jul;152A(7):1752-5
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  • Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of the adrenal gland occurring sporadically or as part of familial cancer syndromes.
  • Extended analyses of her relatives showed that the mutation occurred de novo in the patient's father who was subsequently diagnosed with bilateral pheochromocytomas and a retinal angioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20583150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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18. Szabó KG, Szentkereszty Z, Tóth LA, Damjanovich L, Sápy P: [Distal pancreas resection for metastasis of clear cell renal cancer]. Magy Seb; 2010 Aug;63(4):161-3
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  • [Title] [Distal pancreas resection for metastasis of clear cell renal cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Distant spread from renal cell carcinoma is commonly found in the liver and lung.
  • Metastatic involvement of any other gastro-intestinal organ (duodenum, other kidney, adrenal gland) is unexpected.
  • However, clear cell renal carcinoma is known to cause pancreatic metastasis.
  • METHODS: The authors present the case of a successfully operated 82- year-old man, who was operated for a metastatic tumor in his pancreas.
  • 8 years prior to his current hospitalization, a left sided nephrectomy was performed for renal cell carcinoma.
  • The CT scan revealed a tumor localised in the tail of the pancreas.
  • Histology revealed clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: pancreatic tumors are mostly primaries.
  • Renal cell carcinoma generally gives hepatic and pulmonary metastases.
  • However, clear cell renal carcinoma is known to give pancreatic metastasis, too.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatectomy / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20724240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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19. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • DESIGN: Pools of RNA from NA and APAs were hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays.
  • Data were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from NA (n = 20) and APAs (n = 18).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • RESULTS: LH/choriogonadotropin receptor gene and CYP11B2 are indicated as having greater than 25-fold expression in one pool of APA mRNA samples over NA using microarray analysis.
  • Real-time RT-PCR analyses indicated that one APA sample (APA-LH receptor) exhibited more than 2400-fold elevation in LH receptor expression over NA.
  • Examination of LH receptor mRNA levels in 18 independent APA samples indicated elevated expression in nine samples when compared with NA.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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20. Kopetschke R, Slisko M, Kilisli A, Tuschy U, Wallaschofski H, Fassnacht M, Ventz M, Beuschlein F, Reincke M, Reisch N, Quinkler M: Frequent incidental discovery of phaeochromocytoma: data from a German cohort of 201 phaeochromocytoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Aug;161(2):355-61
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma are chromaffin cell-derived tumours that are discovered due to classical symptom triad with headache, sweating and palpitations combined with persistent or paroxysmal hypertension.
  • OBJECTIVE: To specify the exact circumstances of discovery of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma.
  • MEDICAL: records of 201 patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma who were diagnosed between 1973 and 2007 were analyzed.
  • Patients with incidentally detected phaeochromocytoma were significantly older (53.1+/-1.9 vs 47.0+/-1.3 years; P<0.05) and often had less blood pressure peaks (37.0 vs 70.7%; P<0.001) than patients in whom the diagnosis was suspected on clinical grounds.
  • Of phaeochromocytomas 94.4% were intra-adrenal tumours, of which 12.9% were bilateral.
  • Bilateral tumours were significantly smaller than unilateral tumours (36.6+/-14.7 vs 52.5+/-34.3 mm; P<0.05), whereas extra-adrenal tumours had a mean diameter of 52.6+/-28.7 mm.
  • Every adrenal incidentaloma should be investigated for the presence of phaeochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 19497985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Waldmann J, Fendrich V, Holler J, Buchholz M, Heinmöller E, Langer P, Ramaswamy A, Samans B, Walz MK, Rothmund M, Bartsch DK, Slater EP: Microarray analysis reveals differential expression of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):743-56
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  • The diagnosis of a malignant pheochromocytoma (PC) can only be established by the presence of distant metastases, but a subset of apparently benign PCs develop metastases.
  • The reference consisted of laser microdissected tissue from normal adrenal medulla.
  • Comparative analysis by microarray of all ten PCs (benign/malignant) versus normal adrenal medulla revealed a more than twofold expression difference in 455/539 and 491/671 genes respectively.
  • Several of these genes are known to participate on adrenal tumorigenesis, potential tumor suppressor genes, and oncogenes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult


22. Ashida K, Akehi Y, Kudo T, Yanase T: [DHEA, DHEA-S]. Nihon Rinsho; 2010 Jul;68 Suppl 7:358-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Female. Humans. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / blood

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  • (PMID = 20960794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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23. Kumagai T, Nangaku M: [Endocrine diseases with hypomagnesemia]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 Sep 28;Suppl 3:553-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Humans. Hypoparathyroidism / complications. Inappropriate ADH Syndrome / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17022607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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24. Avery JK: Beginning in error. J Ark Med Soc; 2006 Sep;103(3):55-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Dissection / adverse effects. Intraoperative Complications. Liability, Legal. Malpractice. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16986760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1858
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ark Med Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Legal Cases
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Lacoste L: [Preparation of the perioperative environment in surgery for pheochromocytoma]. Ann Chir; 2005 Apr;130(4):264-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Préparation et environnement périopératoire dans la chirurgie du phéochromocytome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Perioperative Care. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


26. Suzuki S: [Glucose intolerance in endocrinopathies]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Feb;63 Suppl 2:274-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Animals. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 15779386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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27. Puwanant S, Click RL, Kalra M, Farley DR, Chandrasekaran K: Incidental detection of inferior vena caval dissection by intraoperative high frequency vascular duplex ultrasonography. Echocardiography; 2007 Mar;24(3):269-71
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  • We first report a case of IVC dissection detected by high frequency surface ultrasonography following tumor thrombectomy of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aged. Humans. Incidental Findings. Intraoperative Care. Male. Thrombectomy

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  • (PMID = 17313640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-2822
  • [Journal-full-title] Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Echocardiography
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Moinzadeh A, Gill IS: Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy for malignancy in 31 patients. J Urol; 2005 Feb;173(2):519-25
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  • Mean adrenal tumor size was 5 cm (range 1.8 to 9).
  • The pathological diagnoses were metastatic cancer in 26 cases and primary adrenal malignancy in 7.
  • Overall 15 patients (48%) died and 16 (52%) were alive, of whom 13 (42%) showed no evidence of disease.
  • Survival was similar in patients with tumors less than 5 cm vs 5 cm or greater.
  • Survival was not associated with patient age, tumor size, operative time or surgical approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy can be performed with acceptable outcomes in the carefully selected patient with a small, organ confined, solitary adrenal metastasis or primary adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15643237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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30. Koren J, Cunderlík P: [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):111-4
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoidný tumor pravej nadoblicky: kazuistika.
  • Adenomatoid tumor of adrenal gland is a very rare primary tumor with favourable prognosis.
  • The mesothelial origin of this tumor was confirmed by multiple studies of various authors.
  • In our case report, we present an interesting case of the adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 55-year-old woman.
  • Our case is the second well-documented case of this tumor occurring in a female adult patient.
  • We emphasize the presence of an intraluminal thread-like bridging strands, generally considered to be a characteristic histologic feature of this tumor, which have not yet been reported in literature in adenomatoid tumor located in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16161457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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31. Scholz T, Eisenhofer G, Pacak K, Dralle H, Lehnert H: Clinical review: Current treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Apr;92(4):1217-25
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  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of predominantly adrenal origin that often produce and secrete catecholamines.
  • Malignancy occurs in a variable percentage of cases depending on genetic background and tumor location.
  • Definitive diagnosis relies on the detection of distant metastases.
  • Any present or new therapeutic approach must take into account the highly variable natural course of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17284633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CVD protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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32. Cheung YW, Spevack DM: Single left ventricle and pheochromocytoma. Congenit Heart Dis; 2008 Sep-Oct;3(5):355-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Heart Defects, Congenital / complications. Heart Ventricles / abnormalities. Pheochromocytoma / complications


33. Michel LA, Donckier JE: Importance of secretion pattern in minimally invasive surgery for phaeochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Mar;66(3):455-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catecholamines / secretion. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Sep;65(3):352-8 [16918955.001]
  • (PMID = 17302884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
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34. Shchepotin IB, Zotov AS: [Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome]. Vopr Onkol; 2005;51(6):722-7
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  • [Title] [Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome].
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Pituitary Gland, Anterior. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17037044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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35. Snabboon T, Plengpanich W, Houngngam N, Buranasupkajorn P, Plengvidhya N, Sereepapong W, Sunthornyothin S, Shotelersuk V: Concurrent bilateral pheochromocytoma and thoracic paraganglioma during pregnancy. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):261-4
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  • After removal of both tumors, catecholamine levels unexpectedly and unexplainably remained elevated.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of three catecholamine-producing tumors occurring concurrently during a pregnancy.
  • Physicians who care for hypertensive pregnant patients should be aware of this condition as its diagnosis would probably lead to a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications. Paraganglioma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fetal Death. Humans. Pregnancy. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics


36. Wimpole JA, Adagra CF, Billson MF, Pillai DN, Foster DJ: Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma. J Feline Med Surg; 2010 Jun;12(6):435-40
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  • [Title] Plasma free metanephrines in healthy cats, cats with non-adrenal disease and a cat with suspected phaeochromocytoma.
  • Phaeochromocytomas are catecholamine-secreting tumours of the adrenal glands and are rare in cats.
  • In this study plasma free normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography in healthy cats, sick cats with non-adrenal disease and in a cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma.
  • Plasma normetanephrine was significantly higher in sick cats with non-adrenal disease compared to healthy cats (P<0.05) and markedly higher in the cat with a suspected phaeochromocytoma when compared to either group.
  • This study establishes a first-line guide reference range for plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine levels in healthy cats and cats with non-adrenal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Cat Diseases / blood. Cats / blood. Metanephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / veterinary. Chronic Disease / epidemiology. Female. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Reference Values. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20159659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2750
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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37. Krawczyk A, Hasse-Lazar K, Pawlaczek A, Szpak-Ulczok S, Krajewska J, Paliczka-Cieślak E, Jurecka-Lubieniecka B, Roskosz J, Chmielik E, Ziaja J, Cierpka L, Peczkowska M, Preibisz A, Januszewicz A, Otto M, Jarzab B: Germinal mutations of RET, SDHB, SDHD, and VHL genes in patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):43-8
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  • INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are derived from neural crest cells and are localized mainly in adrenal medulla and sympathetic or parasympathetic ganglia.
  • Clinical presentation can sometimes be atypical and does not always allow proper diagnosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed DNA from 60 patients diagnosed and treated in the Centre of Oncology with a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show that genetic predisposition is frequent in chromaffin tissue tumours, which indicates that DNA analysis is necessary in every case, also because of possible atypical clinical presentation. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 43-48).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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38. Del Pizzo JJ: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children. Curr Urol Rep; 2006 Jan;7(1):68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16480674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2737
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Morton AP: Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma. Med J Aust; 2005 Sep 5;183(5):279; author reply 279
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  • [Title] Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / therapy. Norepinephrine / urine. Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / diagnosis. Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / etiology. Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / urine

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  • [CommentOn] Med J Aust. 2005 Jun 20;182(12):637-40 [15963022.001]
  • (PMID = 16138810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-729X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Australia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Aust.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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40. Ozgursoy OB, Yorulmaz I, Tulunay O: Rapid and unusual spread of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. B-ENT; 2008;4(4):233-8
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  • It is a high-grade tumour with a propensity for nodal and systemic metastases.
  • In this report, we present the aggressive course of a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus in a 28-year-old patient who died only four months after the initial diagnosis.
  • We describe the unusual spread of the disease to the scalp, pancreas, kidney, adrenal gland, ovaries, lungs and bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / secondary. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19227029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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41. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt KK, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Med Res; 2008 May 26;13(5):221-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - a case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PAL) is a rare neoplastic disease.
  • Clinical symptoms are often related to the presence of lymphoma or adrenal insufficieny.
  • In case of suspicious PAL, percutaneous CT or US-guided needle biopsy is recommended to rapidly establish diagnosis before starting chemotherapy.
  • Five months after surgery, the patient died due to progressive tumor disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18559306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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42. Zhou W, Ding SF: Concurrent pheochromocytoma, ventricular tachycardia, left ventricular thrombus, and systemic embolization. Intern Med; 2009;48(12):1015-9
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  • An obese 43-year-old female with a right adrenal pheochromocytoma is described.
  • During the hospitalization, the left ventricular thrombus was detached, leading to renal infarction and embolic occlusion of the femoral arteries bilaterally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Embolism / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Tachycardia, Ventricular / complications. Thrombosis / complications


43. Tong AL, Zeng ZP, Yang D, Li HZ, Li M: [Clinical analysis of 25 patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Oct;44(10):751-4
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  • RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was (32 +/- 14) years.
  • 19 cases (76%) were familiar type, and among the 19 cases, 13 cases were multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), 5 cases von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease and 1 case of isolated familial pheochromocytomas.
  • In the 25 patients, bilateral pheochromocytomas were discovered at the same time in 88%, and multiple tumors existed in at least one side of the adrenal gland in 56%.
  • During operation for bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple tumors in one side should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16255883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1426
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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44. Karmisholt J: [Adrenal gland tumor biopsy]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Mar 16;171(12):1015; author reply 1015
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumor biopsy].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Jan 26;171(5):306-8 [19176156.001]
  • (PMID = 19306484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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45. Huang TW, Tzao C, Chen DW, Tsai WC, Cheng YL, Lee SC: Lung cancer with isolated skip metastasis to an abdominal lymph node. Onkologie; 2007 Jul;30(7):375-7
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  • The preferential sites of extrapulmonary spread include lymph nodes, liver, brain, adrenal gland, and bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Biopsy. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lung / diagnostic imaging. Lung / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2007 Jul;30(7):352 [17596742.001]
  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2008 Dec;31(12):708 [19060511.001]
  • (PMID = 17596746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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46. Silva J, Cachulo Mdo C, Leitão-Marques A: Secondary hypertension to rare adrenal gland tumor. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2010 Dec;95(6):e144-7
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  • [Title] Secondary hypertension to rare adrenal gland tumor.
  • The ganglioneuroma is a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system and may be associated with hypersecretion of vasoactive substances responsible for various symptoms and signs such as hypertension.
  • The authors report a case of ganglioneuroma and a literature review, focusing on the most important aspects of diagnosis and therapy.
  • The patient had recurrent symptomatic hypertensive crises, having performed an imaging study that found a nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • As neuroblastic tumors are radiologically undistinguishable, the patient underwent excision, confirming the diagnosis by pathology analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Ganglioneuroma / complications. Hypertension / etiology


47. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • These tumors arise from tissues with distinct embryonic origins.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • Patients with adrenocortical tumors may develop ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, mineralocorticoid excess, and androgen hypersecretion.
  • The tumors are frequently large enough to provide material for biological studies in addition to diagnostic investigations.
  • In France many patients with hypersecretory tumors are referred to the Hypertension Unit of Georges Pompidou European Hospital, and to the Department of Endocrinology at Cochin Hospital, Paris.
  • In 1993, the heads of these departments created the COMETE network (COrtico et MEdullo-surrénale, les Tumeurs Endocrines).
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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48. Van Braeckel P, Carlier S, Steelant PJ, Weyne L, Vanfleteren L: Perioperative management of phaeochromocytoma. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg; 2009;60(1):55-66
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  • Phaeochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine producing tumour, feared for its life threatening cardiovascular disturbances during anaesthesia.
  • Stress related or (inverted) Tako Tsubo cardiomyopathy is a recent finding, deserving our attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia, General / methods. Perioperative Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19459556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5164
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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49. Dober I, Stranzinger E, Kellenberger CJ, Huisman TA: [Periorbital ecchymosis--trauma or tumor?]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 May 16;96(20):811-4
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  • [Title] [Periorbital ecchymosis--trauma or tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Säugling mit Brillenhämatom - Trauma oder Tumor?
  • Neuroblastoma is the second most frequent solid tumor in infancy.
  • Prognosis of neuroblastoma depends on various factors including initial tumor staging, tumor biology and the child's age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ecchymosis / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Orbital Diseases / etiology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Bone Marrow / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17566417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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50. Timmers HJ, Hadi M, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Martiniova L, Whatley M, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Adams KT, Pacak K: The effects of carbidopa on uptake of 6-18F-Fluoro-L-DOPA in PET of pheochromocytoma and extraadrenal abdominal paraganglioma. J Nucl Med; 2007 Oct;48(10):1599-606
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  • 6-(18)F-fluoro-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET is a useful tool for the detection of certain neuroendocrine tumors, especially with the preadministration of carbidopa, an inhibitor of DOPA decarboxylase.
  • Whether carbidopa also improves (18)F-DOPA PET of adrenal pheochromocytomas and extraadrenal paragangliomas is unknown.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of (18)F-DOPA PET in the detection of paraganglioma and its metastatic lesions and to evaluate whether tracer uptake by the tumors is enhanced by carbidopa.
  • METHODS: Two patients with nonmetastatic adrenal pheochromocytoma, and 9 patients with extraadrenal abdominal paraganglioma (1 nonmetastatic, 8 metastatic), underwent whole-body CT, MRI, baseline (18)F-DOPA PET, and (18)F-DOPA PET with oral preadministration of 200 mg of carbidopa.
  • Carbidopa increased the mean (+/-SD) peak standardized uptake value in index tumor lesions from 6.4 +/- 3.9 to 9.1 +/- 5.6 (P = 0.037).
  • Pancreatic physiologic (18)F-DOPA uptake, which may mask adrenal pheochromocytoma, is blocked by carbidopa.
  • CONCLUSION: Carbidopa enhances the sensitivity of (18)F-DOPA PET for adrenal pheochromocytomas and extraadrenal abdominal paragangliomas by increasing the tumor-to-background ratio of tracer uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Carbidopa. Dihydroxyphenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2007 Oct;48(10):1577-9 [17909255.001]
  • (PMID = 17873132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine; MNX7R8C5VO / Carbidopa
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51. Sahdev A, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal mass in patients with cancer. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7 Spec No A:S100-9
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  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal mass in patients with cancer.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are frequently detected.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as benign adrenal masses such as myelolipomas, lipid-rich adenomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage which have pathognomonic imaging findings.
  • We review the recent advances in CT, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) which can be used to distinguish between benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17921094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2727974
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52. Guerrieri M, Campagnacci R, De Sanctis A, Baldarelli M, Coletta M, Perretta S: The learning curve in laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jun;31(6):531-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for surgical management of most adrenal tumors.
  • LA learning curve (LC) varies among surgeons and may be influenced by factors depending on surgeon, patient, and lesion peculiarities.
  • METHODS: Between August 1994 and August 2005, 241 LA were performed in our department.
  • The pre-operative variables evaluated were patient-related (age, gender, body mass index, co-morbidities) and disease-related (histology, size, and side of lesion).
  • Flank approached and bilateral procedures were excluded, while submesocolic LA, were collected separately.
  • Mean OpT for right and left LA was 83 and 109 min, respectively.
  • Based on surgical experience increase, the OpT and CR flattened their curves, roughly at 30 and 40 procedures for right and left LA, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Manifold factors may affect LC and outcome in LA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Body Mass Index. Endocrinology / education. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18591886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Frazzetta M, Tornambè A, Barrera T, Sciortino A, Lucania M, Frazzetta F, Sammartano A, Bonventre S, Vetri R: [Adrenal incidentaloma: case report and synthesis of indication and thresholds of surgery therapy]. G Chir; 2010 Nov-Dec;31(11-12):534-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: case report and synthesis of indication and thresholds of surgery therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso di incidentaloma surrenalico: sintesi delle indicazioni e limiti della terapia chirurgica.
  • In 1982, the term "incidentaloma" was introduced to indicate lesions detected on adrenal regions, found unexpectedly.
  • Incidentalomas with diameters under 1 cm seem to not have a pathologic significance, and are considered like manifestation of the gland involution in advanced-age subjects, and can remain unseen for a long time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


54. Barriales-Villa VR, Ortiz MF, De la Hera JM: Stress cardiomyopathy or Takotsubo syndrome. Heart; 2009 Nov;95(22):1880
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Catecholamines / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism


55. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Adrenal ganglioneuroma. Am J Surg; 2007 Nov;194(5):683-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • BACKGROUND: A 20-year-old man was referred after having been discovered a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma or carcinoma.
  • Pathological examination after adrenalectomy concluded it was an adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • We studied the characteristics of adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed hormonal status, computed tomography and MRI features, and histological findings of our series of 8 adrenal ganglioneuromas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even if many aggressive tumors share some of those radiological features, the presence of all or most of them must lead the clinician to consider the diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17936435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Mac Gregor Gooch AL, Guillermina Velasco Diaz G, Carranza Lira S: [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 May;73(5):261-4
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma suprarrenal virilizante: comunicación de un caso.
  • Androgen excess can be due to different entities such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors or adrenal tumors.
  • The CAT scan and nuclear magnetic imaging of adrenal glands showed an oval retroperitoneal image of 7.2 x 6.5 x 8.4 cm at the right adrenal gland.
  • Surgery was performed and the right adrenal gland excised.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21966765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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57. Haile DT, Arendt KW, Flick RP: The intraoperative management of a patient with fontan physiology and an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. Paediatr Anaesth; 2008 Apr;18(4):353-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fontan Procedure / methods. Intraoperative Care / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18315660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric anaesthesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Anaesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 169D1260KM / Nitroprusside; 1WS297W6MV / Phenylephrine; DCR9Z582X0 / Epoprostenol; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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58. Iacconi P, Donatini G, Iacconi C, De Bartolomeis C, Cucinotta M, Puccini M, Miccoli P: Unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region in a series of 420 patients submitted to adrenal surgery. Review of our experience. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Oct;31(10):873-6
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  • [Title] Unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region in a series of 420 patients submitted to adrenal surgery. Review of our experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is reported to be up to 30% in the current literature; nevertheless, in some patients undergoing surgery, a final diagnosis of non-adrenal origin of the mass is performed.
  • In this paper we present our experience of 13 patients with unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region.
  • Pre-operative diagnosis was: incidentaloma (34.0% of patients), Conn's adenoma (29.0%), Cushing's adenoma (13.9%), pheochromocytoma (8.8%), suspicious metastasis (7.3%), Cushing's disease (6.0%), other (1.0%).
  • RESULTS: Final histology revealed an unexpected diagnosis of non-adrenal origin of the mass in 13 patients (3.1%).
  • Histology demonstrated a benign neurogenic tumor in 10 patients.
  • In the other 3 patients diagnosis was respectively of lymphnode, hemangioma and a gastric metastasis of melanoma.
  • Mean operative time in this group was higher compared to laparoscopic resection for adrenal lesion (95.3 min vs 73.2 min).
  • CONCLUSION: A small percentage of our patients (3.1%) demonstrated unexpected findings of the lesion pre-operatively misinterpreted as an adrenal mass.
  • Despite a complete pre-operative assessment, adrenal lesions might reveal a different origin, increasing the surgical challenge as well as the morbidity for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Laparoscopy. Male. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19092291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Tan YY, Ogilvie JB, Triponez F, Caron NR, Kebebew EK, Clark OH, Duh QY: Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):879-85; discussion 886-7
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  • [Title] Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that routine adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is necessary to lateralize an aldosterone-producing adenoma in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • RESULTS: Altogether, 65 patients were included in the study, 52 (80%) of whom had their adrenal tumors lateralized based on computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 16680603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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60. Lin J, Wasco MJ, Korobkin M, Doherty G, Giordano TJ: Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(4):239-43
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature.
  • A 31-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a large right adrenal mass by computed tomography imaging and underwent a workup that included endocrinological evaluation and positron emission tomography imaging.
  • Because of concern for adrenal cortical carcinoma, the patient underwent a successful right adrenalectomy.
  • The diagnosis of leiomyoma was supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains.
  • Adrenal leiomyomas have been reported in the literature, although most are small and not preoperatively suspicious for malignancy.
  • This case illustrates that benign tumors such as leiomyomas, when large and heterogeneous on imaging, can clinically mimic adrenal cortical carcinomas and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Incidental Findings. Leiomyoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18197480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Rubio E, González J, Jimenéz M, Lucena JL, Gimenez L, Martinez Arrieta F, Cuervas-Mons V, Turrión VS: Right adrenal metastases of hepatocarcinoma after liver transplantation: case report and literature review. Transplant Proc; 2009 Apr;41(3):1067-9
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  • [Title] Right adrenal metastases of hepatocarcinoma after liver transplantation: case report and literature review.
  • Although the treatment of extrahepatic metastases from primary liver tumors is essentially palliative, a solitary metastasis from such tumors offers a possibility of cure by surgical resection.
  • The adrenal gland is an uncommon site for metastasis from primary liver tumors.
  • Three years posttransplantation, a right adrenal mass was identified by CT.
  • PAAF was performed as well as adrenalectomy for a solitary adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent adrenalectomy for the right adrenal metastasis at 3 years following liver transplantation for HCC.
  • He is presently alive and disease-free 24 months after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Everolimus. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


62. Amar L, Baudin E, Burnichon N, Peyrard S, Silvera S, Bertherat J, Bertagna X, Schlumberger M, Jeunemaitre X, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Plouin PF: Succinate dehydrogenase B gene mutations predict survival in patients with malignant pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Oct;92(10):3822-8
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  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas may be malignant either at presentation or during recurrence, but the clinical course of malignant tumors is unpredictable.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyze survival according to clinical characteristics at diagnosis of malignancy and the presence or absence of SDHB mutations.
  • SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 54 patients with malignant tumors were included.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was the specific survival after the diagnosis of the first metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Germline mutations were identified in SDHB (n = 23, including 21 patients with apparent sporadic tumors) and VHL (n = 1) genes, and two patients had neurofibromatosis 1.
  • Patients were followed up from the diagnosis of primary tumor and from the diagnosis of the first metastasis to the present or to death with medians of 79 [interquartile range (IQR) 24; 190] and 39 [IQR 14; 94] months, respectively.
  • The 5-yr probability of survival after the diagnosis of the first metastasis was 0.55 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.69).
  • Patients with SDHB mutations were younger, more frequently had extra-adrenal tumors, and had a shorter metanephrine excretion doubling time.
  • Therefore, SDHB genetic testing may be of prognostic value for such patients, even those with an apparent sporadic and/or benign presentation at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17652212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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63. Okura T, Miyoshi K, Watanabe S, Kurata M, Irita J, Manabe S, Fukuoka T, Higaki J, Sasano H: Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Jun;10(2):127-30
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  • [Title] Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance image revealed three sequential nodular masses (each 15 mm x 15 mm) in the right adrenal gland.
  • The three removed tumors appeared to have different characteristics.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the upper and lower tumors were adrenocortical adenomas, and the middle tumor was a black adenoma.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for the enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis suggested that the upper tumor secreted aldosterone, whereas either or both of the two other tumors secreted cortisol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged


64. Masunaga K, Inadome A, Sugiyama Y, Maeda Y, Satoji Y, Takahashi W, Yoshida M, Ueda S, Ikeda K, Takano Y, Yatsuda J: [Bilateral pheochromocytomas with von Hippel-Lindau disease: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Nov;98(7):843-7
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  • [Title] [Bilateral pheochromocytomas with von Hippel-Lindau disease: a case report].
  • A case of bilateral pheochromocytomas with von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) is reported.
  • Computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal tumors and noradrenalin levels in serum and urine were elevated.
  • 131I-MIBG scintigraphy showed accumulation in bilateral adrenal glands.
  • Bilateral adrenalectomies and left nephrectomy were performed because tumor thrombus extended into the left renal vein, and pathological diagnosis was pheochromocytoma.
  • His sister had been diagnosed as VHL disease.
  • We diagnosed the patient as VHL disease because of the existence of cerebellar and spinal hemangioblastomas, bilateral pheochromocytomas, missense mutation and his family history.
  • This is the eleventh case of bilateral pheochromocytomas with VHL disease reported in Japanese literatures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / complications. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18062217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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65. Simforoosh N, Majidpour HS, Basiri A, Ziaee SA, Behjati S, Beigi FM, Aminsharifi A: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: 10-year experience, 67 procedures. Urol J; 2008;5(1):50-4
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  • RESULTS: Indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy in our patients were as follows: pheochromocytoma in 28 patients (41.8%), aldosterone-producing adenoma in 15 (22.4%), pseudocyst in 6 (9.0%), Cushing syndrome (macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia) in 5 (7.5%), nonfunctioning adenoma (incidentaloma) in 5 (7.5%), myelolipoma in 2 (3.0%), almost normal adrenal tissue in 2 (3.0%), adrenal cyst in 2 (3.0%), adenocarcinoma in 1 (1.4%), and schwannoma in 1 (1.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe procedure in some adrenal tumors and a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18454428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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66. Nishikawa T: How many distinct tumors can exist simultaneously in a unilateral adrenal gland, and are they hormonally active or inactive? Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Jun;10(2):162-3
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  • [Title] How many distinct tumors can exist simultaneously in a unilateral adrenal gland, and are they hormonally active or inactive?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Exp Nephrol. 2006 Jun;10(2):127-30 [16791399.001]
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  • (PMID = 16791407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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67. Linder B, Hong Y, Jarrett T: Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass. Int J Urol; 2009 Nov;16(11):912-4
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  • [Title] Intra-renal adrenal adenoma: a compelling addition to the differential diagnosis of renal mass.
  • We report a case of an adrenal rest arising in the kidney of a 37-year-old male.
  • Laparoscopic renal exploration and biopsy revealed angiomyolipoma on frozen section.
  • However, final pathological analysis of the partial nephrectomy specimen revealed intra-renal adrenal adenoma.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistries and transmission electron microscopy.
  • We review the reported literature on intra-renal adrenal adenoma and highlight the aspects that raise the index of suspicion for this entity on the differential diagnosis of renal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19863627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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68. Salman T, Seker M, Bilici A, Basak-Oven Ustaalioglu B, Gumus M, Yaylaci M: Lung cancer presenting with extreme leukocytosis. J BUON; 2010 Jan-Mar;15(1):193
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Leukocytosis / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20414953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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69. Legierska K, Janowska M, Szewieczek J, Duława J: [Clinical characteristics of 33 patients with adrenal incidentaloma]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):790-6
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of 33 patients with adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza kliniczna 33 chorych z bezobjawowym guzem nadnerczy (incidentaloma).
  • Incidentally diagnosed, clinically asymptomatic adrenal masses (incidentaloma) have become more and more common problem in everyday clinical practice.
  • The prevalence of such tumors is 2.3% in autopsy series and 0.5-2% in computed tomography series.
  • The aim of the study was a clinical analysis of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, hospitalized in the Department of Internal and Metabolic Diseases of the Medical University of Silesia.
  • The tumor was located in the right adrenal gland in 13 patients (39.4%) and in the left adrenal gland in 16 patients (48.5%).
  • 4 patients (12.1%) demonstrated bilateral adrenal masses.
  • At least one of the tumor sizes was greater than 40 mm in 3 patients (9.1%).
  • CONCLUSION: Clinically asymptomatic adrenal tumors occurred more frequently in overweight or obese women, between 51-70 years old, with lipid disorders and hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17427493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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70. Zerikly RK, Eray E, Faiman C, Prayson R, Lorenz RR, Weil RJ, Hamrahian AH: Cyclic Cushing syndrome due to an ectopic pituitary adenoma. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Mar;5(3):174-9
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  • His medical history included a left foot fracture associated with minimal trauma 2 years earlier, hypertension, and stable Crohn disease with no use of exogenous glucocorticoids for at least 10 years.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Cyclic Cushing syndrome secondary to an ectopic pituitary adenoma.
  • His adrenal function normalized 3 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19107133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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71. Rao S, Patel A, Levin K, Lu M, Garbarino K, Myers D, Walker EM, Ryu S, Ho Kim J, Movsas B: How often are previously undetected radiographic abnormalities detected at the time of CT simulation for breast cancer patients? Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):262-4
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  • The purpose of this analysis was to determine the percentage of cases in which a previously undetected radiographic finding was found on review of CT simulation images by diagnostic radiology.
  • Of these, 31 patients (or 60% of the abnormal findings) were deemed by diagnostic radiology to have potentially significant findings (e.g., "can not exclude metastatic disease"), and a follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging scan was recommended.
  • Abnormalities in this category included previously undetected lung nodules, liver lesions, kidney/adrenal lesions, and sclerotic bony lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Computer Simulation. Diagnostic Errors. Incidental Findings. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Bone and Bones / radiography. Cysts / radiography. False Negative Reactions. Female. Granuloma / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / radiography. Humans. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Mediastinum / radiography. Middle Aged. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / radiography. Myxoma / radiography. Thyroid Diseases / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19823073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Mason LD, Prentice WM, Whitelaw BC: An unusual case of severe constipation due to metastatic pheochromocytoma. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2009 Jun;37(6):e5-7
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Constipation / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colectomy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis


73. Noppers IM, Zijlstra JG: Undulating blood pressure. Neth J Med; 2008 May;66(5):212, 214
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Blood Pressure. Female. Humans. Labetalol / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Phenoxybenzamine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18490800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine; R5H8897N95 / Labetalol
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74. Umeoka S, Koyama T, Saga T, Higashi T, Ito N, Kamoto T, Kotani H, Ogawa O, Togashi K: High 18F-fluorodeoxyglocose uptake in adrenal histoplasmosis; a case report. Eur Radiol; 2005 Dec;15(12):2483-6
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  • [Title] High 18F-fluorodeoxyglocose uptake in adrenal histoplasmosis; a case report.
  • Adrenal histoplasmosis is one of the most common adrenal granulomatous infections in endemic areas.
  • Although CT or MRI findings of adrenal histoplasmosis have been documented, there are no reports regarding 18F-fluorodeoxyglocose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) findings.
  • We report a case of bilateral adrenal histoplasmosis showing a significantly high uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglocose on PET study.
  • Adrenal histoplasmosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in cases of adrenal tumors with intense FDG uptake, even in non-endemic areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Histoplasmosis / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aged. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 15711835.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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75. National Toxicology Program: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) (CAS No. 31508-00-6) in female harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2010 Nov;(559):1-174
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  • Numerous nonneoplastic effects were seen in other organs including: adrenal cortical atrophy and cytoplasmic vacuolization, pancreatic acinar cell cytoplasmic vacuolization and arterial chronic active inflammation, follicular cell hypertrophy of the thyroid gland, inflammation and respiratory epithelial hyperplasia of the nose, and kidney pigmentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this 2-year gavage study, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCB 118 in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats based on increased incidences of neoplasms of the liver (cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocholangioma, and hepatocellular adenoma) and cystic keratinizing epithelioma of the lung.
  • Occurrences of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterus and acinar neoplasms of the pancreas may have been related to administration of PCB 118.
  • Administration of PCB 118 caused increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the liver, lung, adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid gland, nose, and kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced. Polychlorinated Biphenyls / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 21383778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31508-00-6 / 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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76. Mannelli M, Castellano M, Schiavi F, Filetti S, Giacchè M, Mori L, Pignataro V, Bernini G, Giachè V, Bacca A, Biondi B, Corona G, Di Trapani G, Grossrubatscher E, Reimondo G, Arnaldi G, Giacchetti G, Veglio F, Loli P, Colao A, Ambrosio MR, Terzolo M, Letizia C, Ercolino T, Opocher G, Italian Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Network: Clinically guided genetic screening in a large cohort of italian patients with pheochromocytomas and/or functional or nonfunctional paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 May;94(5):1541-7
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  • Patients were divided into different groups according to their family history, the presence of lesions outside adrenals/paraganglia considered syndromic for VHL disease, MEN2, and NF1, and the number and types of pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas.
  • RESULTS: Germline mutations were detected in 32.1% of cases, but frequencies varied widely depending on the classification criteria and ranged from 100% in patients with associated syndromic lesions to 11.6% in patients with a single tumor and a negative family history.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19223516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Investigator] Mariotti S; Montalto A; Parenti G; Ragghianti B; Zampetti B; Pacini F; Nassi R; Fagiano A; Milone F; Cordisco EL; Demattè S; Cecchini E; Bertola G; Giambona S; Milanese G; Bertuccio A; Pierani P; Fabrizzi B; Grego F; Piazza M; Trabalzini F; Toniato A; Boschin IM; Agliozzo E; Tiberio G; Nicolai P; Mulatero P; Sechi L
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77. Schaaf L, Pickel J, Zinner K, Hering U, Höfler M, Goretzki PE, Spelsberg F, Raue F, von zur Mühlen A, Gerl H, Hensen J, Bartsch DK, Rothmund M, Schneyer U, Dralle H, Engelbach M, Karges W, Stalla GK, Höppner W: Developing effective screening strategies in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) on the basis of clinical and sequencing data of German patients with MEN 1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Sep;115(8):509-17
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  • [Title] Developing effective screening strategies in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) on the basis of clinical and sequencing data of German patients with MEN 1.
  • BACKGROUND: Multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1 (MEN1) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP), adenomas of the pituitary gland (APA), adrenal cortical tumors (ADR) and other tumors.
  • As the tumors appear in an unpredictable schedule, uncertainty about screening programs is persisting.
  • RESULTS: A total of 683 tumors occurred consisting of 273 pHPT, 138 APA, 166 GEP, 57 ADR, 24 thymic- and bronchial-carcinoids as well as 25 neoplasms of other tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the morbidity and frequency in familial cases an effective screening programme should aim at an early diagnosis of GEP particularly when truncating, especially nonsense mutations are found.
  • [MeSH-major] Mass Screening / methods. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / epidemiology


78. Shibata H: [Deoxycorticosterone-producing adrenal tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:641-4
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  • [Title] [Deoxycorticosterone-producing adrenal tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Desoxycorticosterone / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Hyponatremia / etiology. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Renin / deficiency. Spironolactone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16776237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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79. Dortzbach K, Gainsburg DM, Frost EA: Variants of pheochromocytoma and their anesthetic implications--a case report and literature review. Middle East J Anaesthesiol; 2010 Oct;20(6):897-905
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia, General / methods. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anesthetics, Inhalation. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Fentanyl. Humans. Isoflurane. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Nitrous Oxide. Oxygen / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications. Young Adult. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 21526682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0544-0440
  • [Journal-full-title] Middle East journal of anaesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Middle East J Anaesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Lebanon
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Inhalation; 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; CYS9AKD70P / Isoflurane; K50XQU1029 / Nitrous Oxide; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; UF599785JZ / Fentanyl
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80. Gaujoux S, Lentschener C: Re: Weingarten et al.: Comparison of two preoperative medical management strategies for laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma (Urology 2010;76:508). Urology; 2010 Dec;76(6):1526; author reply 1526-7
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Preoperative Care / methods

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  • [CommentOn] Urology. 2010 Aug;76(2):508.e6-11 [20546874.001]
  • (PMID = 21130264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Comparative Study; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
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81. Somekh NN, Finkielstein D: A mother/daughter case of familial hyperaldosteronism. Clin Cardiol; 2010 Dec;33(12):E68-9
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  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / blood. Blood Pressure / genetics. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Heredity. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / genetics. Hypertension / physiopathology. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Phenotype. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20865750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8737
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Cardiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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82. Ueberberg B, Tourne H, Redmann A, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):722-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) is a widely distributed peptide with growth-inhibiting effects in various tumors.
  • We investigated expression of the five ssts in various adrenal tumors and in normal adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal tissue surrounding the tumor was available for analysis in twenty-seven cases.
  • Expression of all five receptor subtypes was observed in RNA obtained from normal adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, each receptor subtype was expressed in more than 50 % of all tumors analyzed.
  • No sst5 expression was found in PHEOs, while sst1 was present in nearly all of these tumors.
  • Differential expression of ssts in various adrenal tumors may point to new aspects in the pathogenesis of these adenomas.
  • New subtype specific analogues of SRIF may be used in the future depending on the type of adrenal tumor and receptor subtype expressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Horm Metab Res. 2006 Sep;38(9):617. Redman, A [corrected to Redmann, A]
  • (PMID = 16372224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Boutros J, Bond M, Beaudry P, Blair GK, Skarsgard ED: Case selection in minimally invasive surgical treatment of neuroblastoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Oct;24(10):1177-80
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  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate a retrospective cohort of NB patients who underwent MIS resection of their primary tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of NB patients who underwent MIS resection of their primary tumors over a 3-year period was undertaken.
  • Six of the eight (75%) tumors were adrenal in origin and the remainder were located in the posterior mediastinum.
  • One stage 4 tumor was N-myc amplified.
  • All stage 4 patients experienced a >50% tumor volume cytoreduction in response to preoperative chemotherapy.
  • All eight patients were alive and disease-free at a median 18-month follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With appropriate preoperative case selection based on anatomic features, MIS tumor resection in patients with NB can be performed safely and effectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18716783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Somana S, Marilier S, Mazen E, de la Vega MF, Camus A, Popitean L, Pfitzenmeyer P, Pfitzenmeyer P, Manckoundia P: Psychobehavioral disorders, orthostatic hypotension, and falls related to a pheochromocytoma in a very elderly subject: a case report. J Am Geriatr Soc; 2010 Aug;58(8):1611-2
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  • [MeSH-major] Accidental Falls. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypotension, Orthostatic / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


85. Gaillard S, Meyer P: [The adrenal incidentaloma: disease of modern era]. Rev Med Suisse; 2009 Apr 8;5(198):774-8
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  • [Title] [The adrenal incidentaloma: disease of modern era].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalome surrénalien: maladie des temps modernes.
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is a mass of the adrenal gland discovered incidentally during a radiologic exam.
  • Adrenal mass are nowadays a common medical problem due to the increasing frequency of radiological exams of the abdomen and the increased resolution and quality of these exams.
  • Radiologic criteria can help to distinguish between malignant or benign tumor.
  • Surgery is indicated in the presence of a functional tumor or if there is a suspicion of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings

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  • (PMID = 19418979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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86. Hennings J, Lindhe O, Bergström M, Långström B, Sundin A, Hellman P: [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1410-4
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  • [Title] [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19).
  • The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection.
  • Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative.
  • SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC.
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors.
  • MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Antineoplastic Agents. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16403816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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87. Yau JS, Li JK, Tam VH, Fung LM, Yeung CK, Chan KW, Lee KM, Lee KF, Cheung WS, Yeung VT, Yuen YP, Kwan WK: Phaeochromocytoma in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Hong Kong Med J; 2010 Aug;16(4):252-6
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  • The diagnosis post-presentation was delayed by 1 to 132 months.
  • Computed tomography and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy were the most widely used means for tumour localisation (sensitivity, 100% and 87% respectively).
  • Approximately 65% of the patients had intra-adrenal tumours; 53% were on right side, 18% were bilateral.
  • CONCLUSION: Our series of patients with phaeochromocytomas commonly had a high frequency of normotension and extra-adrenal tumours.
  • A high index of clinical suspicion and appropriate biochemical investigations are necessary to make the diagnosis, especially for patients manifesting adrenal incidentaloma and extra-adrenal lesion.

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  • (PMID = 20683066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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88. Park BK, Kim CK, Kwon GY, Kim JH: Re-evaluation of pheochromocytomas on delayed contrast-enhanced CT: washout enhancement and other imaging features. Eur Radiol; 2007 Nov;17(11):2804-9
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  • [MeSH-major] Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17549484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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89. Berrebi D, Lebras MN, Belarbi N, Couturier J, Fattet S, Faye A, Peuchmaur M, de Lagausie P: Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma occurring synchronously in a child with Fanconi's anemia and VACTERL syndrome. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jan;41(1):e11-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma occurring synchronously in a child with Fanconi's anemia and VACTERL syndrome.
  • The association between FA and solid pediatric tumors is extremely rare.
  • The authors report a rare case of VACTERL syndrome associated with FA and multiple solid pediatric tumors occurring in a very young girl.
  • Such association led quickly to the diagnosis of FA.
  • At age of 11 months, she developed simultaneously a renal tumor in a horseshoe kidney and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • The left adrenal mass was removed, and partial nephrectomy was performed.
  • Histological analysis concluded to adrenal neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma.
  • We also evaluated the c-kit expression in these tumors to propose a therapeutic alternative to chemotherapy by oral agent STI-571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ).
  • Strong cytoplasmic immunostaining of c-kit was found in both tumors.
  • Unfortunately, she quickly developed a posterior cerebellar fossa tumor and died 1 month later.
  • This clinical situation is very rare but suggests that young patients with FA and solid pediatric tumors may belong to a particular subgroup of FA.
  • Further studies are necessary to test if STI-571 treatment could be efficient in such patients with pediatric tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Fanconi Anemia / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology


90. Vidart A, Fehri K, Pfister C: [Unusual metastasis of renal carcinoma]. Ann Urol (Paris); 2006 Aug;40(4):211-9
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  • [Title] [Unusual metastasis of renal carcinoma].
  • Renal carcinoma, the third most common urological cancer, induces presence of metastases in 75% of cases.
  • The most affected sites for metastasis are the lungs, the lymphatic system, bones, the liver, adrenal glands and the brain with sometimes a cancer free period of several years prior to evolutionary recurrence of the disease.
  • The aim of this literature review is to report on secondary uncommon renal localizations by underlining their clinical significance, as well as main characteristics, in order to provide guidelines for effective patient diagnosis and therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Vessel Tumors / secondary. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16970064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4401
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Urol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 124
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91. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
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92. Meyer A, Brabant G, Behrend M: Long-term follow-up after adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism. World J Surg; 2005 Feb;29(2):155-9
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  • All subjects were re-examined with a complete clinical work-up after a mean follow-up period of 86 +/- 48 months, including blood pressure readings (<140/90 mmHg defined as normal), endocrine adrenal function, and specific medication.
  • One patient revealed a contralateral aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma during the subsequent endocrine and imaging examination 44 months after the first operation.
  • Despite normalized plasma-aldosterone concentration (PAC), plasma-renin-activity (PRA) and serum potassium levels, a long-lasting insufficiently treated hypertension due to the delayed diagnosis in patients with PA may explain the persistent blood pressure elevation, indicating the necessity of a life-long, regular control of the blood pressure and antihypertensive medication.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Algorithms. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15650803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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93. Neumann HP, Cybulla M, Shibata H, Oya M, Naruse M, Higashihara E, Terachi T, Ling H, Takami H, Shuin T, Murai M: New genetic causes of pheochromocytoma: current concepts and the clinical relevance. Keio J Med; 2005 Mar;54(1):15-21
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  • Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are tumors of the autonomous nervous system mainly occurring in the adrenal medulla, but also in the extraadrenal paraganglias of the abdomen, thorax, neck and skull basis.
  • About 10 years known are the RET gene susceptible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, the VHL gene for von Hippel-Lindau Disease, and the NF 1 gene for neurofibromatosis Recklinghausen (neuro- fibromatosis type 1).
  • Multifocal tumors, young age and positive family history, known features associated with inheritence, have not been present in all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics


94. Todorov G, Lukanova T: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy vs. conventional adrenalectomy in treatment of benign adrenal lesions--comparative analysis. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(2):45-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy vs. conventional adrenalectomy in treatment of benign adrenal lesions--comparative analysis.
  • Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is considered to be the standard of care for the surgical treatment of the adrenal gland' s pathology.
  • Since the initial report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in 1992 and of retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy in 1994, it has evolved into a feasible and safe minimally invasive procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Tumor size varied from 2 to 8 cm.
  • Introduced in 1994 and displaying all advantages of minimal access surgery REA has become the standard of care for benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 18044315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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95. Romano P, Avolio L, Martucciello G, Steyaert H, Valla JS: Adrenal masses in children: the role of minimally invasive surgery. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Dec;17(6):504-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses in children: the role of minimally invasive surgery.
  • Twenty-nine adrenal masses in 26 children were treated using adrenalectomy between 1994 and 2004 (12 were treated laparoscopically, the remaining 17 with open surgery).
  • Minimally invasive procedures were limited to the removal of small localized adrenal tumors and to biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18097309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Newton JD, Munir S, Bhindi R, Ormerod O: What a headache: rare neuroendocrine indication for cardiopulmonary bypass for severe left ventricular dysfunction and shock. Circ Heart Fail; 2008 Jul;1(2):143-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


97. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • This was characterized by right adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with homolateral ganglioneuroma and controlateral adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The three tumors, incidentally discovered, proved to be non-functioning (normal secretion of catecholamines and of other neuroendocrine peptides, glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids and androgens).
  • Accordingly, the patient showed no sign or symptom of endocrine disease.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a typical adenomatous lesion on the left adrenal gland with precocious uptake of the radiotracer on radioidine (131I)-norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy, while the controlateral gland showed hyperdensity on CT, hyperintensity on MR and no uptake at adrenal scintigraphy.
  • The right adrenal gland was surgically removed and, microscopically, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma areas appeared intermixed without a predominant component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Introns / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radionuclide Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16483185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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99. Raza A, Ahmad Z, Muzzaffar S: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with metastases to lungs and adrenal glands. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2006 Feb;16(2):150-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with metastases to lungs and adrenal glands.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease and three quarters of cases follow a normal pregnancy.
  • We present report of a case of placental site trophoblastic tumor with metastases to left adrenal gland and both lungs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy


100. Cook LK: Pheochromocytoma. Am J Nurs; 2009 Feb;109(2):50-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Nurse's Role. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy






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