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1. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


2. Umemoto S, Miyoshi Y, Nakaigawa N, Yao M, Takebayashi S, Kubota Y: Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan. Int J Urol; 2007 Mar;14(3):245-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinguishing splenosis from local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma using a technetium sulfur colloid scan.
  • Heterotropic splenic tissue in renal fossa is characteristically asymptomatic and is usually an incidental finding that has been reported to mimic renal or adrenal tumors.
  • A 55-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma had undergone radical nephrectomy together with splenectomy because of disrupture of the splenic capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Splenosis / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Splenectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17430265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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3. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to document the types of malignant tumors that metastasize to canine, feline, equine, and bovine adrenals, and the rate at which they do so.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • In dogs, 26 different tumor types metastasized to the adrenals.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • One dog had developed Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) secondary to lymphoma.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • DESIGN: Pools of RNA from NA and APAs were hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays.
  • Data were confirmed using real-time RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from NA (n = 20) and APAs (n = 18).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • RESULTS: LH/choriogonadotropin receptor gene and CYP11B2 are indicated as having greater than 25-fold expression in one pool of APA mRNA samples over NA using microarray analysis.
  • Real-time RT-PCR analyses indicated that one APA sample (APA-LH receptor) exhibited more than 2400-fold elevation in LH receptor expression over NA.
  • Examination of LH receptor mRNA levels in 18 independent APA samples indicated elevated expression in nine samples when compared with NA.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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5. Srinivasan R, Koliyadan KS, Krishnand G, Bhat SS: Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma with lymphnode metastasis: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jan;50(1):32-5
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  • Ganglioneuroma is a benign, most differentiated tumor of neural crest origin.
  • These tumors though benign, can very rarely metastasize to regional lymphnodes or to distant sites.
  • Ultrasonography and CT scan of the abdomen showed a homogenous mass in the region of the right adrenal gland, extending between the inferior vena cava and the aorta.
  • A clinical and radiological diagnosis of an adrenal tumor was made.
  • Microscopically, the tumor histology was that of a ganglioneuroma (schwannian stroma-dominant) mature type.
  • The lymph node attached to the tumor showed metastasis, the metastatic foci having the same morphology as the primary tumor.
  • The right adrenal gland was free of tumor.
  • The case is illustrative due to its clinical presentation mimicking an adrenal incidentaloma, and a rare phenomenon of a benign tumor exhibiting completely differentiated lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Radiography, Abdominal

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  • (PMID = 17474252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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6. Degraff DJ, Aguiar AA, Sikes RA: Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions. Am J Transl Res; 2009 Jan 20;1(2):115-30
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  • [Title] Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions.
  • The ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II, along with their receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, have been implicated in a wide range of disease.
  • Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is found in advanced cancers of the ovary, breast, stomach, adrenal gland, bladder, CNS, and prostate.

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  • (PMID = 19956425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-8141
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of translational research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Transl Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776314
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Insulin-like growth factor, IGF / androgen insensitivity, AI / androgen sensitive, AS / neoplasm, bone, metastasis / prostate cancer, PCa
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7. [Adrenal gland tumor removed from a dog via video surgery]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd; 2007 Apr 15;132(8):308
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumor removed from a dog via video surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Bijniertumor hond via kijkoperatie verwijderd.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery / veterinary

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  • [CommentIn] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2007 May 15;132(10):407 [17580402.001]
  • (PMID = 17489377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-7453
  • [Journal-full-title] Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tijdschr Diergeneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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8. Zhang N, Lin LK: Presumed primary orbital neuroblastoma in a 20-month-old female. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Sep-Oct;26(5):383-5
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  • Neuroblastoma is the most common malignant disease of childhood, and it often arises from either the adrenal gland or along the sympathetic chain.
  • Radiologically, the tumor showed a brightly enhancing mass lesion of the left side with intraorbital, temporal extraorbital, transsphenoid, and intracranial components.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was composed of small round blue cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20622692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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9. Erbil Y, Ozbey N, Barbaros U, Unalp HR, Salmaslioglu A, Ozarmagan S: Cardiovascular risk in patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma: myth or reality? World J Surg; 2009 Oct;33(10):2099-105
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  • [Title] Cardiovascular risk in patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma: myth or reality?
  • BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma (NFA) increases the risk of atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome or whether this type of adrenal tumor has been found more frequently in patients with cardiometabolic risk factors.
  • Age (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.9), total cholesterol (OR = 2.3), and presence of adrenal incidentaloma (OR = 10) were significant independent predictors of lower FMD (P < 0.05 for all).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Atherosclerosis / epidemiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology


10. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumors (AT) are usually found in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • Thirty-four cases have been reported so far, more often presenting grossly as solid tumors, rarely as solid with cystic areas, and 5 cases were almost entirely cystic.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male


11. Kuroda N, Hamauzu T, Toi M, Yamaoka K, Miyazaki E, Hiroi M, Nakata H, Taguchi H, Enzan H: Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component: an immunohistochemical study. Case report. APMIS; 2005 Jul-Aug;113(7-8):550-4
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  • The tumor showed moderately differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with a focal micropapillary component.
  • Carcinomatous lymphangiosis was also observed in the left lung and metastatic lesions were observed in the bilateral lung, liver, vertebra, muscle layer of the urinary bladder, right adrenal gland, spleen and lymph nodes.
  • The immunohistochemical profile may be helpful in determining the primary location of the neoplasm containing micropapillary features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16086826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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12. Agemy L, Harmelin A, Waks T, Leibovitch I, Rabin T, Pfeffer MR, Eshhar Z: Irradiation enhances the metastatic potential of prostatic small cell carcinoma xenografts. Prostate; 2008 Apr 1;68(5):530-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare subset of prostate cancer (0.5-2% of all prostatic carcinomas), predominantly composed of neuroendocrine (NE) cells, with a very poor prognosis.
  • Irradiation is one of the mainstay options for SCCP local treatment, yet, little is known about the clinical response of these aggressive tumors to radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Using SCID mice, the response to fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) of two unique human NE xenografts of SCCP (WISH-PC2 and WM-4A) was investigated.
  • RESULTS: Fractionated irradiation of WISH-PC2 xenografts using total doses of >24 Gy induced a delay in tumor growth, while total doses of >36 Gy led to local tumor eradication.
  • Similarly, in the WM-4A xenograft, a total dose of 20 Gy led to tumor growth delay and some of the mice also developed metastases.
  • Non-irradiated local xenografts failed to disseminate, even following surgical excision of the main tumor mass; however, tumor cells administered intravenously did form metastases.
  • Metastases of both xenografts were located in the adrenal/kidney and inter-scapular regions, areas rich in brown adipose tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinically, this study raises the possibility that radiation to SCCP may promote metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18247403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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13. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Studies have shown that most are metastatic tumors, and clinical presentation varies with tumor type.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Patients with lymphoma had largest average tumor size.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Moore K, Leslie B, Salle JL, Braga LH, Bägli DJ, Bolduc S, Lorenzo AJ: Can we spare removing the adrenal gland at radical nephrectomy in children with wilms tumor? J Urol; 2010 Oct;184(4 Suppl):1638-43
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  • [Title] Can we spare removing the adrenal gland at radical nephrectomy in children with wilms tumor?
  • PURPOSE: In patients with Wilms tumor indications for adrenalectomy are not well-defined.
  • Following the rationale for preserving the adrenal gland in cases of other renal malignancies we determined predictors of adrenal involvement and the impact of adrenalectomy on retroperitoneal recurrence.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the record of patients who underwent surgical resection as primary treatment for Wilms tumor between 1990 and 2008 at 2 Canadian pediatric centers.
  • Patient and tumor characteristics were reviewed to determine potential links to adrenal involvement.
  • RESULTS: Of 180 patients diagnosed with Wilms tumor 95 underwent initial radical nephrectomy.
  • Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 46 ± 38 months and mean survival followup was 189 ± 8.3 months.
  • Disease was stage 1 to 4 in 28, 34, 23 and 4 patients, respectively.
  • Only 1 adrenal gland was reportedly positive for tumor invasion while peri-adrenal fat involvement was noted in 3 patients.
  • No studied patient or tumor characteristics predicted involvement.
  • No statistically significant difference in retroperitoneal recurrence was found between the groups in which the adrenal gland was removed vs preserved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal involvement in patients with Wilms tumor is rare and difficult to predict.
  • Preserving the adrenal gland was not associated with an increased risk of local recurrence.
  • Thus, it seems prudent to avoid adrenalectomy at radical nephrectomy when technically feasible, instead attempting to otherwise remove all peri-adrenal fat with the specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy. Wilms Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Oct;184(4 Suppl):1642-3 [20728100.001]
  • (PMID = 20728101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Waters B, Panicek DM, Lefkowitz RA, Antonescu CR, Healey JH, Athanasian EA, Brennan MF: Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma: CT and MRI patterns in recurrent disease. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 Feb;188(2):W193-8
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  • [Title] Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma: CT and MRI patterns in recurrent disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Low-grade myxofibrosarcoma often relentlessly recurs after surgical resection, with an unusual infiltrative growth pattern and sometimes without a discrete tumor nodule at pathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike in most other histologic types of low-grade soft-tissue sarcoma, recurrent low-grade myxofibrosarcoma often is infiltrative; shows a tapering, tail-like margin and superficial spreading configuration; and metastasizes to various distant sites, including lungs, pleura, bone, adrenal gland, soft tissue, and mesentery.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17242227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Ochiai T, Komiyama S, Ikoma H, Kubota T, Nakanishi M, Ichikawa D, Kikuchi S, Fujiwara H, Sakakura C, Kokuba Y, Sonoyama T, Otsuji E: A case report of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right adrenal gland successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;15(4):423-7
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  • [Title] A case report of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right adrenal gland successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Computed tomography revealed lung infarction and a right adrenal tumor sized 12 cm in diameter that was tightly compressed against the inferior vena cava (IVC).
  • The primary tumor had shrunk to 4.2 cm in diameter.
  • Histological diagnosis of the specimen was a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma based on the immunostaining features, i.e., synaptophysin- and chromogranin positive.
  • There were no viable tumor cells at the dissected lymph nodes or at the liver tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 20221660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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17. Agarwal A, Mehrotra PK, Jain M, Gupta SK, Mishra A, Chand G, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK, Singh U: Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy? World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3022-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Size can predict malignancy in adrenocortical tumors, but the same extrapolation for pheochromocytomas (PCC) is controversial.
  • The goal of this study was to find a correlation between the tumor size and malignant potential of PCC and determine whether the "Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score" (PASS) proposed by Thompson can be applied to predict malignancy.
  • Tumor size was available for 90 tumors.
  • There were 54 (60%) tumors > 6 cm and 36 (40%) tumors ≤ 6 cm.
  • Of the sporadic benign cases, 21 (41%) patients with tumor size > 6 cm had a PASS of >4, and none of them developed metastasis.
  • No correlation was found between tumor size and PASS > 4 and PASS ≤ 4 (7.8 cm vs. 7.1 cm; p = 0.23).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Winczyk K: [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):156-66
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  • [Title] [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands].
  • The expression of PPARgamma was detected in normal and tumor cells of endocrine glands.
  • The reports about oncostatic effects of PPARgamma agonists in pituitary adenomas, thyroid cancers and adrenal tumor are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18465691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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19. Sugiyama N, Suzuki Y, Okamoto A, Yamamoto H, Kudo S, Hatakeyama S, Yoneyama T, Hashimoto Y, Koie T, Kamimura N, Ohyama C: [Experience of laparoscopic surgery of pheochromocytoma found on induction for hemodialysis]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Oct;56(10):565-7
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  • A left adrenal mass, 2.5 cm in diameter, was incidentally found by screening computed tomography at the initiation of hemodialysis.
  • In the scintiscan using ¹²³I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), accumulation of the radionuclide in the left adrenal tumor region was confirmed.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed without peri-operative complications under the diagnosis of left pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 21063160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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20. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.
  • The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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21. Oki K, Yamane K, Nakanishi S, Nakashima R, Jitsuiki K, Kohno N: Improvement of hypercortisolism by β-blocker therapy in subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. Endocrine; 2009 Dec;36(3):372-6
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  • A 61-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes was referred for the evaluation of multiple bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed as having ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) with subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with the aberrant expression of β-adrenergic receptors.
  • While the suppression of cortisol secretion was sustained for 24 months, glucose metabolism and adrenal size were unaffected.
  • Additional cases or controlled studies are needed to determine the potential effect of propranolol on metabolic disorders and adrenal size in patients with AIMAH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19813002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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22. Castillo O, Sánchez-Salas R, Vidal I: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2008 Sep;60(3):177-84
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard for the surgical management of small and medium adrenal masses.
  • Nevertheless, there is still controversy for the laparoscopic treatment of adrenal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this article was to report current standards on LA.
  • Even when available evidence in the literature is low for LA, it has become the standard of treatment for adrenal masses especially in benign lesions.
  • The most employed surgical technique for LA is the lateral transabdominal, but novel approaches have been developed to treat surgically adrenal diseases and an objective evaluation of outcomes is awaited.
  • Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal primary malignancy and metastases is still controversial although clear indications for laparoscopy in these cases are bounded to surgical experience.
  • LA has definitively replaced open surgery in the surgical management of adrenal tumors < or = 12 cm, because of its advantages in terms of morbidity and recovery.
  • Large and malignant tumors should be carefully approached by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18787512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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23. Yokoyama H, Konomi I, Miyajima T, Tamaru S, Tanaka M: Interventional ultrasound for adrenal masses. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2006 Dec;33(4):245-9
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  • [Title] Interventional ultrasound for adrenal masses.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the value of interventional ultrasound (US) for adrenal masses, especially incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and pathological data were reviewed for eight patients who underwent percutaneous US-guided puncture or biopsy for adrenal masses from September 1994 through March 2002 in our institute.
  • RESULTS: US-guided intervention was successfully performed for seven patients: two with adrenal cysts, two with adrenocortical adenomas, and three with metastatic adrenal tumors (one from prostate cancer, one from lung cancer, and one from renal cell carcinoma).
  • The remaining patient had bilateral adrenal masses, and a biopsy specimen could not be obtained because safe puncture was difficult.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interventional US using the color Doppler method for adrenal masses is a useful procedure for safe puncture to reveal the orientation of adjacent viscera and blood vessels at the puncture site and to avoid complications including hemorrhage and pneumothorax.
  • In addition, pathological examination of specimens obtained by percutaneous biopsy or fine needle aspiration is useful for avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with metastatic adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 27277982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal mass / interventional ultrasound
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24. Gomez-Roca C, Raynaud CM, Penault-Llorca F, Mercier O, Commo F, Morat L, Sabatier L, Dartevelle P, Taranchon E, Besse B, Validire P, Italiano A, Soria JC: Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Oct;4(10):1212-20
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  • The correlation of biomarker expression between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis has not yet been well documented and analyzed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), excision repair cross-complementing (ERCC1), vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 was immunohistochemically analyzed in tumor samples of primary NSCLC and one corresponding metastasis in a population of 49 patients.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen cases (33%) displayed clear discordance in the EGFR status between the primary tumor and the metastasis, with a significant trend toward downregulation of EGFR in the metastasis (p = 0.01).
  • The ERCC1 status was discordant in 20 cases (41%), with a trend toward overexpression in brain and adrenal metastases (p = 0.01 and p = 0.08, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Biomarker expression is discordant between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis in about one third of patients with NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Rate. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism


25. Marthya A, Patinharayil G, Puthezeth K, Sreedharan S, Kumar A, Kumaran CM: Multicentric epithelioid angiosarcoma of the spine: a case report of a rare bone tumor. Spine J; 2007 Nov-Dec;7(6):716-9
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  • [Title] Multicentric epithelioid angiosarcoma of the spine: a case report of a rare bone tumor.
  • EA has been reported in sites like skin thyroid, adrenal gland, soft tissue, and rarely in bone.
  • STUDY DESIGN/SETTINGS: This study included a patient with a rare spinal tumor, which presented insidiously.
  • The tumor was composed of nests and cords of malignant cells with epithelioid morphology with areas of vascular differentiation, necrosis, and hemorrhage.
  • METHODS: Histopathological evaluation of the tumor obtained from en bloc resection of the fourth rib and specimen from decompression of the fourth thoracic vertebra was done.
  • The authors point out the need for immunohistochemical evaluation after careful histological analysis for vascular differentiation for an accurate diagnosis of vascular bone tumors with epithelioid features so that an erroneous diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma can be avoided.
  • The arrangement of the cells may mimic epithelial neoplasm.
  • The tumor was treated with en bloc resection of the rib and decompression of the body of T4 spine, followed by megavoltage radiotherapy.
  • Follow-up X-rays showed regression of the tumor at 2 years.
  • At the time of writing this report, there is no evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important to differentiate EA from other tumors because the clinical course and treatment are specific for these conditions.
  • Careful histologic and immunohistochemical analysis will clinch the diagnosis.
  • Even though rare, we stress the importance to be aware of the existence of this tumor, which is essential for correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17998131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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27. Hanssen WE, Kuhry E, Casseres YA, de Herder WW, Steyerberg EW, Bonjer HJ: Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy. Br J Surg; 2006 Jun;93(6):715-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has replaced open surgery in the treatment of benign adrenal tumours.
  • METHODS: Over a period of 8 years, 123 patients underwent surgery for benign adrenal lesions using the endoscopic retroperitoneal approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Endoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16609956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Saito T, Fujimoto K, Isaka T, Tajima N, Ikeda K, Yamada H, Furuta N, Sasano H: Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):213-9
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  • [Title] Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • A 40-year-old female, diagnosed as essential hypertension, demonstrated a 2 cm mass in left adrenal gland by computed tomography without abnormal endocrinological findings. (131)I-adosterol and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy at 39 years of age showed no abnormal accumulation.
  • Follow up (131)I-adosterol scintigraphy performed one year later showed apparently abnormal uptake and slightly elevated uptake in left adrenal gland.
  • Serial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated two distinct tumors.
  • Furthermore, selective adrenal venous sampling with intravenous ACTH infusion indicated aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) in left adrenal gland.
  • During operation of adrenal tumor, blood pressure elevated markedly and complication of pheochromocytoma (PC) was suspected.
  • Immunohistochemical findings after left adrenolectomy revealed that the adrenal mass was compatible with APA and PC.
  • Herein, we present an extremely rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of both APA and PC in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / complications. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19023159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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29. Leboeuf R, Bénard F, Langlois MF: Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;31(7):382-5
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  • INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the thyroid gland are considered a rare cause of thyroid tumor.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous papillary and breast carcinoma within the thyroid gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This is a rare description of a concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an FDG PET incidentaloma alongside breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Estrogens. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy, Segmental. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radiography. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16785803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Amano T, Imao T, Takemae K, Yamauchi K: [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Jun;55(6):377-80
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  • [Title] [Ejaculatory disorder caused by doxazosin administration for blood pressure control in patient with pheochomocytoma].
  • Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left adrenal tumor 6 cm in size.
  • The radioisotope (MIBG) accumulated in the left adrenal gland.
  • Thus, the diagnosis of pheochomocytoma in left adrenal tumor was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / adverse effects. Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects. Doxazosin / adverse effects. Ejaculation / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / chemically induced


31. Hahner S, Stuermer A, Kreissl M, Reiners C, Fassnacht M, Haenscheid H, Beuschlein F, Zink M, Lang K, Allolio B, Schirbel A: [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2358-65
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  • BACKGROUND: Due to advances in conventional imaging, adrenal tumors are detected with increasing frequency.
  • Furthermore, four patients with known adrenal tumors (two metastatic adrenal adenocarcinomas, one bilateral adrenocortical adenoma, and one melanoma metastasis) were investigated with [(123)I]iodometomidate-SPECT.
  • In patients, adrenocortical tissue showed high and specific tracer uptake in both primary tumor and metastases with short investigation time and low radiation exposure, whereas the non-adrenocortical tumor did not exhibit any tracer uptake.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully completed the development of an in vivo detection system of adrenal Cyp11B enzymes by [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy in both experimental animals and humans.
  • Due to the general availability of SPECT technology, we anticipate that [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy may become a widely used tool to characterize adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / analysis. Iodine Radioisotopes. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Aged. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Etomidate / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Multigene Family. Radioactive Tracers. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18397978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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32. Pollack RP, Brett EM: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome manifesting during pregnancy. Endocr Pract; 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):260-3
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  • The diagnosis of CS during pregnancy is difficult to establish because of the normal physiologic hypercortisolemia of pregnancy.
  • Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen disclosed a 3.5-cm left adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of CS during pregnancy is rare; however, when it does occur, adrenal tumors are more common than pituitary tumors.
  • Caution should be used during interpretation of laboratory tests to evaluate for CS during pregnancy because of the normal increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function during pregnancy.
  • The current case demonstrates the safety and utility of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging for localization of a tumor during pregnancy, as well as the safe use of laparoscopic surgical treatment of CS during the early third trimester.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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33. Homma K, Hayashi K, Wakino S, Irie R, Mukai M, Kumagai H, Shibata H, Saruta T: Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy. Hypertens Res; 2006 Jul;29(7):551-4
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  • [Title] Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy.
  • A computed tomography scan revealed no adrenal tumor but a large liver mass (5 x 5 cm), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity lesion on the T2-weighted image.
  • Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites was markedly increased, although a 123I-metaiodobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) scintigram failed to show accumulation in the hepatic mass, and no difference was noted between the catecholamine concentration in the tumor-drainage vein and that obtained from the vein draining from the non-tumor area.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization of the liver tumor was conducted and resulted in a marked (50%) decrease in the 24-h urine normetanephrine excretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17044668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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34. Ueberberg B, Tourne H, Redmann A, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Dec;37(12):722-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of the human somatostatin receptor subtypes sst1 to sst5 in various adrenal tumors and normal adrenal gland.
  • Somatostatin (SRIF) is a widely distributed peptide with growth-inhibiting effects in various tumors.
  • We investigated expression of the five ssts in various adrenal tumors and in normal adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal tissue surrounding the tumor was available for analysis in twenty-seven cases.
  • Expression of all five receptor subtypes was observed in RNA obtained from normal adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, each receptor subtype was expressed in more than 50 % of all tumors analyzed.
  • No sst5 expression was found in PHEOs, while sst1 was present in nearly all of these tumors.
  • Differential expression of ssts in various adrenal tumors may point to new aspects in the pathogenesis of these adenomas.
  • New subtype specific analogues of SRIF may be used in the future depending on the type of adrenal tumor and receptor subtype expressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Horm Metab Res. 2006 Sep;38(9):617. Redman, A [corrected to Redmann, A]
  • (PMID = 16372224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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35. Lapinski JE, Chen L, Zhou M: Distinguishing clear cell renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical lesions on limited biopsy material: utility of immunohistochemical markers. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Oct;18(5):414-21
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  • [Title] Distinguishing clear cell renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical lesions on limited biopsy material: utility of immunohistochemical markers.
  • Retroperitoneal recurrence of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) after surgical resection is often investigated by needle biopsy and frequently requires immunohistochemistry to distinguish from other lesions with similar histology.
  • This study explores the diagnostic utility of a panel of immunohistochemical markers and emphasizes potential pitfalls in dealing with this differential diagnosis.
  • Calretinin and Melan-A were positive in 100% and 94.7% of adrenal, 0% and 14.3% of CCRCC, and 26.7% and 26.7% of paragangliomas.
  • Therefore, a panel of, rather than single, epithelial, "CCRCC-specific," adrenocortical and neuroendocrine markers should be applied in the differential diagnosis of CCRCC, adrenocortical lesions, and paragangliomas.


36. Tanaka T, Sekimura A, Tanaka H, Tonegawa K, Ogawa K, Haneda H: [Gallbladder metastasis of large cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Nov;62(12):1069-72
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  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed gallbladder tumor and extended resection of the gallbladder was performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was adenosquamous cell carcinoma After 1 year and 4 months later, left adrenal gland tumor was found by CT scan, and the surgery was conducted.
  • By reevaluation of pathology of the gallbladder, the tumor was found to have similar component of resected lung cancer, suggesting the possibility of the tumor to be metastatic.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19894573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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37. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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38. Rondeau G, Nolet S, Latour M, Braschi S, Gaboury L, Lacroix A, Panzini B, Arjane P, Cohade C, Bourdeau I: Clinical and biochemical features of seven adult adrenal ganglioneuromas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jul;95(7):3118-25
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  • [Title] Clinical and biochemical features of seven adult adrenal ganglioneuromas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) is seldom considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions, and its clinical presentation is not well known.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the clinical, biochemical, and radiological features of adrenal GNs in adults.
  • METHODS: Seven adults underwent endocrine investigation for adrenal lesions that were confirmed to be adrenal GNs.
  • Average tumor diameter was 5.0 cm (range, 1.5 to 10.4 cm).
  • In five patients, the adrenal lesions were found incidentally.
  • Bilateral adrenal venous sampling revealed testosterone production from her right adrenal lesion.
  • All tumors showed nonenhanced attenuation between 25 and 40 Hounsfield units on computed tomography scan.
  • Three tumors were composite pheochromocytoma-GN.
  • Microsatellite instability study and immunohistochemical analysis of MSH2 protein in a patient carrying a MSH2 mutation showed normal MSH2 protein expression and low microsatellite instability, indicating that the adrenal GN was not related to the patient's MSH2 germline defect.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe one of the largest series of adult adrenal GNs.
  • Adrenal GNs may secrete testosterone or be part of a composite tumor with pheochromocytoma.
  • The association of adrenal GN with MSH2 mutation seems to be a coincidental finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20427489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / MLH2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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39. Velavan P, Morris JL: Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Oct-Dec;51(4):337-8
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  • [Title] Broad complex tachycardia caused by adrenal tumour and atrial septal defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnosis. Tachycardia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16388187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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40. Ranganathan S, Lynshue K, Hunt JL, Kane T, Jaffe R: Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;8(4):483-8
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  • [Title] Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are uncommon neoplasms in childhood.
  • Most pediatric adrenal tumors are virilizing and carcinomas are more common than adenomas.
  • Recent molecular data suggest an adenoma-to-carcinoma progression sequence in adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with virilizing symptoms secondary to an adrenal tumor that was resected laparoscopically.
  • The bulk of the tumor was a large, yellow mass with typical features of an adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Child, Preschool. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Hirsutism / etiology. Hirsutism / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16010500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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41. Malaise O, Vandenbosch K, Uyttebroeck A, Renard M, Bricteux G: [Exploring . . . a retroperitoneal mass in children]. Rev Med Liege; 2010 Mar;65(3):156-62
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  • Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma, the most frequent, will be presented more in detail including their clinical and biological characteristics, their diagnostic tests and their primary therapeutic treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome


42. Gola M, Doga M, Bonadonna S, Mazziotti G, Vescovi PP, Giustina A: Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects. Pituitary; 2006;9(3):221-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors secreting growth hormone-releasing hormone: Pathophysiological and clinical aspects.
  • Excessive peripheral production of GHRH by a tumor source would therefore be expected to cause somatotroph cell hyperstimulation, increased GH secretion and eventually pituitary acromegaly.
  • Immunoreactive GHRH is present in several tumors, including carcinoid tumors, pancreatic cell tumors, small cell lung cancers, endometrial tumors, adrenal adenomas, and pheochromocytomas which have been reported to secrete GHRH.
  • Dynamic pituitary tests are not helpful in distinguishing acromegalic patients with pituitary tumors from those harbouring extrapituitary tumors.
  • Plasma GHRH levels are usually elevated in patients with peripheral GHRH-secreting tumors, and are normal or low in patients with pituitary acromegaly.
  • Unique and unexpected clinical features in an acromegalic patient, including respiratory wheezing or dyspnea, facial flushing, peptic ulcers, or renal stones sometimes are helpful in alerting the physician to diagnosing non pituitary endocrine tumors.
  • Surgical resection of the tumor secreting ectopic GHRH should be the logical approach to a patient with ectopic GHRH syndrome.
  • Standard chemotherapy directed at GHRH-producing carcinoid tumors is generally unsuccessful in controlling the activated GH axis.
  • Somatostatin analogs provide an effective option for medical management of carcinoid patients, especially those with recurrent disease.
  • In fact, long-acting somatostatin analogs may be able to control not only the ectopic hormonal secretion syndrome, but also, in some instances, tumor growth.
  • Therefore, although cytotoxic chemotherapy, pituitary surgery, or irradiation still remain available therapeutic options, long-acting somatostatin analogs are now preferred as a second-line therapy in patients with carcinoid tumors and ectopic GHRH-syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secretion. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17036195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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43. Tan F, Thai AC, Cheah WK, Mukherjee JJ: Unusual presentation of pheochromocytoma with ischemic sigmoid colitis and stenosis. South Med J; 2009 Oct;102(10):1068-70
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  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed a 5 cm right adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colitis, Ischemic / etiology. Colon, Sigmoid / blood supply. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sigmoid Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19738530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Catecholamines; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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44. Ramesh C, Nayak TK, Burai R, Dennis MK, Hathaway HJ, Sklar LA, Prossnitz ER, Arterburn JB: Synthesis and characterization of iodinated tetrahydroquinolines targeting the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30. J Med Chem; 2010 Feb 11;53(3):1004-14
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  • In vivo biodistribution studies in female ovariectomized athymic (NCr) nu/nu mice bearing GPR30-expressing human endometrial tumors revealed GPR30-mediated uptake of the radiotracer ligands in tumor, adrenal, and reproductive organs.

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  • (PMID = 20041667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54MH074425; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA127731-02; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH074425; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA118100; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA127731-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA127731; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH084690; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH074425-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116662-04; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54 MH084690-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116662; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U54MH084690; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH074425-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116662; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116662-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / GPER protein, human; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS168019; NLM/ PMC2818973
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45. Tsai WC, Hsieh CD, Cheng MF, Lin CK: Adrenal insufficiency in T-cell lymphoma. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):794-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency in T-cell lymphoma.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is an extremely rare neoplasm of T-cell origin.
  • Laboratory results, imaging, pathology, and immunohistological examination led to a final diagnosis of primary adrenal T-cell lymphoma (PATL) with adrenal insufficiency.
  • Most reported PAL patients who have received only one therapeutic modality have unsatisfactory survival rates resulting from tumor recurrence and/or postchemotherapy infections.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16834662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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46. Miyoshi T, Otsuka F, Suzuki J, Inagaki K, Kano Y, Ogura T, Kiura K, Saika T, Makino H: Abrupt enlargement of adrenal incidentaloma: a case of isolated adrenal metastasis. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):785-8
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  • [Title] Abrupt enlargement of adrenal incidentaloma: a case of isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • A 56-year-old Japanese man was referred for examination of right adrenal tumor (3 cm).
  • However, five months after the initial diagnosis the patient complained of severe right back pain with remarkable enlargement of both adrenals (~20-fold volume).
  • Although the origin of adrenal tumor was uncertain by pathological workup, positron emission tomography (PET) scan with (18)F-2-fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) eventually revealed a hot spot on left upper lung, which was consistent with a lesion of thickened bulla wall observed by chest CT.
  • The present case is a very rare example of abrupt enlargement of bilateral adrenals due to clinically isolated adrenal metastasis, suggesting the requirement of frequent observation with greatest care regarding morphologic changes of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr J. 2007 Dec;54(5):829 [17878608.001]
  • (PMID = 16410674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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47. Park KS, Lee JL, Ahn H, Koh JM, Park I, Choi JS, Kim YR, Park TS, Ahn JH, Lee DH, Kim TW, Lee JS: Sunitinib, a novel therapy for anthracycline- and cisplatin-refractory malignant pheochromocytoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 May;39(5):327-31
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  • Level of urinary catecholamine and its metabolite increased above normal values and abdominal computed tomography showed a huge right adrenal mass.
  • These tumors had no response to two conventional regimens of combination chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, dacarbazine and anthracycline; and etoposide and cisplatin).
  • The tumor showed very good metabolic response to the therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary


48. Xiao YY, Tian JL, Li JK, Yang L, Zhang JS: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jan;190(1):105-10
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  • [Title] CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous chemical ablation of primary and metastatic adrenal neoplasms under CT guidance.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with 46 adrenal tumors underwent CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation.
  • The average (+/- SD) tumor diameter was 4.2 +/- 2.0 cm.
  • Eleven adrenal lesions were nonfunctional adenomas, six lesions were corticosteroid adenomas (bilateral lesions in one patient), nine lesions were aldosteronomas (bilateral lesions in two patients), and 20 were metastases (bilateral metastases in six patients).
  • RESULTS: Tumor volume decreased gradually during the first 2 years after the procedure.
  • For primary tumors, a complete response (CR) rate of 92.3% (24/26) and a partial response (PR) rate of 7.7% (2/26) were obtained, but for metastasis, a CR rate of 30% (6/20) and PR rate of 70% (14/20) were obtained 24 months after therapy.
  • The level of corticosteroid in five patients (six tumors) with Cushing's syndrome was in the normal range 3 months after the procedure.
  • Seven patients (nine tumors) with Conn's syndrome began receiving oral antihypertensive medications during the first month after the procedure to maintain normal blood pressure and the dose was gradually decreased after 1 month.
  • CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous chemical ablation of adrenal tumors is an effective, minimally invasive, and easily performed procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetic Acid / administration & dosage. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008 Aug;191(2):W74; author reply W75 [18647891.001]
  • (PMID = 18094300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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49. Lee R, Al-Ahmadie HA, Boorjian SA, Gonzalez RR, Badillo C, Badillo F, Reuter VE, Steckel J: A case of incidental adrenocortical oncocytoma. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2006 Nov;3(11):618-21
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  • BACKGROUND: A 39-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered left adrenal mass.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Oncocytic adrenocortical tumor, or adrenal oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17088930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Yasumoto T, Hayashi S, Shimizu J, Dono K, Nakata S, Sato M, Kitada M, Shimano T: [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2371-3
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for the local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a case of local recurrent tumor after a resection of right adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization.
  • In July 2003, a right adrenal tumor 2 cm in diameter was detected by computed tomography (CT), but the value of the adrenocortical hormones were normal on blood examination, and he was observed at regular intervals.
  • In February 2005, the adrenal lesion enlarged to 5 cm in diameter and the value of PIVKA-II became high on blood examination, so April 2005, a surgical resection was performed, and it was diagnosed as the metastasis from HCC.
  • In July 2008, the recurrent tumor 3 cm in diameter was observed in the right retroperitoneum.
  • It was considered inoperable because of the past operation, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of an inferior adrenal artery and a fine branch through a right sub-phrenic artery was performed for the recurrent tumor, and one week after the embolization, radiofrequency ablation was treated by CT fluoroscopy guidance.
  • Ten months after the tumor embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation, there were no local and distant recurrences observed by CT examination.
  • Transcatheter arterial embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation is considered as a feasible and effective method for not only HCC but also for a local recurrent tumor after resection of the adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Catheter Ablation. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20037426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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51. Lazúrová I, Závacký P, Ondic O: Adrenal actinomycosis mimicking a large tumor of the adrenal gland. J Urol; 2005 Feb;173(2):517-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal actinomycosis mimicking a large tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Actinomycosis / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


52. Kunitz A, Pahl S, Podrabsky P, Wardelmann E, Sturm I: Large paraganglioma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature. Onkologie; 2010;33(7):377-80
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  • BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are rare tumors that derive from cells of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Paraganglioma located in the adrenal gland are called pheochromocytoma.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of an oligosymptomatic 50-year-old man presenting with a large intraabdominal tumor mass measuring 24 x 22 x 12 cm.
  • Core needle biopsy revealed a tumor of mesenchymal origin with no clear-line differentiation, so the highly vascularized tumor was resected after embolization of the tumor vessels.
  • Differential diagnosis included histiocytic sarcoma and c-kit-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumor; the final diagnosis was paraganglioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Paraganglioma is a rare disease and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiography. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Embolization, Therapeutic. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20631484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Kabayegit OY, Soysal D, Oruk G, Ustaoglu B, Kosan U, Solmaz S, Avci A: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:228
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands.
  • Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome.
  • The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 18620603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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54. Ludvigsen L, Toxvaerd A, Mahdi B, Krarup-Hansen A, Bergenfeldt M: Successful resection of an advanced duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor after down-staging with imatinib: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(12):1105-9
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  • [Title] Successful resection of an advanced duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor after down-staging with imatinib: report of a case.
  • The diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) relies on a combination of the following criteria: anatomic location, typical histopathology, and the presence of CD 117-antigen (the tyrosine kinase receptor, c-kit) or CD 34-antigen.
  • We performed Whipple's procedure combined with en bloc resection of the right kidney and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18030576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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55. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • Clinical features and immunohistochemical reactions were compared in adult vs pediatric tumors.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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56. Sahin D, Cetiner H, Mirapoglu S, Mete O: An infantile leiomyosarcoma that metastasized from the small intestine to the adrenal gland. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2010;29(5):299-304
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  • [Title] An infantile leiomyosarcoma that metastasized from the small intestine to the adrenal gland.
  • In the literature, there is no reported pediatric leiomyosarcoma case that has metastasized from the small intestine to the adrenal gland.
  • Radiologic examination revealed bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • At the time of surgery, the terminal ileum was resected and a tru-cut biopsy was done from the right adrenal mass.
  • We present an intestinal leiomyosarcoma that metastasized from the small intestine to both adrenal glands with clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical studies with a literature review.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestine, Small / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20704475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3823
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Murphy MM, Witkowski ER, Ng SC, McDade TP, Hill JS, Larkin AC, Whalen GF, Litwin DE, Tseng JF: Trends in adrenalectomy: a recent national review. Surg Endosc; 2010 Oct;24(10):2518-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenalectomy remains the definitive therapy for most adrenal neoplasms.
  • The majority of adrenalectomies (83%) were performed for benign disease.
  • Patient comorbidities (Charlson score 0 as the referent; Charlson score ≥ 2: AOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 3.71-6.14), recent year of surgery (1998-2000 as the referent; 2004-2006: AOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78), and benign disease (malignant disease as the referent; benign disease: AOR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.55-2.53) were predictive of major postoperative complications at multivariable analyses, whereas laparoscopy was protective (no laparoscopy as the referent; laparoscopy: AOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data. Laparoscopy / trends. Male. Middle Aged. United States

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  • (PMID = 20336320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Morimoto R, Satoh F, Murakami O, Hirose T, Totsune K, Imai Y, Arai Y, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Ito S, Takahashi K: Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues. J Endocrinol; 2008 Jul;198(1):175-83
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  • [Title] Expression of adrenomedullin 2/intermedin in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues.
  • AM is expressed in various tumors including adrenocortical tumors and modulates tumor growth.
  • The AM2/IMD expression has not been studied, however, in adrenal tumors.
  • The expression of AM2/IMD and AM was therefore studied in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues by immunocytochemistry (ICC).
  • ICC showed that AM2/IMD and AM immunoreactivities were localized in adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas.
  • RIA detected IR-AM2/IMD in adrenal tumors (0.414+/-0.12 to 0.786+/-0.27 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M.) and attached adrenal tissues (0.397+/-0.052 pmol/g wet weight).
  • RT-PCR showed expression of AM2/IMD, CRLR, and RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3 mRNA in tissues of adrenal tumors and attached adrenal glands.
  • In conclusion, AM2/IMD is expressed in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues and may play (patho-)physiological roles in normal and neoplastic adrenals as an autocrine/paracrine regulator.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Peptide Hormones / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18460550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADM2 protein, human; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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60. Cvijovic G, Yamashita SA, Micic D, Kendereski A, Sumarac-Dumanovic M, Zoric S, Popovic V: Low leptin level in an obese hyperandrogenic woman--potential marker for androgen-secreting tumor. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;23(2):112-6
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  • [Title] Low leptin level in an obese hyperandrogenic woman--potential marker for androgen-secreting tumor.
  • Hyperandrogenism in postmenopausal women is due to ovarian hyperthecosis or an androgen-secreting ovarian/adrenal tumor.
  • Making the correct diagnosis might be complicated due to the possible existence of an adrenal neoplasm secreting testosterone only, ectopic ovarian tissue or ectopic luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin receptors in the adrenals, as well as the relatively low sensitivity of imaging techniques (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and vein catheterization for this type of pathology.
  • We present the case of an obese postmenopausal woman with metabolic syndrome, hyperandrogenism (high testosterone levels, suppressed gonadotropins), adrenal macronodular hyperplasia and Leydig-cell ovarian tumor.
  • Then, bilateral oophorectomy with hysterectomy was performed and a small Leydig-cell tumor was found in the left ovary.
  • In conclusion, we speculate that low leptin levels in obese hyperandrogenic women might be a marker for androgen-secreting tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / etiology. Hirsutism / etiology. Hyperandrogenism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biomarkers / blood. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Leptin / blood. Leptin / metabolism. Metabolic Syndrome X / complications. Middle Aged. Obesity

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  • (PMID = 17454162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Leptin
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61. Ohshima R, Tomita N, Motohashi K, Ieda A, Hyou R, Fujisawa S, Fujita H, Sakai R, Koharazawa H, Kuwabara H, Kanamori H, Ishigatsubo Y: [Clinical course of 8 patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed while alive]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2005 Jun;46(6):453-7
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  • We retrospectively evaluated the diagnosis and clinical courses of 8 patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL) diagnosed while they were alive.
  • Most complaints at diagnosis were fever or dyspnea.
  • The diagnosis of IVL was confirmed by biopsy specimens from the bone marrow in 4, lung in 2, muscle, adrenal gland, and lymph node in 1 case, respectively.
  • In suspicious cases, it is important to bear IVL in mind and examine bone marrow biopsies for an early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 16447727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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62. Korets R, Berkenblit R, Ghavamian R: Incidentally discovered adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2007 Jan-Mar;11(1):113-5
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  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal schwannoma.
  • Schwannoma is a rare tumor of neural crest cell origin that is rarely seen arising from the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of an adrenal mass discovered incidentally in a 70-year-old man as part of a hematuria workup.
  • Following surgical excision and pathologic evaluation with confirmatory immunohistochemical staining, the mass was reported as a benign nerve sheath neoplasm.

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  • [Cites] Med Clin (Barc). 2000 Oct 21;115(13):518-9 [11093879.001]
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  • (PMID = 17651570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015789
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63. Manz M, Schmeer T, Horcic M, Meier R, Maurer CA: [Bronchogenic cyst: a rare cause of a retroperitoneal mass]. Zentralbl Chir; 2009 Dec;134(6):570-2
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  • The histopathological definition consists of the presence of ciliated epithelium together with cartilage or bronchial mucous glands.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 49-year-old patient with the incidental finding of a large cystic mass between the diaphragm and the stomach.
  • Imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumour.
  • Histological examination revealed the surprising diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions.
  • Regardless of being asymptomatic most of the time, surgical resection is recommended to obtain definitive histological diagnosis and avoid future complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 19424941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Mucha SA, Kunert-Radek J, Pomorski L: Positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) in the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma metastases. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):452-5
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  • The efficacy of these procedures has been limited by the aggressiveness of the disease and metastatic spread at the time of surgery.
  • Persistently elevated levels of calcitonin (CT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or their increase postoperatively are indicative for residual or recurrent disease.
  • In five patients with postoperative calcitonin ranging from 164 to > 2000 ng/l (normal < 10 ng/l) no tumour lesions were found using other imaging methods.
  • PET detected tumour manifestations in the neck and the mediastinum in two patients, in the lung and the left adrenal gland in one case and in the neck and the liver in another patient.
  • As a result of surgery for the removal of a residual tumour or metastases the accuracy of diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in all four cases and a decrease in CT and CEA levels was observed in 3/4 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17006852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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65. Bezuglova TV, Poliakova GA, Kazantseva IA: [Role of immunohistochemical study of extracellular matrix components in the estimation of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytomas]. Arkh Patol; 2008 Nov-Dec;70(6):19-21
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  • [Title] [Role of immunohistochemical study of extracellular matrix components in the estimation of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytomas].
  • The present investigation has indicated that active tenascin-C expression is observed in malignant pheochromocytomas, suggesting the altered composition of the extracellular matrix, there is also activation of metalloproteinase-9 and cyclooxygenase-2, which play an important role in many biological processes, including the invasion and metastatic spread of tumor cells, as well as in neoangiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tenascin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19227276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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66. Elli M, Pinarli FG, Dagdemir A, Dabak N, Fisgin T, Selcuk MB, Sultansuyu S, Acar S: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in a patient with Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Mar;23(2):111-4
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  • Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder with clinical and laboratory features closely resembling to hereditary von Willebrand disease.
  • The syndrome may accompany various conditions, including malignant disorders, most often with Wilms tumor and adrenal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16651239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • This was characterized by right adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with homolateral ganglioneuroma and controlateral adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The three tumors, incidentally discovered, proved to be non-functioning (normal secretion of catecholamines and of other neuroendocrine peptides, glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids and androgens).
  • Accordingly, the patient showed no sign or symptom of endocrine disease.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a typical adenomatous lesion on the left adrenal gland with precocious uptake of the radiotracer on radioidine (131I)-norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy, while the controlateral gland showed hyperdensity on CT, hyperintensity on MR and no uptake at adrenal scintigraphy.
  • The right adrenal gland was surgically removed and, microscopically, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma areas appeared intermixed without a predominant component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Introns / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radionuclide Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16483185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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68. Boylu U, Oommen M, Lee BR, Thomas R: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope. J Endourol; 2009 Jun;23(6):971-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the role of laparoscopy for large adrenal tumors in terms of outcomes, pathology, operative time, and morbidity.
  • The laparoscopic adrenalectomy patients were divided into two groups based on tumor size: <8 cm (n = 16, group 1) and >or=8 cm (n = 8, group 2).
  • RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 5.6 cm for group 1 and 12.1 cm for group 2.
  • Pathologic examination revealed eight adrenal cortical adenomas, five myolipomas, four pheochromocytomas, four cysts/pseudocysts, and three adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • Our findings suggest, however, that laparoscopic adrenalectomy for masses larger than 8 cm can produce comparable results concerning hospital stay, conversion to open surgery rate, and pathologic outcome in comparison with results for adrenal masses smaller than 8 cm.

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  • (PMID = 19456243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Goldstein DS, Mannelli M, Csako G, Walther MM, Brouwers FM, Pacak K: Pheochromocytoma catecholamine phenotypes and prediction of tumor size and location by use of plasma free metanephrines. Clin Chem; 2005 Apr;51(4):735-44
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma catecholamine phenotypes and prediction of tumor size and location by use of plasma free metanephrines.
  • BACKGROUND: Measurements of plasma free metanephrines (normetanephrine and metanephrine) provide a useful test for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and may provide other information about the nature of these tumors.
  • METHODS: We examined relationships of tumor size, location, and catecholamine content with plasma and urinary metanephrines or catecholamines in 275 patients with pheochromocytoma.
  • We then prospectively examined whether measurements of plasma free metanephrines could predict tumor size and location in an additional 16 patients.
  • RESULTS: Relative proportions of epinephrine and norepinephrine in tumor tissue were closely matched by relative increases of plasma or urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine, but not by epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Tumor diameter showed strong positive relationships with summed plasma concentrations or urinary outputs of metanephrine and normetanephrine (r = 0.81 and 0.77; P <0.001), whereas relationships with plasma or urinary catecholamines were weaker (r = 0.41 and 0.44).
  • All tumors in which increases in plasma metanephrine were >15% of the combined increases of normetanephrine and metanephrine either had adrenal locations or appeared to be recurrences of previously resected adrenal tumors.
  • Measurements of plasma free metanephrines predicted tumor diameter to within a mean of 30% of actual diameter, and high plasma concentrations of free metanephrine relative to normetanephrine accurately predicted adrenal locations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of plasma free metanephrines not only provide information about the likely presence or absence of a pheochromocytoma, but when a tumor is present, can also help predict tumor size and location.
  • This additional information may be useful for clinical decision-making during tumor localization procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Catecholamines / analysis. Metanephrine / blood. Normetanephrine / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15718487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine
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70. Fassnacht M, Allolio B: What is the best approach to an apparently nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Nov;73(5):561-5
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  • In suspected nonmetastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) a careful preoperative diagnostic work up is needed including comprehensive endocrine analysis as recommended by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (http://www.ENSAT.org/ACC.htm).
  • As many patients will suffer from tumor recurrence after seemingly complete removal of ACC, adjuvant treatment based on the individual risk status is recommended.
  • Key factors for risk assessment are tumor stage, resection status and the proliferation marker Ki67.
  • R1 resection) we recommend additional radiotherapy of the tumor bed.
  • In low/intermediate risk patients who cannot be included in this trial observation only can be justified in cases with a tumor diameter of <8 cm and no microscopic evidence for invasion of blood vessels or tumor capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20738315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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71. Böttger C, Warth A, Nawroth PP, Isermann B: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. Med Klin (Munich); 2010 Apr;105(4):237-41
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  • [Transliterated title] Neuroendokrines Karzinom der Lunge: eine diagnostische und therapeutische Herausforderung.
  • Based on a biopsy of a bronchial tumor, a small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the lung was diagnosed and chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin was initiated.
  • As the tumor progressed under chemotherapy, the bronchial biopsy was reevaluated and further biopsies of liver and adrenal metastases were obtained.
  • The diagnosis was corrected, and an atypical neuroendocrine bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed.
  • Under octreotide therapy, the patient remained stable for 1 year, when a discrete progress of the primary tumor in the lung was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcitonin / metabolism. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Lung / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Thyroid Gland / pathology


72. Tang JY, Pan C, Chen J, Xu M, Chen J, Xue HL, Gu LJ, Dong R, Ye H, Zhou M, Wang YP: [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;44(10):770-3
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  • [Title] [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to improve the prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB) stage III and IV in children through the comprehensive therapy including chemotherapy, delayed tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and inducing differentiation and to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis.
  • Comprehensive protocol included accurate staging, delayed and/or second tumor resection for stage III and IV patients, chemotherapy of different intensity mainly composed of cell cycle nonspecific drugs and 13-cis-retinoid for inducing cell differentiation.
  • Of them, 15 were found to have the tumor in adrenal gland, 12 had the tumor extended to the retro-peritoneal space, while in 15 cases the tumor was beside the spinal column in chest and in 3 the tumor was located in other places.
  • Nine cases had stage I, 1 case had stage II, 8 cases had III, 26 cases had stage IV and 1 case had stage IVs of the tumor.
  • Depending on the age and stage of the tumor, 26 cases were aligned into high risk protocol, 10 into medium risk and 9 into low risk groups.
  • During up to 21 months median following up period (range 14 to 64 months), 24 cases (62%) kept CR (median 22 months) and 4 survived with stable disease.
  • Eleven cases died of relapse and disease progression.
  • Statistical analysis showed that the age older than 18 months, and stage III and IV of the tumor were the factors predicting poor prognosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively).
  • Patients who had the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal space, who had incomplete tumor resection, and those who did not receive ASCT had poorer prognosis, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.092, 0.55 and 0.60, respectively).
  • The origin of the tumor, completeness of tumor resection, and use of ASCT had no significant impact on the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


73. Cicala MV, Sartorato P, Mantero F: Incidentally discovered masses in hypertensive patients. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;20(3):451-66
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  • The adrenal glands are the most likely culprits, due either to an excessive production of mineralocorticoids, catecholamines or glucocorticoids.
  • The term 'adrenal incidentaloma' indicates an adrenal mass discovered accidentally during testing or treatment for other clinical conditions unrelated to any suspicion of adrenal disease.
  • In particular, when an adrenal mass is discovered in a hypertensive subject, physicians must check whether the patient has pheochromocytoma, glucocorticoid excess or primary aldosteronism.
  • Although most adrenal masses are non-hypersecretory adenomas, hormone screening can reveal a significant number of cases of clinically unsuspected hormone-secreting adrenal tumors.
  • If the clinical history or physical examination of a patient with unilateral incidentaloma shows signs and symptoms suggestive of glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, adrenal sex hormone or catecholamine excess, which is confirmed biochemically, the treatment of choice is often adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Aldosterone / secretion. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Incidental Findings. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16980205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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74. Haase M, Willenberg HS: Adrenal cortical tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia-related syndromes. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):123-35
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia-related syndromes.
  • Relatively frequent, adrenal masses include a multitude of different tumor types: uni- or bilateral hyperplasias, adenomas, and the rare entity of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • With significant progress in our appreciation of their underlying molecular pathomechanisms and from analysis of affected individuals and their families, a number of inherited diseases and tumor syndromes have been linked to adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • These syndromes and diseases include the Carney complex, the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, familial adenomatosis coli, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial forms of primary aldosteronism, the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • The key to successful management of these syndromes is identification of patients harboring adrenal tumors within the context of hereditary diseases, since diagnostic procedures, therapy and follow-up may significantly differ from the management of sporadic, isolated adrenal tumors.
  • This review explores the underlying genetic defects, diagnosis and therapy of the major heritable tumor syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Myxoma / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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75. Hennings J, Lindhe O, Bergström M, Långström B, Sundin A, Hellman P: [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1410-4
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  • [Title] [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19).
  • The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection.
  • Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative.
  • SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC.
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors.
  • MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Antineoplastic Agents. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16403816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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76. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • These patients do not typically present in hemorrhagic shock, allowing for adequate preoperative evaluation for function and assessment for primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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78. Klippenstein DL, Lamonica DM: Preoperative imaging for metastasectomy. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2007 Jul;16(3):471-92, vii
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  • For most solid neoplasms, medical imaging is a vital component of tumor staging and surveillance.
  • Imaging strategies vary according to the type and grade of primary neoplasm, tumor stage at diagnosis, tumor markers, previous therapies, and patient symptoms.
  • In this article, we address imaging of individual organs (lung, liver, adrenals) and outline imaging strategies for specific types of neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Enteroendocrine Cells. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Intraoperative Care / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17606189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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79. Varkarakis IM, Mufarrij P, Studeman KD, Jarrett TW: Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland. Urology; 2005 Jan;65(1):175
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are common in the genital tract but rare in the adrenal gland.
  • These tumors can be difficult to diagnose when present in extragenital sites.
  • This type of adrenal tumor lacks specific radiographic features and can be confused preoperatively with more common adrenal gland tumors.
  • We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidental right adrenal mass with calcified components and elevated urinary levels of homovanillic acid that was found to be an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Calcinosis / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Homovanillic Acid / urine. Humans. Incidental Findings. Kidney Calculi / complications. Kidney Calculi / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15667895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
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80. Pohl PP, Meyer A, Lammers BJ, Goretzki PE: [Abdominal preoperation. No contraindication for laparoscopic transabdominal adrenalectomy]. Chirurg; 2008 Jun;79(6):571-5
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  • Benign adrenal gland tumors smaller than 6 cm are nowadays the indication for minimally invasive surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / contraindications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Laparoscopy / contraindications. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17879074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Bovio S, Reimondo G, Daffara F, Allasino B, Angeli A, Terzolo M: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas]. Recenti Prog Med; 2006 Jan;97(1):6-15
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  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] La sindrome di Cushing subclinica nei pazienti con incidentaloma surrenalico.
  • In the heyday of high-tech medicine, the incidental discovery of an adrenal mass is a frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiological techniques.
  • The potential harm to health associated with incidentally discovered cortical adenoma, the most frequent tumor among adrenal incidentalomas, is unclear at present.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenoma may secrete cortisol autonomously, in a way that is no longer under close control by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases.
  • At present, data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or nonsurgical approach to manage patients with subclinical hyperfunctioning adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • It is of the utmost importance to establish collaborative prospective studies with clearly defined entry criteria and standardized evaluation protocols and treatment modalities to appraise the natural history and long-term morbidity of clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma and subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16535924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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82. Takahashi K, Totsune K, Saruta M, Fukuda T, Suzuki T, Hirose T, Imai Y, Sasano H, Murakami O: Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. Peptides; 2006 Jan;27(1):178-82
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  • [Title] Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • In the present study, we studied expression of Ucn3/SCP in the normal adrenal and adrenal tumors by radioimmunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • High concentrations of immunoreactive (IR)-Ucn3 were present in the normal portions of adrenal glands (4.2+/-0.51 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M., n = 14), and the levels were higher than those in the brain.
  • IR-Ucn3 was also detected in the tumor tissues of aldosterone-secreting adenomas (6.2+/-0.6 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-secreting adenomas (5.0+/-1.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.9+/-0.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 7).
  • Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that IR-Ucn3 in normal portions of adrenal glands and aldosterone-secreting adenomas was eluted mainly in the positions of Ucn3 and SCP with several minor peaks eluting earlier.
  • The RT-PCR showed expression of Ucn3 mRNA in normal portions of adrenal gland (positive ratio; 4/4), aldosterone-secreting adenomas (3/4), cortisol-secreting adenomas (1/3) and pheochromocytomas (6/7).
  • These findings indicate that Ucn3 is produced in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors (both adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas), and suggest that Ucn3 acts as an autocrine or paracrine regulator in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Urocortins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16095756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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83. Nagai T, Taie S, Endo R, Iwanaga Y, Maekawa N: [Survival after intraoperative pulmonary embolism of a patient with left adrenal tumor]. Masui; 2006 Jul;55(7):910-3
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  • [Title] [Survival after intraoperative pulmonary embolism of a patient with left adrenal tumor].
  • A 15-year-old girl was scheduled to undergo left adrenalectomy and removal of vena cava tumor thrombi.
  • After left adrenalectomy and removal of vena cava tumor thrombi, IVC was declamped.
  • TEE may be useful for diagnosis of acute PE by secondary signs of pulmonary artery obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Echocardiography, Transesophageal. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16856556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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84. Batista DL, Riar J, Keil M, Stratakis CA: Diagnostic tests for children who are referred for the investigation of Cushing syndrome. Pediatrics; 2007 Sep;120(3):e575-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Endogenous Cushing syndrome in children is a rare disorder that is most frequently caused by pituitary or adrenocortical tumors.
  • Diagnostic criteria have generally been derived from studies of adult patients despite significant differences in both the physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the epidemiology of Cushing syndrome in childhood.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the tests that most reliably and efficiently diagnose pituitary or adrenal tumors in a large cohort of pediatric patients with Cushing syndrome.
  • Imaging of the pituitary and adrenal glands was also obtained.
  • The main outcome measure was the sensitivity of these parameters for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome at 100% specificity.
  • RESULTS: A midnight cortisol value of > or = 4.4 microg/dL confirmed the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome in almost all children, with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%.
  • Suppression of morning cortisol levels > 20% in response to an overnight, high-dosage dexamethasone test excluded all patients with adrenal tumors and identified almost all patients with pituitary tumors (sensitivity: 97.5%; specificity: 100%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that among children who were referred for the evaluation of possible Cushing syndrome, a single cortisol value at midnight followed by overnight high-dosage dexamethasone test led to rapid and accurate confirmation and diagnostic differentiation, respectively, of hypercortisolemia caused by pituitary and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Dexamethasone / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hormones. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Function Tests. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17698579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 201-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids; 0 / Hormones; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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85. Agha A, Hornung M, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: Single-incision retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy and single-incision laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1765-70
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  • OBJECTIVE: Single-incision surgery is by now practicable in many fields of surgery, including surgery of the adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: All patients had benign adrenal tumors (Conn's adenoma, n = 7; pheochromocytoma, n = 1).
  • Tumor size ranged between 1.2 and 2.4 cm.

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  • (PMID = 20849304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Chen G, Yao J, Mou L, Fang X, Huang H, Liang J, Li L, Ye L, Lin L, Wen J: Clinical analysis of 249 cases of adrenal tumors in a Chinese hospital. Urol Int; 2010;85(3):270-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical analysis of 249 cases of adrenal tumors in a Chinese hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics of adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 249 cases of adrenal masses which were confirmed at operation and by pathology were analyzed.
  • Overall, females were more commonly represented than males, especially with Cushing's syndrome and typical pheochromocytoma (female:male ratio 3.3:1.9), however the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) in males and females was similar.
  • Of 109 adrenocortical adenomas, 47 were primary aldosteronism, 31 were Cushing's syndrome, 30 were AIs, and 1 was adrenal virilization.
  • Of 14 adrenal nodular hyperplasias, 6 were Cushing's syndrome and 8 were primary aldosteronism.
  • Of the remaining 30 benign tumors, all presented as AIs.
  • The diameter of malignant tumors (10.9 ± 5.6 cm) was significantly larger than that of benign tumors (4.5 ± 3.7 cm) (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows a high rate of AIs in patients with adrenal masses selected for surgery.
  • Hormone levels should be determined in symptomatic or incidental patients with adrenal masses.
  • Imaging examination (CT and MRI) is the first method used to detect and localize adrenal masses.
  • Tumor size is an important parameter of diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses, especially AIs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. China. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Hospitals. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20606391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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87. Bercovici JP, Fiet J, Gibault L, Volant A, Abalain JH, Floch HH, Sonnet E, Fournier G: Testicular adrenal rest tumours in salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (in vivo and in vitro studies). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Jan;93(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Testicular adrenal rest tumours in salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (in vivo and in vitro studies).
  • We describe the case of a 20-year-old patient with salt-wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) related to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Bilateral craggy testicular tumours were found, requiring histological evaluation.
  • High levels of 11beta-OH steroids measured in the gonadal vein, compared with peripheral blood samples suggested the presence of adrenal rests.
  • Incubation of the tumours (which could not be differentiated histologically, from Leydig tissue), with radioactive steroid precursors was carried out.
  • The results revealed the testicular tumours were of adrenal tissue origin, associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Rest Tumor / etiology. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Adult. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Fludrocortisone / therapeutic use. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Follow-Up Studies. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Hydrocortisone / deficiency. Hypogonadism / etiology. Inhibins / blood. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Prolactin / blood. Renin / blood. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 15748834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / inhibin B; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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88. Nomura K, Kimura H, Shimizu S, Kodama H, Okamoto T, Obara T, Takano K: Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2850-6
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  • Twenty-five patients had undergone excision of their primary tumors.
  • RESULTS: The survival curve of the 32 patients declined continuously and linearly to at least 20 yr after the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • In the 25 patients whose primary tumor was excised, patients who already had metastases at the time of pheochromocytoma diagnosis had better survival than those whose metastases were found later.
  • The survival rate after diagnosis of metastasis was worse in the CVD group than in controls.
  • When the effects of CVD were examined after stratifying several factors, female gender and adrenal origin of tumor were found to be negative prognostic factors for CVD chemotherapy.
  • CVD chemotherapy was not shown to extend survival, especially for women and patients with adrenal gland-derived primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19470630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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89. Venkatesan AM, Locklin J, Dupuy DE, Wood BJ: Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):89-99
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  • [Title] Percutaneous ablation of adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma, and adrenal metastases.
  • Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, microwave ablation, and chemical ablation.
  • Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland's unique anatomic and physiological features.
  • The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article.
  • Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20540918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 69
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199588; NLM/ PMC2886030
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90. Kojima Y, Miyake O, Morimoto A, Kawamura C, Katayama S: [A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with end-stage renal disease]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jan;56(1):21-4
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  • [Title] [A case of aldosterone-producing adenoma associated with end-stage renal disease].
  • Periodic follow-up abdominal ultrasonography revealed a tumor measuring 4 cm in diameter in an area adjacent to the upper pole of the right kidney.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right adrenal tumor.
  • Furthermore, adrenal scintigraphy after dexamethasone inhibition showed accumulation in the right adrenal gland.
  • Under a diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adrenal tumor, laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed.
  • Pathological findings showed adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Primary aldosteronism causes hypertension, hypopotassiumemia, hyporeninemia, and hyperaldosteronemia via excessive secretion of aldosterone in the adrenal glands.
  • A previous study also indicated the presence of hyperaldosteronemia in patients with end-stage renal disease.
  • A diagnosis should be carefully made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications

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  • (PMID = 20104005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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91. Garg K, Lee P, Ro JY, Qu Z, Troncoso P, Ayala AG: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;9(1):11-5
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: a clinicopathologic study of 3 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are relatively uncommon benign neoplasms of mesothelial origin, usually occurring in the male and female genital tracts.
  • Rare extragenital adenomatoid tumors have been identified in the adrenal glands, heart, mesentery, pleura, and lymph nodes.
  • In the adrenal gland, adenomatoid tumors may pose a diagnostic challenge.
  • The differential diagnosis includes adrenocortical carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma, especially signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • Because of its glandular pattern, an adenomatoid tumor may be confused with an adenocarcinoma.
  • We present 3 cases of adrenal adenomatoid tumors, including one with a concurrent large hemorrhagic vascular adrenal cyst.
  • The adenomatoid tumors were unilateral, appeared solid and white, and varied from 1.7 to 4.2 cm in diameter.
  • One patient presented with abdominal pain due to the presence of a concurrent large adrenal cyst.
  • The tumor was an incidental radiological finding in another case and was discovered during the course of a workup for hypertension in the third case.
  • The light microscopic appearances were consistent with those of typical adenomatoid tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for calretinin and cytokeratin 5/6 were positive, confirming the tumors' mesothelial origin.
  • In our experience, the key to the diagnosis of this rare benign tumor is to consider adenomatoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of any glandular tumor occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Cysts / complications. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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92. Hsiao HL, Li CC, Lin HC, Yeh HC, Huang CH, Wu WJ: Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2008 Oct;24(10):553-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report.
  • Schwannoma of the adrenal gland is extremely rare.
  • Here, we report a 49-year-old patient with an adrenal tumor noted incidentally by abdominal ultrasonography while undergoing regular health examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19181588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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93. Stehr C, Velasco S, Velasco A, López M JM: [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?]. Rev Med Chil; 2007 Dec;135(12):1526-9
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  • [Title] [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?].
  • [Transliterated title] El tamaño de los tumores suprarrenales ¿está en relación al tiempo de evolución o expresa una diferencia biológica?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumor (AT) malignancy has been related to tumor size.
  • Since laparoscopic surgery is being used, smaller adrenal tumors are being excised.
  • AIM: To evaluate eventual clinical and histological differences between adrenal tumors smaller than 4 cm. and those larger than 6 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pathological reports and clinical records of patients operated for adrenal tumors, dividing them in two groups.
  • Group 1 had 29 patients aged 52 +/- 13 years with AT < 4 cm operated during the period 2000-2005, and Group 2 was formed by 52 patients aged 46 +/-18 years with AT >6 cm operated between 1984-2005- Tumors between 4 and 6 cm were not included in the study to establish clear cut differences between groups.
  • RESULTS: Tumors were functional in 40 and 41% of cases in groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • Fifty percent of functional tumors of group 1 were pheochromocytomas and the rest secreted aldosterone.
  • In group 2, 66% of tumors were pheochromocytomas and no aldosterone secreting tumors were found.
  • Fifty two and eight percent of tumors in Groups 1 and 2 were adenomas, respectively (p <0.001).
  • Nineteen tumors of group 2 were malignant, compared with one of group 1 (p <0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size of adrenal cortical tumors may represent biological differences, suggesting two different tumor populations.
  • At time of diagnosis adrenal carcinomas are almost always larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18357352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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94. Shoji S, Uchida T, Nakano M, Nagata Y, Usui Y, Terachi T: [Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst on the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Jun;56(6):315-7
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst on the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • An adrenal tumor was found by abdominal sonography and she was referred to our hospital.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed right adrenal cystic tumor.
  • We diagnosed the tumor as right adrenal cystic tumor, and performed surgical excision by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination of excised tumors revealed an epidermoid cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Epidermal Cyst / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20610923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Thiel EL, Trost BA, Tower RL: A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 1;54(7):1032-4
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  • [Title] A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland.
  • At surgery, the mass was noted to arise from the right adrenal gland.
  • The final diagnosis was a cystic composite-pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • This compound adrenal tumor is only the fourth case reported in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


96. Boikos SA, Horvath A, Heyerdahl S, Stein E, Robinson-White A, Bossis I, Bertherat J, Carney JA, Stratakis CA: Phosphodiesterase 11A expression in the adrenal cortex, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and other corticotropin-independent lesions. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):347-53
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  • [Title] Phosphodiesterase 11A expression in the adrenal cortex, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and other corticotropin-independent lesions.
  • A variety of adrenal tumors and bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias (BAH) leading to Cushing syndrome (CS) may be caused by aberrant cAMP signaling.
  • We recently identified patients with a micronodular form of BAH that we have called "isolated micronodular adrenocortical disease" (iMAD) in whom CS was associated with inactivating mutations in phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A ( PDE11A).
  • In the present study, we examined PDE11A expression in normal adrenocortical tissue, sporadic tumors, and hyperplasias without PDE11A mutations, and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and adenomas from patients with PRKAR1A and a single tumor with a GNAS mutation.
  • The total number of the tumor samples that we studied was 22.
  • Phosphorylated CREB was the highest in tissues from patients with iMAD compared to all other forms of BAH and normal adrenal tissue.
  • We conclude that PDE11A is expressed widely in adrenal cortex.
  • Its expression appears to be increased in PPNAD but varies widely among other adrenocortical tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18491255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101685; NLM/ PMC2713062
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97. Tan YY, Ogilvie JB, Triponez F, Caron NR, Kebebew EK, Clark OH, Duh QY: Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):879-85; discussion 886-7
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  • [Title] Selective use of adrenal venous sampling in the lateralization of aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that routine adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is necessary to lateralize an aldosterone-producing adenoma in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • RESULTS: Altogether, 65 patients were included in the study, 52 (80%) of whom had their adrenal tumors lateralized based on computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / blood

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  • (PMID = 16680603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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98. Gagliardi L, Hotu C, Casey G, Braund WJ, Ling KH, Dodd T, Manavis J, Devitt PG, Cutfield R, Rudzki Z, Scott HS, Torpy DJ: Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Jun;70(6):883-91
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  • [Title] Familial vasopressin-sensitive ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (VPs-AIMAH): clinical studies of three kindreds.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome due to familial ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) has been reported in small kindreds.
  • DESIGN: Clinical studies of three kindreds for adrenal tumours or early Cushing's and molecular studies of adrenal tumours (AIMAH-01).
  • PATIENTS: Thirty-three individuals, from three kindreds, were screened for perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or adrenal tumours.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Patients underwent clinical, biochemical and adrenal imaging investigations.
  • Adrenal VP receptor (AVPR1A, AVPR1B, AVPR2) expression (AIMAH-01) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • RESULTS: AIMAH-01 had three siblings with Cushing's, and four individuals with suppressed ACTH/aberrant VP responses and/or adrenal nodules.
  • RT-PCR showed adrenal overexpression of AVPR1A and AVPR1B.
  • The adrenal tumour from one patient also stained weakly for VP and AVPR2.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal nodules, suppressed ACTH and increased VP sensitivity may represent preclinical disease, allowing early detection, and treatment, of affected individuals.
  • In AIMAH-01, increased VP sensitivity may be due to adrenal VP receptor overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Pedigree. Vasopressins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Vasopressin / genetics. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19018784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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99. Iqbal CW, Wahoff DC: Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2009 Jun;21(3):379-85
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated.
  • Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder.
  • Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved.
  • Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients.
  • SUMMARY: Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population.
  • Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up.
  • Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Morbidity. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19421059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-698X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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100. Saftoiu A, Vilman P: Endoscopic ultrasound elastography-- a new imaging technique for the visualization of tissue elasticity distribution. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2006 Jun;15(2):161-5
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  • Mapping of the tissue elasticity distribution might be useful for the differential diagnosis of focal pancreatic masses, especially in the setting of chronic pancreatitis where the accuracy of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration is also low.
  • EUS elastography might also enhance the detection and differentiation of various solid tumors (adrenal tumors, submucosal tumors, etc.) situated nearby the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity. Endosonography / methods. Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatitis, Chronic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16802011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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