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Items 1 to 100 of about 340
1. Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP: Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):667-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare, highly malignant tumors that account for only 0.2% of deaths due to cancer.
  • Given the limited number of patients seen in most medical centers with this diagnosis, series usually reported are small and clinical trials not randomized or blinded.
  • In an attempt to answer important questions concerning the management of patients with adrenal cancer, a consensus conference was organized and held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, 11-13 September 2003, with the participation of an international group of physicians who had reported on the largest series of patients with this disease and who had recognized basic and clinical research expertise in adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition to setting up guidelines in specific areas of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cancer, the conference recommended and initiated the planning of an international prospective trial for treatment of patients with adrenal cancer in stages III and IV.
  • In terms of new therapies, first trials of dendritic cell therapy in human subjects with adrenal cancer have been started, but it is too early to comment on efficacy.
  • There are no clinical gene therapy trials for human adrenal cortical cancer.
  • The adrenals are a preferred target for adenovirus and the results of gene therapy in preclinical studies are promising.
  • In addition, there is evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitors can further enhance the rate of adenoviral infectivity in human adrenal cancer cells.
  • The use of these and other agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer should be hypothesis-driven and based on a thorough analysis of tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16172199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M 01-RR000 42
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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2. Yoon M, Kim S: Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT. Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Sep;44(3):230-1

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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT.
  • We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month.
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer.
  • The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic liposarcoma upon pathological examination.
  • When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic liposarcoma should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 24899957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-3474
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4042936
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal cancer / F-18 FDG / Liposarcoma / PET/CT / Pleomorphic / Retroperitoneal
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3. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


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4. Simi L, Malentacchi F, Luciani P, Gelmini S, Deledda C, Arvia R, Mannelli M, Peri A, Orlando C: Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer.
  • Adrenal glands show the highest levels of seladin-1 expression, which are significantly reduced in adrenal carcinomas (ACC).
  • Furthermore, to evaluate the presence of an epigenetic regulation also 'in vivo', seladin-1 methylation and its mRNA expression were measured in 9 ACC and in 5 normal adrenal glands.
  • In ACC, methylation density of seladin-1 promoter was higher (2682 +/- 686) than in normal adrenal glands (362 +/- 97; p = 0.02).
  • Seladin-1 mRNA expression in ACC (1452 +/- 196) was significantly lower than in normal adrenal glands (3614 +/- 949; p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20465827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2875219
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5. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • Initially, a kidney sparing procedure with partial tangential excision of the involved renal vein wall was performed.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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6. Krsek M: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • Adrenal cancer is a rare disease which is often diagnosed at a late stage and usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Further, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and current treatment options in patients with adrenal cancer are summarized.
  • The multidisciplinary approach as well as centralized care is necessary for successful management of patients with adrenal cancer and for improvement of their poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):6 [19227948.001]
  • (PMID = 19227956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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7. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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8. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.

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  • (PMID = 19652443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-9092
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3924130
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9. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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10. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


11. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although she underwent surgical resection of the extensive tumor as the primary treatment, the disease recurred in the lung and liver as multiple metastases shortly after surgery.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy


12. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The University of Michigan Health System has a rich tradition in the study and treatment of endocrine neoplasia.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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13. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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14. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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15. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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16. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1987 Mar 15;59(6):1112-6 [3815285.001]
  • [Cites] Brain. 1982 Mar;105(Pt 1):189-213 [7066672.001]
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  • (PMID = 19830057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740268
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17. Kato M, Higashihara E: [Urological cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Sep;32(9):1255-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Urological cancer].
  • We reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer, our experience of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Nephrectomy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16184920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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19. Fitzgerald PJ: Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy? Seizure; 2010 Jul;19(6):311-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • (5) pheochromocytoma, which is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands that can boost NE levels;.
  • (6) comorbidity of epilepsy with bipolar disorder, hypertension, and obesity, where all four conditions may involve elevated NE; and (7) psychological stress, which is associated with increased release of NE.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / pharmacology. Bipolar Disorder / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20493725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Seizure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Seizure
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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20. Fitzgerald PJ: Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer? Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;124(2):257-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer?
  • I examine evidence that the signaling molecule norepinephrine (NE) is an etiological factor in some types of cancer.
  • (ii) human studies of tricyclic antidepressant use and cancer rate;.
  • (iii) existence of pheochromocytoma, a cancer of the adrenal glands;.
  • (iv) cancer rate in families with individuals who have bipolar disorder;.
  • (v) hypertension and cancer risk;.
  • (vi) excessive body weight and cancer risk; and (vii) psychological stressors and cancer risk.
  • Three aspects of the body's NE system are consistent with it playing an etiological role in various types of cancer: (i) NE circulates in the blood and can thereby access organ systems throughout the body, in addition to direct peripheral release by the sympathetic nervous system and being released within the brain;.
  • Most importantly, use of existing pharmaceutical drugs that either lower the level of NE (such as clonidine) or block NE receptors may lower the probability of an individual developing cancer, and this hypothesis could be tested immediately by an epidemiologist through examination of existing medical records.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / chemically induced. Norepinephrine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):737-8; author reply 739 [20333678.001]
  • (PMID = 19004004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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21. Advani A, Johnson SJ, Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Vaikkakara S, Mason JI, Quinton R: Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):651-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor.
  • A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells.
  • Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA.
  • This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aromatase / genetics. Hypogonadism / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20467160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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22. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors > 6 cm is controversial because of the risk of malignancy, but data to support this position are mostly from small series.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that size is useful for predicting malignancy, and that at a size threshold of > or = 4 cm, the likelihood of malignancy doubles (to 10%) and it is more than ninefold higher for tumors > or = 8 cm (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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24. Murray SA, Nickel BM, Gay VL: Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • In the adrenal gland, as in most other tissues, intercellular communication provides the potential for regulation of a number of complex interactive cell processes including differentiation, steroidogenesis, migration, and proliferation.
  • This review is concerned with the regulation of gap junctions and cell function in cortical cells of the adrenal gland and in pathological disorders such as adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Cell Proliferation. Gap Junctions / metabolism. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Connexins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18973789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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25. Gross MD, Korobkin M, Bou-Assaly W, Rubello D: Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses. Discov Med; 2010 Jan;9(44):24-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses.
  • Unanticipated adrenal masses are frequently encountered in modern, high resolution diagnostic imaging.
  • Most often, these masses are benign adrenal adenomas, but when detected they necessitate a clinical evaluation sufficient to exclude subclinical endocrine disease, primary adrenal cancer, and remote metastases to the adrenal glands from other malignancies.
  • These "incidentally-discovered" adrenal masses or so-called "adrenal incidentalomas" can be further evaluated with CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques.
  • A substantial literature supports the use of each of these modalities to non-invasively characterize these neoplasms that have been considered by some as a 'disease' of modern imaging technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20102682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7930
  • [Journal-full-title] Discovery medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Discov Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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26. Haleblian GE, Wilson C, Haddad D, Albala DM: Adrenocortical carcinoma: role of laparoscopic surgery in treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Sep;7(9):1295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disorder with a prevalence of one case per 1.7 million people and a generally poor prognosis.
  • It accounts for 0.02% of all cancer cases and 0.2% of cancer deaths.
  • Within the past three decades, accurate diagnosis, precise radiologic localization, satisfactory preoperative medical management, appropriate anesthesia and refined surgical techniques have come together to render the surgical management of adrenal abnormalities a safe endeavor with predictable outcomes.
  • While there is a general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, controversy remains regarding the use of laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancies.
  • This paper provides an overview of adrenal cancer and reviews the literature on laparoscopic adrenalectomy for cancer, including the operative techniques, indications and contraindications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17892430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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27. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine as a radiotherapeutic drug or chemotherapeutic combination therapies that include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine are applied for systemic treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.. However, the clinical efficacy of the latter regimen needs further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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28. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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29. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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30. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • The rest patients improved, i.e. their malignant hypertension converted to a benign one.
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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31. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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33. Narimoto K, Mizokami A, Izumi K, Mihara S, Sawada K, Sugata T, Shimamura M, Miyazaki K, Nishino A, Namiki M: Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen. Int J Urol; 2010 Apr;17(4):337-45
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  • [Title] Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical effects of flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen for combined androgen blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with bicalutamide as a first-line anti-androgen.
  • Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.
  • In vitro, 3 micromol/L flutamide suppressed DHEA, androstenedione and androstenediol synthesis compared with bicalutamide in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that flutamide suppresses the adrenal androgens in comparison with bicalutamide.
  • Metabolites from adrenal androgens contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / secretion. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy


34. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite direct invasion or extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava (or both), complete (R0) resection can be obtained.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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35. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Tsuru N, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Minim Access Surg; 2005 Oct;1(4):165-72

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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We also reviewed the results separately for aldosteronoma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and primary or metastatic adrenal cancer.Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for adrenal disorders, excluding primary adrenal cancer.
  • It is important for the surgeon to remove the tumor and the surrounding fat en bloc, especially in the case of large or irregular tumors because of the potential for malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 21206659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-9941
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cushing's syndrome / adrenal cancer / adrenalectomy / aldosteronoma / pheochromocytoma
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37. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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38. Stell A, Sinnott R, Jiang J: Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:259-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.
  • One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
  • We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Biomedical Research. Cooperative Behavior. Neoplasms. Public Health Informatics

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  • (PMID = 20543447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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39. Haghpanah V, Soliemanpour B, Heshmat R, Mosavi-Jarrahi AR, Tavangar SM, Malekzadeh R, Larijani B: Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system. Indian J Cancer; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system.
  • BACKGROUND: A population-based registry of endocrine cancer cases in four Iranian provinces, was performed for the years 1996-2000.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in each province were grouped according to age, gender and tumor specifics (site, morphology, behavior) and the data was coded according to the international classification of diseases for oncology.
  • RESULTS: A total of 319 cases of primary endocrine cancer were found and registered, including 313 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 6 cases of adrenal cancer.
  • For the 6 cases of adrenal cancer, 4 were neuroblastoma and 2 were pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Iodine / metabolism. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16790945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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40. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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41. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Indications for surgery were recommended in 20% of patients with bilateral AI, most frequently for adenomas, nodular hyperplasia, and oncological pathologies, with a good prognosis in the non-malignant group. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 69-73).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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42. Otsuki H, Ito K, Kosaka T, Mikami H, Yoshii H, Asakuma J, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):879-82
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • Right adrenal tumor was found by computed tomography and he was referred to our hospital.
  • Imaging studies revealed right adrenal tumor (8 cm) with marked swelling of surrounding lymph nodes and synchronous left renal tumor (2 cm) that was weakly enhanced by contrast media.
  • Needle biopsy of the left kidney proved to be clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the preoperative diagnosis was left RCC and right primary adrenal cancer with lymph node metastasis.
  • Pathological findings of right adrenal tumor and lymph nodes were both metastatic adenocarcinoma, which was not consistent with RCC or adrenal-derived carcinoma.
  • According to pathological findings and an elevation of carcinoembryogenic antigen, the adrenal lesion was diagnosed as adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


43. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1319-31
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  • [Title] Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice.
  • Computed tomography (CT) is an integral tool in the assessment of adrenal masses.
  • Dedicated adrenal CT is performed for a range of indications, including hormonal abnormalities suggestive of a functional adrenal mass and adrenal cancer staging.
  • Whether an adrenal mass is identified serendipitously or is being imaged for further characterization, there are several CT findings that contribute to the diagnosis, such as lesion size, precontrast attenuation, level of enhancement at 60 seconds and on delayed images, percentage washout on delayed images, histogram analysis, and extent (involvement of the inferior vena cava and bilaterality).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Evidence-Based Medicine. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2009 Nov;29(7):2198
  • (PMID = 19755598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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44. Cherifi-Gatta B, Gaye D, Laurent F, Tabarin A: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Rev Prat; 2008 May 15;58(9):979-89
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomes et tumeurs de la loge de la surrénale.
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass, generally more than 1 cm in diameter, that is discovered serendipitously during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas is at least 1% in patients who underwent abdominal CT examination.
  • Surgery is mandatory in patients with secretory tumours (pheochromocytoma, secreting cortical adenomas) and with adrenal cancer.
  • However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are benign cortical adenomas and surgery is mandatory only in a minority of patients.
  • Systematic aetiological investigation of adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be performed in order to guide the decision on surgical or non surgical management.
  • The optimal duration and modalities of follow-up for patients with adrenal incidentalomas are uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18672664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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45. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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47. Muehling BM, Toelkes S, Schelzig H, Barth TF, Sunder-Plassmann L: Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Feb;10(2):228-31
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  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) are increasingly used in the treatment of progressive cancers.
  • Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR.
  • Our investigation of a pilot character represents a 'biomarker-based' analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate 'tumor profiling' at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19948538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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48. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • In summary, the DRB1*01 genotype may be correlated to a higher risk for malignancy.
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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49. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 20826579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
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50. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • We analyzed the results of a multi-centre trial that was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We obtained our data from the results of a questionnaire that was distributed by mail or email in May 2005 to several surgical units operating in the Campania Region, Italy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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51. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (&lt; or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • Literature of the diagnosis and therapy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis rates of ultrasonography and spiral or thin-cut computed tomography (CT) were 70.0% (7/10) and 84.6% (11/13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • No evidence of tumor invasion revealed by preoperative imaging studies, no adjacent lymphadenopathy and no extraladrenal metastasis are indications of adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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53. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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54. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • In this report, we describe the fine-needle aspiration findings of a case of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that spread to the peritoneal cavity in an 80-year-old female.
  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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56. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


57. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • Selection of patients in whom we should have a high suspicion of a malignancy is vital, so that biochemical investigation and imaging is deployed appropriately.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • The most reliable indicator of malignancy in these tumors remains the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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58. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5

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  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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59. Sfaxi M, Bouzouita A, Bouasker I, Kourda N, Ben Slama MR, Ben Jilani Baltaji S, Chebil M: [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Jun;69(3):249-53
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  • [Title] [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome surrénalien primitif bilatéral de phénotype T. Un cas clinique beaucoup plus rare que le lymphome B.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare condition.
  • Adrenal lymphoma is often bilateral and in most of the cases of B-cell type.
  • The prognosis is bad and patient can die early because of acute adrenal insufficiency.
  • We report a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma.
  • Clinical features and imaging are not specific. (18)F-FDG PET Scan is an excellent mean to detect malignant tumor of adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18455145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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60. Agarwal A, Mehrotra PK, Jain M, Gupta SK, Mishra A, Chand G, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK, Singh U: Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy? World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3022-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Size can predict malignancy in adrenocortical tumors, but the same extrapolation for pheochromocytomas (PCC) is controversial.
  • The goal of this study was to find a correlation between the tumor size and malignant potential of PCC and determine whether the "Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score" (PASS) proposed by Thompson can be applied to predict malignancy.
  • Tumor size was available for 90 tumors.
  • Six (6.4%) patients had proven malignancy.
  • Of the sporadic benign cases, 21 (41%) patients with tumor size > 6 cm had a PASS of >4, and none of them developed metastasis.
  • No correlation was found between tumor size and PASS > 4 and PASS ≤ 4 (7.8 cm vs. 7.1 cm; p = 0.23).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Presently there is not enough evidence to indict a large (>6 cm) PCC as malignant.
  • Furthermore, PASS cannot be reliably applied to PCC for predicting malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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62. Han SJ, Kim TS, Jeon SW, Jeong SJ, Yun M, Rhee Y, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee EJ, Lee HC, Lim SK: Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 May;61(5):802-9
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  • [Title] Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning.
  • This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of adrenal masses visible in the computerised tomography (CT) scans which have been also evaluated by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), and to characterise the features of 18F-FDG PET scans associated with various adrenal endocrine tumours, especially benign functional tumours.
  • 18F-FDG PET scans of 105 patients with adrenal masses on the CT scan were analysed.
  • Positive uptakes in the 18F-FDG PET scans were seen in 60 malignant tumours (54 metastasic lesions, six primary adrenal cancers) and seven benign tumours.
  • The positive predictive value of 18F-FDG PET imaging to characterise an adrenal mass as a malignant tumour was 90%; the corresponding negative predictive value to rule out malignancy was also 90%.
  • Benign adrenal tumours were smaller than that of malignant lesions (p<0.05).
  • The mean standardised uptake value max (SUVmax) of the metastatic lesions [8.4+/-6.5 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg] was significantly higher than that of the benign adrenal tumours [2.4+/-1.2 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg, p<0.001].
  • Examination of only the primary adrenal lesions revealed that all adrenocortical carcinomas, two of three cases of pheochromocytomas, three of five neuroblastomas and two of four cases of primary aldosteronism showed positive 18F-FDG uptake.
  • In conclusion, for patients presenting adrenal masses with a high probability of malignancy, 18F-FDG PET can be used to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal lesions.
  • This study suggests that 18F-FDG PET scanning can offer supporting data to localise and characterise adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17343665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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63. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • Due to the fact that malignancy cannot be excluded with certainty in some patients with cortical adenomas, it is expected that the rate of laparoscopic adrenalectomy will continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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64. Sporny S, Musiał J: [Markers of malignancy in pheochromocytomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):946-51
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  • [Title] [Markers of malignancy in pheochromocytomas].
  • A pheochromocytoma is a neoplasm composed of cells which synthesize and release catecholamines.
  • The pathological picture of pheochromocytomas is varied and nothing but the presence of metastases can determine aggressiveness of this neoplasm.
  • Current studies try to look for other biological markers which can separate malignant tumors before they metastasize.
  • The detection of high expression of telomerase and hTERT and high proliferative activity, measured by immunohistochemistry with the MIB-1 antibody supports most strongly biological malignancy of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Pheochromocytoma / classification. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Antinuclear / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Catecholamines / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Telomerase / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16821216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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65. Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW: The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 May;190(5):1163-8
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  • [Title] The incidental adrenal mass on CT: prevalence of adrenal disease in 1,049 consecutive adrenal masses in patients with no known malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine the nature and prevalence of adrenal lesions identified on CT in patients with no known malignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer search of abdominal CT reports using the term "adrenal" was performed in 65,231 consecutive patients with examinations performed from January 2000 to December 2003.
  • An adrenal mass was identified in 3,307 (5%) patients.
  • Patients with no known malignancy and no suspicion for a hyperfunctioning adrenal mass were further isolated.
  • Nine hundred seventy-three patients with 1,049 adrenal masses fulfilled the study criteria.
  • RESULTS: One thousand forty-nine adrenal masses were characterized with the following methods: histopathology (n = 12), imaging characterization (n = 909), imaging follow-up (n = 87), and clinical follow-up (n = 41).
  • No malignant adrenal masses were found, even among the 14 patients who later developed malignancy elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: In 973 consecutive patients with an incidental adrenal mass and no history of cancer, no malignant lesions were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18430826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Tsvetov G, Shimon I, Benbassat C: Adrenal incidentaloma: clinical characteristics and comparison between patients with and without extraadrenal malignancy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Sep;30(8):647-52
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: clinical characteristics and comparison between patients with and without extraadrenal malignancy.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is frequently found in patients with a history of malignancy and, as such, is not always considered a true incidental finding.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term clinical and biochemical behavior of adrenal incidentalomas between oncology and non-oncology patients.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series of 100 consecutive patients with adrenal incidentaloma, followed from 1995 to 2005 in the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary university medical center.
  • MAIN OUTCOME: A history of malignancy was present in 32 patients.
  • Mean tumor size was 24+/-10 mm.
  • During follow-up, adrenal function remained unchanged in all patients, but tumor growth was seen in 12.5%.
  • Compared to the non-oncology patients, the oncology group had a higher mean age (67.5+/-9.6 vs 59.4+/-1.3 yr, p=0.001) and greater tumor growth (23.3% vs 7%, p=0.035), with no significant differences for tumor size, functional abnormalities, and extent of change in tumor size.
  • None of the other patients had clinical or radiological findings suggesting adrenal malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a similar clinical behavior of adrenal incidentaloma in oncology and non-oncology patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17923795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Walz MK: [Adrenal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Nov;79(11):1087-94; quiz 1095-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal tumors can be primary or secondary entities.
  • Typical tumor-related adrenal diseases are Conn's syndrome (hyperaldosteronism), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and pheochromocytoma (catacholamine excess).
  • Primary adrenal tumors are rarely malignant, but adrenocortical neoplasias show a relation between tumor size and rate of malignancy.
  • Diagnostic methods for adrenal tumors include hormone tests and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Endoscopy. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18941729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. Langer P, Waldmann J, Rothmund M: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Chirurg; 2007 Aug;78(8):721-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Inzidentalome der Nebenniere.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are clinically inapparent masses detected incidentally with imaging studies conducted for other reasons.
  • The diagnostic workflow has to reveal whether the mass is hormonally functioning and/or if there is evidence of malignancy.
  • If the tumor is functionally silent and not larger than 4 cm, surveillance is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17581691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity


70. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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71. Krsek M: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Vnitr Lek; 2007 Jul-Aug;53(7-8):821-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomy nadledvin.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are called as a disease of modern technology because increased availability and accuracy of imaging techniques lead to increased incidence of incidentally discovered adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are found in about 0.35-4.36% of abdominal CT scans performed for purpose other than suspicion of adrenal diseases.
  • However, in autoptic studies the percentage of incidentally discovered adrenal tumours in much higher, in some of then being even more than 20%.
  • Important component of differential diagnosis is endocrinological examination aimed to reveal potential autonomous hormonal overproduction.
  • Approximately more than 10% of adrenal incidentalomas is characterized by autonomous cortisol production, 5-10% is phaeochromocytomas and 5-7% is aldosteron producing adenomas.
  • Vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning tumours, mainly adenomas.
  • Rational ways and recommendations for screening of hormonal activity of adrenal incidentalomas is discussed.
  • Very important issue is to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and between adenomas and non-adenomas.
  • Particular characteristics of particular adrenal tumours are discussed.
  • From the relationship between the tumour size and probability of malignancy, current recommendations are derived, that non-functioning tumours smaller than 4 cm are indicated for further follow-up, size over 6 cm is indication for adrenalectomy and in tumours between 4-6 cm decision process is complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17915426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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72. Wu D, Tischler AS, Lloyd RV, DeLellis RA, de Krijger R, van Nederveen F, Nosé V: Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):599-608
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  • [Title] Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score.
  • Morphologic determination of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytoma is a challenging problem in surgical pathology.
  • A multiparameter Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) was recently developed based on a comprehensive study of a single institutional cohort of 100 cases.
  • Assignment of a PASS was proposed to be useful for identifying pheochromocytomas with potential to metastasize, which defines malignancy according to the current World Health Organization terminology.
  • We further examined the utility of PASS by reviewing an independent single institutional cohort of adrenal pheochromocytomas as evaluated by 5 multi-institutional pathologists with at least 10 years experience in endocrine pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19145205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Târcoveanu E, Dimofte G, Bradea C, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Anton R, Ferariu D: Adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):116-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal schwannomas are very rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively.
  • We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 55-year-old man during a postoperative checkup for a cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: The biological evaluation was unremarkable, and the radiological examination revealed the adrenal mass that was first considered a metastatic lesion.
  • Histological examination established the correct diagnosis of schwannoma, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A nonsecreting adrenal mass can be easily misjudged, especially in the context of a recently operated on malignancy.
  • Unilateral adrenal metastasis needs pathological confirmation, as it can dramatically affect prognosis.
  • Unusual tumors of the adrenal gland may be found incidentally, and a malignant context will generate difficulties in establishing the right management.

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  • (PMID = 19366556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015893
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74. Kirshtein B, Yelle JD, Moloo H, Poulin E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal malignancy: a preliminary report comparing the short-term outcomes with open adrenalectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Feb;18(1):42-6

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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal malignancy: a preliminary report comparing the short-term outcomes with open adrenalectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic approach to adrenal malignancy remains a topic of debate.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who had an open or laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignancy at a tertiary care center from 1995 to 2005 were included in this study.
  • There was no difference in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status or diagnosis between the two groups, but patients in the laparoscopic group had a higher body mass index.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is both feasible and safe for some malignant tumors of the adrenal gland in experienced hands.
  • Careful selection, preoperative staging, and respect for oncologic principles are important considerations in choosing laparoscopic surgery for primary and secondary adrenal malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18266573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Kajor M, Ziaja J, Lange D, Król R, Ciupińska-Kajor M, Turska-d'Amico M, Maka B, Cierpka L: [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):911-6
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  • [Title] [Analysis of morphology of adrenal pheochromocytoma as regards their potential malignancy].
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal pheochromocytoma are diagnosed the most often in patients with arterial hypertension or with thyroid medullar cancer and suspicion of MEN II syndromes.
  • The aim of the study is to analyse the morphology of pheochromocytomas on the basis of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) in order to estimate their potential malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was establish before surgery in 87.5%.
  • 12.5% of patients were referred to surgery on the basis of tumour diameter (range 70 to 102 mm).
  • In 1 cases malignant form of pheochromocytoma was diagnosed on the basis of lymph nodes metastases.
  • Among 35 patients operated on more than 12 months ago 2 patients died: 1 patient with malignant pheochromocytoma (PASS=8 points) and 1 patient with MEN IIA syndrome (due to disseminated thyroid medullar cancer).
  • CONCLUSION: Analysis of pheochromocytoma in PASS is only of rough character and does not allow for clear-cut histological diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • The only unquestionable criterion of pheochromocytoma's malignancy remain metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16821210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. Blake MA, Slattery JM, Kalra MK, Halpern EF, Fischman AJ, Mueller PR, Boland GW: Adrenal lesions: characterization with fused PET/CT image in patients with proved or suspected malignancy--initial experience. Radiology; 2006 Mar;238(3):970-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal lesions: characterization with fused PET/CT image in patients with proved or suspected malignancy--initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of the fused positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) image for characterization of adrenal lesions in patients who have proved malignancy or are suspected of having malignancy.
  • Forty-one adrenal lesions in 38 patients (21 men, 17 women; mean age, 66 years; range, 37-86 years) were evaluated with PET/CT.
  • Of the 41 lesions, nine were assumed to be malignant with documentation of enlargement (n = 8) or reduction in size in response to treatment (n = 1), and 32 were assumed to be benign with documentation of stability for 6 months (n = 31) or with confirmation with biopsy results (n = 1).
  • The PET examination findings were positive when adrenal lesion maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) exceeded hepatic maximum SUvs. CT contrast medium washout analysis was used to further characterize two lesions with PET findings positive for malignancy.
  • The t test was used to assess significant (P < .05) differences between fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of benign lesions and that of malignant lesions.
  • RESULTS: At PET/CT, findings for all malignant lesions were positive (mean adrenal lesion-liver activity ratio, 4.04; range, 1.53-17.08).
  • Incorporating contrast material-enhanced CT with delayed imaging increased specificity to 100% because two lesions with PET findings positive for malignancy were characterized as benign.
  • There was a significant difference between maximum SUV (P < .05) and the ratio of adrenal lesion-liver FDG activity (P < .001) in benign versus malignant adrenal lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT provides a powerful combination of functional and attenuation information for adrenal lesion characterization.
  • All malignant lesions were detected at PET/CT, with no false-negative results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16505394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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77. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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78. Micali S, Peluso G, De Stefani S, Celia A, Sighinolfi MC, Grande M, Bianchi G: Laparoscopic adrenal surgery: new frontiers. J Endourol; 2005 Apr;19(3):272-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenal surgery: new frontiers.
  • After about 10 years of experience, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal lesions.
  • Here, we describe the presenting features, imaging methods, and current surgical approaches to diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, but controversy exists about using laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancy, metastasis, and partial adrenalectomy.
  • In particular, we focus our attention on the new surgical approaches to the gland.

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  • (PMID = 15865511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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79. Moinzadeh A, Gill IS: Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy for malignancy in 31 patients. J Urol; 2005 Feb;173(2):519-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy for malignancy in 31 patients.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignancy is controversial.
  • We analyzed our experience with laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy for cancer with an emphasis on predictors of surgical outcome and oncological followup data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since July 1997, 31 patients have undergone a total of 33 laparoscopic adrenalectomies for malignancy.
  • Mean adrenal tumor size was 5 cm (range 1.8 to 9).
  • The pathological diagnoses were metastatic cancer in 26 cases and primary adrenal malignancy in 7.
  • Cancer specific survival at a median followup of 42 months was 53% and 5-year actuarial survival was 40%.
  • Survival was not associated with patient age, tumor size, operative time or surgical approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic radical adrenalectomy can be performed with acceptable outcomes in the carefully selected patient with a small, organ confined, solitary adrenal metastasis or primary adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15643237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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80. Björklund P, Cupisti K, Fryknäs M, Isaksson A, Willenberg HS, Akerström G, Hellman P, Westin G: Stathmin as a marker for malignancy in pheochromocytomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Jan;118(1):27-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stathmin as a marker for malignancy in pheochromocytomas.
  • Pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla may be life-threatening catecholamine-producing tumors which are malignant in about 10% of cases.
  • Differential diagnosis between malignant and benign tumors is dependent on the development of metastasis or extensive local invasion.
  • A number of genetic aberrations have been described in pheochromocytomas, but no marker associated to malignancy has been reported.
  • We applied an expression microarray containing 7770 cDNA clones and analysed the expression profiles in eleven tumors compared to normal adrenal medulla.
  • RT-PCR analysis further confirmed mRNA overexpression, 6 to 8-fold for benign and malignant tumors, and 16-fold for metastases.
  • Stathmin protein overexpression was observed by immunohistochemistry, and distinct differential protein expression between benign and malignant/metastasis specimens was confirmed by Western blot analysis.
  • The results introduce stathmin as a possible diagnostic marker for malignant pheochromocytomas, and further evaluations are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Stathmin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19449284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / STMN1 protein, human; 0 / Stathmin
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81. Vega Vega A, Canga Presa JM, Sanz de la Morena P, de la Cruz Vigo JL: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Mar;29(3):277-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in adrenal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica por patología maligna.
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions against open procedures because of the efficacy and less morbidity.
  • For suspected adrenal malignancies laparoscopic use is controversial.
  • We report our experience in 6 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with the suspicion of adrenal malignancy confined in the gland.
  • We concluded that in a suspected adrenal malignancy organ confined laparoscopic adrenalectomy presents the advantage compared with open surgery of reduced morbidity and similar results in the follow up of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 15945253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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82. Cobb WS, Kercher KW, Sing RF, Heniford BT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignancy. Am J Surg; 2005 Apr;189(4):405-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignancy.
  • The superiority of the minimally invasive approach to adrenal resections has been well documented for benign pathology.
  • With technical advances and increased experience, surgeons have successfully performed laparoscopic adrenalectomies for metastatic and primary malignancies of the adrenal gland.
  • The technique of laparoscopic adrenalectomy as it pertains to malignant lesions is presented.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic colorectal, lung, and renal tumors.
  • For primary adrenal malignancies, radical resections can be effectively performed laparoscopically; however, continued long-term follow-up is needed to establish the minimally invasive technique as the preferred approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15820450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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83. Kuruba R, Gallagher SF: Current management of adrenal tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Jan;20(1):34-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of adrenal tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal tumors evoke considerable interest and diagnostic challenges.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances have been made in diagnostic imaging modalities for identifying malignancy risk in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Considerable progress has occurred in understanding adrenocortical carcinoma pathogenesis from the study of genetics at the germline level in familial carcinomas, as well as at the somatic level by analyzing molecular alterations in sporadic tumors; this research supplies opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents against a tumor with poor prognosis.
  • International consensus conferences have attempted to standardize diagnostic and treatment approaches in the management of adrenal tumors; further research is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18043254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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84. Kaur A, Falleiro JJ, Ghosh AK, Mani NS: Pulmonary carcinosarcoma masquerading as a cryptic disseminated malignancy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Oct-Dec;52(4):517-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinosarcoma masquerading as a cryptic disseminated malignancy.
  • Pulmonary carcinosarcoma is an aggressive rare malignant tumor comprising a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma components containing differentiated mesenchymal elements, such as malignant cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle.
  • At autopsy, it was a stage IV lung malignancy and histopathology revealed a carcinosarcoma comprising an adenocarcinoma and an osteosarcoma with metastasis to the heart, lymph nodes, and both adrenals.
  • The present case had an unusual clinical presentation and its elusive nature towards diagnosis despite dissemination is noteworthy and unique in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Autopsy. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 19805960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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85. Cestari A, Naspro R, Rigatti P, Guazzoni G: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy and adrenal-preserving surgery. Curr Opin Urol; 2005 Mar;15(2):69-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy and adrenal-preserving surgery.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to define the current role of laparoscopy in the management of surgical adrenal diseases evaluating the surgical aspects, the indications and contraindications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, focusing also on the most innovative tendencies in the laparoscopic adrenal-preserving surgery.
  • The present review mainly focuses on defining the state of the art of current adrenal laparoscopic surgery.
  • SUMMARY: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is becoming the 'platinum standard' for the treatment of the adrenal surgical diseases and it should be considered the treatment of choice for benign adrenal diseases.
  • In cases of malignancy and conservative surgery, adrenalectomy appears to be very promising, although a longer follow up and further studies are still needed to accurately assess the role played by these procedures.
  • Every patient who requires the ablation of the adrenal should receive laparoscopic opportunity.
  • Only those with advanced laparoscopic skills and a good knowledge of adrenal anatomy and pathophysiology will obtain the same excellent results currently reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Patient Selection

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  • (PMID = 15725927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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86. Turner DJ, Miskulin J: Management of adrenal lesions. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jan;21(1):34-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal lesions.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal lesions are commonly seen on modern imaging modalities, and although the majority are benign, potentially lethal entities necessitate exclusion.
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in diagnosis and therapies for adrenal lesions.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: New tumor markers and genetic risk factors continue to be discovered, and improved diagnostic techniques have made adrenal incidentalomas more common than ever before.
  • Laparoscopic approaches for adrenal lesions continue to evolve for functional lesions, and also for lesions 12 cm and larger.
  • Open adrenalectomy continues to be the most appropriate for adrenocortical cancer.
  • SUMMARY: All adrenal lesions should prompt a functional hormonal assessment and additional imaging to determine malignancy employed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19125016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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87. Singh PK, Buch HN: Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;61(11):1168-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered incidental to imaging studies performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • Although most adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning benign adenomas, their increasing prevalence presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • The assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at deciding whether or not the tumour should be surgically removed.
  • Adrenalectomy is indicated for phaeochromocytoma, other symptomatic hormone-secreting tumours and those with a high risk of malignancy.
  • Biochemical screening for tumour hypersecretion is mandatory in all adrenal incidentalomas, since hormone secreting tumours may be clinically silent.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is of paramount importance because of its life-threatening complications.
  • Non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas need assessment for risk of malignancy, and this is based on the size of the tumour and its imaging characteristics.
  • An observational policy with periodic radiological and biochemical reassessment is pursued in patients with non-functioning incidentalomas with low malignancy risk.
  • The duration and frequency of reassessment remains unclear, as the natural history of adrenal incidentalomas has yet to be clearly defined, and there is a lack of controlled studies comparing surgical intervention with observation.
  • However, the possibility of acquiring autonomous hypersecretion or conversion to malignancy in an incidentaloma diagnosed to be a benign non-functioning lesion is very low, and most patients may be safely discharged after an initial follow-up period of 2 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Long-Term Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18955573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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88. Guerrieri M, De Sanctis A, Crosta F, Arnaldi G, Boscaro M, Lezoche G, Campagnacci R: Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Mar;30(3):200-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: surgical update.
  • Nowadays, the role of surgery in the treatment of adrenal incidentalomas (AI), considering their biologic behavior, is still debated.
  • Surgery is mandatory in cases of hyperfunctioning adrenal masses, in the presence of suspect radiological malignancy, in cases of discordant computed tomography (CT) and scintigraphy findings and when the maximum diameter is 4 cm or more.
  • The aim of this paper was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the treatment of AI by reviewing our experience.
  • Two LA (2.6%) were converted to open surgery.
  • Twenty-one large adrenal lesions (exceeding 6 cm) were removed (27%).
  • The patients were followed-up by hormonal and radiological evaluation every 12 months (6 for malignancy); their follow-up (median 60.4 months, range 6-123) was uneventful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17505152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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89. Del Pizzo JJ: Radiographic evaluation of the incidental adrenal lesion. Curr Urol Rep; 2006 Jan;7(1):69-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiographic evaluation of the incidental adrenal lesion.
  • The detection of incidental adrenal masses has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques such as CT and MRI.
  • The work-up and treatment of these incidentally found adrenal masses continue to be a clinical challenge for radiologists, endocrinologists, and adrenal surgeons.
  • The approach to the evaluation of most of these adrenal masses depends on the radiologic appearance of the lesion, and whether the patient has a known underlying malignancy.
  • The aim of this article is to review imaging features of pathologic abnormalities of the adrenal gland.
  • Recent advances in noninvasive imaging methods that attempt to differentiate benign from malignant lesions also are addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16480675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2737
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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90. Kook PH, Grest P, Raute-Kreinsen U, Leo C, Reusch CE: Addison's disease due to bilateral adrenal malignancy in a dog. J Small Anim Pract; 2010 Jun;51(6):333-6
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  • [Title] Addison's disease due to bilateral adrenal malignancy in a dog.
  • Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and undetectable resting and post-ACTH cortisol and aldosterone concentrations.
  • The owners opted for euthanasia and allowed only removal of both adrenal glands.
  • Microscopically, infiltrative polymorphic proliferations of densely packed tumour cells arranged as nests, intermingled with multifocal areas of necrosis and inflammatory cells were found.
  • The final diagnosis was highly anaplastic bilateral adrenal neoplasia.
  • This is the first report of bilateral adrenal malignancy presenting as clinical hypoadrenocorticism in a dog.
  • [MeSH-major] Addison Disease / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20492452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Thouënnon E, Elkahloun AG, Guillemot J, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertherat J, Pierre A, Ghzili H, Grumolato L, Muresan M, Klein M, Lefebvre H, Ouafik L, Vaudry H, Plouin PF, Yon L, Anouar Y: Identification of potential gene markers and insights into the pathophysiology of pheochromocytoma malignancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4865-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of potential gene markers and insights into the pathophysiology of pheochromocytoma malignancy.
  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors that are generally benign but that can also present as or develop into malignancy.
  • Occurrence of malignant pheochromocytomas can only be asserted by imaging of metastatic lesions.
  • OBJECTIVES: We conducted a gene expression profiling of benign and malignant tumors to identify a gene signature that would allow us to discriminate benign from malignant pheochromocytomas and to gain a better understanding of tumorigenic pathways associated with malignancy.
  • There were 18 (nine benign and nine malignant) tumors used for gene expression profiling on pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays.
  • RESULTS: We identified and validated a set of predictor genes that could accurately distinguish the two tumor subtypes through unsupervised clustering.
  • Most of the differentially expressed genes were down-regulated in malignant tumors, and several of these genes encoded neuroendocrine factors involved in prominent characteristics of chromaffin cell biology.
  • In particular, the expression of two key processing enzymes of trophic peptides, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase and glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase, was reduced in malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The gene expression profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas clearly identified a set of genes that could be used as a prognostic multi-marker and revealed that the expression of several genes encoding neuroendocrine proteins was reduced in malignant compared with benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17878247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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92. Machens A, Brauckhoff M, Gimm O, Dralle H: Risk-oriented approach to hereditary adrenal pheochromocytoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:417-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk-oriented approach to hereditary adrenal pheochromocytoma.
  • Hereditary adrenal pheochromocytoma is caused by germline mutations in RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHD, and NF1.
  • Ipsilateral recurrences in adrenal remnants, and contralateral recurrences in virgin adrenals were comparable in incidence (27% and 39%, P=0.69; high-risk RET category) and time to recurrence (means of 4.3 vs. 5.4 year; P>0.99; high-risk RET category), discounting a major effect of tumor spillage at primary subtotal adrenalectomy on pheochromocytoma recurrence.
  • The risk of malignancy usually is low, except for SDHB (38%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Recurrence. Risk. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17102110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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93. Soon PS, Yeh MW, Delbridge LW, Bambach CP, Sywak MS, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Laparoscopic surgery is safe for large adrenal lesions. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;34(1):67-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery is safe for large adrenal lesions.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has surpassed open adrenalectomy as the gold standard for excision of benign adrenal lesions.
  • The size threshold for offering laparoscopic adrenalectomy is controversial as the prevalence of adrenocortical carcinoma increases with increasing tumour size.
  • The aim of this paper was to assess the safety of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal tumours (tumours > or = 60 mm).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data show that patients with tumours > or = 60 mm with no preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy can undergo laparoscopic adrenalectomy without evidence of recurrence on short term follow up.
  • These findings are concordant with the growing body of literature supporting laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant tumours > or = 60 mm in size without preoperative or intraoperative features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17532597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Rosati G, Tramutola G, D'Alessandro N, Chiacchio R, Vita G, Scutari F, Manzione L: An adrenal gland nodule presenting as an early sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer: report of two cases. Tumori; 2007 Jan-Feb;93(1):103-5
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  • [Title] An adrenal gland nodule presenting as an early sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer: report of two cases.
  • The presence of an adrenal gland nodule may be an early or late sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer.
  • It usually appears when the internal malignancy is widely disseminated and has been previously diagnosed.
  • Adrenal insufficiency can be compatible with bilateral and diffuse involvement of this uncommon site of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology


95. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years).
  • Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent in distinguishing nephrogenic rests from Wilms' tumour and the current recently altered approach regarding small lung nodules in children with Wilms' tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17339140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1828369
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96. Kimura N, Watanabe T, Noshiro T, Shizawa S, Miura Y: Histological grading of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and relationship to prognosis: a clinicopathological analysis of 116 adrenal pheochromocytomas and 30 extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas including 38 malignant tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):23-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histological grading of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and relationship to prognosis: a clinicopathological analysis of 116 adrenal pheochromocytomas and 30 extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas including 38 malignant tumors.
  • Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas show varied histological patterns, and it is difficult to diagnose malignancy or predict the clinical course using current histological criteria.
  • In the present study, we reviewed 146 sympathetic paragangliomas including 116 adrenal (102 unilateral, 14 bilateral) and 30 extra-adrenal tumors including 38 metastatic tumors.
  • The frequency of these tumor types were 113 WD (77%), 27 MD (19%), and 6 PD (4%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Catecholamines / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16000843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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97. Choyke PL, ACR Committee on Appropriateness Criteria: ACR Appropriateness Criteria on incidentally discovered adrenal mass. J Am Coll Radiol; 2006 Jul;3(7):498-504
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ACR Appropriateness Criteria on incidentally discovered adrenal mass.
  • For patients without a history of malignancy, most small (less than 3 cm) incidentally discovered adrenal masses are benign, and extensive and costly workup is usually not justified.
  • For incidentalomas from 3 to 5 cm in size, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, adrenal biopsy, or surgery can be considered.
  • Lesions larger than 5 cm should be removed because of the higher risk for malignancy.
  • For patients with histories of malignancy, incidentally discovered adrenal masses are more often malignant, and thus even smaller adrenal lesions are suspect.
  • Adrenal biopsy should be reserved for cases in which the results of noninvasive techniques are equivocal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Radiology / standards. Societies, Medical

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  • (PMID = 17412112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Lazúrová I: [Adrenal incidentalomas--is the present management rational?]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Sep;56(9 Suppl):961-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas--is the present management rational?].
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, i.e. clinically inapparent adrenal mass, are considered to be one of the most frequent tumours in human pathology.
  • They more frequently occur in women, older age, patients with metabolic syndrome and in patients with malignant diseases.
  • The first step in the management is exclusion of hormonal activity and differentiation of malignant and benign lesions.
  • At present, there is no consensus with respect to differential diagnosis and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas since the development of hormonal hyperfunction and a risk of malignancy are negligible.
  • Repeated CT scans subject the patients to ionising radiation and may carry the same or even higher risk ofcancer than the risk ofmalignant transformation of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21137168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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99. Kikuchi F, Imachi H, Murao K, Ohyama T, Miyai Y, Kushida Y, Haba R, Kakehi Y, Ishida T: Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is a useful tool for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas without distant metastasis, where malignancy is suspected on the basis of histopathologic analysis. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Aug;340(2):160-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is a useful tool for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas without distant metastasis, where malignancy is suspected on the basis of histopathologic analysis.
  • A 69-year-old woman, who had been undergoing treatment for hypertension, was admitted to the hospital for the evaluation of a tumor in the right adrenal gland and of episodic hypertension.
  • Malignancy was suspected on the basis of histopathologic studies.
  • The authors report a case of pheochromocytoma that was suspected to be malignant on the basis of histopathologic analysis and was detected by F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET but not by MIBG.
  • Thus, FDG-PET may be a prognostic marker for malignant pheochromocytomas with or without metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 20693835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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100. Chevalier N, Carrier P, Piche M, Chevallier A, Wagner K, Tardy V, Benchimol D, Fénichel P: Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):56-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Large adrenal tumors are rarely associated with adrenal enzymatic deficiency, except in 11-ss-hydroxylase insufficiency.
  • These tumors are exceptionally malignant.
  • We report here the case of a patient with a congenital 21-hydroxylase deficiency (compound heterozygote for two severe mutations in the CYP21A2 gene) untreated for 20 years.
  • His evaluation at 36 years of age showed a four-centimeter mass in the left adrenal gland, with most characteristics suggestive of malignancy (CT and positron emission tomography [PET] scan).
  • We performed a surgical resection that established the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor of uncertain prognosis (Weiss's score: 3).
  • Even though malignant tumors are unusual in adrenal deficiency, our observation shows the need for a replacement therapy during adulthood, with a regular CT scan follow up in order to diagnose early isolated adrenal adenoma and remove it in case of malignancy suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; EC 1.14.99.10 / CYP21A2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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