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1. Fernandes GC, Gupta RK, Kandalkar BM: Giant adrenal myelolipoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):325-6
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • We report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma weighing 2200 gms which was diagnosed on radiology as a liposarcoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, not more than 10 giant adrenal myelolipoma cases have been reported in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Radiography, Abdominal

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  • (PMID = 20551546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Meyer A, Behrend M: Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Mar;12(3):239-43
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  • [Title] Presentation and therapy of myelolipoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare and benign, hormonally inactive tumor frequently discovered incidentally.
  • Because of the increasing rate of detection of adrenal myelolipoma, use of the correct diagnostic examination and treatment, with respect to surgical excision or regular controls, is continually gaining importance.
  • We report herein on the largest series of surgically treated patients with adrenal myelolipoma from a single institute.
  • METHODS: The clinical charts of 12 patients who underwent adrenal surgery for myelolipoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma was made incidentally in seven patients, and during examination for reasons of unspecific abdominal or flank pain in five patients.
  • No recurrence could be seen; however, in one patient a contralateral adrenal myelolipoma had developed.
  • A close follow up should be maintained in the case of patients free of symptoms, and for those with a definite diagnosis from imaging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15828949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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3. Pérez Martínez J, Llamas F, López Rubio E, Serrano A, Salinas Sánchez A, Ruiz Mondéjar R, Virseda Rodríguez JA, Gómez Roldán C: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture]. Nefrologia; 2006;26(1):132-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma: hypertension, renal failure and spontaneous rupture].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma suprarrenal gigante: hipertensión, insuficiencia renal y rotura espontánea.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumor composed of adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements.
  • The condition has been associated with obesity, high blood pressure and adrenal dysfunction.
  • We present a patient with retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of a myelolipoma, hypertension, and renal failure secondary to nephroangiosclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications. Nephrosclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 16649435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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4. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

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  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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5. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The myelolipoma is a rare tumor composed of hematopoietic elements in different maturation stages and without histological changes, combined with mature adipose tissue in varying proportions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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6. Wani NA, Kosar T, Rawa IA, Qayum A: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association. Urol Ann; 2010 Sep;2(3):130-3

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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: Incidentaloma with a rare incidental association.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an unusual, benign and biochemically inactive tumor that is composed of mature adipose and hematopoietic tissue.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually unilateral and asymptomatic, though known to be associated with obesity, hypertension, endocrinological disorders and some malignancies.
  • We report herein two cases of right-sided giant adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed by multidetector-row CT.
  • One patient was symptomatic because of a large mass in the right upper abdomen, which on imaging with CT was seen to be right adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Another patient had a large left side Bochdalek hernia and right adrenal myelolipoma was incidentally discovered on CT.

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  • (PMID = 20981204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-7834
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Bochdalek hernia / multidetector-row CT / myelolipoma
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7. Mermejo LM, Elias Junior J, Saggioro FP, Tucci Junior S, Castro Md, Moreira AC, Elias PC: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010 Jun;54(4):419-24
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  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: unusual association mimicking an androgen-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The objective of this study was to describe a case of giant myelolipoma associated with undiagnosed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase (21OH) deficiency.
  • Five seven year-old male patient referred with abdominal ultrasound revealing a left adrenal mass.
  • Biochemical investigation revealed hyperandrogenism and imaging exams characterized a large heterogeneous left adrenal mass with interweaving free fat tissue, compatible with the diagnosis of myelolipoma, and a 1.5 cm nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • Biochemical correlation has brought concerns about differential diagnosis with adrenocortical carcinoma, and surgical excision of the left adrenal mass was indicated.
  • Anatomopathologic findings revealed a myelolipoma and multinodular hyperplasic adrenocortex.
  • Further investigation resulted in the diagnosis of CAH due to 21OH deficiency.
  • Although rare, myelolipoma associated with CAH should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • Moreover, CAH should always be ruled out in incidentally detected adrenal masses to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20625655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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8. Zieker D, Königsrainer I, Miller S, Vogel U, Sotlar K, Steurer W, Königsrainer A, Lehmann TG: Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:72
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  • [Title] Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumours.
  • Other soft tissue tumours such as well-differentiated liposarcomas appear morphological almost identical.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a very seldom case of a simultaneous myelolipoma of the adrenal gland in association with an extra-adrenal myelolipoma in an 75-year-old man.
  • With a review of the literature we describe and discuss the aetiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of patients with respect to adrenal and extra-adrenal lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The appearance of a simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a rare incident.
  • We conclude that such lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a fat-containing tumour in the retroperitoneal tissue/compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18601731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 22
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2474838
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9. Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Tupikowski K, Akinpelumi BF: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Jan;18(103):107-10
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Myelolipoma nadnerczy.
  • This paper is a review of the literature about adrenal myelolipoma.
  • It is a rare, benign, hormonally inactive tumor of the adrenal gland composed of mature fat tissue and hematopoietic tissue in varying amounts.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is usually small (< 4 cm), unilateral and causes no clinical disorders.
  • Etiology of myelolipoma is unclear.
  • It is usually hormonally inactive but there were several cases in which adrenal myelolipoma coexisted with various endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, hirsutism, hermaphroditism, inborn deficiencies of 17- and 21-hydroxylase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15859562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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10. Timonera ER, Paiva ME, Lopes JM, Eloy C, van der Kwast T, Asa SL: Composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland: report of 2 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Feb;132(2):265-7
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  • [Title] Composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland: report of 2 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma are benign, hormonally inactive tumors that are often incidental findings in the adrenal glands.
  • Myelolipoma is more common than adenomatoid tumor in this location but both are rare, and as yet, the pathogenesis of both remains unclear.
  • We report 2 cases of composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma, incidentally found in the adrenal gland on investigation for other diseases.
  • To our knowledge, composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18251587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Pareja Megía MJ, Barrero Candau R, Medina Pérez M, Valero Puerta JA: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 May;58(4):362-5
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  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma adrenal gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland METHODS/RESULTS: A case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland, an uncommon non-functioning tumour of the adrenal cortex comprised of haematopoietic and adipose tissue, that had been detected incidentally during evaluation with CT because of its characteristic fatty composition.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15989103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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12. Haouas N, Sahraoui W, Saidi R, Lefi M, Saad H: [Adrenal myelolipoma]. Prog Urol; 2005 Jun;15(3):532-4
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  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma].
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a benign, non-secreting tumour, which can be complicated by pain or retroperitoneal haemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis is based on CT or preferably MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16097167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Arzanian MT, Khaleghnejad-Tabari A, Shamsian BS, Jadali F, Gharib A, Esfahani H: Generalized myelolipoma. Arch Iran Med; 2006 Jul;9(3):274-6
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  • [Title] Generalized myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor originating from hematopoietic and adipose tissue.
  • This tumor usually develops in the adrenal gland, but rare presentations of extraadrenal myelolipoma are also reported, which usually arise from the presacral region.
  • Herein, we present a 6-year-old girl with myelolipoma with generalized involvement of her abdomen, pelvis, chest, and retroorbital region.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thoracic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16859067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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14. Castillo Lario MC, Carro Alonso B, Gimeno Peribáñez MJ, Freile García E, Villavieja Atance JL: [Giant right adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Nov;59(9):911-3
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  • [Title] [Giant right adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma suprarrenal derecho gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor, well limited, variable in size, composed of fatty and hematopoietic tissues, the finding of which is usually incidental.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 57-year-old male admitted to the hospital with acute abdominal pain.
  • CT scan with i.v. contrast and adrenal biopsy were performed.
  • RESULTS: Radiological findings: 9 x 10 cm right adrenal mass, well defined, hypodense, with a small calcification in its posterior area.
  • Pathologic findings: benign tumor, encapsulated, with a mixture of mature fatty tissue and hematopoietic cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of fat within an adrenal mass is essential for the diagnosis.
  • Differential diagnosis should be done with all adrenal tumors with a fat component.
  • When no radiological diagnosis is made, pathologic confirmation is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17190217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma surrenalico bilaterale gigante. Caso clinico.
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • Surgical excision was performed for large left symptomatic mass, by open laparotomy, and biopsy for right minor adrenal lesion.
  • Histology confirmed diagnosis of myelolipoma for both masses.
  • Follow-up to 6-12 months did'nt show any change of the right myelolipoma.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Ide H, Terado Y, Nakagawa T, Saito K, Kamiyama Y, Muto S, Okada H, Imamura T, Horie S: Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;12(5):379-81
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  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperthyroidism.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon, nonfunctioning tumors that tend to be discovered incidentally on imaging.
  • Such tumors are composed of mature adipose tissue and hematopoietic elements, but their etiology is still unknown.
  • We report a case of adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with hyperthyroidism; this benign tumor expressed both thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperthyroidism / complications. Incidental Findings. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17929121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta
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17. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Cortes O, Sánchez-Salas R, Arellano L: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal myelolipoma. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Mar;60(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal myelolipoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: [corrected] To evaluate the results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal myelolipoma in a single center.
  • 19 specimens corresponded with adrenal myelolipomas (8%).
  • RESULTS: Nineteen adrenal myelolipomas were laparoscopically treated in eighteen patients.
  • 16 lesions were located on the right adrenal gland (84%).
  • Pathology reports confirmed all specimens as myelolipomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal myelolipoma is an infrequent, benign entity which can occasionally become symptomatic due to spontaneous hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17484497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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18. Romano G, Cocchiara G, Calderone F, Buscemi G, Gioè FP, Alongi G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic treatment of adrenal myelolipoma: case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento laparoscopico del mielolipoma surrenalico: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign, non-functioning tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic tissues.
  • In January 2005 we had observed an adrenal myelolipoma in 70 year old man.
  • During the follow-up for bladder urothelioma, an abdominal CT revaled a well delineated 4x4 cm homogeneous fatty mass in the right suprarenal area with negative attenuation values.
  • The functional study of adrenal gland was normal.
  • The istological diagnosis showed adrenal myelolipoma.
  • We conclude that videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy should be considered the gold standard treatment for benign adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16857113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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19. Ares Valdés Y: [Adrenal myelolipoma. Case report and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jan-Feb;59(1):71-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal myelolipoma. Case report and bibliographic review].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma de la glándula suprarrenal. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report one case of adrenal myelolipoma in a female patient presenting with right lumbar pain over six months.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent right adenomectomy with the working diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myelolipoma may present hematopoietic, fat and bone components.
  • It continues being an incidental finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16568696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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20. Adams S, Liermann D, Mruck S: Functional and morphological imaging of extraadrenal myelolipoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):226-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional and morphological imaging of extraadrenal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare, hormonally inactive, benign tumor consisting of fat and hematopoietic cells.
  • It is often encountered in the adrenal gland.
  • Although myelolipoma is well defined by criteria of morphologic imaging, functional characteristics may be crucial to exclude malignancy.We present a case of histologically proven extraadrenal myelolipoma which was successfully diagnosed by bone marrow scintigraphy, using a monoclonal antibody directed against myeloid elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Marrow / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / radionuclide imaging. Radionuclide Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19300053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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21. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is mainly asymptomatic, only large myelolipomas manifest themselves by abdominal discomfort, bleeding or by symptoms of oppressing adjacent organs.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • The therapy available is either a surgical extirpation in the case of large or growing myelolipomas or observation in the case of small ones (< 5 cm).
  • RESULTS: The condition was resolved by bilateral adrenalectomy with extirpation of both myelolipomas and subsequent hormonal substitution treatment during which there was a gradual regression of virilising symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • However, the etiopathogenesis of myelolipoma is still unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


23. Hagspiel KD: Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma. Eur Radiol; 2005 Aug;15(8):1757-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign tumors histologically consisting of fat and bone marrow.
  • The computed tomography findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma manifested in an adrenal myelolipoma are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Clin Radiol. 2002 Nov;57(11):1034-7 [12409116.001]
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  • (PMID = 15503042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Pascual García X, Bujons Tur A, Rodríguez Faba O, Gómez Ruiz JJ, Palou Redorta J, Villavicencio Mavrich H: [Extraadrenal perirenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Sep;31(8):932-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Extraadrenal perirenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma extraadrenal perirenal: aportación de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare bening tumours that are componed of mature fat cells and myeloid elements.
  • We report a case of extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 18020221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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25. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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26. Tursi M, Iussich S, Prunotto M, Buracco P: Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2005 Mar;42(2):232-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Abdominal ultrasound examination in an 11-year-old, intact, female Labrador dog with hepatic disease revealed a nodular swelling of the left adrenal gland.
  • Grossly, a nodular mass protruded from the external surface of the left adrenal gland and in cut section was hemorrhagic and effaced the cortical and medullary regions.
  • The mass was composed of well-differentiated adipose cells, megakaryocytes, hematopoietic cells, and macrophages containing hemosiderin deposits.
  • A diagnosis of cortical adrenal myelolipoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Myelolipoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15753481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Chakraborty J, Paul PCh, Gumta MK, Ghosh G, Goswami B: Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case. J Indian Med Assoc; 2006 Mar;104(3):148-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma--report of a case.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign, non-secreting tumour composed of adipose and haematopoietic tissue.
  • Histological examination revealed the features of myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Low Back Pain / diagnosis. Lumbosacral Region / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16910340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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28. Cobanoglu U, Yaris N, Cay A: Adrenal myelolipoma in a child. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 Jun;21(6):500-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma in a child.
  • A case of adrenal myelolipoma is reported in a 14-year-old girl.
  • Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed a left-sided ovarian cyst 13 cm in diameter and an 8 x 8-cm hyperechoic heterogenous solid mass localized in the right adrenal gland.
  • The ovarian cyst and adrenal mass were removed surgically.
  • Histological examination of the adrenal mass revealed a proliferation of mature adipose tissue with bone marrow-like hematopoietic elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1995 Mar;119(3):283-5 [7887786.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Pathol. 1950 Mar;26(2):211-33 [15406252.001]
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  • (PMID = 15809845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  •  go-up   go-down


29. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • These tumours have a very slow but continued growth and their volume and weight vary significantly from small lesions of a few grams to huge masses weighing up to several kilograms.
  • If symptoms occur, surgery should be performed without delay, especially for large myelolipomas that are at high risk of spontaneous rupture with haemorrhage and life-threatening shock.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. Tjalma WA: Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):613-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma in the paravesical space--case report.
  • Myelolipomas are benign tumours composed of haematopoietic tissue and mature adipocytes.
  • They occur predominantly in the adrenal glands although rarely extra adrenal sites have been described.
  • Here we present a myelolipoma in the paravesical space.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17290595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Patel VG, Babalola OA, Fortson JK, Weaver WL: Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg; 2006 Jul;72(7):649-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature lipomatous and hemopoietic tissue.
  • Although it is often discovered as an incidental finding on imaging of the abdomen for some other reason or at autopsy, adrenal myelolipoma has been reported to present with symptoms such as flank pain resulting from tumor bulk, necrosis, or spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Myelolipomas are hormonally inactive but have also been reported to coexist with other hormonally active tumors of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a patient with symptomatic adrenal myelolipoma diagnosed on computed tomography scan and confirmed on computed tomography-guided biopsy.
  • We also review the literature to evaluate the presentation and optimal management of this rare adrenal tumor that is not encountered by most general surgeons and therefore not well known to most surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16875091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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32. Jung SI, Kim SO, Kang TW, Kwon DD, Park K, Ryu SB: Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperaldosteronism: report of a case and review of the literature. Urology; 2007 Dec;70(6):1223.e11-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with hyperaldosteronism: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements.
  • Although they are not hormonally active, there is very rarely an association with functional adrenal disorders.
  • We report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first bilateral adrenal myelolipomas reported to date in association with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18158060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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33. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia sometimes develop large and bilateral myelolipomas.
  • Although the precise pathogenesis of myelolipomas remains unclear, prolonged stimulation with high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenal androgens are assumed to have a causative role.
  • To clarify the role of ACTH and androgen in the pathogenesis of myelolipoma, we report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • A 43-year-old female was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at 6 years of age because of ambiguous genitalia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Humans. Receptors, Melanocortin / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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34. Bovo G, Picozzi SC, Viganò P, Giuberti A, Casu M, Manganini V, Mazza L, Strada GR: Giant adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2007 Dec;59(4):455-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is a benign, endocrinologically inactive neoplasm composed of mature adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic elements.
  • Rarely giant adrenal myelolipomas have been reported in literature and they are very unusual clinical entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 17947963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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35. Talwalkar SS, Shaheen SP 2nd: Extra-adrenal myelolipoma in the renal hilum: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):1049-52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-adrenal myelolipoma in the renal hilum: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Myelolipoma most commonly arises in the adrenal gland.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare; to our knowledge, approximately 37 previous cases have been reported.
  • We report a myelolipoma presenting as a localized mass in perirenal adipose tissue juxtaposed to the renal hilum in a 65-year-old Caucasian man who presented with back pain, weight loss, hematuria, and flank pain.
  • However, histology revealed mainly mature adipose tissue along with multiple scattered islands of hematopoietic precursor cells.
  • Perirenal masses such as morphologically identified myelolipomas are rarely, if ever, considered in differential diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this report is to elicit consideration of extra-adrenal myelolipoma when formulating a differential diagnosis for perirenal and retroperitoneal tumors.
  • Although primary and secondary malignant retroperitoneal tumors are much more common and aggressive neoplasms, establishing the correct diagnosis has important therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16831034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Ersoy E, Ozdoğan M, Demirağ A, Aktimur R, Kulaçoğlu H, Kulaçoğlu S, Gündoğdu H: Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with small bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jun;17(2):126-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with small bowel leiomyosarcoma: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and biochemically inactive tumor.
  • We report herein the association of a myelolipoma with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The pathological diagnosis was reported as myelolipoma for the retroperitoneal mass and leiomyosarcoma for the jejunal mass.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor, involving mature fat and hematopoietic stem cells.
  • Myelolipomas are reported to be associated with some other malignancies (especially renal), but this is the first report showing the association with a leiomyosarcoma.
  • Therefore, leiomyosarcoma should also be one of the possible associations kept in mind by the physician in the diagnosis and treatment of myelolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Jejunal Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16830297.001).
  • [ISSN] 2148-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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37. Ueno H, Miyake T, Kobayashi Y, Yamada K, Uzuka Y: Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2007 Mar-Apr;43(2):132-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidural spinal myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Epidural spinal myelolipoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old, male Siberian husky that was referred for evaluation of progressive pelvic limb paresis and urinary incontinence.
  • The mass was removed and identified histopathologically as an epidural myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Epidural Neoplasms / veterinary. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Paresis / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17339292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Nishio K, Tokiwa S, Saito K, Yoshii T, Ashizawa Y, Kurihara K, Kamiyama Y, Mikata N, Yasuda M, Ide H, Muto S, Okada H, Horie S: [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Jun;53(6):387-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of a giant adrenal myelolipoma in a man with spinal cord injury].
  • Pathologic diagnosis was an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Between 1992 and 2006, 80 cases of adrenal myelolipoma were reported in Japan.
  • We reviewed these 80 cases and discussed the diagnosis and treatment strategy of the adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Spinal Cord Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 17628936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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39. Sandoval MA, Anel-Quimpo J: A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A giant myelolipoma discovered as an adrenal incidentaloma: radiological, endocrine and pathological evaluation.
  • A 51-year-old Filipino woman presenting with hypertension was unexpectedly found to have a large right adrenal mass by ultrasound.
  • As she did not have symptoms of adrenal disease, this was labelled an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a large adrenal mass on the right measuring 15 cm at its greatest diameter, with both benign and malignant features.
  • Histopathological examination revealed myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22802369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027410
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40. Al-Rukibat RK, Bani Ismail ZA: Unusual presentation of splenic myelolipoma in a dog. Can Vet J; 2006 Nov;47(11):1112-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual presentation of splenic myelolipoma in a dog.
  • Cytologic and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed a mixture of fat and hematopoietic tissue, consistent with a splenic myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Splenic Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17147143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1624918
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41. Sun X, Ayala A, Castro CY: Adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma in a patient with hyperaldosteronism. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):e144-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma in a patient with hyperaldosteronism.
  • We present a case of aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma.
  • Clinical workup revealed an increased serum aldosterone level, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis, and a left adrenal mass was found on computed tomography.
  • At the periphery of the tumor but within the capsule, microscopic areas of myelolipoma were seen.
  • Although rare, aldosterone-secreting carcinoma associated with myelolipoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal gland masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15913443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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42. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report].
  • We present a case of hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16382320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-041X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Gamss C, Chia F, Chernyak V, Rozenblit A: Giant hemorrhagic myelolipoma in a patient with sickle cell disease. Emerg Radiol; 2009 Jul;16(4):319-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant hemorrhagic myelolipoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign tumor consisting of adipose tissue and hematopoetic elements.
  • It is generally diagnosed as an incidental finding due to its nonfunctioning, asymptomatic nature (Meaglia and Schmidt J Urol 147:1089, 1992).
  • With increasing size, however, as seen in this case, myelolipomas can cause flank pain and abdominal distention.
  • This lesion was diagnosed in a young male with sickle cell disease during a vaso-occlusive crisis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anemia, Sickle Cell / complications. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemoglobin, Sickle. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18665404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-1435
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Hemoglobin, Sickle
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45. Kalidindi RS, Hattingh L: Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas. Abdom Imaging; 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):125-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors that comprise mature adipose cells and hematopoietic elements.
  • Although they are not hormonally active, there is very rarely an association with functional adrenal disorders such as Cushing syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report the imaging appearances of bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas in a patient known to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • To our knowledge, these are the largest bilateral adrenal myelolipomas reported in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / epidemiology. Adult. Comorbidity. Humans. Male. Radiographic Image Enhancement

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  • [ErratumIn] Abdom Imaging. 2011 Oct;36(5):632
  • (PMID = 16245020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Temizoz O, Genchellac H, Demir MK, Unlu E, Ozdemir H: Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e198-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipomas: CT features.
  • Myelolipomas are rare benign tumours composed of adipose tissue and haematopoietic cells that are typically found in adrenal glands but have also appeared in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Distinguishing between extra-adrenal myelolipomas and malignant tumours, such as liposarcomas, is crucial to avoid an invasive procedure.
  • To this end, we present a comprehensive report of the CT imaging characteristics of a pathologically proven bilateral extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Myelolipoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography

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47. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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48. Polamaung W, Wisedopas N, Vasinanukorn P, Pak-art P, Snabboon T: Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):667-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of bilateral giant adrenal masses caused by a primary adrenal myelolipoma.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings in a 32-year-old man with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The previous reports of bilateral myelolipomas also were reviewed.
  • A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen disclosed bilateral adrenal masses; the one on the left was approximately 27 by 24 by 12 cm, and the one on the right side was 9 by 5 by 5 cm.
  • The computed tomographic scan characteristics showed that both masses consisted mainly of low-density tissues (-30 to -90 Hounsfield units), suggestive of fatty component.
  • An endocrinologic evaluation revealed no evidence of adrenal cortical or medullary functional abnormalities.
  • CONCLUSION: Myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumor of the adrenal glands composed of adipose cells and mature hematopoietic elements.
  • Most such lesions are small, asymptomatic, and unilateral; giant or bilateral myelolipomas are quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17954426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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49. Maestroni U, Ziglioli F, Dinale F, Ferretti S, Frattini A, Cortellini P: Is laparoscopy contraindicated in giant adrenal masses? Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Aug;20(4):288-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is laparoscopy contraindicated in giant adrenal masses?
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is indicated in benign adrenal masses, and it is routinely performed in masses smaller than 5 to 7 cm.
  • Computed tomography scan (CT) suggested the diagnosis of giant adrenal myelolipoma (15x12x7 cm).
  • Complete adrenal endoclinologic evaluation showed that the lesion was not a secreting tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / contraindications. Myelolipoma / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2011 Aug;21(4):299 [21857488.001]
  • (PMID = 20729705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Bartumeus Martínez P, Ripollés González T: [Extraadrenal retroperitoneal myelolipoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Apr;33(4):439-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Extraadrenal retroperitoneal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma extraadrenal retroperitoneal.
  • Extraadrenal myelolipomas are rare benign tumors and differentiating them from other soft tissue tumors containing fat can be difficult.
  • A retroperitoneal myelolipoma adjacent to right renal helium is presented in this case-report.
  • Initially oriented as liposarcoma, the final diagnosis was obtained after surgery.
  • MRI with fat suppression and opposed-phase imaging are the best imaging tools to demonstrate the adipose tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19579898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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51. Roukounakis N, Dimas S, Kafetzis I, Bethanis S, Gatsulis N, Kostas H, Kyriakou V, Michas S: Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery? JSLS; 2007 Apr-Jun;11(2):215-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is preservation of the adrenal vein mandatory in laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery?
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adrenal tissue-sparing or partial adrenalectomy evolved initially for patients with bilateral synchronous adrenal surgical pathology to preserve vital adrenal volume.
  • Controversy exists regarding the importance of preserving the adrenal vein, main or accessory.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to present our short series of laparoscopic tissue-sparing adrenalectomies with vein preservation.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with peripherally located either aldosterone-producing adenomas (4 cases) or myelolipomas (4 cases) underwent laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • One patient harbored an aldosterone-producing adenoma and a myelolipoma as well.
  • The main adrenal vein was identified and preserved in 6 patients and the accessory vein in one.
  • Laparoscopic lateral partial adrenalectomy is a technically challenging tissue-sparing operation.
  • Meticulous dissection allows preservation of the middle artery and main or accessory vein resulting in a functioning adrenal stump.

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  • (PMID = 17761083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015730
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52. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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53. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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54. Morandi F, Mays JL, Newman SJ, Adams WH: Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2007 May-Jun;48(3):246-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis--bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas in a dog.
  • A 10-year-old neutered female Pug was evaluated for a left adrenal mass detected previously by ultrasonography.
  • Using computed tomography, a fat-attenuating, rim-enhancing left adrenal mass and a homogeneous, soft-tissue attenuating, intensely enhancing right adrenal mass were found.
  • A left adrenalectomy and right adrenal biopsy were performed and the final diagnosis was bilateral adrenal adenomas and myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are rare, benign, endocrinologically inactive tumors composed of well-differentiated adipose tissue and a variable amount of hematopoietic cells of both lymphatic and myeloid lineages, which may account for the different appearance on tomographic images.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / radiography. Myelolipoma / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Female. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17508512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Osman Y, El-Mekresh M, Gomha AM, Mohsen T, Taha N, Hussein N, Eraky I: Percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesion: complications and diagnostic accuracy. Urol Int; 2010;84(3):315-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesion: complications and diagnostic accuracy.
  • PURPOSE: To critically analyze the role, accuracy and safety of percutaneous adrenal biopsy for indeterminate adrenal lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adrenal biopsies were performed in 15 among 214 patients (7%) diagnosed with adrenal masses being indeterminate on preoperative imaging.
  • There were 2 nonrepresentative biopsies that were proved to be adrenocortical carcinoma and myelolipoma after adrenalectomy.
  • Results of biopsy in the remaining 13 patients provided accurate diagnosis as proved by definitive histopathology in all but 2 in whom the final diagnosis was established as adrenocortical carcinoma while biopsy was paraganglioma in one and cortical adenoma in the other.
  • Overall sensitivity and negative predictive value of adrenal biopsy was 73.3 and 60%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous biopsy is a safe procedure for the diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the adrenal gland with a reasonable diagnostic aid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20389162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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56. Dorairajan N, Muthayya P, Manikandan R, Kumar S, Siddharth D: Management of incidentalomas of the adrenal gland in an Indian hospital set-up between 1991 and 2000. Int Surg; 2006 Mar-Apr;91(2):94-9
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  • [Title] Management of incidentalomas of the adrenal gland in an Indian hospital set-up between 1991 and 2000.
  • The aim of our study was to review the currently used evaluation schemes and the outcomes of surgical and conservative management of adrenal incidentalomas at an Indian center.
  • Fifty-eight cases of adrenal incidentalomas diagnosed and treated at the Govt.
  • The mean duration of treatment of symptoms before diagnosis was 3.5 months.
  • Cortical carcinoma was detected in nine patients, pheochromocytoma in seven, myelolipoma in one, metastatic tumor in one, and cyst, ganglioneuroma, and tuberculoma in four.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16774180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Pomara G, Cappello F, Barzon L, Morelli G, Rappa F, Benvegna L, Giannarini G, Palù G, Selli C: Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents? Eur J Histochem; 2006 Apr-Jun;50(2):131-2
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus and BK-Virus co-infection of a clinically non-functioning adrenal adenoma: innocent bystanders or new pathogenetic agents?
  • We report a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent left adrenalectomy with removal of a 8,5 cm clinically non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma and a 4-cm myelolipoma.
  • Molecular testing for viral infection demonstrated the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA sequences in the adrenal adenoma, but not in the myelolipoma (confirmed by immunohistochemistry).
  • Moreover, the adrenal adenoma was also positive for parvovirus B19, and both adrenal tumor samples were positive for polyomavirus BK (BKV) and adenovirus DNA sequences.
  • The role of these viruses in adrenal tumorigenesis was postulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. BK Virus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus / genetics. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Polyomavirus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / genetics. Myelolipoma / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16864124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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58. Friedrich-Rust M, Schneider G, Bohle RM, Herrmann E, Sarrazin C, Zeuzem S, Bojunga J: Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Dec;191(6):1852-60
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced sonography in the characterization of adrenal masses.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five consecutively registered patients with newly detected adrenal masses underwent hormonal evaluation and duplex and Doppler sonography followed by contrast-enhanced sonography and CT or MRI.
  • CT and MRI were used as the reference methods for the diagnosis of adenoma and myelolipoma.
  • Metastasis was diagnosed with fine-needle biopsy, and all other adrenal masses were diagnosed at adrenalectomy.
  • Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the criteria for diagnosis of malignant adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: Size greater than 4 cm and hypervascularization were found significantly more often in malignant than in benign lesions (71% vs 21% for size; 57% vs 7% for hypervascularization).
  • At contrast-enhanced sonography, early arterial or arterial contrast enhancement and rapid washout were seen in all patients with primary or secondary malignant lesions of the adrenal gland and in only 22% of patients with benign adrenal masses (p < 0.05).
  • In two of the 35 cases, however, all imaging methods favored the diagnosis of nonadenomatous lesion, but the histologic result after adrenalectomy was adrenal adenoma.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of malignant adrenal mass were 100% and 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced sonography can be used to differentiate adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions with a sensitivity comparable with that of CT and MRI and may be a cost-effective method for preselection of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19020259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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59. Bishop E, Eble JN, Cheng L, Wang M, Chase DR, Orazi A, O'Malley DP: Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jul;30(7):838-43
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas.
  • Myelolipomas are defined as mature fat associated with hematopoietic elements, often found in the adrenal gland.
  • In this study, we evaluated histologic, immunohistochemical features and comparisons of X-chromosome inactivation patterns in 19 myelolipomas.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 19 myelolipomas was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunostained with monoclonal antibodies against CD138, CD34, CD117, CD42a, hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, collagen IV, and nerve growth factor receptor.
  • Histologic evaluation included estimates of overall cellularity of hematopoietic tissue, estimates of cellularity in the areas of highest concentration of hematopoietic tissue, myeloid to erythroid ratio, and numbers of megakaryocytes.
  • X-chromosome inactivation analysis was performed on myelolipomas from 11 female patients by polymerase chain reaction.
  • Myelolipomas showed wide variation in cellularity within the lesion (5% to 90%) with no correlation with the patient's age.
  • All the myelolipomas demonstrated normal trilineage hematopoiesis and cellular morphology, with few early myeloid precursors, as evidenced by negativity for CD117 and only rare positivity for CD34 antibodies.
  • Most of the myelolipomas (14/18) had markedly increased megakaryocytes compared with normal marrows.
  • The majority of myelolipomas also had a stromal composition and vascular patterns that were different from those of normal bone marrow.
  • X-chromosome inactivation studies demonstrated nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in 8/11 myelolipomas from female patients.
  • Myelolipomas are morphologically different from the normal bone marrow.
  • The majority of myelolipomas also have nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation, suggesting a clonal origin for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Gene Silencing. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / genetics. Myelolipoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / chemistry. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clone Cells. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16819325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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60. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Demir T, Akinci B, Kebapcilar L, Comlekci A, Bayraktar F, Yesil S: Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jan;33(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of tumor size and hormonal status in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Because of the increased use of imaging interventions, more subjects have been diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma in recent years.
  • AIM: To evaluate the risk of mass enlargement, hormone hypersecretion and development of adrenal carcinomas during short-term followup.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: There were 317 subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors in the registry.
  • Forty subjects were excluded because of clinically overt hormone secretion at diagnosis and subjects with complete data were included in radiological (no.
  • There were 143 subjects with adrenal adenomas and 7 subjects with other tumor types (cyst or myelolipoma).
  • RESULTS: Increase in tumor size was detected in 25 subjects (17.4%) with adenomas and 1 subject with adrenal myelolipoma (14.3%).
  • Decrease in tumor size was found in 7 subjects (4.8%) with adrenal adenomas.
  • In subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma (NFA, no.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that, despite being infrequent, adrenal tumors may increase in size, develop overt or subclinical hormone secretion or feature malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / radiography. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / analysis. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / radiography. Normetanephrine / urine. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19542759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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61. Chen KT: Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):449-51
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  • [Title] Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic evaluations of most adrenal lesions are straightforward.
  • After delivery, computed tomography-guided FNA showed bland epithelial cells, and a diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • However, subsequent resection showed a myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrated 2 cytodiagnostic pitfalls in adrenal fine needle aspirates.
  • First, the myeloid cells characteristic of a myelolipoma were not present in the FNA smears because a large portion of the lesion was composed of fibroadipose tissue.
  • Second, extraneous, benign cells of hepatic origin were misinterpreted as adrenal cortical adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatocytes / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Rais-Bahrami S, Varkarakis IM, Lujan G, Jarrett TW: Primary retroperitoneal teratoma presenting as an adrenal tumor in an adult. Urology; 2007 Jan;69(1):185.e1-2
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  • [Title] Primary retroperitoneal teratoma presenting as an adrenal tumor in an adult.
  • We describe a case of mature cystic teratoma that was clinically suggestive of an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17270653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Crosta F, Arnaldi G, Boscaro M, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Mar;30(3):200-4
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update.
  • Nowadays, the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal incidentalomas (AI), considering their biologic behavior, is still debated.
  • Surgery is mandatory in cases of hyperfunctioning adrenal masses, in the presence of suspect radiological malignancy, in cases of discordant computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy findings and when the maximum diameter is 4 cm or more.
  • Twenty-one large adrenal lesions (exceeding 6 cm) were removed (27%).
  • Definitive histology resulted as follows: adrenocortical adenoma (63), pheochromocytoma (5), nodular hyperplasia (4), myelolipoma (3), cysts (2), and adrenocortical carcinoma (1, with a size of 3 cm).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17505152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Guo YK, Yang ZG, Li Y, Deng YP, Ma ES, Min PQ, Zhang XC: Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Jun;62(3):359-70
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  • [Title] Uncommon adrenal masses: CT and MRI features with histopathologic correlation.
  • Adrenal glands are common sites of diseases.
  • With dramatically increased use of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, more and more uncommon adrenal masses have been detected incidentally at abdominal examinations performed for other purposes.
  • In this article, uncommon adrenal masses are classified as cystic masses (endothelial cysts, epithelial cysts, parasitic cysts, and pseudocysts), solid masses (ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), neurilemmoma, and lymphoma), fat-containing masses (myelolipoma, teratoma), and infectious masses (tuberculoma), and the imaging features of these uncommon masses are demonstrated.
  • Although most of these lesions do not have specific imaging features, some fat-containing masses and cystic lesions present with characteristic appearances, such as myelolipoma, teratoma, and hydatid.
  • Combination with histopathologic characteristic of these uncommon masses of adrenal gland, radiological features of these lesions on CT and MR imaging can be accurately understood with more confidences.
  • Moreover, CT and MRI are highly accurate in localization of uncommon adrenal masses, and useful to guide surgical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Cysts / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Rare Diseases. Tuberculoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17532488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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65. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Shen SS, Krishnan B: Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases.
  • Synchronous renal and adrenal masses are uncommon.
  • Although adrenal masses in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are often suspected as metastasis, other adrenal lesions with different therapeutic and prognostic implications may coexist with RCC.
  • In a retrospective review of 550 radical nephrectomies with ipsilateral adrenalectomy, 80 cases of coexisting renal and adrenal masses were identified.
  • The renal masses included 76 RCCs, 3 oncocytomas, and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland involving the kidney.
  • Although the gross pathologic impression of adrenal masses in the presence of RCC was metastasis, on histologic examination, 56% of them were found to be benign lesions (mostly adrenal adenoma/hyperplasia), whereas malignant involvement from RCC was seen in 43%.
  • The benign and malignant nature of the adrenal lesions in the context of RCC could not be discriminated based on the size of adrenal mass.
  • Because of the prognostic implication of direct or metastatic involvement of adrenal gland in the setting of RCC and the possibility of finding small metastatic foci, a meticulous gross and microscopic examination of adrenal glands is emphasized.
  • Rare unusual combinations of renal and adrenal lesions such as RCC and adrenal histoplasmosis, RCC and adrenal myelolipoma, renal oncocytoma, and adrenal pheochromocytoma are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19118776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Park BK, Kim CK, Kim B, Kwon GY: Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI. Abdom Imaging; 2007 Jul-Aug;32(4):515-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal tumors with late enhancement on CT and MRI.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify adrenal masses showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance images of pathologically proven 400 adrenal tumors were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period.
  • We included only adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on CT and MRI performed at 15 and 5 min, respectively, after contrast material injection.
  • These lesions were as follows: two ganglioneuromas, one myelolipoma with infarction, and one angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • CONCLUSION: The differential diagnosis of adrenal tumors showing gradual persistent enhancement on delayed contrast-enhanced CT and MRI should include ganglioneuroma, myelolipoma with infarction, and angiomyolipoma with minimal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17151900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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67. Zografos GN, Farfaras A, Vasiliadis G, Pappa T, Aggeli C, Vassilatou E, Kaltsas G, Piaditis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has rapidly replaced open adrenalectomy as the procedure of choice for benign adrenal tumors.
  • The largest laparoscopically excised tumors were a ganglioneuroma with a mean diameter of 13 cm and a myelolipoma of 14 cm.
  • In the large adrenal tumor group, operative time for laparoscopic resection ranged from 150 minutes to 240 minutes.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic resection of large (≥ 8 cm) adrenal tumors is feasible and safe.

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  • (PMID = 21333189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041032
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68. Vilar L, Freitas Mda C, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Moura e Silva L, Coelho CE, Casulari LA, Naves LA: Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cause and the clinical and laboratory features of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) in 52 patients and to assess the evolution of nonsurgically treated lesions during long-term follow-up.
  • RESULTS: In our study group, nonfunctioning adenomas were the most frequent cause of AI (42%), followed by cortisol-secreting adenomas (15%), metastatic disease (10%), pheochromocytomas (8%), myelolipomas (6%), cysts (6%), carcinomas (4%), lymphomas (4%), tuberculosis (4%), and aldosteronoma (2%).
  • Carcinomas were the largest adrenal masses (mean diameter, 11.7 +/- 1.3 cm).
  • With the exception of 1 pheochromocytoma, 1 cyst, and 1 myelolipoma, all AI larger than 6 cm were carcinomas.
  • After 12 months of follow-up, however, a 45-year-old woman had adrenal mass enlargement from 3.2 cm to 4.4 cm; the excised lesion proved to be an adenoma.
  • Moreover, evidence of cortisol hypersecretion developed after 24 months of follow-up in a 30-year-old man with a 3.5-cm adenoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that most AI are nonfunctioning benign lesions and emphasize the need for long-term follow-up of patients with conservatively managed lesions, in light of the potential for evolution to hormonal hypersecretion or tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Brazil. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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69. Meyer A, Behrend M: Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors. Urol Int; 2006;77(2):173-8
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  • [Title] Indications and results of surgery for incidentally found adrenal tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The accidental discovery of an adrenal mass called incidentaloma has become an increasingly frequent clinical problem with the question of a correct and appropriate therapeutic approach being the subject of controversial discussions.
  • Histopathologic examination ruled out adrenal adenoma in 32 patients, adrenal myelolipoma in 12, unilateral nodular hyperplasia in 4, cystic lesion in 3, and adrenocortical carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • Evaluating the criteria for surgical treatment regarding age of the patients and size of the lesions, 25 patients (48%), including the patient with the adrenocortical carcinoma, were younger than 60 years and had an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size.
  • Especially in patients younger than 60 years with an adrenal lesion exceeding 4 cm in size, an adrenalectomy, predominantly via an endoscopic approach, should be carried out, because a repeated and life-long close follow-up of an anxious patient who has been informed of the diagnosis will in some cases exceed the cost of a single endoscopic operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 16888426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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70. Pavón CJ, Llodra GP, Cuadrado JF, Artero SM, Rodríguez AC, Cao RB, Fernández FP: [Hepatic myelolipoma. Diagnosis and treatment]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 May;32(5):349-52
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  • [Title] [Hepatic myelolipoma. Diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma hepático: diagnóstico y tratamiento.
  • Myelolipoma is a very uncommon tumor and is extremely rare in the liver.
  • Patients are usually asymptomatic and preoperative diagnosis is often difficult.
  • We report a new case of hepatic myelolipoma and review all the cases previously reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 19457591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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71. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, Sperone P, Novello S, Berruti A, Borasio P, Fava C, Dogliotti L, Scagliotti GV, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):298-302
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  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, defined as masses discovered incidentally during imaging investigation of non-adrenal disorders, have become a rather common finding in clinical practice.
  • The aim of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas among subjects undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest in a screening program of lung cancer (Tic TAC study) in Piedmont, a region of Northwestern Italy.
  • Twenty-three patients with adrenal masses were identified: 21 adrenal adenomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 1 metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Therefore, the overall prevalence of adrenal lesions was 4.4%, and that of benign adrenal masses was 4.2%.
  • Another factor that influenced our results is that subject age is skewed towards the decades characterized by a greater occurrence of adrenal masses.
  • The outcome of this study confirms that we are presently able to identify incidentally discovered adrenal masses more often than in early years and that the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas on CT images is approaching that of autopsy series.
  • The present study provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma with currently used CT scanners.
  • Notwithstanding that our subjects were at increased risk of lung cancer, the rate of adrenal metastases was low.
  • We think that the present results can be generalized even if we may disclose the lack of histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16699294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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73. Hahn PF, Blake MA, Boland GW: Adrenal lesions: attenuation measurement differences between CT scanners. Radiology; 2006 Aug;240(2):458-63
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  • [Title] Adrenal lesions: attenuation measurement differences between CT scanners.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively compare unenhanced computed tomographic scans of the same adrenal lesion obtained with two different manufacturers' multidetector scanners to assess whether there are differences in attenuation measurements.
  • Electronic searching revealed patients with adrenal nodules scanned with both a Siemens 16-detector row scanner and one of eight GE Medical Systems multi-detector row scanners between January 2000 and September 2004 without the use of intravenous contrast material.
  • Lesions considered benign (< or = 10 HU) on one scan and indeterminate (> 10 HU) on the other were separately analyzed, and technical parameters of scanning were compared.
  • RESULTS: There were 47 patients (27 men, 20 women; age range, 40-86 years; mean age, 64 years) with four metastases, 42 adenomas, and one myelolipoma (long-axis length, 10-85 mm; mean, 24 mm).
  • For both readers, there were more lesions indeterminate (> 10 HU) on Siemens scans but benign (< or = 10 HU) on GE scans than the reverse (McNemar test, P < .02 for reader 1, not significant for reader 2).
  • CONCLUSION: There are only slight differences in attenuation of adrenal nodules measured on scans obtained with different scanners.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2006
  • (PMID = 16801368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Chien HP, Chang YS, Hsu PS, Lin JD, Wu YC, Chang HL, Chuang CK, Tsuei KH, Hsueh C: Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):274-81
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  • [Title] Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cystic lesions are uncommon and we analyzed clinical and pathologic features of 25 such cases from a single institute over 23 years.
  • The proposed mesothelial origin of adrenal epithelial cyst cannot be confirmed in our example.
  • Seven adrenal pseudocysts were associated with tumor, including two pheochromocytomas, one neuroblastoma, one adrenal cortical carcinoma, one adrenal cortical adenoma, one myelolipoma, and one schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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76. Spizzirri A, Napolitano V, La Mura F, Cattorini L, Farinella E, Del Monaco P, Migliaccio C, Pressi E, De Sol A, Bravetti M, Coccetta M, Cirocchi R, Sciannameo F: [Presacral myelolipoma: a case report]. G Chir; 2010 Oct;31(10):451-5

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  • [Title] [Presacral myelolipoma: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma presacrale: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Presacral tumors are more frequently benign, and only occasionally malignant, showing a slow growth and an incidence of 1:40.000.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year old woman with a lower abdominal pain associated with paresthesia and ipostenia of the right inferior limb.
  • Final histological diagnosis was myelolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Authors' opinion is that the en-bloc resection of these tumors with an anterior surgical approach allows a histological diagnosis of the nature, representing the best treatment for potentially malignant lesions, which are frequently radio and chemo-resistant.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelolipoma. Sacrococcygeal Region

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  • (PMID = 20939954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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77. Sharma R, Ganpule A, Veeramani M, Sabnis RB, Desai M: Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter. Urol J; 2009;6(4):254-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of adrenal lesions larger than 5 cm in diameter.
  • They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were smaller than 5 cm.
  • Histopathology of large tumors revealed 16 benign tumors (8 pheochromocytomas, 4 adenomas, 2 ganglioneuromas, 1 pseudocyst, and 1 myelolipoma) and 3 malignancies, of which 1 was primary adrenocortical carcinoma and 2 were metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and feasible for large functioning adrenal tumors.
  • Large adrenal tumors suspicious of harboring malignancy with no peri-adrenal involvement can be tackled laparoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20027553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-546X
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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78. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country. World J Surg; 2008 Aug;32(8):1802-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is rising worldwide.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, functional status, and final diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas and, in particular, to look into the incidence of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) in large adrenal incidentalomas managed at a tertiary referral hospital in northern India.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study (January 1991-December 2005) of 59 patients with adrenal incidentaloma managed at our department.
  • Six patients in which the mass was ultimately found to arise from extra-adrenal tissue were excluded from final analysis RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 12 years (M:F = 1:1.1).
  • The important final pathology included ACC (7.5%), pheochromocytoma (PCC) (43%), adrenal cysts (13.2%), myelolipoma (11.3%), and inflammatory lesions (9.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, the incidence of PCC was high among large adrenal incidentalomas while that of ACC was lower than expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Developing Countries. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Incidental Findings. India / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18425548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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79. Ctvrtlík F, Herman M, Student V, Tichá V, Minarík J: Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Feb;69(2):243-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of incidentally detected adrenal masses revealed on routine abdominal CT.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare CT findings of adrenal incidentalomas with a definitive histological diagnosis in order to establish CT features characteristic for individual types of lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised of patients with adrenal lesions detected on abdominal CT.
  • The study consisted of 62 adrenal expansions found in 55 patients (in seven patients bilateral lesions were found).
  • According to the definitive histological diagnosis after adrenalectomy, the lesions were divided into the following six groups: primary adrenocortical carcinoma (n=4), metastasis (n=7), adrenocortical adenoma (n=37), pheochromocytoma (n=9), myelolipoma (n=2), and others (n=3).
  • CONCLUSION: Standard CT of the abdomen (not specifically aimed at adrenal glands) is a suitable method for distinguishing adrenal lesions which need to be operated on from those which are probably benign but need to be monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18226485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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80. Hemal AK, Singh A, Gupta NP: Whether adrenal mass more than 5 cm can pose problem in laparoscopic adrenalectomy? An evaluation of 22 patients. World J Urol; 2008 Oct;26(5):505-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Whether adrenal mass more than 5 cm can pose problem in laparoscopic adrenalectomy? An evaluation of 22 patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate technical feasibility and analyze outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for large adrenal masses more than 5 cm.
  • METHODS: The data of 22 patients (8 men, 14 women), who underwent LA for adrenal masses >5 cm between January 1995 and July 2007 were analyzed for this study.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 42.5 years underwent LA for large adrenal masses (>5 cm) between January 1995 and July 2007.
  • Histopathological examination of the specimen confirmed adrenal carcinoma in 5, pheochromocytoma in 14, myelolipoma in 2 and adenoma in 1 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of an adrenal mass on preoperative imaging studies alone should not be the primary factor in determining whether LA should be performed.
  • Transperitoneal approach is most suitable and recommended for large adrenal tumor and adrenal carcinoma to employ laparoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18536881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Castillo O, Cortés O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L, Contreras M: [Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adrenal pathology: experience with 200 cases]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Oct;30(9):926-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adrenal pathology: experience with 200 cases].
  • METHODS: We included 200 laparoscopic adrenal surgeries performed consecutively in 183 patients with surgical adrenal pathology between November 1994 and November 2005.
  • RESULTS: The most frequents clinical diagnosis were hyperaldosteronism (17.5%), metastatic cancer (15.8%), pheochromocytoma (15.3%), Cushing syndrome (7.1%), adrenal cyst (4.9%) and myelolipoma (2.7%).
  • A total of 164 total adrenalectomies, 29 partial adrenalectomies and 7 marsupializations of adrenal cysts were performed.
  • The size of the suprarenal gland and/or tumor varied between 1 and 14 cm (average 5.6 cm).
  • In 8 of the patients, there was another laparoscopic procedure besides the adrenal surgery: cholecystectomies (2), marsupialization of a renal cyst (2), block nephrectomy (2), partial nephrectomy for a tumor (1) and pancreatic cystectomy (1).
  • CONCLUSION: The accumulated experience with 200 laparoscopic adrenal procedures has allowed the management of endocrine pathologies, such as, aldosteroma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome and rare entities, such as, cysts, myelolipomas in a suitable manner.
  • Additionally, it has permitted us to extend the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure for large adrenal masses and selected oncology cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17175933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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82. Mannelli M, Colagrande S, Valeri A, Parenti G: Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):649-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses.
  • In the last decades discoveries of adrenal masses incidentally during the course of diagnostic procedures for unrelated disorders (incidentalomas) have become progressively more frequent.
  • The clinician in this position must answer two main questions: Is the mass benign or malignant?
  • , and To what extent is the adrenal secretion altered?
  • To come to a clinical decision, several diagnostic tools need to be engaged, starting with an accurate and correct radiological evaluation and a hormonal assessment of the adrenal function.
  • Most frequently, adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are represented by benign cortical adenomas, a subset of which causes a mild hypercortisolism, known as subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS).
  • Laparoscopic surgery is the recommended procedure to remove benign masses.
  • The surgical procedure for adrenal malignancies is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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83. Singaporewalla RM, Thamboo TP, Rauff A, Cheah WK, Mukherjee JJ: Acute abdominal pain secondary to retroperitoneal bleeding from a giant adrenal lipoma with review of literature. Asian J Surg; 2009 Jul;32(3):172-6
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  • [Title] Acute abdominal pain secondary to retroperitoneal bleeding from a giant adrenal lipoma with review of literature.
  • Adrenal lipomas are rare, non-functioning benign tumours, which are primarily detected during autopsy or imaging, as asymptomatic incidentalomas.
  • Histopathology, however, is necessary to differentiate an adrenal lipoma from other fatty tumours such as myelolipoma, angiomyolipomas, teratomas and liposarcomas.
  • We report a case of spontaneous bleeding from a giant adrenal lipoma that presented as an acute abdomen, and was initially mistaken on imaging for the more common myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 19656758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. Sundaram M, Bauer T, von Hochstetter A, Ilaslan H, Joyce M: Intraosseous myelolipoma. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Dec;36(12):1181-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraosseous myelolipoma.
  • Radiographs on the first patient showed a sclerotic benign appearing acetabular lesion reminiscent of a fibro-osseous lesion while MRI showed the entire lesion to contain fat.
  • The histological features were neither of a fibro-osseous lesion nor a lipoma, but only normal to mildly hypercellular marrow elements.
  • Neither the radiographic nor MRI features were consistent with that diagnosis.
  • The spectrum of imaging findings and microscopic appearances in both patients best fit the diagnosis of intraosseous myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetabulum / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Femur / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17618431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Brunt LM: Minimal access adrenal surgery. Surg Endosc; 2006 Mar;20(3):351-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimal access adrenal surgery.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred method for removal of most adrenal tumors.
  • An important component in selecting patients for this operation is to understand the clinical presentation and diagnostic workup for the various functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • In this review, an overview of the key clinical and diagnostic aspects of the most common adrenal tumors is presented.
  • A current controversy in adrenal surgery is the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the management of patients with large tumors and malignant or potentially malignant adrenal lesions and the literature on this topic is reviewed in detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / secretion. Dissection. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Myelolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16437282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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86. Mahe E, El-Shinnawy I: A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Dec;32(2):123-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass.
  • The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes.
  • We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions.
  • In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


87. Karam AR, Nugent W, Falardeau J, Desai D, Khan A, Shankar S: Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum. J Radiol Case Rep; 2009;3(11):20-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum.
  • Myelolipomas are rare benign tumors composed of mature fat and hematopoietic elements.
  • They are most often discovered incidentally within the adrenal glands, with extra-adrenal myelolipomas being extremely rare tumors.
  • We report a case of multifocal omental extra-adrenal myelolipoma in a patient who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraperitoneal extra-adrenal myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 22470626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3303281
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Myelolipoma / extra-adrenal / omentum / peritoneum
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88. Adachi S, Kawamura N, Hatano K, Kakuta Y, Takada T, Hara T, Yamaguchi S: Lipomatous ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneum. Pathol Int; 2008 Mar;58(3):183-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Because of the fat element, CT and magnetic resonance imaging suggested myelolipoma inside or outside the right adrenal gland.
  • The laparotomy indicated that the tumor was located on the right adrenal gland.
  • Microscopically, ganglioneuromatous component was scattered in the background of a large amount of adipose tissue.
  • Because the presence of such a large amount of adipose tissue seems to be rare in ganglioneuromas, its histogenesis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. S100 Proteins / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18251782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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89. Vaziri M, Sadeghipour A, Pazooki A, Shoolami LZ: Primary mediastinal myelolipoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 May;85(5):1805-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary mediastinal myelolipoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed of an admixture of fat and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells.
  • It is typically an adrenal lesion, and mediastinal location is extremely unusual.
  • We describe a 56-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of cough and dyspnea and no underlying disease whose chest computed tomography showed a huge (25 x 15 cm) mediastinal tumor containing calcification.
  • Surgical removal and subsequent pathologic examination of the tumor revealed myelolipoma.
  • Primary myelolipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of large posterior mediastinal tumors containing calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / diagnosis. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / surgery. Cough / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / surgery. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18442597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Campagnacci R, Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Sarnari J, Lezoche E: Laparoscopic radiofrequency renal ablation in patients with simultaneous visceral tumors: long-term follow-up. J Endourol; 2006 May;20(5):321-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Moreover, a simultaneous large right adrenal incidentaloma (myelolipoma) and a right colon cancer were known to be present in the second and third patient, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The lesion size averaged 6.8 cm (range, 3.9 to 11.0), and the mean gland weight was 128.8 g (range, 32.5 to 249).
  • Two patients showed imaging findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Diagnostic Imaging.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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93. Lu HS, Gan MF, Chen HS, Huang SQ: Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):500-5
The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for conn's syndrome .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome.
  • The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported.
  • Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Conn's Syndrome.
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  • [Cites] Singapore Med J. 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2 [17609815.001]
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  • (PMID = 18543405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408705
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94. Nermoen I, Følling I, Vegge K, Larmo A, Nedrebø BG, Husebye ES, Løvås K: Two adults with adrenal myelolipoma and 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Case Rep Med; 2009;2009:916891

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two adults with adrenal myelolipoma and 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • We present incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipomas in two adult males with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • The masses were not removed since myelolipomas are considered benign tumors, and the tumor size did not increase during four- and nine-year observation periods.
  • An adrenal myelolipoma is an important exception to the rule that large tumours should be removed.
  • Untreated CAH with prolonged excessive ACTH stimulation might contribute to the growth of adrenal masses.
  • CAH should be considered as a differential diagnosis of patients with adrenal masses or adrenal myelolipomas.

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  • (PMID = 19724639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9627
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2728610
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95. Daneshmand S, Quek ML: Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management. Urol J; 2006;3(2):71-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma: diagnosis and management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal myelolipomas are benign lesions that contain hematopoietic and fatty elements.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using the PubMed database containing the key word adrenal myelolipoma.
  • In this review, we highlighted the salient diagnostic features of adrenal myelolipomas and offered a guide for management of these benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal myelolipomas may grow over time, but they can usually be followed without surgical excision.
  • In some cases, very large myelolipomas can present with pain and can be confused with necrotic adrenal carcinomas, thus necessitating their surgical removal.

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  • (PMID = 17590837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-1308
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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96. Cox A, Offman SL, Merrimen JL, Kew A, Norman RW: Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E164-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral renal sinus myelolipomas.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are benign neoplasms consisting of hematopoietic cellular elements and adipose tissue.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas (EM) are extremely rare with fewer than 50 cases reported.
  • Management options include both conservative and surgical approaches depending upon the certainty of the diagnosis, progression of the patient's symptoms and evidence of growth.

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  • [Cites] Urology. 1997 Jan;49(1):128-30 [9000202.001]
  • [Cites] Surgery. 1973 May;73(5):665-70 [4697085.001]
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  • (PMID = 21749813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3038377
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97. Suzuki T, Uetsuka K, Kusanagi K, Hirai T, Nunoya T, Doi K: Hepatic Myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus). J Vet Med Sci; 2010 May;72(5):669-71
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Amyloidosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic Myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus).
  • We report here a case of hepatic myelolipoma with systemic amyloidosis in a goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus), which died suddenly following the short history of weakness and greenish diarrhea.
  • Histologically, there were multiple foci of adipose tissue admixed with myeloid elements in various proportions in the liver as well as amyloid deposition in several organs including the liver, intestine, spleen, kidney, and ovary.
  • These findings shared characteristics of hepatic myelolipoma which is very rare in birds.

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  • (PMID = 20526044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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98. Kamiie J, Fueki K, Amagai H, Ichikawa Y, Shirota K: Multicentric myelolipoma in a dog. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Mar;71(3):371-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicentric myelolipoma in a dog.
  • We report herein a case of multicentric myelolipoma in an 11-year-old beagle dog that presented with vomiting.
  • Laparotomy demonstrated the presence of a large mass adherent to the greater omentum and multiple small white maculae in the spleen.
  • Multicentric myelolipoma was diagnosed.
  • This is first report of multicentric myelolipoma in a dog.

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  • (PMID = 19346711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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99. Beiko D, Roldan H, Sengupta SK, George RL: Laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Apr;4(2):E39-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipoma is a very rare type of tumour.
  • Laparoscopic removal of extra-adrenal myelolipoma has not been previously reported.
  • We report the first case of laparoscopic excision of a large extra-adrenal perirenal myelolipoma.

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006 Jul;130(7):1049-52 [16831034.001]
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  • (PMID = 20368880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2845669
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100. Kiriakopoulos A, Tsakayannis D, Linos D: Surgical management of adrenal myelolipoma: a series of 10 patients and review of the literature. Minerva Chir; 2006 Jun;61(3):241-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of adrenal myelolipoma: a series of 10 patients and review of the literature.
  • AIM: Adrenal myelolipomas have been conventionally described as asymptomatic tumors that are easily diagnosed and can be managed conservatively.
  • METHODS: The clinical presentation, the operative treatment and histopathological features of 10 patients with myelolipoma over a 13-year period in a tertiary care Center are presented.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although myelolipomas are considered as innocent benign growths, they may present with acute clinical symptoms.
  • Surgical therapy is a safe and definitive treatment option for both symptomatic and ''asymptomatic'' lesions providing definitive diagnosis and alleviating the patients' symptoms along with the emotional burden due to tumor presence.

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  • (PMID = 16858306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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