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1. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage, leading to life-threatening, and multiple tumors in the liver.
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Miwa Y, Uchida K, Nakayama H, Asaki N: Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Sep;72(9):1229-32
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland in a ferret.
  • The excised mass was histologically diagnosed as a medullary tumor of the adrenal gland, and some neoplastic cells were beta III-tubulin-, doublecortin- and neurofilament-positive.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was considered to be a neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20431253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Salem RR, Elefteriades J, Sosa JA: Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:109
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal vein: a novel approach to surgical resection.
  • Leiomyosarcomas arising from the adrenal vein are rare malignancies associated with delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 64-year old woman who presented with a 13 x 6.5 x 6.6 cm heterogeneous mass arising in the region of the right adrenal gland and extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right atrium.
  • Biochemical evaluation excluded a functional tumor of the adrenal gland, and multiple tumor markers were negative.
  • We present the novel use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in the resection of an adrenal vein leiomyosarcoma extending into the right atrium.
  • The patient remains free of disease ten months after surgery.
  • DHCA afforded a bloodless operative field for optimal resection of disease from within the IVC.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of leiomyosarcomas of the adrenal vein is one of exclusion and involves preoperative radiological imaging and biochemical evaluation to exclude other functional tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17910774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117013
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5. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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6. Orlando R, Lumachi F, Lirussi F: Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4385-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital anomalies of the spleen mimicking hematological disorders and solid tumors: a single-center experience of 2650 consecutive diagnostic laparoscopies.
  • Though most of these anatomical variants have no clinical significance, an accessory spleen may simulate a tumor in the adrenal gland, pancreas, stomach or intestine.
  • Alternatively, a missed accessory spleen may be the site of the relapse of a hematological disorder.
  • We, therefore, assessed retrospectively: (i) the frequency of congenital anomalies of the spleen observed during 2650 consecutive laparoscopies and (ii) looked for possible misdiagnoses of the accessory spleen as hematological disorders or solid tumors located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.
  • Among the 44 patients in whom an accessory spleen was discovered laparoscopically, the recognition of this anomaly prevented a relapse of a hematological disease in one case and avoided a useless exploratory laparotomy in the second, where the radiologist had interpreted this malformation as a space-occupying lesion.
  • In the third case, the accessory spleen was initially misdiagnosed as a solid tumor of the pancreas, but was eventually recognized as a congenital anomaly by a second laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spleen / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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7. Ho YH, Yap WM, Chuah KL: Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):125-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland with unusual immunophenotype: a potential diagnostic problem and a brief review of endocrine organ solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was initially thought to be a pleura-based tumor.
  • Nonetheless, a primary involvement of the endocrine organs is rare, and in this report, we detail an instance where the tumor affected the adrenal gland of a 71-year-old Arab man.
  • On histology, besides the typical morphologic features seen in solitary fibrous tumor, the neoplasm also exhibited unusual features on immunohistochemistry such as positive staining for cytokeratin AE1/3 and calponin in conjunction with diffuse expression for S-100.
  • The genetic tests for t(X:18) as seen in synovial sarcoma were negative, and the overall histological appearance favored a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this report represents the fifth case of a solitary fibrous tumor primarily occurring in the adrenal gland.
  • The differential diagnoses of this neoplasm in our case and a brief summary of solitary fibrous tumor primarily involving the various endocrine organs are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20191330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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8. Sharma N, Dogra PN, Mathur S: Functional adrenal oncocytoma: a rare neoplasm. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Oct-Dec;51(4):531-3
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  • [Title] Functional adrenal oncocytoma: a rare neoplasm.
  • Adrenal oncocytoma is a rare adrenal neoplasm with only 21 cases reported in English literature.
  • These adrenal tumors are usually nonfunctional and hence incidentally detected.
  • Most of these adrenal neoplasms are benign.
  • We report a rare case of adrenal oncocytoma that was functional and was successfully managed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19008586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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9. Kim DJ, Chung JJ, Ryu YH, Hong SW, Yu JS, Kim JH: Adrenocortical oncocytoma displaying intense activity on 18F-FDG-PET: a case report and a literature review. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Nov;22(9):821-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report on the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) findings in a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland with the literature review of other imaging findings including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19039562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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10. Leclair MD, de Lagausie P, Becmeur F, Varlet F, Thomas C, Valla JS, Petit T, Philippe-Chomette P, Mure PY, Sarnacki S, Michon J, Heloury Y: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal neuroblastoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):117-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study included 45 children with abdominal NBs (28 localized, 11 stage 4, 6 stage 4s) and laparoscopic resection of their abdominal primary tumor.
  • Primary site of the tumor was the adrenal gland in 41 cases and retroperitoneal space in 4.
  • The median age at surgery was 12 months (1-122); median tumor size was 37 mm (12-70).
  • Four procedures (9%) were converted to open surgery, and tumor rupture occurred in three cases.
  • Of the 28 children with localized disease, there was a 96% overall survival (OS) rate after a median follow-up of 28 months (4-94).
  • For the entire 45-children cohort, four children died and three presented a recurrence resulting in OS, disease-free survival, and event-free survival rates of 84% +/- 8.1, 84% +/- 8.2, and 77% +/- 9.1 respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of abdominal primary allows effective local control of the disease in a wide range of clinical situations of neuroblastoma, with an acceptable morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17926102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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12. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Baldi C, Mazzoni G: Mebendazole inhibits growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines implanted in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(5):809-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland which requires new therapeutic approaches as its early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis poor despite therapies used.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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13. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • These patients do not typically present in hemorrhagic shock, allowing for adequate preoperative evaluation for function and assessment for primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Varkarakis IM, Mufarrij P, Studeman KD, Jarrett TW: Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland. Urology; 2005 Jan;65(1):175
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are common in the genital tract but rare in the adrenal gland.
  • These tumors can be difficult to diagnose when present in extragenital sites.
  • This type of adrenal tumor lacks specific radiographic features and can be confused preoperatively with more common adrenal gland tumors.
  • We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidental right adrenal mass with calcified components and elevated urinary levels of homovanillic acid that was found to be an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Calcinosis / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Homovanillic Acid / urine. Humans. Incidental Findings. Kidney Calculi / complications. Kidney Calculi / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15667895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
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15. Tang JY, Pan C, Chen J, Xu M, Chen J, Xue HL, Gu LJ, Dong R, Ye H, Zhou M, Wang YP: [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;44(10):770-3
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  • [Title] [Comprehensive protocol for diagnosis and treatment of childhood neuroblastoma--results of 45 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to improve the prognosis of neuroblastoma (NB) stage III and IV in children through the comprehensive therapy including chemotherapy, delayed tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and inducing differentiation and to analyze the factors affecting the prognosis.
  • Comprehensive protocol included accurate staging, delayed and/or second tumor resection for stage III and IV patients, chemotherapy of different intensity mainly composed of cell cycle nonspecific drugs and 13-cis-retinoid for inducing cell differentiation.
  • Of them, 15 were found to have the tumor in adrenal gland, 12 had the tumor extended to the retro-peritoneal space, while in 15 cases the tumor was beside the spinal column in chest and in 3 the tumor was located in other places.
  • Nine cases had stage I, 1 case had stage II, 8 cases had III, 26 cases had stage IV and 1 case had stage IVs of the tumor.
  • Depending on the age and stage of the tumor, 26 cases were aligned into high risk protocol, 10 into medium risk and 9 into low risk groups.
  • During up to 21 months median following up period (range 14 to 64 months), 24 cases (62%) kept CR (median 22 months) and 4 survived with stable disease.
  • Eleven cases died of relapse and disease progression.
  • Statistical analysis showed that the age older than 18 months, and stage III and IV of the tumor were the factors predicting poor prognosis (P = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively).
  • Patients who had the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal space, who had incomplete tumor resection, and those who did not receive ASCT had poorer prognosis, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.092, 0.55 and 0.60, respectively).
  • The origin of the tumor, completeness of tumor resection, and use of ASCT had no significant impact on the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17229383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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16. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15708063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Systemische Therapie maligner Nebennierentumoren.
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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18. Baron M, Hamou L, Laberge S, Callonnec F, Tielmans A, Dessogne P: Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):523-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature.
  • Metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands due to gynaecological neoplasms is a relatively rare condition.
  • The aim of our study was to present four cases of metastases to the adrenal gland due to endometrial adenocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CT scan and MRI have been previously used in an attempt to define the nature of the adrenal mass but this approach is of limited value in diagnosis.
  • Image-guided pathological confirmation of an adrenal lesion may significantly change the staging or management of the primary neoplasm.
  • The authors suggest that isolated adrenal metastasis should be routinely considered for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19051827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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19. Słonina J, Nienartowicz E, Agrawal AK, Malczewska J, Moroń K: [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 May-Jun;57(3):230-6
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  • [Title] [The usefulness of contrast-enhanced sonography in the differential diagnostic of adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Przydatność ultrasonograficznego środka kontrastujacego Levovist w diagnostyce róznicowej guzów nadnerczy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of gland tumors causes significant clinical problem.
  • Non hormone-secreting tumors provide the most complicated diagnostic difficulties.
  • The authors believe that this new method make possible the differential adrenal tumor diagnostic process more precise and increase the specificity of ultrasonography in the recognition of benign and malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to define the usefulness of contrasting agent Levovist in differential diagnostics of adrenal tumors and its influence on sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examination and to establish patients qualification criteria for surgical procedures.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ultrasound examinations were made with the use of digital devise by GE Voluson 740, probe 4-6 mHz with Doppler options and volumetric probe 3D according to the following protocol: 26 patients with recognized adrenal tumor were qualified for the examination.
  • Patients in the first stage of tumor vascularization had Doppler examination with color (CD) and power Doppler (PD).
  • RESULTS: 26 cases of adrenal gland tumours were subjected to analysis.
  • 3D ultrasound could be useful in cases of big adrenal tumors--over 3 cm diameter after application of ultrasound contrast agents.
  • 2. The use of Levovist in Doppler examination improves the visualization of tumor vascularization.
  • However, it is impossible to differentiate benign from malignant tumors unequivocally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Contrast Media. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Polysaccharides
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnostic imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 16832787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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20. Vincent C, Brewster JB, Kedar V, Sundaram CP: Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2008 May;22(5):995-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unilateral idiopathic adrenal hematomas with a preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the clinical and radiologic features of unilateral adrenal hematomas in adults.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 75 patients who underwent adrenalectomies at our institution, we identified 3 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors.
  • The pathology report confirmed adrenal hematomas with no evidence of neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: Unilateral adrenal hematomas sometimes are indistinguishable radiologically from neoplasms.
  • Surgery is then necessary to distinguish a hematoma from a hemorrhagic adrenal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18393646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; A74586SNO7 / clopidogrel; OM90ZUW7M1 / Ticlopidine; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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21. Komatsu S, Watanabe R, Naito M, Mizusawa T, Obara K, Nishiyama T, Takahashi K: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):606-7
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from adrenal gland in adulthood, diagnosed preoperatively as having non-functional adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunohistological examination revealed the definite diagnosis as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a highly malignant neoplasm, there is no evidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis 16 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16771733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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22. Walz MK: [Adrenal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Nov;79(11):1087-94; quiz 1095-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal tumors can be primary or secondary entities.
  • Primary tumors are able to secrete hormones which may cause significant effects clinically.
  • Typical tumor-related adrenal diseases are Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and pheochromocytoma (catacholamine excess).
  • Primary adrenal tumors are rarely malignant, but adrenocortical neoplasias show a relation between tumor size and rate of malignancy.
  • Diagnostic methods for adrenal tumors include hormone tests and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Endoscopy. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18941729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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24. Tsuru N, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors. J Endourol; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(6):702-8; discussion 708-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary and secondary malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully.
  • When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon.
  • It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary.
  • The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue.
  • The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 16053359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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25. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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26. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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27. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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29. Lau SK, Romansky SG, Weiss LM: Sustentaculoma: report of a case of a distinctive neoplasm of the adrenal medulla. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):268-73
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  • [Title] Sustentaculoma: report of a case of a distinctive neoplasm of the adrenal medulla.
  • A case of a morphologically distinctive tumor of the adrenal medulla occurring in a 54-year-old woman is described.
  • On microscopic examination, the tumor was well circumscribed and characterized by the presence of ill-defined, irregular nests of spindle cells with oval to elongated nuclei, tiny nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • The tumor was associated with a moderate infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells with occasional lymphoid follicles.
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the tumor cells to be strongly reactive for vimentin, S-100 protein, and CD56, and nonreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, chromogranin, synaptophysin, melanoma-associated antigens, and dendritic cell markers.
  • The morphology, immunophenotype, and ultrastructure of this unique neoplasm suggest derivation from sustentacular cells of the adrenal medulla.
  • We propose the designation "sustentaculoma" for this hitherto undescribed neoplasm of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16434904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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30. Lane BR, Tiong HY, Campbell SC, Fergany AF, Weight CJ, Larson BT, Novick AC, Flechner SM: Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2430-6; discussion 2436-7
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  • [Title] Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy are not clearly defined and some surgeons perform it routinely for large and/or upper pole renal tumors.
  • We analyzed initial management and oncological outcomes of adrenal glands after open partial nephrectomy.
  • During partial nephrectomy the ipsilateral adrenal gland was resected if a suspicious adrenal nodule was noted on radiographic imaging, or if intraoperative findings indicated direct extension or metastasis.
  • Pathological analysis revealed direct invasion of the adrenal gland by renal cell carcinoma (1), renal cell carcinoma metastasis (2), other adrenal neoplasms (3) or benign tissue (42, 87%).
  • Metachronous adrenalectomy was ipsilateral (10), contralateral (2) or bilateral (3), revealing metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 11 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenalectomy should not be routinely performed during partial nephrectomy, even for upper pole tumors.
  • We propose concomitant adrenalectomy only if a suspicious adrenal lesion is identified radiographically or invasion of the adrenal gland is suspected intraoperatively.
  • Even using such strict criteria only 13% of these suspicious adrenal nodules contained cancer.
  • The rarity of metachronous adrenal metastasis and the lack of an observable benefit to concomitant adrenalectomy support adrenal preservation during partial nephrectomy except as previously outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19371896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Walz MK, Petersenn S, Koch JA, Mann K, Neumann HP, Schmid KW: Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours. Br J Surg; 2005 Jun;92(6):719-23
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  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic adrenalectomy has become the treatment of choice for small benign adrenal tumours but should not be used for malignant lesions.
  • It is debatable whether large and therefore potentially malignant primary adrenal tumours should be removed by minimally invasive techniques.
  • METHODS: Three hundred and eighty primary adrenal tumours in 368 patients (142 male and 226 female; mean(s.d.) age 48.9(14.4) years) were excised by laparoscopic or retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Adrenal neoplasias exceeded 6 cm in diameter (range 6-13 cm) in 33 patients (18 male and 15 female; age 42.6(14.2) years).
  • Patients with large tumours had an increased conversion rate (P = 0.039), longer operating time (P < 0.001) and greater intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.007) than those with smaller lesions, but a similar overall morbidity rate (P = 0.207).
  • Six malignant tumours were identified (diameter 4-10 cm; four phaeochromocytomas and two adrenocortical carcinomas).
  • CONCLUSION: Endocopic adrenalectomy perfomed by an experienced surgeon should be the treatment of choice for tumours exceeding 6 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15856491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Stehr C, Velasco S, Velasco A, López M JM: [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?]. Rev Med Chil; 2007 Dec;135(12):1526-9
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  • [Title] [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?].
  • [Transliterated title] El tamaño de los tumores suprarrenales ¿está en relación al tiempo de evolución o expresa una diferencia biológica?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumor (AT) malignancy has been related to tumor size.
  • Since laparoscopic surgery is being used, smaller adrenal tumors are being excised.
  • AIM: To evaluate eventual clinical and histological differences between adrenal tumors smaller than 4 cm. and those larger than 6 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pathological reports and clinical records of patients operated for adrenal tumors, dividing them in two groups.
  • Group 1 had 29 patients aged 52 +/- 13 years with AT < 4 cm operated during the period 2000-2005, and Group 2 was formed by 52 patients aged 46 +/-18 years with AT >6 cm operated between 1984-2005- Tumors between 4 and 6 cm were not included in the study to establish clear cut differences between groups.
  • RESULTS: Tumors were functional in 40 and 41% of cases in groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • Fifty percent of functional tumors of group 1 were pheochromocytomas and the rest secreted aldosterone.
  • In group 2, 66% of tumors were pheochromocytomas and no aldosterone secreting tumors were found.
  • Fifty two and eight percent of tumors in Groups 1 and 2 were adenomas, respectively (p <0.001).
  • Nineteen tumors of group 2 were malignant, compared with one of group 1 (p <0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size of adrenal cortical tumors may represent biological differences, suggesting two different tumor populations.
  • At time of diagnosis adrenal carcinomas are almost always larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18357352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Zhang XP, Wei JX, Zhang WX, Wang ZY, Wu YD, Song DK: [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2009 Jul;28(7):730-3
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  • [Title] [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases].
  • The type of adrenal diseases, operating time, blood loss, complications and prognosis were summarized and the operating method was analyzed.
  • Two patients suffered from diaphragm injuries, one patient had right renal vein injury and one had colon injury.
  • CONCLUSION: Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy is one of the favorable approaches for the treatment of adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Child, Preschool. Colon / injuries. Diaphragm / injuries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Renal Veins / injuries. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19624900.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years).
  • Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent in distinguishing nephrogenic rests from Wilms' tumour and the current recently altered approach regarding small lung nodules in children with Wilms' tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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35. Sandgren J, Andersson R, Rada-Iglesias A, Enroth S, Akerstrom G, Dumanski JP, Komorowski J, Westin G, Wadelius C: Integrative epigenomic and genomic analysis of malignant pheochromocytoma. Exp Mol Med; 2010 Jul 31;42(7):484-502
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  • Epigenomic and genomic changes affect gene expression and contribute to tumor development.
  • Furthermore, genomic aberrations such as DNA copy number changes are common events in tumors.
  • Pheochromocytoma is a rare endocrine tumor of the adrenal gland that mostly occurs sporadic with unknown epigenetic/genetic cause.
  • The integrated analysis of the tumor expression levels, in relation to normal adrenal medulla, indicated that either histone modifications or chromosomal alterations, or both, have great impact on the expression of a substantial fraction of the genes in the investigated sample.
  • Candidate tumor suppressor genes identified with decreased expression, a H3K27me3 mark and/or in regions of deletion were for instance TGIF1, DSC3, TNFRSF10B, RASSF2, HOXA9, PTPRE and CDH11.
  • Our approach to associate histone methylations and DNA copy number changes to gene expression revealed apparent impact on global gene transcription, and enabled the identification of candidate tumor genes for further exploration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genome, Human / genetics. Genomics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Dosage / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Regulatory Networks / genetics. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Lysine / metabolism. Methylation. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20534969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; K3Z4F929H6 / Lysine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912476
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36. Chen JH, Yu CY, Pai CY, Chan DC, Chen CJ, Yu JC, Liu YC: Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;35(6):353-6
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  • [Title] Castleman's disease in the left upper retroperitoneal space mimicking an adrenal neoplasm: report of a case and literature review.
  • Castleman's disease is a rare disorder characterized by benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue.
  • The left suprarenal location of this localized disease may be mistaken for an adrenal tumor.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a Castleman's tumor located superomedial to the upper pole of the left kidney that mimicked an adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15928190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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37. Tan CT, Meyer-Rochow GY, Sywak MS, Delbridge LW, Sidhu SB: Reoperative adrenal surgery: lessons learnt. ANZ J Surg; 2009 May;79(5):371-7
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  • [Title] Reoperative adrenal surgery: lessons learnt.
  • With the widespread use of abdominal imaging, the detection and therefore incidence of adrenal tumours is increasing.
  • The laparoscopic approach to primary surgical resection of adrenal tumours has now become the standard of care.
  • There is scarce published literature regarding the management and outcomes of recurrent adrenal tumours.
  • The aim of the present study was therefore to review the authors' experience with reoperative adrenal surgery.
  • Reoperative adrenal surgery is an uncommon event.
  • During the index surgery for adrenal tumours, all adrenal tissue should be removed and knowledge of the vagaries of adrenal anatomy is essential.
  • Reoperative adrenal surgery is a safe procedure and may confer survival benefit or symptom relief.
  • Lifelong follow up is essential for all patients who have had surgery for functional and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. New South Wales. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19566520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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38. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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39. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


40. Kazarians B, Kausch I, Gellissen J, Doehn C, Jocham D: [Spontaneous hemorrhage of the adrenal gland during pregnancy]. Aktuelle Urol; 2007 Sep;38(5):403-5
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  • [Title] [Spontaneous hemorrhage of the adrenal gland during pregnancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Spontane Nebennierenblutung während der Schwangerschaft.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous hemorrhage is a rare cause of masses in the adrenal gland and must be differentiated from hemorrhage caused by trauma, neoplasm or metastases.
  • An MRI scan showed an adrenal hemorrhage, but a bleeding caused by a neoplasm was excluded by a post-partum MRI control only.
  • There was no evidence of a hormone-producing adrenal tumor, an adrenal insufficiency caused by the hemorrhage, or a coagulopathy.
  • CONCLUSION: Spontaneous hemorrhage in the adrenal gland is a rare condition in pregnancy.
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by MRI.
  • Adrenal function should be controlled during pregnancy and post-partum.
  • Recurrent hemorrhage and a neoplasm must be excluded by a post-partum MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases. Hemorrhage. Pregnancy Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Postpartum Period. Pregnancy. Time Factors

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  • [ErratumIn] Aktuelle Urol. 2007 Nov;38(6):475
  • (PMID = 17907068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Namour F, Ayav A, Lu X, Klein M, Muresan M, Bresler L, Tramoy D, Guéant JL, Brunaud L: Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1240-6
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  • [Title] Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland may give rise to pheochromocytomas, which are catecholamine-producing tumors originating from the adrenal medulla, or to adrenocortical tumors, which derive from the adrenocortical cortex and may be secreting or not.
  • The genetic mechanisms underlying the formation of these tumors include somatic mutations in susceptibility genes, especially in the familial forms, and allelic loss, especially in chromosome 1.
  • Microsatellite loci were analyzed in 32 benign tumors, including 11 pheochromocytomas and 21 adrenocortical tumors, in patients with and without familial syndrome.
  • No microsatellite instability was detected in any tumor.
  • A second patient with a MEN-2A syndrome and a two-sided pheochromocytoma exhibited a loss of heterozygosity for D2S123 in the right tumor only and a retention of heterozygosity for all markers in the left tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microsatellite instability, evaluated by the five reference markers of the National Cancer Institute, is not a feature of benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16715450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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42. Parnaby CN, Chong PS, Chisholm L, Farrow J, Connell JM, O'Dwyer PJ: The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumours of 6 cm or greater. Surg Endosc; 2008 Mar;22(3):617-21
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  • [Title] The role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumours of 6 cm or greater.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has been shown to reduce hospital stay and morbidity when compared to open adrenalectomy (OA).
  • It is uncertain if the laparoscopic resection of large (>/=6 cm) potentially malignant adrenal tumours is appropriate due to concern over incomplete resection and local recurrence.
  • The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of LA for tumours >/=6 cm with those < 6 cm.
  • METHODS: Details of all patients referred with adrenal tumours between January 1999 and January 2006 had been recorded prospectively on a database.
  • LA was performed using a lateral transabdominal approach.
  • Contraindications to LA were local invasion requiring en bloc resection of adjacent organs or the requirement of additional open procedures.
  • RESULTS: 103 patients were referred for adrenal resection.
  • Three with metastatic adrenal carcinoma and two with severe cardiorespiratory disease were deemed unsuitable for operation.
  • One hundred and eleven adrenalectomies were performed: 101 LAs and 10 OAs.
  • Thirty-nine LA were for tumours >/=6 cm while nine OA were for tumours >/=6 cm.
  • There were no significant differences between the median total anaesthetic time, postoperative complications or postoperative stay for patients undergoing LA for tumours >/=6 cm versus tumours <6 cm.
  • Of the six conversions, five were performed for adrenal tumours >/=6 cm [local invasion (n = 3), adhesions (n = 1), primary renal carcinoma (n = 1)].
  • All tumours in the LA group were resected with clear margins and at a median follow up of 50 months (range 38-74 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of local invasion, the outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for patients with tumours >/=6 cm were comparable to those with tumours <6 cm.
  • This has helped confirm a policy of initial laparoscopic resection for all noninvasive adrenal tumours can be applied safely.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pain, Postoperative / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18071798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0400874
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Locali RF, Matsuoka PK, Cherbo T, Gabriel EA, Buffolo E: Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2009 Mar;92(3):168-76
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumors with cardiac invasion: immediate surgical results in 14 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The resection of tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium (RA) increases the survival rate of patients with renal/adrenal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surgical procedure in cases of IVC and RA in the treatment of renal and adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients undergoing surgical intervention (during the period) between January 1997 and June 2007, for resection of IVC and/or RA thrombus due to renal or adrenal tumors, were retrospectively evaluated.
  • The patients (64.2% male) presented with Wilms' tumor, clear cell carcinoma and adrenal adenocarcinoma, and had mean age of 4.5, 60.5 and 2.5 years, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Suprahepatic IVC tumor thrombus were observed in all the patients, and in 62.4% of them the thrombus invaded the RA.
  • The duration of orotracheal intubation and length of hospital stay were different, according to the tumor type.
  • Two deaths, due to intraoperative cardiorespiratory arrest, were seen among patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: IVC and RA tumor thrombi are more frequent in patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • More postoperative complications are seen in patients with adrenal adenocarcinoma, and the postoperative prognosis is better for patients with Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombectomy / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior. Venous Thrombosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced / methods. Extracorporeal Circulation / methods. Female. Heart Atria / surgery. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19390703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4170
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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44. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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45. Andía Melero VM, García Centeno R, Fernández JB, Vigovich C, Sánchez García-Cervigón P, Jara Albarrán A: [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Nov;56(9):470-4
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  • [Title] [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores suprarrenales feminizantes en España: aportación de un caso y revisión de los cinco pacientes descritos.
  • Feminizing adrenal tumours are very rare.
  • We report the clinical and hormonal study of a case, a 49 years old male, since his first consultation until his death 6 years after the initial diagnosis, and a review of the other 5 Spanish patients previously published.
  • His initial symptoms were gynecomastia and libido decrease, with increase of plasmatic and urinary oestrogen levels, plasma testosterone near low normal level and a right adrenal gland tumour that, after its removal, showed a benign histology and was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Three years after, initial symptoms returned, with oestrogen, glucocorticoid and androgen hypersecretion, tumour local relapse and peritoneal, liver and lung metastasis.
  • The main special feature of this case is the apparently benign initial adrenal tumour with only oestrogen hypersecretion, and its relapse 3 years later with secretion of several steroid hormones, generalized metastasis and no response to medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Feminization / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Spain

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  • (PMID = 20096213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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46. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 210 LAs performed in 6 yr, 39 patients had potentially malignant tumors greater than 5 cm in diameter.
  • RESULTS: All 39 patients had successful LAs without perioperative mortality, conversion to open surgery, or capsular disruption during dissection.
  • The mean tumor size was 6.2 cm (range, 5-12 cm), operative time 207 min (115-315 min), and blood loss 75 ml (minimal-1400 ml).
  • Preoperatively there were 27 nonfunctioning tumors, seven pheochromocytomas, three cortisol-secreting tumors, and two virilizing tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Only the tumor size was larger and length of postoperative hospital stay longer for those in the hand-assisted group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Owecki M, Majewska KA, Stawny B, Nikisch E, Drews M, Sowiński J: [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Jun;20(120):678-81
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material].
  • [Transliterated title] Guzy nadnerczy w wybranym 10-letnim materiale operacyjnym.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the number and proportions of different adrenal tumours resected during the last 10 years in our centre.
  • Besides, we seek correlations between the size of tumours and the age and body mass indexes (BMI) of the examined patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The tumours where measured on CT and MRI before surgery, and on pathological examination after resection.
  • In 45 (65.22%) cases the right adrenal was affected, in 21 (30.43%)--the left, in 3 (4.35%)--both.
  • RESULTS: 12 adrenocortical cancers, 20 phaeochromocytomas, 9 cortisol-secreting adenomas, 4 aldosteronomas, 18 hormonally inactive adenomas, 6 miscellaneous tumours were found.
  • Malignant tumours where significantly larger than benign (12.20 +/- 6.81 vs 6.71 +/- 5.62 cm, p < 0.005).
  • We observed no correlation between the age and preoperative tumor size (p = 0.1756), between the age and pathological tumor size (p = 0.3601), and between BMI and the preoperative and histopathologic size (p = 0.4204, and p = 0.6478, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common tumour was phaeochromocytoma.
  • Most tumours where found in the right adrenal.
  • The malignant tumours where larger than benign ones.
  • No correlations between age and BMI, and tumour size where demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17007266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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48. Al-Hawary MM, Francis IR, Korobkin M: Non-invasive evaluation of the incidentally detected indeterminate adrenal mass. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;19(2):277-92
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  • [Title] Non-invasive evaluation of the incidentally detected indeterminate adrenal mass.
  • Clinically silent adrenal masses are discovered incidentally during diagnostic testing or treatment for clinical conditions that are not related to suspicion of adrenal disease; thus, they are commonly referred to as 'incidentalomas'.
  • In many patients without a known extra-adrenal primary malignancy--and even in patients with a primary neoplasm--most adrenal masses ultimately prove to be benign.
  • However, it remains important that these adrenal masses are accurately characterized to exclude the treatable causes of adrenal disease, and also to accurately stage the oncology patient.
  • The purpose of this chapter is to describe the findings and recent advances in non-invasive imaging methods that are now available for the accurate characterization of incidentally detected adrenal masses (i.e. the differentiation of benign from malignant masses).
  • The imaging techniques and the algorithms that are used in our institution for the evaluation of incidentally detected adrenal mass will be described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15763701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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49. Koren J, Cunderlík P: [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jul;41(3):111-4
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoidný tumor pravej nadoblicky: kazuistika.
  • Adenomatoid tumor of adrenal gland is a very rare primary tumor with favourable prognosis.
  • The mesothelial origin of this tumor was confirmed by multiple studies of various authors.
  • In our case report, we present an interesting case of the adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 55-year-old woman.
  • Our case is the second well-documented case of this tumor occurring in a female adult patient.
  • We emphasize the presence of an intraluminal thread-like bridging strands, generally considered to be a characteristic histologic feature of this tumor, which have not yet been reported in literature in adenomatoid tumor located in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16161457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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50. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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51. Zografos GN, Markou A, Ageli C, Kopanakis N, Koutmos S, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G, Papastratis G: Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal tumors. A retrospective analysis. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Jan-Mar;5(1):52-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal tumors. A retrospective analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of patients operated on for adrenal tumors was conducted.
  • The size of tumors in our series ranged from 3.2 to 27 cm.
  • The largest laparoscopically excised tumor was a ganglioneuroma with a diameter of 13 cm.
  • In one patient with morbid obesity, Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia, the left laparoscopic adrenalectomy was complicated by a low output pancreatic fistula, conservatively treated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be the treatment of choice for all benign adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors necessitates experience in open surgery and advanced laparoscopic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16728385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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52. Niinobu T, Yamashita S, Nakagawa S, Amano M, Higaki N, Hayashida H, Nakao A, Takiuchi H, Sakon M: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1765-7
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • A 4 x 3.5 cm neoplasm at the left adrenal was detected by CT inspection this time.
  • The diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from HCC.
  • Pathologial diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • When observing the adaptation standard strictly to the high-risk case, it was thought that the metastatic tumor extraction under laparoscopic surgery could become a low stress cure in consideration of QOL being useful as a local treatment for cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17212101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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53. Kotzampassakis N, Maweja S, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, Hamoir E: Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Apr;105(2):156-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of adrenal tumours. Lessons from a 10 years personal experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review our personal experience of the last 10 years with adrenal surgery in order to define the indications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) and open adrenalectomy (OA), respectively.
  • In 78 patients (80%), LA was performed and 84 adrenal glands were resected.
  • In 19 patients (20%), OA was considered the best modality of resection and 21 adrenal glands were resected.
  • The average tumour size was 37.2 mm (range 25-90) in LA group and 82.6 mm (30-260) in the OA group.
  • All the LA were performed using a trans-peritoneal approach.
  • Conversion from LA to open surgery was necessary in two patients.
  • Mean operating time was 110 minutes for LA and 135 minutes for OA.
  • Two (2.6%) patients suffered complications after LA and 4 (19%) after OA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, trans-peritoneal LA proved to be a safe and reliable procedure for benign adrenal disease.
  • In our institution, it has become the gold standard technique for the resection of adrenal tumours, except for those suspected or proven malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Belgium. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Laparotomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15906906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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54. Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Huszno B, Orłowska M: [Adrenal incidentaloma as essential clinical problem in modern endocrinology]. Przegl Lek; 2005;62(8):761-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma as essential clinical problem in modern endocrinology].
  • [Transliterated title] Incydentaloma nadnerczy jako istotny problem kliniczny współczesnej endokrynologii.
  • Adrenal mass discovered during imaging for non-adrenal related causes is called incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal masses can be asymptomatic or can have clinical manifestations related to hormone overproduction.
  • The increasing number of discovered adrenal mass is by no doubt due to quick development of radiology procedures.
  • The aim of study was determination of statistical frequency of different types of adrenal tumours and related clinical symptoms based on retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed in the Department of Endocrinology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University.
  • The most common localisation was right adrenal gland (135 cases), bilaterally in 29 patients.
  • Tumours less than 3 cm in diameter were observed in 58.5% of diagnosed persons, tumours from 3 to 6 cm in 33.3% of cases and tumours bigger than 6 cm in 8.2% patients.
  • Hormone excess associated with adrenal mass was detected in 37 (13.6%) patients.
  • In patients with adrenal mass incidentaloma hormone tests should be performed before making therapeutic decisions despite no clinical symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16521492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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55. Horiguchi K, Hashimoto K, Hashizume M, Masuo T, Suto M, Okajo J, Handa H, Kaneko Y, Yokoo H, Sasaki A, Okada S, Yamada M, Tsukamoto N, Nojima Y, Nakazato Y, Mori M: Primary bilateral adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrating adrenal failure. Intern Med; 2010;49(20):2241-6
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  • [Title] Primary bilateral adrenal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrating adrenal failure.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is extremely rare although involvement of malignant lymphoma into adrenals is common.
  • We report a case of a 58-year-old man with bilateral PAL who demonstrated adrenal insufficiency.
  • Primary large B-cell lymphoma was proven by a computed tomography-guided needle biopsy of the adrenal tumor.
  • We concluded that PAL should be considered as a possible cause of bilateral adrenal incidentalomas with progressive adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Rituximab. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20962443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol; DHAP protocol
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56. Brauckhoff M, Dralle H: [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands]. Chirurg; 2005 Mar;76(3):227-37
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  • [Title] [Recurrent operations on the adrenal glands].
  • Repeat adrenalectomy may be required due to ipsilateral recurrence of benign or malignant adrenal tumors after previous total or subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • Even for multivisceral resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, complete resection of local recurrent tumor offers results similar to those of primary resection (5-year survival 40-60%).
  • In contrast, since no benefit on long-term survival has been shown so far by tumor debulking, palliative tumor resection should only be performed individually for control of severe endocrine symptoms.
  • The effect of endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with large tumors (>5 cm) or suspected malignancy has still not been well examined.
  • In any case, during open or endoscopic approach, tumor spillage must be avoided to prevent local tumor cell implantation.
  • Following subtotal adrenalectomy, the risk of ipsilateral recurrence correlates with disease, follow-up, localization, size of the adrenal remnant, and, in case of familial pheochromocytoma, probably with genotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / mortality. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15739057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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57. Kvacheniuk AN: [The choice of operative intervention in combined treatment of malignant tumors of the adrenal glands]. Klin Khir; 2005 Sep;(9):39-42
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  • [Title] [The choice of operative intervention in combined treatment of malignant tumors of the adrenal glands].
  • Comparative efficacy of various kinds of surgical treatment for malignant tumors of adrenal glands (MTAG) was studied.
  • An optimal surgical intervention constitutes the adrenal gland excision en bloc with the tumor and performance of systemic lymph nodes dissection (LND) of paranephral, paraaortal (left--sided) and paracaval (right-sided) collectors.
  • Performance of AE with the tumor excision en bloc with LND, foreseeing high efficacy of the treatment, is possible in I-II stages of tumor only, when its malignant character could not be confirmed pre- or intraoperatively.

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  • (PMID = 16445044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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58. Wagner RA, Piché CA, Jöchle W, Oliver JW: Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Am J Vet Res; 2005 May;66(5):910-4
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  • [Title] Clinical and endocrine responses to treatment with deslorelin acetate implants in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and endocrine responses of ferrets with adrenocortical disease (ACD) to treatment with a slow-release implant of deslorelin acetate.
  • Plasma estradiol, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were measured before and after treatment and at relapse of clinical signs; at that time, the adrenal glands were grossly or ultrasonographically measured and affected glands that were surgically removed were examined histologically.
  • In 5 ferrets, large palpable tumors developed within 2 months of clinical relapse; 3 of these ferrets were euthanatized because of adrenal gland tumor metastasis to the liver or tumor necrosis.
  • Deslorelin may not decrease adrenal tumor growth in some treated ferrets.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / veterinary. Ferrets. Triptorelin Pamoate / administration & dosage. Triptorelin Pamoate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15934621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; TKG3I66TVE / deslorelin
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59. Gibbs KE, White A, Kaleya R: Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature. JSLS; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of an adrenal leiomyoma in an AIDS patient. A case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic management of adrenal masses has been well described.
  • We describe a case of an enlarging smooth muscle tumor of the adrenal gland in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient and review the sparse literature available on this subject.
  • CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old female with AIDS complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was found to have a left adrenal mass.
  • Pathological review found the mass to be a rare adrenal leiomyoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Benign, smooth muscle tumors arising from the adrenal glands are rare.
  • A review of the literature does reveal a propensity for these tumors to occur in the immunocompromised population.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability to manage these tumors laparoscopically is of significant benefit to patients.

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  • (PMID = 16121885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015615
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60. McLaughlin SA, Schmitt TM, Huguet KL, Menke DM, Nguyen JH: Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):191-3
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  • [Title] Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal masses have varying presentations.
  • Most commonly, adrenal masses are discovered incidentally on CT or MRI during an evaluation for an unrelated complaint.
  • Although the majority of these are nonfunctional cortical adenomas, hormonally active tumors and adrenocortical carcinoma must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • Rarely, retroperitoneal tumors may mimic an adrenal mass.
  • We report a case of a 49-year-old man with anemia and weight loss who was found to have a large retroperitoneal mass arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Surgical treatment involved en bloc resection of the right kidney, adrenal gland, segments 7 and 8 of the liver, and a portion of the right hemidiaphragm.
  • We believe that this is the first case report of a myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Myofibrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors composed of myofibroblasts that arise from the deep soft tissues.
  • These tumors have a predilection for the head and neck, trunk, or extremities.
  • We will briefly discuss the workup of an adrenal mass and focus on the diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myosarcoma / pathology. Myosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15869129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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61. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P, Jeldres C, Alasker A, Isbarn H, Budäus L, Shariat SF, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Karakiewicz PI: The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Mar;46(4):713-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors staging system is prognostically superior to the international union against cancer-staging system: a North American validation.
  • BACKGROUND: A reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients has recently been proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) to better discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) risk strata.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20044246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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63. Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Dai YP, Chen W, Hou JH, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Zhang DZ, Yang JA: [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1143-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression and clinical significance of survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Since the histomorphology of adrenal tumor is very special, it is difficult to assess the malignancy of the tumors.
  • This study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of Survivin and PTEN proteins in adrenal tumors.
  • METHODS: The expression of Survivin and PTEN in 116 specimens of adrenal tumors, including 39 cases of cortex adenoma, 22 cases of cortex adenocarcinoma, 35 cases of pheochromocytoma, and 20 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma, were detected by LSAB immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was correlated to that of PTEN in adrenal tumors (r=-0.486, P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin and PTEN in adrenal tumors were not related to patient's age, sex, tumor position, and so on (P>0.05).
  • The expression intensity of Survivin was significantly lower in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly lower in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was related to the differentiation of adrenal tumor.
  • The expression intensity of PTEN was significantly higher in adrenal cortex adenoma than in adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in pheochromocytoma than in malignant pheochromocytoma (P<0.05).
  • The expression of Survivin protein and PTEN protein was correlated to the prognosis of adrenal cortex adenocarcinoma and malignant pheochromocytoma: the higher the expression intensity of Survivin protein and the lower the expression intensity of PTEN protein, the worse the patient's prognosis (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of Survivin and PTEN proteins are closely related to the prognosis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17927889.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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64. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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65. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Equal oncologic results for laparoscopic and open resection of adrenal metastases. J Surg Res; 2007 Jun 15;140(2):159-64
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  • [Title] Equal oncologic results for laparoscopic and open resection of adrenal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: While open adrenalectomy is often performed for malignant adrenal tumors, increasing numbers of surgeons have adopted the laparoscopic approach.
  • The current study was undertaken to compare laparoscopic with open adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • METHODS: From March 1993 to April 2006, 20 adults underwent adrenalectomy for isolated metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Three patients were excluded because of a concomitant nephrectomy (2) and an unresectable tumor (1).
  • Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and oncologic outcomes of the remaining patients were reviewed and analyzed.
  • With a follow-up of up to 97 mo, there were no port site metastases, no tumor recurrences, and no difference in survival between laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy (median 19 months versus 17 months, 5-year survival 34% versus 54%, P=0.96).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When not limited by tumor size or invasion of surrounding tissue, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe alternative to open adrenalectomy with equivalent oncologic outcomes and clear postoperative benefit for patients with isolated metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17196989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • Clinical features and immunohistochemical reactions were compared in adult vs pediatric tumors.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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67. Nambirajan T, Leeb K, Neumann HP, Graubner UB, Janetschek G: Laparoscopic adrenal surgery for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma. Eur Urol; 2005 May;47(5):622-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenal surgery for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy (LPA) for recurrent tumours in patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma (4 with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 1 with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2B), who had undergone adrenal surgery previously, presented with recurrent adrenal tumours.
  • The adrenal vein could be spared in all patients except one.
  • The adrenal function was adequate in all patients without need for steroid supplementation except one patient who lost both adrenals eventually.
  • There was no correlation between the preservation of adrenal vein and adrenocortical function.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is feasible, safe and effective in recurrent phaeochromocytoma, despite previous adrenal surgery and is technically easier if the previous approach had been laparoscopic as well.
  • Patients with hereditary phaeochromocytoma are prone for recurrent tumours and may need repeated surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15826753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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68. Harzallah L, Zouari L, Ben Chérifa L, Harzallah F, Sriha B, Bakir D, Kraiem Ch: [Adrenal gland hemangioma: a case report]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Dec;67(6):624-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland hemangioma: a case report].
  • Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor composed of angioblastic cells.
  • The adrenal gland localization is very rare, with only fifty cases reported in literature.
  • We report a case of adrenal gland hemangioma diagnosed in a 55-year-old woman who presented a cervical neoplasm.
  • The non-specific imaging features, the tumor size and the clinical context led to mandatory surgical resection.
  • The pathological examination established the diagnosis of adrenal gland hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Hemangioma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17194976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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69. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • Orthotopic cell transplantation models are important for a complete understanding of cell-cell interactions as well as tumor biology.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • In the absence of fibrinogen/thrombin for clot formation, much of the injected material was extruded to the outside of the gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • When 3 x 10(5) cells were implanted orthotopically, by 16 days the cell mass had expanded and had invaded the cortex, whereas when 1 x 10(5) cells were used, tumor masses were much smaller.
  • When mice were sacrificed at different time points, we found that tumor growth resulting was progressive and that by 26 days cells there was extensive invasion into the cortex or almost complete replacement of the cortex with tumor cells.
  • Orthotopic transplantation of 3 x 10(5) cells resulted in extensive invasion and destruction of the gland by 26 days.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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70. Iwase K, Nagasaka A, Kato K, Itoh A, Jimbo S, Hibi Y, Kobayashi N, Yamamoto H, Seko T, Miura K: Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors. J Surg Res; 2006 Sep;135(1):150-5
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  • [Title] Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase distribution and concentration in adrenal tumors.
  • The tissue distribution of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) in adrenal tumors was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, and the concentrations of both SODs were measured by a sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.
  • In the normal adrenal gland, both Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs were localized predominantly in the reticular zone of the cortex.
  • In different adrenal tumors, the localization of both stained SODs reflected the origin of the tumor cell.
  • The concentrations of both SODs in the tissues of medullary tumors were lower than those in the normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • The concentration of Cu/Zn-SOD in the tumor tissue of Cushing's syndrome adenoma was higher, and that of Mn-SOD was lower than the concentrations in the normal adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of the tissue concentrations of Mn-SOD to Cu/Zn-SOD was lower in adrenal medullary tumors and Cushing's syndrome adenomas than in the normal adrenal gland and primary aldosteronism adenomas, indicating the predominance of Cu/Zn-SOD in the former, and Mn-SOD in the latter.
  • These data suggest that the localization of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SODs in adrenal tissues reflects the specificity of the adrenal cells that produce the tissue-specific hormones.
  • An investigation of changes in these enzymes in adrenal tumors may also provide useful information on adrenal tumor cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16780879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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71. Refaat MM, Idriss SZ, Blaszkowsky LS: Case report: an unusual case of adrenal neuroblastoma in pregnancy. Oncologist; 2008 Feb;13(2):152-6
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  • [Title] Case report: an unusual case of adrenal neuroblastoma in pregnancy.
  • Neuroblastomas are the fourth most common malignancy of childhood and account for most adrenal tumors in children.
  • We present herein an extremely rare case of adrenal neuroblastoma occurring in a 25-year-old woman during her first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Her tumor was curatively resected.
  • She presented with right lower quadrant abdominal pain 26 months after her operation and there was evidence of local tumor recurrence without metastasis.
  • Adult adrenal neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignancy and, to our knowledge, there was no case of this tumor occurring in pregnancy ever described in the English literature.
  • The case presentation is followed by a general discussion with an emphasis on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of neuroblastoma and its association with pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Spontaneous / etiology. Adult. Chorioamnionitis / etiology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Risk Factors


72. Suzuki K, Nakanishi A, Kurosaki Y, Nogaki J, Takaba E: Adrenal schwannoma: CT and MRI findings. Radiat Med; 2007 Jul;25(6):299-302
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma: CT and MRI findings.
  • We report a case of adrenal schwannoma, an extremely rare retroperitoneal neoplasm.
  • Although these imaging findings are nonspecific, adrenal schwannomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of solid nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17634884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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73. Alamdari FI, Ljungberg B: Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2005;39(4):277-82
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of adrenal metastasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of all stages, its correlation with clinicopathological variables and its impact on survival.
  • The accuracy of the available preoperative radiological examinations was evaluated and any adrenal involvement was compared with other clinical and histopathological findings.
  • RESULTS: Ipsilateral adrenal tumour involvement was detected in 17/321 patients (5.3%).
  • In four of these patients, the adrenal gland was the only preoperatively found metastatic site.
  • Factors predicting the presence of ipsilateral adrenal metastases were male gender, tumour size, vein invasion, renal capsule and perirenal fat invasion.
  • Tumour location within the kidney and tumour side had no predictive value for the presence of adrenal metastasis.
  • The presence of ipsilateral adrenal involvement was a significant adverse prognostic variable, indicating a short survival time (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral adrenal metastasis is a highly adverse prognostic factor.
  • In the TNM staging system, adrenal gland involvement should be staged as M1a.
  • Ipsilateral adrenalectomy in conjunction with radical nephrectomy should be performed if an adrenal lesion cannot be cleared of suspicion after preoperative radiological imaging, as in locally advanced tumours.
  • The adrenal gland can be left in situ if the ipsilateral adrenal gland is assessed as normal at the preoperative investigation and perioperatively by the surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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74. Moore K, Leslie B, Salle JL, Braga LH, Bägli DJ, Bolduc S, Lorenzo AJ: Can we spare removing the adrenal gland at radical nephrectomy in children with wilms tumor? J Urol; 2010 Oct;184(4 Suppl):1638-43
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  • [Title] Can we spare removing the adrenal gland at radical nephrectomy in children with wilms tumor?
  • PURPOSE: In patients with Wilms tumor indications for adrenalectomy are not well-defined.
  • Following the rationale for preserving the adrenal gland in cases of other renal malignancies we determined predictors of adrenal involvement and the impact of adrenalectomy on retroperitoneal recurrence.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the record of patients who underwent surgical resection as primary treatment for Wilms tumor between 1990 and 2008 at 2 Canadian pediatric centers.
  • Patient and tumor characteristics were reviewed to determine potential links to adrenal involvement.
  • RESULTS: Of 180 patients diagnosed with Wilms tumor 95 underwent initial radical nephrectomy.
  • Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 46 ± 38 months and mean survival followup was 189 ± 8.3 months.
  • Disease was stage 1 to 4 in 28, 34, 23 and 4 patients, respectively.
  • Only 1 adrenal gland was reportedly positive for tumor invasion while peri-adrenal fat involvement was noted in 3 patients.
  • No studied patient or tumor characteristics predicted involvement.
  • No statistically significant difference in retroperitoneal recurrence was found between the groups in which the adrenal gland was removed vs preserved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal involvement in patients with Wilms tumor is rare and difficult to predict.
  • Preserving the adrenal gland was not associated with an increased risk of local recurrence.
  • Thus, it seems prudent to avoid adrenalectomy at radical nephrectomy when technically feasible, instead attempting to otherwise remove all peri-adrenal fat with the specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy. Wilms Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Oct;184(4 Suppl):1642-3 [20728100.001]
  • (PMID = 20728101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Coli A, Di Giorgio A, Castri F, Destito C, Marin AW, Bigotti G: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jan 15;206(1):59-65
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature.
  • The terminology and pathogenesis of such biphasic tumors remain controversial.
  • Herein, we report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland in a 75-year-old woman who presented with left abdominal pain of one month's standing.
  • The results of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large heterogeneous adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the neoplasm showed areas of adrenocortical carcinoma and areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation.
  • Twelve months after removal of the primary tumor, the patient died of her disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature.
  • We review the reported cases according to the 2004 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung tumors, and highlight the histogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical course of this very aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins. Splenectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19369012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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76. Rescorla FJ: Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 Feb;15(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal tumors, apart from neuroblastoma, are relatively rare in infancy and childhood.
  • Most adrenal lesions are benign, and both benign and malignant tumors may be hormonally active thus, making accurate preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The two main malignant tumors are adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • In both tumors, it may be difficult to determine benign from malignant and the biologic behavior and degree of invasion may portend a more malignant course.
  • Surgical excision is the primary therapy for both tumors, including excision of metastatic and recurrent tumor.
  • An open procedure should be considered for invasive adrenocortical carcinoma and in pheochromocytomas in which preoperative imaging demonstrates metastatic nodal disease.
  • Chemotherapy, although without proven efficacy, is utilized in some children with metastatic or unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16458846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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77. Willenberg HS, Zschucke D, Bornstein SR: [Adrenal gland tumors]. Internist (Berl); 2007 Sep;48(9):971-86
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Nebennierentumoren.
  • Adrenal masses are one of the most common tumors in humans.
  • Adrenal masses originating from steroidogenic or chromaffin cells may be silent or the source of subclinical or overt hormone excess, such as primary aldosteronism, hypercortisolism or symptomatic catecholamine excess.
  • On the other hand, adrenal hyperplasia may be the result of excess ACTH secretion in steroid biosynthesis disorders with deficient glucocorticoid secretion, in glucocorticoid resistance, in Cushing's disease, or ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Algorithms for endocrine testing, imaging studies and their combination are available for defining the tumor entity and for the characterization of the hormone excess syndromes.
  • Recent developments in molecular biology have provided tools for testing for hereditary tumor syndromes associated with adrenal tumorigenesis and to establish strategies for further treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17684715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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78. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of its excellent negative predictive value, 18F-FDG-PET may be of help in avoiding unnecessary surgery in patients with non-secreting equivocal tumors at CT scanning and low 18F-FGD uptake.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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79. Chudobiński C, Kubiak R, Kuzdak K, Kaurzel Z, Kołomecki K: [Comparison of power Doppler technique, microscopic examination and VEGF levels for the assessment of adrenal tumors vascularization]. Wiad Lek; 2005;58(7-8):371-4
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  • [Title] [Comparison of power Doppler technique, microscopic examination and VEGF levels for the assessment of adrenal tumors vascularization].
  • [Transliterated title] Przydatność metody power Doppler w ocenie unaczynienia guzów nadnerczy w porównaniu z badaniem mikroskopowym tkanki guza i stezeniem vegf we krwi chorych.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of the color Doppler vascularity index (CDVI) in patients with adrenal masses before surgery.
  • Twenty-four patients with adrenal masses were examined.
  • The CDVI was significantly higher in the patients with malignant or hormonally active tumors than in patients with benign non-hyperfunctioning lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood supply. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16425785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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80. Niaz WA, Alvi S: Metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 May;18(5):305-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland.
  • Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare disease with a high mortality.
  • A case of metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland is presented who had fluctuating blood pressure with episodic headache and raised urinary VMA levels.
  • Thoraco-abdominal resection of the tumour resulted in control of blood pressure and patient was asymptomatic at 4 months follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18541088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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81. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Commo F, Dartevelle P, Gomez-Roca C, de Montpreville V, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases. Lung Cancer; 2009 Aug;65(2):144-9
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  • [Title] Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: The development of molecular targeted therapies as anti-cancer strategies raises important questions regarding the biological and molecular behavior of the metastatic sites as compared to their corresponding primary tumors.
  • We analysed telomere related markers (telomere length and telomeric proteins) and DNA damage repair (DDR) markers in a cohort of patients with surgically resected primary lung NSCLC and adrenal metastasis.
  • These markers were selected for two reasons: (i) small molecule inhibitors of 'druggable' DDR components as well as telomere-interacting agents are already being developed for clinical use; and (ii) limited data is available comparing the expression of these biomarkers between primary tumors and their metastases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a single series of 21 patients who had undergone surgery of both their primary lung tumor and its related adrenal gland metastasis in a single Institution.
  • RESULTS: DDR activation was observed in primary tumors and their corresponding metastasis.
  • However, higher levels of p-Chk2 were observed in metastasis than in primary tumors (p=0.0113).
  • There was no correlation between primary and metastatic sites, although approximately 65% of metastases had shorter telomeres than their corresponding primary tumors.
  • Cluster analysis of each specimen according to its protein's expression levels and telomere length showed that matched primary tumors/adrenal metastasis were mostly separated into different clusters.
  • Overall, our findings suggest that the levels of biomarkers analysed differ substantially between primary lung tumors and corresponding metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: There are clear molecular discrepancies at the telomeric and DDR level between primary tumors and their corresponding metastases.
  • Our findings suggest that primary tumors and their relevant metastases may respond differently to such approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Repair / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomere / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19091442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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82. Wu D, Tischler AS, Lloyd RV, DeLellis RA, de Krijger R, van Nederveen F, Nosé V: Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):599-608
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  • [Title] Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score.
  • Morphologic determination of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytoma is a challenging problem in surgical pathology.
  • A multiparameter Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) was recently developed based on a comprehensive study of a single institutional cohort of 100 cases.
  • We further examined the utility of PASS by reviewing an independent single institutional cohort of adrenal pheochromocytomas as evaluated by 5 multi-institutional pathologists with at least 10 years experience in endocrine pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19145205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Jung SJ, Ro JY, Truong LD, Ayala AG, Shen SS: Reappraisal of T3N0/NxM0 renal cell carcinoma: significance of extent of fat invasion, renal vein invasion, and adrenal invasion. Hum Pathol; 2008 Nov;39(11):1689-94
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  • [Title] Reappraisal of T3N0/NxM0 renal cell carcinoma: significance of extent of fat invasion, renal vein invasion, and adrenal invasion.
  • T3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous group of tumors that are substaged based on perirenal or sinus fat invasion, adrenal invasion, and renal vein invasion.
  • To evaluate whether the extent of fat invasion (minimal versus extensive) and direct adrenal gland invasion, renal vein invasion with or without concurrent fat invasion has a similar prognosis, we retrospectively reviewed 198 T3N0/NxM0 RCCs in a single academic tertiary hospital.
  • Direct adrenal invasion was defined as contiguous involvement of ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • Among the 198 T3 RCCs, minimal and extensive fat invasions were identified in 57 and 61 cases, respectively; renal vein invasion and direct adrenal invasion were seen in 66 and 14 cases.
  • The 2-year and 5-year survival rates were 85% and 56% for minimal fat invasion, 76% and 70% for extensive fat invasion, and 55% and 32% for renal vein invasion, respectively.
  • There was no difference of survival in patients with T3b (renal vein invasion) RCC stratified by presence or absence of concurrent fat invasion.
  • The 2-year and 5-year survival rates for adrenal invasion were 31% and 21%, respectively, which was significantly worse than that of fat or renal vein invasion.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that nuclear grade, sarcomatoid differentiation, and subgrouping of pT3 RCC (fat invasion, renal vein invasion, and adrenal invasion) remained independent predictors of patient's overall survival.
  • In conclusion, our study shows that T3 RCCs with minimal or extensive perinephric fat invasion has a similar prognosis and is significantly more favorable than that of renal vein invasion regardless of presence or absence of concurrent fat invasion.
  • In contrast, tumors with adrenal gland invasion carry a far worse prognosis than perinephric fat or renal vein invasion and thus supporting a separate stage category.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Renal Veins / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Kidney / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18656240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Lau SK, Weiss LM: Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):656-9
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  • [Title] Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Calcifying fibrous tumor is an uncommon entity with distinctive pathologic features.
  • Most calcifying fibrous tumors involve the peripheral soft tissues or serosal surfaces, with reports of visceral examples of this lesion being extremely limited.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of an unusual case of calcifying fibrous tumor occurring in the adrenal gland of a 32-year-old woman.
  • The morphologic diagnosis of calcifying fibrous tumor was supported by diffuse positive immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa and absence of reactivity for muscle specific actin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
  • Although rare, awareness that calcifying fibrous tumor may occur at this particular site is important so as not to confuse this lesion with other mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17078996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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85. Candanedo-González FA, Vela Chávez T, Cérbulo-Vázquez A: Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland with osteoclast-like giant cells. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):75-81
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma (PLMS) of the adrenal gland is a rare tumor in an unusual location.
  • A primary PLMS of the left adrenal gland is reported in a 59-yr-old Mexican woman who presented progressive flank pain and weight loss.
  • The tumor measured 16 cm in diameter, showed markedly pleomorphic and osteoclast-like giant cells, necrosis, and high mitotic activity (average 15 per 10 high-power fields).
  • DNA content analysis by flow cytometry showed that tumor was diploid, with a high level of apoptosis.
  • Extra-adrenal primary sites of origin were clinically excluded.
  • Twenty-four months later, she is alive with no evidence of disease.
  • This is the second case of adrenal PLMS reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16000850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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86. Bandier PC, Hansen A, Thorelius L: [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Jan 26;171(5):306-8
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoid tumor i binyre.
  • An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman.
  • Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally.
  • A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific.
  • Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Mar 16;171(12):1015; author reply 1015 [19306484.001]
  • (PMID = 19176156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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87. Beland MD, Mayo-Smith WW: Ablation of adrenal neoplasms. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Sep-Oct;34(5):588-92
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  • [Title] Ablation of adrenal neoplasms.
  • Adrenal tumors represent a diverse group of neoplasms that include multiple etiologies, each with a different prognosis, malignant potential, and recommended treatment.
  • Percutaneous techniques to treat adrenal neoplasms have been described including radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and chemical ablation.
  • This article reviews the various adrenal neoplasms and the techniques of adrenal ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Cryosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Contrast Media. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18830736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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88. Ciancio G, Vaidya A, Shirodkar S, Manoharan M, Hakky T, Soloway M: En bloc mobilization of the pancreas and spleen to facilitate resection of large tumors, primarily renal and adrenal, in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen: techniques derived from multivisceral transplantation. Eur Urol; 2009 May;55(5):1106-11
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  • [Title] En bloc mobilization of the pancreas and spleen to facilitate resection of large tumors, primarily renal and adrenal, in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen: techniques derived from multivisceral transplantation.
  • Pathology included malignant and benign lesions, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with or without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement, adrenal tumors, retrocrural lymphadenopathy from testicular cancer, and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis.
  • SURGICAL PROCEDURE: An extended subcostal transabdominal approach was used to resect large tumors in the left upper abdomen.
  • No patients had pancreatitis or acute renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Dissection / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Organ Transplantation. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Cavity / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Pancreas / anatomy & histology. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Spleen / anatomy & histology. Stomach / anatomy & histology. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Vena Cava, Inferior. Young Adult


89. Morawietz L, Kuhnen C, Katenkamp D, Le Coutre P, Ladhoff A, Petersen I: Unusual sarcomatoid neoplasm of the lung suggesting a myofibrosarcoma. Virchows Arch; 2005 Dec;447(6):990-5
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  • [Title] Unusual sarcomatoid neoplasm of the lung suggesting a myofibrosarcoma.
  • Myofibrosarcoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs mainly in the head and neck region and extremities of middle-aged patients.
  • We report the case of a 47-year-old male patient with a malignant mesenchymal pulmonary tumor affecting almost the entire lower left lobe.
  • Clinically suggestive for a lung carcinoma, the tumor showed typical features of a myofibrosarcoma.
  • Shortly after resection of the primary tumor, the patient showed multiple distant metastases in the contralateral lung, the mediastinal lymph nodes, the left adrenal gland, and the pectoral and deltoid muscle, which responded well to chemotherapy.
  • The case report will discuss the evidence for the final diagnosis of a primary pulmonary myofibrosarcoma and the differential diagnosis of sarcomatoid tumors of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Pneumonectomy. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16158184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Ambika S, Melton A, Lee D, Hesketh PJ: Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Sep;10(5):E1-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization.
  • The development of adrenal hemorrhage from lung cancer metastasis is extremely rare.
  • A 54-year-old woman with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer and known bilateral adrenal metastasis developed severe right-sided abdominal pain while undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • The bleeding vessel was identified as the right middle adrenal artery.
  • The patient underwent successful transcatheter embolization (TCE) and occlusion of the right middle adrenal artery using metallic coils, with resolution of the abdominal pain and stabilization of her hemoglobin.
  • TCE can be used to control hemorrhage arising from metastatic involvement of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Catheterization, Peripheral. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Hemorrhage / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Flank Pain. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology


91. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • However, a limited visual field and a narrow working space make this approach difficult, particularly in cases of obese patients or small tumors.
  • Using multidetector row CT (MD-CT), this study investigated the use of preoperative virtual simulation (PVS) to identify tumor and central vein locations for EA, and verified these findings during EA surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Imachi H, Murao K, Yoshimoto T, Sugimoto M, Kakehi Y, Hayashi T, Kushida Y, Haba R, Tahara R, Ishida T: Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient. Endocrine; 2010 Apr;37(2):249-52
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  • [Title] Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient.
  • The patient was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of a right adrenal tumor (size, 10 × 9 cm²).
  • Preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings were indicative of adrenal hemorrhage (AH).
  • Laboratory data revealed mild anemia but no adrenal dysfunction.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was simply idiopathic adrenal hematoma.
  • We report an unusual case of idiopathic unilateral adrenal hematoma in an elderly patient.
  • It is important to distinguish this benign lesion from a neoplasm and to consider idiopathic AH in an adrenal tumor during differential diagnosis in elderly patients who have not received anticoagulation therapy or suffered from trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Hematoma / radiography. Hemorrhage / radiography. Hypertension / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20960259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6

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  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • These tumours have a very slow but continued growth and their volume and weight vary significantly from small lesions of a few grams to huge masses weighing up to several kilograms.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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94. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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95. Korets R, Berkenblit R, Ghavamian R: Incidentally discovered adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2007 Jan-Mar;11(1):113-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal schwannoma.
  • Schwannoma is a rare tumor of neural crest cell origin that is rarely seen arising from the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of an adrenal mass discovered incidentally in a 70-year-old man as part of a hematuria workup.
  • Following surgical excision and pathologic evaluation with confirmatory immunohistochemical staining, the mass was reported as a benign nerve sheath neoplasm.

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  • [Cites] Med Clin (Barc). 2000 Oct 21;115(13):518-9 [11093879.001]
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  • (PMID = 17651570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015789
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96. Białas M, Szczepański W, Szpor J, Okoń K, Kostecka-Matyja M, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Tomaszewska R: Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland: a case report and literature review. Pol J Pathol; 2010;61(2):97-102
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  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Adenomatoid tumour (AT) is a rare, benign neoplasm of mesothelial origin, which usually occurs in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • Occasionally these tumours are found in extra genital locations such as heart, pancreas, skin, pleura, omentum, lymph nodes, retroperitoneum, intestinal mesentery and adrenal gland.
  • The most important thing about these tumours is not to mis-diagnose them as primary malignant or metastatic neoplasms.
  • We present a case of an adrenal AT in a 29-year-old asymptomatic male.
  • The tumour was an incidental finding during abdominal CT-scan for an unrelated condition.
  • We also present a review of the literature concerning adrenal gland AT and give possible differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asymptomatic Diseases. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20924994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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97. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • Adenomatoid tumors (AT) are usually found in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • Thirty-four cases have been reported so far, more often presenting grossly as solid tumors, rarely as solid with cystic areas, and 5 cases were almost entirely cystic.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19851133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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98. D'Antonio A, Caleo A, Caleo O, De Dominicis G, Boscaino A: Monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the adrenal gland: an unusual site for a rare extrarenal tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Oct;13(5):347-50
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  • [Title] Monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the adrenal gland: an unusual site for a rare extrarenal tumor.
  • Epithelioid angiomyolipoma (AML) is an uncommon renal mesenchymal tumor with malignant potential and is frequently associated with tuberous sclerosis.
  • Extrarenal AMLs are rare, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary monotypic epithelioid AML of adrenal gland in a patient without evidence of tuberous sclerosis.
  • The patient is a 42-year old man who presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage resulting from spontaneous rupture of adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the tumor showed a prominent component of epithelioid smooth muscle cells with slightly pleomorphic nuclei, sometimes with prominent nucleoli and eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling oncocytic tumors.
  • Differential diagnosis from renal cell carcinoma, adrenal gland carcinoma, and metastatic carcinoma is often challenging because of its epithelioid morphology.
  • Because primary and secondary malignant tumors are much more common and aggressive neoplasms, establishing the correct diagnosis has important therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelioid Cells / chemistry. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nephrectomy. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19751913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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99. Xu J, Wang R, Xie ZH, Odero-Marah V, Pathak S, Multani A, Chung LW, Zhau HE: Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1664-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis.
  • This study characterized the host microenvironmental role in cancer progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and bone and adrenal metastasis in parental ARCaP and its derived cell subclones.
  • RESULTS: ARCaP(E) cells, with cobblestone morphology, underwent EMT through cellular interaction with host bone and adrenal gland.
  • Lineage-derived ARCaP(M) cells, with spindle-shape fibroblastic morphology, exhibited decreased cell adhesion and increased metastasis to bone and adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARCaP uniquely models the molecular basis of prostate cancer bone and adrenal metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Clone Cells. Disease Progression. Environment. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organ Specificity / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured


100. Kpodonu J, Warso MA, Massad MG: Osteosarcoma invading adrenal gland: rare cause of adrenal mass. Urology; 2005 Jun;65(6):1226
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma invading adrenal gland: rare cause of adrenal mass.
  • Adrenal gland metastasis from osteogenic sarcoma is extremely rare and is an atypical location for metastasis.
  • Vascular hepatic exclusion techniques and the use of venovenous bypass with cardiac surgical techniques may be required to resect large adrenal masses that have invaded the inferior vena cava to achieve curative resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15922441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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