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1. Bruhn AM, Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2010 Sep;62(3):305-18
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery.
  • The aim of this paper is to review the current state of laparoscopic and robotic surgery in the mannagement of benign and malignant disease of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal lesions can be adenomas, pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal cysts, hematomas, adrenal cortical carcinomas, metastases from other cancers, or other rare causes.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the new standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and is being increasingly utilized for malignant disease.
  • Robotic assistance offers unique advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal gland, especially considering its challenging vasculature.
  • There is also growing evidence in using minimally invasive approaches in adrenal sparing-surgery.
  • Success in these procedures depends on a firm understanding of adrenal anatomy and in careful patient selection.

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  • (PMID = 20940699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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2. Shin NY, Kim MJ, Chung JJ, Chung YE, Choi JY, Park YN: The differential imaging features of fat-containing tumors in the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneum: the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 May-Jun;11(3):333-45
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  • Some of these fat-containing lesions, such as liposarcoma and retroperitoneal teratoma, have to be resected, although resection can be deferred for others, such as adrenal adenoma, myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, ovarian teratoma, and lipoma, until the lesions become large or symptomatic.
  • Identifying factors such as whether the fat is macroscopic or microscopic within the lesion, the origin of the lesions, and the presence of combined calcification is important for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • The development and wide-spread use of modern imaging modalities make identification of these factors easier so narrowing the differential diagnosis is possible.
  • Classifying lesions in terms of the necessity of performing surgical treatment can provide important information to clinicians, and this is the one of a radiologist's key responsibilities.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / pathology. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Fat / pathology. Abdominal Fat / radiography. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Cavity / pathology. Peritoneal Cavity / radiography. Peritoneal Diseases / pathology. Peritoneal Diseases / radiography. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Retroperitoneal Space / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20461188.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2864861
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominal cavity / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Neoplasm, adipose tissue / Retroperitoneal space / Tomography, spiral computed
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3. Rossi M, Ravizza D, Fiori G, Trovato C, Renne G, Miller MJ, Tamayo D, Crosta C: Thoracic myelolipoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Endoscopy; 2007 Feb;39 Suppl 1:E114-5
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  • [Title] Thoracic myelolipoma diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle. Endosonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17440857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9001-27-8 / Factor VIII
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4. Meyer A, Behrend M: Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The accidental discovery of an adrenal mass called incidentaloma has become an increasingly frequent clinical problem with the question of a correct and appropriate therapeutic approach being the subject of controversial discussions.
  • Histopathologic examination ruled out adrenal adenoma in 32 patients, adrenal myelolipoma in 12, unilateral nodular hyperplasia in 4, cystic lesion in 3, and adrenocortical carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • Evaluating the criteria for surgical treatment regarding age of the patients and size of the lesions, 25 patients (48%), including the patient with the adrenocortical carcinoma, were younger than 60 years and had an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size.
  • Especially in patients younger than 60 years with an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size, an adrenalectomy, predominantly via an endoscopic approach, should be carried out, because a repeated and life-long close follow-up of an anxious patient who has been informed of the diagnosis will in some cases exceed the cost of a single endoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 16888426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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5. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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6. Sharma R, Ganpule A, Veeramani M, Sabnis RB, Desai M: Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter. Urol J; 2009;6(4):254-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter.
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were smaller than 5 cm.
  • Histopathology of large tumors revealed 16 benign tumors (8 pheochromocytomas, 4 adenomas, 2 ganglioneuromas, 1 pseudocyst, and 1 myelolipoma) and 3 malignancies, of which 1 was primary adrenocortical carcinoma and 2 were metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and feasible for large functioning adrenal tumors.
  • Large adrenal tumors suspicious of harboring malignancy with no peri-adrenal involvement can be tackled laparoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20027553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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7. Chervin RA, Danilowicz K, Pitoia F, Gómez RM, Bruno OD: [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(4):341-50
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  • [Title] [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma].
  • Adrenal incidentaloma, a tumor discovered unexpectedly during imaging performed for non-adrenal related causes, has become a frequent clinical concern.
  • Although in most cases they are benign and hormonally nonfunctioning, it is important to appropriately identify those few cases of malignant or hyperfunctioning lesions of surgical resolution.
  • In the present retrospective study we analyzed 34 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Of these, 32% of the patients displayed hyperfunctioning pathologies that included subclinical Cushing's syndrome in four patients, probable primary hyperaldosteronism in two, late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one, adrerocortical carcinoma in one and pheochromocytoma in three.
  • CT and/or MRI permitted the identification of adenomas and were crucial to decide on surgery in two patients with nonfunctioning pheochromocytomas and in a patient carrying a primitive adrenocortical carcinoma, a diagnosis also suggested by a mixed pattern of hypersecretion of androgens and cortisol.
  • Nonfunctioning tumors were mainly adenomas (87%) with individual cases of histoplasmosis, pseudocyst, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia and mielolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Androgens / secretion. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17891929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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8. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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9. Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Crosta F, Lezoche G, Baldarelli M, Campagnacci R: Flank approach versus anterior sub-mesocolic access in left laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a prospective randomized study. Surg Endosc; 2008 Nov;22(11):2373-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy is commonly recognized as the gold standard in adrenal surgery.
  • Mean overall OpT was 76.4 min (54-96 min) versus 65.6 min (45-95 min) in group A and B, respectively (p = 0.001), while the OpT required to tie the adrenal vein was 42.8 min (26-55 min) and 24.5 min (16-41 min) (p = 0.000).
  • A myelolipoma and an adrenogenital adenoma were observed in group A and one carcinoma was observed in group B.
  • Identification and early closure of the adrenal vein by means of a really minimal dissection and no-touch gland technique resulted in the main benefits of this approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18288528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
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10. Pereira JM, Sirlin CB, Pinto PS, Casola G: CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85
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  • [Title] CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls.
  • The differential diagnosis of extrahepatic abdominopelvic masses is wide.
  • Demonstration of fat within a lesion at noninvasive imaging is an important clue for narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • Entities with predominantly macroscopic fat include myelolipoma, angiomyolipoma, teratoma, liposarcoma, lipoma, epiploic appendagitis, omental infarction, and mesenteric panniculitis.
  • Lesions with predominantly microscopic fat include adrenal adenoma and some teratomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15653588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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11. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • [Title] [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report].
  • We present a case of hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Hagspiel KD: Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma. Eur Radiol; 2005 Aug;15(8):1757-9
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  • [Title] Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign tumors histologically consisting of fat and bone marrow.
  • The computed tomography findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma manifested in an adrenal myelolipoma are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] J Heart Lung Transplant. 1993 Nov-Dec;12(6 Pt 2):S328-36 [8312352.001]
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  • (PMID = 15503042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Blake MA, Kalra MK, Sweeney AT, Lucey BC, Maher MM, Sahani DV, Halpern EF, Mueller PR, Hahn PF, Boland GW: Distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses: multi-detector row CT protocol with 10-minute delay. Radiology; 2006 Feb;238(2):578-85
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  • [Title] Distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses: multi-detector row CT protocol with 10-minute delay.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of precontrast attenuation, relative percentage washout (RPW), and absolute percentage washout (APW) in distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses at multi-detector row computed tomography (CT).
  • One hundred twenty-two adrenal masses were evaluated in 99 patients (51 men, 48 women; age range, 37-86 years) who had undergone CT performed according to the study protocol and who either were given a pathologic diagnosis or underwent follow-up imaging.
  • Analysis was first performed with the exclusion of pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, and cysts.
  • RESULTS: By using an RPW of 37.5% and excluding cysts and myelolipomas, all malignant lesions were detected with a sensitivity of 100% (17 of 17 lesions) and a specificity of 95% (90 of 95 lesions).
  • Precontrast attenuation of less than 0 or more than 43 HU indicated benign and malignant entities, respectively.
  • Combining all the information available from the protocol yielded a sensitivity of 100% (17 of 17 lesions) and a specificity of 98% (98 of 100 lesions) for differentiating benign from malignant masses.
  • CONCLUSION: Precontrast attenuation of less than 0 HU supercedes the washout profile in the evaluation of an individual adrenal mass.
  • Noncalcified, nonhemorrhagic adrenal lesions with precontrast attenuation of more than 43 HU should be considered suspicious for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clinical Protocols. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors


14. Greaves WO, Khanna P, DeLellis R, Glasser L, Wang LJ: Renal sinus myelolipoma coexistent with renal pelvis papillary transitional cell carcinoma: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):437-9
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  • [Title] Renal sinus myelolipoma coexistent with renal pelvis papillary transitional cell carcinoma: a case report.
  • A unique case of renal sinus myelolipoma presenting as a mass coexistent with papillary transitional cell carcinoma is reported.
  • Pathological findings revealed an irregular myxoid fatty mass, in addition to high-grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis included myxoid liposarcoma, myxoid variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (myxofibrosarcoma), and angiomyolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma and papillary transitional cell carcinoma appear to be unrelated coexistent entities in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


15. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma surrenalico bilaterale gigante. Caso clinico.
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • Surgical excision was performed for large left symptomatic mass, by open laparotomy, and biopsy for right minor adrenal lesion.
  • Histology confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma for both masses.
  • Follow-up to 6-12 months did'nt show any change of the right myelolipoma.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Cox A, Offman SL, Merrimen JL, Kew A, Norman RW: Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E164-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign neoplasms consisting of hematopoietic cellular elements and adipose tissue.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas (EM) are extremely rare with fewer than 50 cases reported.
  • Management options include both conservative and surgical approaches depending upon the certainty of the diagnosis, progression of the patient's symptoms and evidence of growth.

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  • (PMID = 21749813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3038377
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17. Perretta S, Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Rimini M, Lezoche E: Sub-mesocolic access in laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc; 2005 Jul;19(7):977-80
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  • BACKGROUND: This article reports an alternative laparoscopic access to left adrenal gland.
  • Indications were Conn adenoma (55 cases), incidentaloma (64), Cushing adenoma (45), pheochromocytoma (32), adreno-genital syndrome (two), mielolipoma (two), and metastatic mass(nine).
  • The identification and closure of the adrenal vein with minimal gland manipulation resulted the main benefit of this approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Left adrenal lesions, as selected cases of pheochromocytoma, can be safely treated by laparoscopic submesocolic access.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
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18. Sato K, Ueda Y, Katsuda S, Tsuchihara K: Myelolipoma of the lung: a case report and brief review. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):728-30
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma of the lung: a case report and brief review.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17557874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955080
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19. DeCastro GJ, Gupta M, Badani K, Hruby G, Landman J: Synchronous cryoablation of multiple renal lesions: short-term follow-up of patient outcomes. Urology; 2010 Feb;75(2):303-6
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  • Of the 17 lesions, 7 were found to be conventional renal cell carcinoma, 4 papillary, 2 myelolipoma, and 1 oncocytoma (unavailable for 3 lesions).

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  • [Copyright] 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 19931123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Roukounakis N, Dimas S, Kafetzis I, Bethanis S, Gatsulis N, Kostas H, Kyriakou V, Michas S: Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery? JSLS; 2007 Apr-Jun;11(2):215-8
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  • [Title] Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery?
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adrenal tissue-sparing or partial adrenalectomy evolved initially for patients with bilateral synchronous adrenal surgical pathology to preserve vital adrenal volume.
  • Controversy exists regarding the importance of preserving the adrenal vein, main or accessory.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to present our short series of laparoscopic tissue-sparing adrenalectomies with vein preservation.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with peripherally located either aldosterone-producing adenomas (4 cases) or myelolipomas (4 cases) underwent laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • One patient harbored an aldosterone-producing adenoma and a myelolipoma as well.
  • The main adrenal vein was identified and preserved in 6 patients and the accessory vein in one.
  • Laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy is a technically challenging tissue-sparing operation.
  • Meticulous dissection allows preservation of the middle artery and main or accessory vein resulting in a functioning adrenal stump.

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  • (PMID = 17761083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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21. Ketelsen D, von Weyhern CH, Horger M: Diagnosis of bilateral giant adrenal myelolipoma. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):e678-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of bilateral giant adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20805459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Tursi M, Iussich S, Prunotto M, Buracco P: Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2005 Mar;42(2):232-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Abdominal ultrasound examination in an 11-year-old, intact, female Labrador dog with hepatic disease revealed a nodular swelling of the left adrenal gland.
  • Grossly, a nodular mass protruded from the external surface of the left adrenal gland and in cut section was hemorrhagic and effaced the cortical and medullary regions.
  • The mass was composed of well-differentiated adipose cells, megakaryocytes, hematopoietic cells, and macrophages containing hemosiderin deposits.
  • A diagnosis of cortical adrenal myelolipoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15753481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is mainly asymptomatic, only large myelolipomas manifest themselves by abdominal discomfort, bleeding or by symptoms of oppressing adjacent organs.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • The therapy available is either a surgical extirpation in the case of large or growing myelolipomas or observation in the case of small ones (< 5 cm).
  • RESULTS: The condition was resolved by bilateral adrenalectomy with extirpation of both myelolipomas and subsequent hormonal substitution treatment during which there was a gradual regression of virilising symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • However, the etiopathogenesis of myelolipoma is still unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Chien HP, Chang YS, Hsu PS, Lin JD, Wu YC, Chang HL, Chuang CK, Tsuei KH, Hsueh C: Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):274-81
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  • [Title] Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cystic lesions are uncommon and we analyzed clinical and pathologic features of 25 such cases from a single institute over 23 years.
  • The proposed mesothelial origin of adrenal epithelial cyst cannot be confirmed in our example.
  • Seven adrenal pseudocysts were associated with tumor, including two pheochromocytomas, one neuroblastoma, one adrenal cortical carcinoma, one adrenal cortical adenoma, one myelolipoma, and one schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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25. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Connor L, Craig J, Buch KE, Divino CM: Image of the month. Adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Surg; 2009 Mar;144(3):283-4
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  • [Title] Image of the month. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / diagnostic imaging. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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28. Nigawara T, Kageyama K, Sakihara S, Takayasu S, Kawahara M, Imai A, Ohyama C, Usui T, Sasano H, Suda T: A male case of nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency first manifested in his sixties with adrenocortical incidentaloma. Endocr J; 2008 May;55(2):291-7
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  • Nonclassical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC 21OHD) as a frequent variant on the milder end of the disease spectrum has been widely acknowledged, but its potential contribution to adrenocortical tumorigenesis has not been fully elucidated.
  • The two tumors in the left adrenal, which were interpreted as myelolipoma by imaging studies, were followed by sequential observation, whereas the contralateral large solid tumor associated with inhomogeneous radiological appearance was subsequently removed.
  • 21OHD is often associated with benign adrenocortical tumors, but bilateral adrenal tumors with heterogeneous components in both adrenals have not been reported to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18323673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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29. Kasalický M, Krsek M, Zelinka T, Hána V, Widimský J: [120 laparoscopic adrenalectomies with a harmonic scalpel]. Rozhl Chir; 2009 Aug;88(8):439-43
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  • Typical indication for LA is the aldosteron-secreting adenoma, Cushing's syndrome, feochromocytoma or scarcity tumors such as adrenal cyst or myelolipomas.
  • The median size of the adrenal tumor was 4.9 cm (1.5-12.5 cm) with average weight 44 g (18-421 g).
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy presently becomes as the "gold standard" for the treatment of adrenal tumors to the size 10 cm namely and in the event of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20055298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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30. Gheith S, Boulay R, Cornfield D: Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(1):95-8
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  • [Title] Small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a pelvic myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and normal hematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are extremely rare, with approximately 50% of cases occurring in the presacral region.
  • Histologic examination showed a myelolipoma with dense lymphoid aggregates.
  • Molecular evaluation confirmed the presence of a clonal B-cell lymphocytic proliferation that did not harbor BCL-2 or BCL-1 gene rearrangements.
  • This case represents the first report of a myelolipoma involved by a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The likeliest scenario is that an unusual benign tumor (myelolipoma) was colonized by a relatively common systemic hematopoietic neoplasm SLL/CLL, producing a collision tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18830383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extra adrenal myelolipoma / chronic lymphocytic leukemia / lymphoma / non-Hodgkin lymphoma / small lymphocytic lymphoma
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31. Nguyen BD: Retroperitoneal extraadrenal myelolipoma: Technetium-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy and CT imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Feb;32(2):135-8
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal extraadrenal myelolipoma: Technetium-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy and CT imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Myelolipoma / radiography. Myelolipoma / radionuclide imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid

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  • (PMID = 17242571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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32. Yang ZG, Guo YK, Li Y, Min PQ, Yu JQ, Ma ES: Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT. Eur Radiol; 2006 Sep;16(9):2031-6
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  • [Title] Differentiation between tuberculosis and primary tumors in the adrenal gland: evaluation with contrast-enhanced CT.
  • The aim of the present study is to determine imaging criteria for differentiating tuberculosis from primary tumors in the adrenal gland on contrast-enhanced CT.
  • Non-contrast and contrast-enhanced CT features in 108 patients with adrenal tuberculosis (n = 34) and primary tumor (n = 74) were retrospectively assessed for the location, size, calcification and enhancement patterns.
  • The primary tumors included 41 adenomas, 11 pheochromocytomas, 4 carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 6 myelolipomas, 6 ganglioneuromas, 2 neurilemmomas and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CT findings can differentiate tuberculosis from a primary tumor of the adrenal glands with high sensitivity and an acceptable specificity when combined with the endocrinological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tuberculosis, Endocrine / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16435135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Vaziri M, Sadeghipour A, Pazooki A, Shoolami LZ: Primary mediastinal myelolipoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 May;85(5):1805-6
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  • [Title] Primary mediastinal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of an admixture of fat and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells.
  • It is typically an adrenal lesion, and mediastinal location is extremely unusual.
  • We describe a 56-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of cough and dyspnea and no underlying disease whose chest computed tomography showed a huge (25 x 15 cm) mediastinal tumor containing calcification.
  • Surgical removal and subsequent pathologic examination of the tumor revealed myelolipoma.
  • Primary myelolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large posterior mediastinal tumors containing calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / surgery. Cough / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18442597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B, Kwon GY: Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Jul-Aug;32(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify adrenal masses showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of pathologically proven 400 adrenal tumors were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period.
  • We included only adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on CT and MRI performed at 15 and 5 min, respectively, after contrast material injection.
  • These lesions were as follows: two ganglioneuromas, one myelolipoma with infarction, and one angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced CT and MRI should include ganglioneuroma, myelolipoma with infarction, and angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17151900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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35. Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Crosta F, Paganini A, D'Ambrosio G, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Perioperative results of 214 laparoscopic adrenalectomies by anterior transperitoneal approach. Surg Endosc; 2008 Feb;22(2):522-6
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  • Mortality occurred in one diabetic patient who was converted to open surgery because of a colonic perforation and subsequently developed a Candida sepsis in the postoperative course.
  • Histology results were as follows: nonsecreting adenoma 65, Cushing's adenoma 58, Conn's adenoma 53, pheochromocytoma 24, metastases 9, myelolipoma 3, adrenogenital syndrome 1, carcinoma 1.
  • The main advantage of this route is early ligature of the adrenal vein on both sides, enabling the performance of associated surgical procedures and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17705067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Müller M, Schultheiss M, Feuerlein S: [Myelolipoma versus extramedullary Hematopoiesis -- an unusual differential diagnosis in the presacral region]. Rofo; 2009 Feb;181(2):169-70
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  • [Title] [Myelolipoma versus extramedullary Hematopoiesis -- an unusual differential diagnosis in the presacral region].
  • [Transliterated title] Myelolipom versus extramedulläre Hämatopoese--ungewöhnliche Differenzialdiagnose einer präsakralen Raumforderung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Diseases / diagnosis. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Sacrum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19137494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Fernandes GC, Gupta RK, Kandalkar BM: Giant adrenal myelolipoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):325-6
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • We report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma weighing 2200 gms which was diagnosed on radiology as a liposarcoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, not more than 10 giant adrenal myelolipoma cases have been reported in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Radiography, Abdominal

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  • (PMID = 20551546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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38. Suárez G, Valera Z, Gómez MA, Docobo F, Alamo JM: [Etiology and diagnosis of severe retroperitoneal hematoma: therapeutic options and surgical indication]. Cir Esp; 2005 Nov;78(5):328-30
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  • [Title] [Etiology and diagnosis of severe retroperitoneal hematoma: therapeutic options and surgical indication].
  • Although the literature on the subject describes a wide variety of causes, in all three patients the etiology was tumoral, consisting of one suprarenal myelolipoma, one renal adenocarcinoma and one suprarenal metastasis from bronchogenic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16420851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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39. Daneshmand S, Quek ML: Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management. Urol J; 2006;3(2):71-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are benign lesions that contain hematopoietic and fatty elements.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database containing the key word adrenal myelolipoma.
  • In this review, we highlighted the salient diagnostic features of adrenal myelolipomas and offered a guide for management of these benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal myelolipomas may grow over time, but they can usually be followed without surgical excision.
  • In some cases, very large myelolipomas can present with pain and can be confused with necrotic adrenal carcinomas, thus necessitating their surgical removal.

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  • (PMID = 17590837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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40. Alberti C: [Adrenal incidentalomas: etiologic diagnostics and basic therapeutic management. A mini-review]. G Chir; 2009 May;30(5):243-50
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas: etiologic diagnostics and basic therapeutic management. A mini-review].
  • Since the late 1970s, the number of serendipitously discovered adrenal masses has progressively increased through the widespread use of great sensitivity/high resolution diagnostic imaging while abdomen scanning for extra-adrenal lesions.
  • The majority of these masses are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity.
  • Most adrenal incidentalomas are cortical adenomas whereas the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinomas and other adrenal masses (lipomas, myelolipomas, angio-myelo-lipomas, sarcomas, hamartomas, lymphomas) is relatively low.
  • An accurate management of adrenal incidentalomas requires an agreement among radiologist, endocrinologist, oncologist and surgeon.
  • Arguments for benign incidentalomas are mainly small size (< 4 cm), low CT attenuation coefficients and/or typical features on RM imaging.
  • Surgery is mandatory for secretory tumours (functioning cortical adenomas, pheochromocytoma) and for adrenal malignancies.
  • In accordance with international literature, the size of adrenal incidentalomas may be a discriminant criterion for their management: surgery is recommended for masses of large (> 6 cm) diameter or increasing at CT/RM follow-up reevaluation whereas the masses between 4/6 cm form an indeterminate group where the management varies from institution to institution.
  • Laparoscopic transperitoneal as well as retro-peritoneoscopic procedures are gaining more and more attention for less invasive treatment of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • According to 2002 USA-National Institutes of Health guidelines, further studies are necessary to better define natural history, CT and RM malignant features, functional aptitudes of adrenal incidentalomas in order to propose optimal modalities of follow-up and proper surgical strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prevalence. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19505420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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41. Vilar L, Freitas Mda C, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Moura e Silva L, Coelho CE, Casulari LA, Naves LA: Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cause and the clinical and laboratory features of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) in 52 patients and to assess the evolution of nonsurgically treated lesions during long-term follow-up.
  • RESULTS: In our study group, nonfunctioning adenomas were the most frequent cause of AI (42%), followed by cortisol-secreting adenomas (15%), metastatic disease (10%), pheochromocytomas (8%), myelolipomas (6%), cysts (6%), carcinomas (4%), lymphomas (4%), tuberculosis (4%), and aldosteronoma (2%).
  • Carcinomas were the largest adrenal masses (mean diameter, 11.7 +/- 1.3 cm).
  • With the exception of 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 cyst, and 1 myelolipoma, all AI larger than 6 cm were carcinomas.
  • After 12 months of follow-up, however, a 45-year-old woman had adrenal mass enlargement from 3.2 cm to 4.4 cm; the excised lesion proved to be an adenoma.
  • Moreover, evidence of cortisol hypersecretion developed after 24 months of follow-up in a 30-year-old man with a 3.5-cm adenoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that most AI are nonfunctioning benign lesions and emphasize the need for long-term follow-up of patients with conservatively managed lesions, in light of the potential for evolution to hormonal hypersecretion or tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Brazil. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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42. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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43. Olivar Roldán J, Molina Baena B, Pavón de Paz I, Iglesias Bolaños P, Montoya Álvarez T, Fernández Martínez A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: case report and literature review. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Mar;55(3):139-41
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: case report and literature review.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors comprising mature adipose tissue and diverse hematopoietic elements.
  • Diagnosis is usually provided by ultrasonography or computed tomography.
  • We present a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma and provide a review of the literature.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22967880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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44. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Myelolipoma nadnerczy.
  • This paper is a review of the literature about adrenal myelolipoma.
  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually small (< 4 cm), unilateral and causes no clinical disorders.
  • Etiology of myelolipoma is unclear.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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45. Mathew J, Menon PS, Shah NS: An elderly lady in shock. J Postgrad Med; 2005 Jan-Mar;51(1):51-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15793343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone
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46. Gill KR, Hasan MK, Menke DM, Wallace MB: Presacral myelolipoma: diagnosis by EUS-FNA and Trucut biopsy. Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Apr;71(4):849; discussion 849-50
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  • [Title] Presacral myelolipoma: diagnosis by EUS-FNA and Trucut biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endosonography. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / ultrasonography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / ultrasonography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Sacrococcygeal Region / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20188367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Cindolo L, Gidaro S, Neri F, Tamburro FR, Schips L: Assessing feasibility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery adrenalectomy: initial experience. J Endourol; 2010 Jun;24(6):977-80
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients with nonfunctional adrenal masses underwent TriPort adrenalectomy.
  • Pathology examination confirmed one adenoma, one lung cancer metastasis, and one myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20367086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Goltz JP, Gattenlöhner S, Hahn D, Ritter CO: [Ruptured giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland with acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage]. Rofo; 2009 May;181(5):485-7
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  • [Title] [Ruptured giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland with acute retroperitoneal hemorrhage].
  • [Transliterated title] Rupturiertes Riesen-Myelolipom der Nebenniere mit akuter retroperitonealer Blutung.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glioma / diagnosis. Humans. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 19280550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9010
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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49. Sawhney R, McRae B, Lazarchick J: A rare case of a multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma with markedly hypocellular bone marrow. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(2):208-11
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  • [Title] A rare case of a multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma with markedly hypocellular bone marrow.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare, generally solitary, non-functioning tumors consisting of adipose tissue and hematopoetic elements.
  • We describe the extremely rare occurrence of multifocal, extra-adrenal myelolipomas in a 35-yr-old male.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a markedly abnormal marrow examination in a patient with extra-adrenal myelolipoma, and implicates the extra-osseous masses as the driving force behind his normal hematopoesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / physiology. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16682520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Ersoy E, Ozdoğan M, Demirağ A, Aktimur R, Kulaçoğlu H, Kulaçoğlu S, Gündoğdu H: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with small bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jun;17(2):126-9
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with small bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and biochemically inactive tumor.
  • We report herein the association of a myelolipoma with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The pathological diagnosis was reported as myelolipoma for the retroperitoneal mass and leiomyosarcoma for the jejunal mass.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor, involving mature fat and hematopoietic stem cells.
  • Myelolipomas are reported to be associated with some other malignancies (especially renal), but this is the first report showing the association with a leiomyosarcoma.
  • Therefore, leiomyosarcoma should also be one of the possible associations kept in mind by the physician in the diagnosis and treatment of myelolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Jejunal Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16830297.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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51. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country. World J Surg; 2008 Aug;32(8):1802-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is rising worldwide.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, functional status, and final diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas and, in particular, to look into the incidence of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) in large adrenal incidentalomas managed at a tertiary referral hospital in northern India.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study (January 1991-December 2005) of 59 patients with adrenal incidentaloma managed at our department.
  • Six patients in which the mass was ultimately found to arise from extra-adrenal tissue were excluded from final analysis RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 12 years (M:F = 1:1.1).
  • The important final pathology included ACC (7.5%), pheochromocytoma (PCC) (43%), adrenal cysts (13.2%), myelolipoma (11.3%), and inflammatory lesions (9.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, the incidence of PCC was high among large adrenal incidentalomas while that of ACC was lower than expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Developing Countries. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Incidental Findings. India / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18425548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Pérez Martínez J, Llamas F, López Rubio E, Serrano A, Salinas Sánchez A, Ruiz Mondéjar R, Virseda Rodríguez JA, Gómez Roldán C: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture]. Nefrologia; 2006;26(1):132-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma suprarrenal gigante: hipertensión, insuficiencia renal y rotura espontánea.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumor composed of adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements.
  • The condition has been associated with obesity, high blood pressure and adrenal dysfunction.
  • We present a patient with retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of a myelolipoma, hypertension, and renal failure secondary to nephroangiosclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications. Nephrosclerosis / complications


53. Wouda RM, Chalkley MD, Fraser AR, Moses PA: Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat. Aust Vet J; 2010 Jun;88(6):231-5
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  • [Title] Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat.
  • Hepatic myelolipoma incarcerated in a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed in an 11-year-old, desexed female Persian cat.
  • Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia is a common incidental finding in cats and is usually asymptomatic.
  • Myelolipoma is an extremely rare benign tumour, composed of extramedullary haematopoietic cells and adipose tissue.
  • Myelolipomas are hypothesised to result from metaplastic alteration, rather than a neoplastic process, although this theory cannot be substantiated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiac Tamponade / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Hernia, Diaphragmatic / veterinary. Liver Diseases / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20553572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-0813
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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54. Agrawal S, Jha MS, Khurana N, Ansari MS, Dubey D, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, Kumar A, Jain M, Mandhani A: Nephron sparing surgery: A single institution experience. Indian J Urol; 2007 Jan;23(1):23-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in managing various benign and malignant renal tumors with nephron-sparing surgery.
  • Histopathological profile revealed 13 (44.8%) benign lesions which included angiomyolipoma (eight), simple cyst (two), cortical adenoma (one), metanephric adenoma (one) and myelolipoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nephron-sparing surgery is a safe and effective alternative to nephrectomy in both benign and malignant lesions of the kidney.

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  • [Cites] J Urol. 2000 Feb;163(2):442-5 [10647650.001]
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  • (PMID = 19675756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721489
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Kidney / kidney diseases / nephron sparing surgery
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55. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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56. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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58. Morandi F, Mays JL, Newman SJ, Adams WH: Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2007 May-Jun;48(3):246-9
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  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog.
  • A 10-year-old neutered female Pug was evaluated for a left adrenal mass detected previously by ultrasonography.
  • Using computed tomography, a fat-attenuating, rim-enhancing left adrenal mass and a homogeneous, soft-tissue attenuating, intensely enhancing right adrenal mass were found.
  • A left adrenalectomy and right adrenal biopsy were performed and the final diagnosis was bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are rare, benign, endocrinologically inactive tumors composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic cells of both lymphatic and myeloid lineages, which may account for the different appearance on tomographic images.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / radiography. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Female. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17508512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Sandoval MA, Anel-Quimpo J: A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation.
  • A 51-year-old Filipino woman presenting with hypertension was unexpectedly found to have a large right adrenal mass by ultrasound.
  • As she did not have symptoms of adrenal disease, this was labelled an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a large adrenal mass on the right measuring 15 cm at its greatest diameter, with both benign and malignant features.
  • Histopathological examination revealed myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22802369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027410
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60. Sun X, Ayala A, Castro CY: Adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma in a patient with hyperaldosteronism. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):e144-7
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma in a patient with hyperaldosteronism.
  • We present a case of aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma.
  • Clinical workup revealed an increased serum aldosterone level, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, and a left adrenal mass was found on computed tomography.
  • At the periphery of the tumor but within the capsule, microscopic areas of myelolipoma were seen.
  • Although rare, aldosterone-secreting carcinoma associated with myelolipoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15913443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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61. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6
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  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • These tumours have a very slow but continued growth and their volume and weight vary significantly from small lesions of a few grams to huge masses weighing up to several kilograms.
  • If symptoms occur, surgery should be performed without delay, especially for large myelolipomas that are at high risk of spontaneous rupture with haemorrhage and life-threatening shock.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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62. Temizoz O, Genchellac H, Demir MK, Unlu E, Ozdemir H: Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e198-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features.
  • Myelolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of adipose tissue and haematopoietic cells that are typically found in adrenal glands but have also appeared in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Distinguishing between extra-adrenal myelolipomas and malignant tumours, such as liposarcomas, is crucial to avoid an invasive procedure.
  • To this end, we present a comprehensive report of the CT imaging characteristics of a pathologically proven bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20846975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473743
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63. Patel VG, Babalola OA, Fortson JK, Weaver WL: Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg; 2006 Jul;72(7):649-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature lipomatous and hemopoietic tissue.
  • Although it is often discovered as an incidental finding on imaging of the abdomen for some other reason or at autopsy, adrenal myelolipoma has been reported to present with symptoms such as flank pain resulting from tumor bulk, necrosis, or spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Myelolipomas are hormonally inactive but have also been reported to coexist with other hormonally active tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a patient with symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed on computed tomography scan and confirmed on computed tomography-guided biopsy.
  • We also review the literature to evaluate the presentation and optimal management of this rare adrenal tumor that is not encountered by most general surgeons and therefore not well known to most surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16875091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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64. Haouas N, Sahraoui W, Saidi R, Lefi M, Saad H: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):532-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign, non-secreting tumour, which can be complicated by pain or retroperitoneal haemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis is based on CT or preferably MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16097167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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65. Romano G, Cocchiara G, Calderone F, Buscemi G, Gioè FP, Alongi G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento laparoscopico del mielolipoma surrenalico: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign, non-functioning tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic tissues.
  • In January 2005 we had observed an adrenal myelolipoma in 70 year old man.
  • During the follow-up for bladder urothelioma, an abdominal CT revaled a well delineated 4x4 cm homogeneous fatty mass in the right suprarenal area with negative attenuation values.
  • The functional study of adrenal gland was normal.
  • The istological diagnosis showed adrenal myelolipoma.
  • We conclude that videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered the gold standard treatment for benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16857113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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66. John M, Menon SK, Shah NS, Menon PS: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy. Singapore Med J; 2009 Feb;50(2):e68-70
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  • [Title] Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency: two cases managed with bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • This series describes two patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • The second patient, a 23-year-old with XY genotype, presented with bilateral adrenal masses and resistant hypertension.
  • These two patients are described with a discussion on the role of bilateral adrenalectomy in the management of difficult cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The association of myelolipoma and testicular rests with this condition is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / blood. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Karyotyping. Male. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Diseases / surgery. Treatment Outcome


67. Hatai H, Ochiai K, Nakamura S, Kamiya T, Ito M, Yamamoto H, Sunden Y, Umemura T: Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides). J Comp Pathol; 2009 Nov;141(4):260-4
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  • [Title] Hepatic myelolipoma and amyloidosis with osseous metaplasia in a swan goose (Anser cygnoides).
  • Microscopically, the hepatic lesions were composed of a mixture of adipocytes and myeloid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloidosis / veterinary. Bird Diseases / pathology. Liver / pathology. Liver Diseases / veterinary. Liver Neoplasms / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19592008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Olobatuyi FA, Maclennan GT: Myelolipoma. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):1188
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16890722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Dorairajan N, Muthayya P, Manikandan R, Kumar S, Siddharth D: Management of incidentalomas of the adrenal gland in an Indian hospital set-up between 1991 and 2000. Int Surg; 2006 Mar-Apr;91(2):94-9
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  • [Title] Management of incidentalomas of the adrenal gland in an Indian hospital set-up between 1991 and 2000.
  • The aim of our study was to review the currently used evaluation schemes and the outcomes of surgical and conservative management of adrenal incidentalomas at an Indian center.
  • Fifty-eight cases of adrenal incidentalomas diagnosed and treated at the Govt.
  • The mean duration of treatment of symptoms before diagnosis was 3.5 months.
  • Cortical carcinoma was detected in nine patients, pheochromocytoma in seven, myelolipoma in one, metastatic tumor in one, and cyst, ganglioneuroma, and tuberculoma in four.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16774180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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70. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia sometimes develop large and bilateral myelolipomas.
  • Although the precise pathogenesis of myelolipomas remains unclear, prolonged stimulation with high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenal androgens are assumed to have a causative role.
  • To clarify the role of ACTH and androgen in the pathogenesis of myelolipoma, we report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • A 43-year-old female was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at 6 years of age because of ambiguous genitalia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Humans. Receptors, Melanocortin / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.14.16 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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71. Wagnerova H, Lazúrová I, Habalová V, Dudásová D, Vrzgula A: The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 May;116(5):272-5
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  • [Title] The prevalence of 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adrenal incidentalomas - hormonal and mutation screening.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the response of 17 OHP to ACTH stimulation in patients with various types of adrenal incidentalomas and to examine the occurence of germline CYP21 mutation in these patients.
  • 21 of them had unilateral adrenal adenoma, 13 patients had adrenal hyperplasia (six of them unilateral) and 6 patients had CT characteristics of other tumors (myelolipomas, cysts, adrenocortical carcinoma).
  • SUMMARY: Although 12 % of patients with adrenal incidentalomas had an exaggerated response of 17 OHP after ACTH administration indicating a possible 21-hydroxylase deficiency, these findings are not associated with CYP21 mutation estimated in peripheral blood samples.
  • There was found no germline CYP21 mutation in all patients with various adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Hormones / secretion. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia / blood. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 18589890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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72. Sakaki M, Izaki H, Fukumori T, Taue R, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome. Int J Urol; 2006 Jun;13(6):801-2
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor, occasionally reported in association with endocrine disorders.
  • We report herein a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • A diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency was confirmed by mutation analysis of the CYP21 gene.
  • Our case represents only the second case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenogenital syndrome caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Mutation. Myelolipoma / genetics. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16834664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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73. Guo YK, Yang ZG, Li Y, Deng YP, Ma ES, Min PQ, Zhang XC: Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Jun;62(3):359-70
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  • [Title] Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation.
  • Adrenal glands are common sites of diseases.
  • With dramatically increased use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, more and more uncommon adrenal masses have been detected incidentally at abdominal examinations performed for other purposes.
  • In this article, uncommon adrenal masses are classified as cystic masses (endothelial cysts, epithelial cysts, parasitic cysts, and pseudocysts), solid masses (ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), neurilemmoma, and lymphoma), fat-containing masses (myelolipoma, teratoma), and infectious masses (tuberculoma), and the imaging features of these uncommon masses are demonstrated.
  • Although most of these lesions do not have specific imaging features, some fat-containing masses and cystic lesions present with characteristic appearances, such as myelolipoma, teratoma, and hydatid.
  • Combination with histopathologic characteristic of these uncommon masses of adrenal gland, radiological features of these lesions on CT and MR imaging can be accurately understood with more confidences.
  • Moreover, CT and MRI are highly accurate in localization of uncommon adrenal masses, and useful to guide surgical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Cysts / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Rare Diseases. Tuberculoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17532488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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74. Duenschede F, Bittinger F, Heintz A, Musholt T, Korenkov M, Kann P, Ewald P, Gockel I, Junginger T: Malignant and unclear histological findings in incidentalomas. Eur Surg Res; 2008;40(2):235-8
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  • There were 9 cases of adrenal hyperplasia, and two cysts and two hematomas were found in 4 patients.
  • Moreover, 1 schwannoma and 1 myelolipoma were removed.
  • In 1 patient, an adrenal cortical carcinoma of 10.0 cm in diameter was operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18032908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9921
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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75. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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76. Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW: The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 May;190(5):1163-8
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  • [Title] The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the nature and prevalence of adrenal lesions identified on CT in patients with no known malignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer search of abdominal CT reports using the term "adrenal" was performed in 65,231 consecutive patients with examinations performed from January 2000 to December 2003.
  • An adrenal mass was identified in 3,307 (5%) patients.
  • Patients with no known malignancy and no suspicion for a hyperfunctioning adrenal mass were further isolated.
  • Nine hundred seventy-three patients with 1,049 adrenal masses fulfilled the study criteria.
  • RESULTS: One thousand forty-nine adrenal masses were characterized with the following methods: histopathology (n = 12), imaging characterization (n = 909), imaging follow-up (n = 87), and clinical follow-up (n = 41).
  • There were 68 myelolipomas (6%), 47 hematomas (4%), and 13 cysts (1%).
  • One hundred twenty-eight lesions (12%) were presumed to be benign by imaging or clinical stability.
  • No malignant adrenal masses were found, even among the 14 patients who later developed malignancy elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: In 973 consecutive patients with an incidental adrenal mass and no history of cancer, no malignant lesions were identified.
  • Adenomas (75%) and myelolipomas (6%) were the most common lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18430826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Boujelbene N, Trimeche M, Ziadi S, Mestiri S, Mokni M, Korbi S: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Tunis Med; 2009 Apr;87(4):301
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19835294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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78. Ulu EM, Kirbaş I, Töre HG, Başaran C, Oztürk A, Güven G, Karadeli E, Coşkun M: Extraperitoneal pelvic myolipoma. Diagn Interv Radiol; 2010 Sep;16(3):227-31
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  • It has been described in the retroperitoneum, spinal cord, orbita, breast, round ligament, subcutaneous tissue, pericardium, rectus sheath of the abdominal wall, and abdominal cavity with attachment to the abdominal wall.
  • We present radiological findings of a large extraperitoneal pelvic myolipoma adjacent to the anterior abdominal wall, detected incidentally in an elderly woman with a presenting complaint of intractable hiccups.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19813170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1305-3612
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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79. Zhang DS, Li DH, Bi HX, Wu XF: [Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with myelolipoma of parietal pleura: a case report]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;35(7):437
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  • [Title] [Gastric adenocarcinoma associated with myelolipoma of parietal pleura: a case report].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Fundus / pathology. Gastric Fundus / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17069687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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80. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
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  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • The important clinical question is whether these lesions are benign adenomas or malignant primary or secondary masses.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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81. Ghatak S, Mridha AR: Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9313
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report.
  • On evaluation he was found to have a large right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Operative specimen's histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803976
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82. Lesbats-Jacquot V, Cucchi JM, Amoretti N, Novellas S, Chevallier P, Bruneton JN: Lipomatous tumors of the adrenals--a report on 18 cases and review of the literature. Clin Imaging; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):335-9
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  • The lipomatous tumors of the adrenals are hormonally inactive lesions, often of a benign nature, such as myelolipomas, lipomas, angiomyolipomas, or mature teratomas, and are rarely malignant, such as liposarcomas.
  • The various imaging procedures, although not allowing to formulate a histological diagnosis, nonetheless permit to determine the volume of the tumoral mass and their evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Image Enhancement / methods. Lipoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17825742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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83. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Lezoche E: Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up. J Endourol; 2006 May;20(5):321-5
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  • Moreover, a simultaneous large right adrenal incidentaloma (myelolipoma) and a right colon cancer were known to be present in the second and third patient, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Venkatasubramanian R, Wadhwa A, Sharma A, Khullar R, Soni V, Baijal M, Chowbey PK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy - a review of initial 24 consecutive patients. Indian J Surg; 2007 Aug;69(4):129-35
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  • The indications for adrenalectomy were pheochromocytoma (13 patients), Cushing's syndrome (5 patients), myelolipoma (2 patients), adrenal cyst (2 patients), aldosteronoma (1 patient) and adrenal incidentaloma (1 patient).
  • Nineteen of our patients with functioning adrenal tumours were prepared preoperatively for periods ranging up to 2 weeks by the endocrinologist.
  • A careful preoperative preparation in functioning adrenal tumours aids in the faster recovery of these patients.

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  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Laparoscopy / Pheochromocytoma
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86. Doddi S, Singhal T, Leake T, Sinha P: Management of an incidentally found large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8414
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  • [Title] Management of an incidentally found large adrenal myelolipoma: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign neoplasm composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Cross-sectional imaging is helpful in making a pre-operative diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19918428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Boyanton BL Jr, Hampel O, Ostrowski ML: A 55-year-old man with a rib fracture. Adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jan;130(1):e13-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A 55-year-old man with a rib fracture. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Rib Fractures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Ossification, Heterotopic / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16390250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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89. Hemal AK, Singh A, Gupta NP: Whether adrenal mass more than 5 cm can pose problem in laparoscopic adrenalectomy? An evaluation of 22 patients. World J Urol; 2008 Oct;26(5):505-8
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  • [Title] Whether adrenal mass more than 5 cm can pose problem in laparoscopic adrenalectomy? An evaluation of 22 patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate technical feasibility and analyze outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for large adrenal masses more than 5 cm.
  • METHODS: The data of 22 patients (8 men, 14 women), who underwent LA for adrenal masses >5 cm between January 1995 and July 2007 were analyzed for this study.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 42.5 years underwent LA for large adrenal masses (>5 cm) between January 1995 and July 2007.
  • Histopathological examination of the specimen confirmed adrenal carcinoma in 5, pheochromocytoma in 14, myelolipoma in 2 and adenoma in 1 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of an adrenal mass on preoperative imaging studies alone should not be the primary factor in determining whether LA should be performed.
  • Transperitoneal approach is most suitable and recommended for large adrenal tumor and adrenal carcinoma to employ laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • [Cites] J Urol. 2005 Aug;174(2):442-5; discussion 445 [16006861.001]
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  • (PMID = 18536881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Hernández-Amate A, Ríos-Martín JJ, Díaz-Delgado M, García-Escudero A, Otal-Salaverri C, González-Cámpora R: Cytological diagnosis of a presacral myelolipoma: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):921-2
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  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of a presacral myelolipoma: a case report diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Sacrum

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  • (PMID = 18925570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Wani NA, Kosar T, Rawa IA, Qayum A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association. Urol Ann; 2010 Sep;2(3):130-3
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies.
  • We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT.
  • One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

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  • (PMID = 20981204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7834
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Bochdalek hernia / multidetector-row CT / myelolipoma
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92. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Cortes O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L: Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2007 Sep;21(9):1053-8
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard in the surgical management of adrenal pathology.
  • Bilateral adrenalectomy is indicated in patients with Cushing's disease secondary to macroadenoma or hypophysial hyperplasia in whom medical treatment and transsphenoid surgery have failed.
  • Also, it is the first choice for bilateral benign tumors and metastatic neoplasia.
  • There were 6 cases of bilateral pheochromocytoma, 6 patients with Cushing's disease, 3 cases of metastasis, 3 congenital adrenal hyperplasias, 2 hyperaldosteronisms, and a single case each of adrenal adenoma and myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 17941786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Adachi S, Kawamura N, Hatano K, Kakuta Y, Takada T, Hara T, Yamaguchi S: Lipomatous ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneum. Pathol Int; 2008 Mar;58(3):183-6
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  • Because of the fat element, CT and magnetic resonance imaging suggested myelolipoma inside or outside the right adrenal gland.
  • The laparotomy indicated that the tumor was located on the right adrenal gland.
  • Microscopically, ganglioneuromatous component was scattered in the background of a large amount of adipose tissue.
  • Because the presence of such a large amount of adipose tissue seems to be rare in ganglioneuromas, its histogenesis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. S100 Proteins / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18251782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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94. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Beiko D, Roldan H, Sengupta SK, George RL: Laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Apr;4(2):E39-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a very rare type of tumour.
  • Laparoscopic removal of extra-adrenal myelolipoma has not been previously reported.
  • We report the first case of laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 20368880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2845669
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96. Surabhi VR, Menias C, Prasad SR, Patel AH, Nagar A, Dalrymple NC: Neoplastic and non-neoplastic proliferative disorders of the perirenal space: cross-sectional imaging findings. Radiographics; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4):1005-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Perirenal tumors and pseudotumors primarily originate either from the kidney or as part of a systemic disease process and have characteristic histopathologic features and biologic behavior.
  • The lesions may be classified on the basis of their distribution and imaging features as solitary soft-tissue masses (renal cell carcinoma, lymphangioma, hemangioma, and leiomyoma), rindlike soft-tissue lesions (lymphoma, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease), masses containing macroscopic fat (angiomyolipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis), and multifocal soft-tissue masses (metastases, plasma cell tumors).
  • Because of overlap in imaging findings among these diverse perirenal lesions, a definitive diagnosis in most cases can be established only at histopathologic analysis.
  • However, an imaging pattern-based approach may facilitate the diagnosis and optimal management of perirenal tumors and pseudotumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue Diseases / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


97. Huang KC, Hsieh PH, Lee KF, Hsu RW: Rapidly enlarging thigh swelling after manipulative therapy: an unexpected response to therapy. Man Ther; 2010 Feb;15(1):130-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms. Intervertebral Disc Displacement / therapy. Lumbar Vertebrae. Musculoskeletal Manipulations / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Humans. Low Back Pain / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Thigh

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  • (PMID = 19375971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2769
  • [Journal-full-title] Manual therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Man Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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98. Suzuki T, Uetsuka K, Kusanagi K, Hirai T, Nunoya T, Doi K: Hepatic Myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus). J Vet Med Sci; 2010 May;72(5):669-71
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  • [Title] Hepatic Myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus).
  • We report here a case of hepatic myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus), which died suddenly following the short history of weakness and greenish diarrhea.
  • Histologically, there were multiple foci of adipose tissue admixed with myeloid elements in various proportions in the liver as well as amyloid deposition in several organs including the liver, intestine, spleen, kidney, and ovary.
  • These findings shared characteristics of hepatic myelolipoma which is very rare in birds.

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  • (PMID = 20526044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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99. Gonzalgo ML, Su LM, Basaria S: Visual vignette. Adrenal myelolipoma. Endocr Pract; 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):109
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Visual vignette. Adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • (PMID = 16524871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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