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1. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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2. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Subramanian S, Goldstein DP, Parlea L, Thabane L, Ezzat S, Ibrahim-Zada I, Straus S, Brierley JD, Tsang RW, Gafni A, Rotstein L, Sawka AM: Second primary malignancy risk in thyroid cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thyroid; 2007 Dec;17(12):1277-88
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  • [Title] Second primary malignancy risk in thyroid cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) in thyroid cancer survivors.
  • DESIGN: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs in thyroid cancer survivors (compared to individuals without thyroid cancer).
  • The incidence of SPMs in thyroid cancer survivors was increased with an SIR of 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.17, 1.24) (based on pooled data from six studies of 70,844 thyroid cancer survivors).
  • The SIR of the following SPMs was significantly increased: salivary gland, stomach, colon/colorectal, breast, prostate, kidney, brain/central nervous system, soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, bone/joints, and adrenal.
  • A significantly reduced risk of lung and cervical cancers was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid cancer survivors are at increased risk of SPMs, which may be related to disease-specific treatments or genetic predisposition.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18020916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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4. Han SJ, Kim TS, Jeon SW, Jeong SJ, Yun M, Rhee Y, Kang ES, Cha BS, Lee EJ, Lee HC, Lim SK: Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 May;61(5):802-9
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  • [Title] Analysis of adrenal masses by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography scanning.
  • This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of adrenal masses visible in the computerised tomography (CT) scans which have been also evaluated by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET), and to characterise the features of 18F-FDG PET scans associated with various adrenal endocrine tumours, especially benign functional tumours.
  • 18F-FDG PET scans of 105 patients with adrenal masses on the CT scan were analysed.
  • Positive uptakes in the 18F-FDG PET scans were seen in 60 malignant tumours (54 metastasic lesions, six primary adrenal cancers) and seven benign tumours.
  • The positive predictive value of 18F-FDG PET imaging to characterise an adrenal mass as a malignant tumour was 90%; the corresponding negative predictive value to rule out malignancy was also 90%.
  • Benign adrenal tumours were smaller than that of malignant lesions (p<0.05).
  • The mean standardised uptake value max (SUVmax) of the metastatic lesions [8.4+/-6.5 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg] was significantly higher than that of the benign adrenal tumours [2.4+/-1.2 (microCi/g)/microCi/kg, p<0.001].
  • Examination of only the primary adrenal lesions revealed that all adrenocortical carcinomas, two of three cases of pheochromocytomas, three of five neuroblastomas and two of four cases of primary aldosteronism showed positive 18F-FDG uptake.
  • In conclusion, for patients presenting adrenal masses with a high probability of malignancy, 18F-FDG PET can be used to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal lesions.
  • This study suggests that 18F-FDG PET scanning can offer supporting data to localise and characterise adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17343665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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5. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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6. Greene FL, Kercher KW, Nelson H, Teigland CM, Boller AM: Minimal access cancer management. CA Cancer J Clin; 2007 May-Jun;57(3):130-46
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  • [Title] Minimal access cancer management.
  • Minimal access approaches in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors of the stomach, large bowel, and genitourinary system are now being advocated in several surgical specialty areas.
  • Through studies using animal models and patient investigation, the immunologic benefits of laparoscopic cancer procedures appear to be beneficial when compared with conventional laparotomy.
  • Patients with cancers of the stomach, colon, and kidney show similar long-term outcomes when compared with conventional open techniques.
  • Caution, however, should be exercised in recommending laparoscopic approaches for routine management of primary tumors of the rectum and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Colectomy / mortality. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Urogenital Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] CA Cancer J Clin. 2007 Sep-Oct;57(5):300
  • (PMID = 17507440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CA Cancer J Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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7. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81
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  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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8. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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9. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Indications for surgery were recommended in 20% of patients with bilateral AI, most frequently for adenomas, nodular hyperplasia, and oncological pathologies, with a good prognosis in the non-malignant group. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 69-73).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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10. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Lodish MB, Stratakis CA: Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):680-90
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  • [Title] Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.
  • The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors.
  • Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers.
  • Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / diagnosis. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carney Complex / diagnosis. Carney Complex / genetics. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / genetics. Humans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Rare Diseases

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21167385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246989; NLM/ PMC3053053
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12. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values


13. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173
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  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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14. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, endocrinological and histological characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients (41, males; 38, females; age range 17-80 years) who were diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma at Korea University Hospital from 1992 to 2003 were studied retrospectively.
  • Pathologic examination revealed 16 adrenocortical adenomas (20%), five carcinomas (6%), 13 pheochromocytomas (16%), three metastatic cancers (4%), and other tumors (10%).
  • According to the receiver operating charactenstic (ROC) curve analysis, the cut-off value of tumor size for discriminate malignant tumor was 4.75 cm (sensitivity 90%, specificity 58%).
  • During the follow up period, two patients showed an increase in tumor size of more than 1 cm, and one patient developed Cushing's syndrome.
  • Changes in mass size and function were observed only between 10 and 26 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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15. Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Bakan DA, Klaunberg B, Cleary S, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Abu-Asab M, Schimel D, Pacak K: MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice. Int J Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2236-41
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  • Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy.
  • Despite major advances in the treatment of many cancers, early-stage lesions often go undetected due to the suboptimal resolution of current anatomical and functional imaging modalities.
  • This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer.
  • Furthermore, we show that in vivo microCT imaging enhanced using a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent, glyceryl-2-oleyl-1,3-di-7-(3-amino-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)-heptanoate (DHOG), detected tumors as small as 0.35 mm as early as 4 weeks after the injection of the tumor cells.
  • This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16841334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 37685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43416; NLM/ PMC2288741
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16. Patel NS, Blick C, Kumar PV, Malone PR: The diagnostic value of abdominal ultrasound, urine cytology and prostate-specific antigen testing in the lower urinary tract symptoms clinic. Int J Clin Pract; 2009 Dec;63(12):1734-8
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  • INTRODUCTION: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) affect 18-26% of men aged 40-79 years, many of whom present with a fear of having cancer.
  • Abdominal USSs resulted in the incidental diagnosis of four renal carcinomas (0.1%), 45 AAAs (incidence = 1.1%) and 44 urinary tract calculi (1.1%).
  • Urine cytology testing and bladder USSs helped diagnose 17 new bladder cancers (0.4%), five of which did not present with haematuria.
  • Patients found to have an elevated age-specific PSA had a 23.6% chance of being diagnosed with prostate cancer (3.8%).
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of abdominal ultrasound scanning, urine cytology and PSA testing as part of an LUTS assessment protocol can help to diagnose significant, potentially life-threatening conditions in up to 6.6% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Humans. Hydronephrosis / ultrasonography. Incidental Findings. Kidney Neoplasms / urine. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Calculi / ultrasonography. Urine / cytology. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2011 Dec;186(6):2331 [22078610.001]
  • (PMID = 19930334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-1241
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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17. Owecki M, Majewska KA, Stawny B, Nikisch E, Drews M, Sowiński J: [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2006 Jun;20(120):678-81
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumours in a selected 10-years surgical material].
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the number and proportions of different adrenal tumours resected during the last 10 years in our centre.
  • In 45 (65.22%) cases the right adrenal was affected, in 21 (30.43%)--the left, in 3 (4.35%)--both.
  • RESULTS: 12 adrenocortical cancers, 20 phaeochromocytomas, 9 cortisol-secreting adenomas, 4 aldosteronomas, 18 hormonally inactive adenomas, 6 miscellaneous tumours were found.
  • Malignant tumours where significantly larger than benign (12.20 +/- 6.81 vs 6.71 +/- 5.62 cm, p < 0.005).
  • We observed no correlation between the age and preoperative tumor size (p = 0.1756), between the age and pathological tumor size (p = 0.3601), and between BMI and the preoperative and histopathologic size (p = 0.4204, and p = 0.6478, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most common tumour was phaeochromocytoma.
  • Most tumours where found in the right adrenal.
  • The malignant tumours where larger than benign ones.
  • No correlations between age and BMI, and tumour size where demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17007266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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18. Grogan RH, Mitmaker E, Vriens MR, Harari A, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises? Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):392-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentaloma remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • METHODS: We catalogued adrenal incidentalomas from a retrospective review of 500 consecutive adrenalectomies at a single institution.
  • The outcome measures studied were patient demographics, preoperative biochemical analysis, imaging characteristics, tumor size, type of operation performed, and postoperative histologic diagnosis.
  • Size was the only significant characteristic that distinguished cortical cancers from benign adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Current guidelines accurately predict the functional status of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • However, even with the most up-to-date diagnostic tools available, most adrenal incidentalomas resected are benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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19. Kapella M, Genet D, Pech De Laclause B, Durand-Fontanier S, Lachachi M, Fabre A, Valleix D, Descottes B: [Adrenal metastasis: survival following surgical resection]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jul-Aug;145(4):346-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis: survival following surgical resection].
  • GOAL: This study aims to determine the post-surgical survival after resection of adrenal metastasis from extra-adrenal primary cancers.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of sixteen patients undergoing surgery for adrenal metastasis between 1995 and 2005 analyzed age, type of primary cancer, interval to detection of adrenal metastasis, type of surgery performed, and survival (Kaplan-Meier curve).
  • Adrenal metastasis causes no clinical signs or symptoms.
  • Diagnosis was made on the basis of CT scan in 12 cases and PET scan in 4 cases.
  • The primary cancer site was lung (6), kidney (3), melanoma (2), colorectum (2), esophagus (1), pancreas (1), and B-cell lymphoma (1).
  • Metastasis was confined to the adrenal in 7 cases and associated with other-site metastasis in 9.
  • The interval from diagnosis of the primary cancer to detection of the adrenal metastasis ranged from 9 months to 11 years.
  • The overall survival was 12 months (range 2-120 months); when the diagnosis of the metastasis was synchronous with that of the primary, survival was just 8 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The survival after surgery for adrenal metastasis is poor; it is even more dismal when the metastasis is diagnosed synchronously with the primary tumor.
  • Surgical management depends on the primary neoplasm and the extent of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18955925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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20. Bruhn AM, Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2010 Sep;62(3):305-18
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic and robotic assisted adrenal surgery.
  • The aim of this paper is to review the current state of laparoscopic and robotic surgery in the mannagement of benign and malignant disease of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal lesions can be adenomas, pheochromocytomas, myelolipomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal cysts, hematomas, adrenal cortical carcinomas, metastases from other cancers, or other rare causes.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the new standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and is being increasingly utilized for malignant disease.
  • Robotic assistance offers unique advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal gland, especially considering its challenging vasculature.
  • Series of robotic adrenalectomy (RA) and LA show that techniques are both safe and effective compared to open.
  • There is also growing evidence in using minimally invasive approaches in adrenal sparing-surgery.
  • Success in these procedures depends on a firm understanding of adrenal anatomy and in careful patient selection.
  • Both LA and RA are offer advantages to patients and are comparable in outcomes.
  • While LA remains the standard of care, RA is an excellent option in high volume robotic centers from standpoints of outcomes, feasibility, and cost.

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  • (PMID = 20940699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-2249
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Urol Nefrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Singer EA, Golijanin DJ, Messing EM: Androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer: why does it fail and can its effects be prolonged? Can J Urol; 2008 Dec;15(6):4381-7
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  • [Title] Androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer: why does it fail and can its effects be prolonged?
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the cornerstone of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for over 65 years.
  • Although there can be worrisome side effects, data will be presented that for men with metastatic prostate cancer, immediate ADT can reduce the likelihood of developing the rare but catastrophic sequellae of metastatic disease, although it is unlikely to prolong survival compared with waiting for symptoms before initiating ADT.
  • Additionally, for patients with extremely high risk prostate cancer that is not distantly metastatic (e.g. have a life expectancy from prostate cancer less than 10 years with all other available treatments except immediate ADT) and, whose life expectancy from non-prostate cancer diseases is excellent during this period, early ADT both alone and in conjunction with definitive local treatment prolongs survival.
  • Moreover, ADT seems to be most effective when the cancer volume is low.
  • The biological mechanisms explaining how prostate cancer escapes from ADT's control include:.
  • 2) The human prostate gland, and particularly prostate cancer, may be able to synthesize androgens from both cholesterol and adrenal androgens.
  • This may occur because prostate cancer tissue has higher concentrations of androgens than does the serum in patients receiving ADT.
  • Thus, castrated men may not be starving their prostate cancers of androgens.
  • 3) The AR in prostatic stroma far more strongly stimulates both malignant and benign prostatic epithelial growth than the epithelial AR does.
  • Indeed, the epithelial AR, particularly in advanced prostate cancer, may have anti-proliferative and anti-tumor progression properties.
  • That is, the AR in the prostatic epithelial cells, particularly malignant ones, may act as a tumor suppressor.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy


22. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • CONTEXT: The University of Michigan Health System has a rich tradition in the study and treatment of endocrine neoplasia.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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23. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • We analyzed the results of a multi-centre trial that was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We obtained our data from the results of a questionnaire that was distributed by mail or email in May 2005 to several surgical units operating in the Campania Region, Italy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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24. Zacharopoulou C, Nassif J, Allemann P, Dallemagne B, Perretta S, Marescaux J, Wattiez A: Exploration of the retroperitoneum using the transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2009 Mar-Apr;16(2):198-203
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  • An excellent view of the retroperitoneal space and structures, such as the vascular and lymphatic tissues, the kidney, the adrenal gland, and the ureter, was obtained.

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  • [CommentIn] J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009 Sep-Oct;16(5):659; author reply 659 [19835818.001]
  • (PMID = 19249708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Mucha SA, Kunert-Radek J, Pomorski L: Positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) in the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma metastases. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):452-5
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  • INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is usually more advanced at presentation than differentiated thyroid cancers and often has distant metastases.
  • In five patients with postoperative calcitonin ranging from 164 to > 2000 ng/l (normal < 10 ng/l) no tumour lesions were found using other imaging methods.
  • PET detected tumour manifestations in the neck and the mediastinum in two patients, in the lung and the left adrenal gland in one case and in the neck and the liver in another patient.
  • As a result of surgery for the removal of a residual tumour or metastases the accuracy of diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in all four cases and a decrease in CT and CEA levels was observed in 3/4 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17006852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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26. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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27. Karlberg N, Karlberg S, Karikoski R, Mikkola S, Lipsanen-Nyman M, Jalanko H: High frequency of tumours in Mulibrey nanism. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):163-71
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  • Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a monogenic disorder with prenatal-onset growth failure, typical clinical characteristics, cardiopathy and tendency for a metabolic syndrome.
  • In this work, the frequency and pathology of malignant and benign tumours were analysed in a national cohort of 89 Finnish MUL patients aged 0.7-76 years.
  • The results show that the MUL patients have disturbed architecture with ectopic tissues and a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumours detectable in several internal organs.
  • Fifteen malignancies occurred in 13 patients (15%), seven of them in the kidney (five Wilms' tumours), three in the thyroid gland, two gynaecological cancers, one gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour, one neuropituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and one case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Our findings show that MUL is associated with frequent malignant tumours and benign adenomatous and vascular lesions, as well as disturbed organ development.
  • [MeSH-major] Mulibrey Nanism / complications. Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Finland. Heart Neoplasms / complications. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prevalence. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / complications. Wilms Tumor / pathology


28. Lehtonen HJ, Kiuru M, Ylisaukko-Oja SK, Salovaara R, Herva R, Koivisto PA, Vierimaa O, Aittomäki K, Pukkala E, Launonen V, Aaltonen LA: Increased risk of cancer in patients with fumarate hydratase germline mutation. J Med Genet; 2006 Jun;43(6):523-6
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  • [Title] Increased risk of cancer in patients with fumarate hydratase germline mutation.
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a tumour predisposition syndrome caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene.
  • The condition is characterised by predisposition to benign leiomyomas of the skin and the uterus, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS).
  • To comprehensively examine the cancer risk and tumour spectrum in Finnish FH mutation positive families, genealogical and cancer data were obtained from 868 individuals.
  • To study tumour spectrum in FH mutation carriers, loss of the wild type allele was analysed from all available tumours (n = 22).
  • The overall cancer risk was statistically significantly increased in the age group of 15-29 years, consistent with features of cancer predisposition families in general.
  • Most RCC and ULMS tumours displayed biallelic inactivation of FH, as did breast and bladder cancers.
  • In addition, several benign tumours including atypical uterine leiomyomas, kidney cysts, and adrenal gland adenomas were observed.
  • The data enlighten the organ specific malignant potential of HLRCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Fumarate Hydratase / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Cohort Studies. Female. Finland. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Leiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Leiomyomatosis / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Risk Factors


29. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • The rest patients improved, i.e. their malignant hypertension converted to a benign one.
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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30. Meyer-Rochow GY, Jackson NE, Conaglen JV, Whittle DE, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H, Westin G, Sandgren J, Stålberg P, Khanafshar E, Shibru D, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E, Gill AJ, Clifton-Bligh R, Robinson BG, Benn DE, Sidhu SB: MicroRNA profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):835-46
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  • [Title] MicroRNA profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas identifies novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs ( approximately 22 bp) that post-transcriptionally regulate protein expression and are found to be differentially expressed in a number of human cancers.
  • There is increasing evidence to suggest that miRNAs could be useful in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.
  • We performed miRNA microarray expression profiling on a cohort of 12 benign and 12 malignant pheochromocytomas and identified a number of differentially expressed miRNAs.
  • These results were validated in a separate cohort of ten benign and ten malignant samples using real-time quantitative RT-PCR; benign samples had a minimum follow-up of at least 2 years.
  • It was found that IGF2 as well as its intronic miR-483-5p was over-expressed, while miR-15a and miR-16 were under-expressed in malignant tumours compared with benign tumours.
  • These miRNAs were found to be diagnostic and prognostic markers for malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • These data indicate that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the biology of malignant pheochromocytoma, and represent an important class of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets warranting further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / physiology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle. Cohort Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured


31. Kazarian AM, Marangos IP, Røsok BI, Rosseland AR, Edwin B: [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2010;169(4):80-5
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic resection of primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the adrenals].
  • An analysis was made of experience with treatment of 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinomas (in 7 patients) and metastases in adrenals (in 17 cases).
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was shown to be a safe and effective method of treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the adrenals.
  • The method can replace open operative intervention in the majority of patients with metastases to adrenals and primary cancer of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20973194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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32. Wakshlag JJ, McNeill CJ, Antonyak MA, Boehm JE, Fuji R, Balkman CE, Zgola M, Cerione RA, Page RL: Expression and activity of transglutaminase II in spontaneous tumours of dogs and cats. J Comp Pathol; 2006 Feb-Apr;134(2-3):202-10
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  • Bladder, liver and adrenal gland exhibited prominent expression of TGase II while other tissues, including mammary gland, displayed limited expression and activity.
  • Thus, TGase II was significantly expressed in mammary cancers from dogs and cats and immunoreactivity of TGase II was similar to that reported in humans beings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology. Transglutaminases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blotting, Western / veterinary. Cats. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dogs. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / veterinary. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect / veterinary. Hyperplasia / enzymology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / veterinary. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16615935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM61762
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.3.2.- / transglutaminase 2; EC 2.3.2.13 / Transglutaminases; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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33. Schteingart DE: Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2415-8
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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane therapy of adrenal cancer - use and controversy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1257-8; author reply 1259 [17891838.001]
  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
  • (PMID = 17554125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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34. Sfaxi M, Bouzouita A, Bouasker I, Kourda N, Ben Slama MR, Ben Jilani Baltaji S, Chebil M: [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Jun;69(3):249-53
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  • [Title] [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome surrénalien primitif bilatéral de phénotype T. Un cas clinique beaucoup plus rare que le lymphome B.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare condition.
  • Adrenal lymphoma is often bilateral and in most of the cases of B-cell type.
  • The prognosis is bad and patient can die early because of acute adrenal insufficiency.
  • We report a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma.
  • Clinical features and imaging are not specific. (18)F-FDG PET Scan is an excellent mean to detect malignant tumor of adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18455145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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35. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • Literature of the diagnosis and therapy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis rates of ultrasonography and spiral or thin-cut computed tomography (CT) were 70.0% (7/10) and 84.6% (11/13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • No evidence of tumor invasion revealed by preoperative imaging studies, no adjacent lymphadenopathy and no extraladrenal metastasis are indications of adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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36. Marabelle A, Campagne D, Déchelotte P, Chipponi J, Deméocq F, Kanold J: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver in patients previously treated for pediatric neoplastic diseases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Jul;30(7):546-9
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  • SUMMARY: The discovery of a liver nodule during postcancer follow-up suggests malignancy recurrence.
  • However, patients previously treated for pediatric cancers are at greater risk of developing benign hepatic tumors, raising the problems of getting an accurate noninvasive diagnosis.
  • Radiologic findings and needle-biopsies remained insufficient in 2 cases to rule out metastasis or a potentially threatening tumor.
  • Only surgical resection led to positive diagnosis and prevented complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications. Wilms Tumor / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Cicatrix / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / pathology. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / radiography. Liver / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Monosomy. Pancytopenia / complications. Pancytopenia / genetics. Pancytopenia / surgery. Remission Induction


37. Meier R, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Flahaut M, Coulon A, Fusco C, Louache F, Auderset K, Bourloud KB, Daudigeos E, Ruegg C, Vassal G, Gross N, Joseph JM: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion. PLoS One; 2007;2(10):e1016
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  • [Title] The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is a heterogeneous, and particularly malignant childhood neoplasm in its higher stages, with a propensity to form metastasis in selected organs, in particular liver and bone marrow, and for which there is still no efficient treatment available beyond surgery.
  • In this study, we explored the potential role of CXCR4 in the malignant behaviour of NB, using a combination of in vitro functional analyses and in vivo growth and metastasis assessment in an orthotopic NB mouse model.
  • We show here that CXCR4 overexpression in non-metastatic CXCR4-negative NB cells IGR-NB8 and in moderately metastatic, CXCR4 expressing NB cells IGR-N91, strongly increased tumour growth of primary tumours and liver metastases, without altering the frequency or the pattern of metastasis.
  • High levels of CXCL12 were detected in the mouse adrenal gland (the primary tumour site), and in the liver suggesting a paracrine effect of host-derived CXCL12 on NB growth.
  • In conclusion, this study reveals a yet unreported NB-specific predominant growth and survival-promoting role of CXCR4, which warrants a critical reconsideration of the role of CXCR4 in the malignant behaviour of NB and other cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Marrow Cells. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease Progression. Gene Silencing. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17925864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1995764
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38. Mercier O, Fadel E, Mussot S, Fabre D, Chataigner O, Chapelier A, Dartevelle P: [Is surgery required for patients with isolated adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung carcinoma?]. Presse Med; 2007 Dec;36(12 Pt 1):1743-52
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  • [Title] [Is surgery required for patients with isolated adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung carcinoma?].
  • [Transliterated title] Faut-il opérer les métastases surrénaliennes isolées des cancers bronchopulmonaires non à petites cellules?
  • BACKGROUND: No consensus yet governs management of solitary adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: From January 1989 through June 2006, 26 patients (21 men and 5 women; mean age: 54+/-10 years) underwent complete resection of an isolated adrenal metastasis after surgical treatment of NSCLC.
  • The adrenal metastasis was diagnosed at the same time as the NSCLC in 6 patients and subsequently in 20 patients.
  • After resection of an isolated adrenal metastasis diagnosed more than 6 months after lung resection, the 5-year survival rate was 49%.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of subsequent isolated adrenal metastasis with a disease-free interval longer than 6 months can lead to long-term survival in patients with previous complete resection of the primary NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Patient Selection. Radiography, Abdominal. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17851028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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39. van Nederveen FH, Perren A, Dannenberg H, Petri BJ, Dinjens WN, Komminoth P, de Krijger RR: PTEN gene loss, but not mutation, in benign and malignant phaeochromocytomas. J Pathol; 2006 Jun;209(2):274-80
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  • [Title] PTEN gene loss, but not mutation, in benign and malignant phaeochromocytomas.
  • Mutations of the 'phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10' (PTEN/MMAC1) gene have been associated with a variety of human cancers, including prostate cancer, glioblastoma, and melanoma.
  • The gene is thought to be one of the most frequently mutated tumour suppressor genes and inactivation of PTEN is associated with disease progression and angiogenesis.
  • Furthermore, benign and malignant PCCs are found in several PTEN knockout mouse models.
  • This study therefore evaluated whether inactivation of PTEN may be involved in the tumourigenesis of PCC in man and whether PTEN abnormalities may help to define the malignant potential of these tumours.
  • Tumour and germline DNA was analysed from 31 patients with apparently sporadic PCC, including 14 clinically benign and 17 malignant tumours, for loss of the PTEN gene locus, mutations in the PTEN gene, and for PTEN protein expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis showed loss of PTEN in four malignant tumours (40%) and in one benign tumour (14%).
  • The results indicate that inactivation of the PTEN/MMAC1 gene may play a minor role in the development of malignant phaeochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Gene Silencing / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16538614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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40. Zambetti GP: The p53 mutation "gradient effect" and its clinical implications. J Cell Physiol; 2007 Nov;213(2):370-3
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  • The p53 tumor suppressor-signaling pathway is inactivated in most human cancers.
  • Depending on how p53 is targeted during tumorigenesis impacts whether partial or full tumor suppressor activity is lost.
  • The degree of remaining p53 activity, if any, intuitively impacts the tumor phenotype.
  • This review focuses on recent findings from human cancer studies and genetically engineered mouse models to highlight a p53 functional "gradient effect" and its clinical implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Animals. Humans. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / metabolism. Polymorphism, Genetic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17671971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9541
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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41. Advani A, Johnson SJ, Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Vaikkakara S, Mason JI, Quinton R: Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):651-6
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  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor.
  • A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells.
  • Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA.
  • This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aromatase / genetics. Hypogonadism / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20467160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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42. Clark HA, Snedeker SM: Critical evaluation of the cancer risk of dibromochloropropane (DBCP). J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev; 2005;23(2):215-60
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  • [Title] Critical evaluation of the cancer risk of dibromochloropropane (DBCP).
  • Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, DBCP), a pesticide used widely for over 20 years to control nematodes on crops, turf and in nurseries, was banned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 1977 because of evidence of infertility in men and induction of a variety of tumors in laboratory animals.
  • In this review, we present a critical evaluation of the available scientific literature on the potential for DBCP to affect cancer risk, including the results of animal cancer bioassays, human epidemiological studies and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies.
  • Results from long-term cancer bioassays in rodents show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant and benign mammary gland tumors in female rats treated orally with DBCP compared to controls and some evidence of increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas in DBCP low-dose treated female rats exposed by inhalation.
  • Rats exposed to DBCP by inhalation showed significant increases in tumors of the tunica vaginalis in males; tumors of the pharynx and adrenal gland in females; and tumors of the tongue, nasal turbinate and nasal cavity in both sexes compared to controls.
  • Male and female mice exposed to DBCP by inhalation experienced increased tumor incidence in the lungs and nasal cavity compared to controls.
  • Although high mortality rates in both rat and mouse bioassays limited the ability to detect tumors late in life, the induction of a variety of tumors by multiple routes of exposure in two rodent species provides clear evidence of a DBCP tumorigenic response.
  • Few studies have been conducted to assess whether DBCP workplace or drinking water exposures affect cancer risk in humans.
  • While case-control, cohort and ecological epidemiology studies have not found significant, positive associations between DBCP exposure and cancer in exposed populations, these studies have numerous limitations including small numbers of participants, a lack of control for confounding factors, lack of exposure information on DBCP and other chemicals and short follow-up times.
  • Given the persistent nature of DBCP contamination in areas of past use, efforts should be made to continue remediation efforts and follow previously exposed populations for development of certain human cancers, including breast, ovarian, stomach, respiratory, oral and nasal cancers, among others.
  • [MeSH-major] Antinematodal Agents / toxicity. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Propane / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16291528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1059-0501
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antinematodal Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 96K0FD4803 / 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane; T75W9911L6 / Propane
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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43. Griesinger G, Felberbaum R, Diedrich K: GnRH-antagonists in reproductive medicine. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2005 Dec;273(2):71-8
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  • Suppression of sex steroid production based on desensitisation and down-regulation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-receptors by agonistic GnRH-analogues resulting in the blockage of gonadotropin release from the anterior pituitary gland is a well-established approach in a variety of clinical conditions.
  • A more rapid suppression of gonadotropin release from the pituitary gland can be achieved, enabling shorter treatment regimes in ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted reproduction.
  • As yet, GnRH-antagonists have attained market approval only for the indication of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge prevention in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and palliative treatment of advanced prostatic cancer.
  • However, GnRH-antagonists may be useful in a variety of other malignant and non-malignant indications where rapid sex steroid suppression is desired, such as uterine leiomyomas, endometriosis, gynaecological cancers or benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / drug therapy. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Leiomyoma / drug therapy. Receptors, LHRH / antagonists & inhibitors. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Estradiol / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15991015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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44. Frysák Z: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):6
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentOn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61 [19227956.001]
  • (PMID = 19227948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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45. Chen ML, Xu PZ, Peng XD, Chen WS, Guzman G, Yang X, Di Cristofano A, Pandolfi PP, Hay N: The deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to suppress tumor development in Pten+/- mice. Genes Dev; 2006 Jun 15;20(12):1569-74
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  • [Title] The deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to suppress tumor development in Pten+/- mice.
  • The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently inactivated in human cancers.
  • Here we showed that the deficiency of Akt1 is sufficient to dramatically inhibit tumor development in Pten+/- mice.
  • Akt1 deficiency had a profound effect on endometrium and prostate neoplasia, two types of human cancer, in which PTEN is frequently mutated, and also affected thyroid and adrenal medulla tumors and intestinal polyps.
  • Even haplodeficiency of Akt1 was sufficient to markedly attenuate the development of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and endometrial carcinoma.
  • These results have significant implications for cancer therapy.


46. Mazzaglia PJ, Vezeridis MP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: balancing the operative indications with the technical advances. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;101(8):739-44
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  • The adoption of this technique had substantial impact on the management of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy should be in general avoided for known primary adrenal cancers, it is appropriate for metastasectomy of isolated adrenal metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20512951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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47. Dahl E, Wiesmann F, Woenckhaus M, Stoehr R, Wild PJ, Veeck J, Knüchel R, Klopocki E, Sauter G, Simon R, Wieland WF, Walter B, Denzinger S, Hartmann A, Hammerschmied CG: Frequent loss of SFRP1 expression in multiple human solid tumours: association with aberrant promoter methylation in renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene; 2007 Aug 16;26(38):5680-91
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  • [Title] Frequent loss of SFRP1 expression in multiple human solid tumours: association with aberrant promoter methylation in renal cell carcinoma.
  • Oncogenic wingless-related mouse mammary tumour virus (Wnt) signalling, caused by epigenetic inactivation of specific pathway regulators like the putative tumour suppressor secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), may be causally involved in the carcinogenesis of many human solid tumours including breast, colon and kidney cancer.
  • This TMA contained 132 different tumour subtypes as well as 26 different normal tissues.
  • Although tumour precursor stages of, for example kidney, colon, endometrium or adrenal gland still exhibited moderate to abundant SFRP1 expression, this expression was frequently lost in the corresponding genuine tumours.
  • We defined nine novel tumour entities with apparent loss of SFRP1 expression, i.e., cancers of the kidney, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, parathyroid, adrenal gland, gall bladder, endometrium and testis.
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibited the highest frequency of SFRP1 loss (89% on mRNA level; 75% on protein level) and was selected for further analysis to investigate the cause of SFRP1 loss in human tumours.
  • Our results indicate that loss of SFRP1 expression is a very common event in human cancer, arguing for a fundamental role of aberrant Wnt signalling in the development of solid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Loss of Heterozygosity. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17353908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human
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48. Degraff DJ, Aguiar AA, Sikes RA: Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions. Am J Transl Res; 2009 Jan 20;1(2):115-30
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  • [Title] Disease evidence for IGFBP-2 as a key player in prostate cancer progression and development of osteosclerotic lesions.
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in the IGF axis contribute to the development of chemo- and radio-resistant, advanced-stage cancers.
  • New evidence indicates that the IGFBPs, irrespective of ligand interactions, correlate with the development and metastatic behavior of several cancers.
  • Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is found in advanced cancers of the ovary, breast, stomach, adrenal gland, bladder, CNS, and prostate.
  • Further, IGFBP-2 seemingly has ligand-independent effects that participate in the development and dissemination of advanced cancer cells.
  • As such, IGFBP-2 can assist in the development of the lethal phenotype for some cancers.

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  • (PMID = 19956425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-8141
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of translational research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Transl Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776314
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Insulin-like growth factor, IGF / androgen insensitivity, AI / androgen sensitive, AS / neoplasm, bone, metastasis / prostate cancer, PCa
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49. Gross MD, Korobkin M, Bou-Assaly W, Rubello D: Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses. Discov Med; 2010 Jan;9(44):24-33
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  • [Title] Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses.
  • Unanticipated adrenal masses are frequently encountered in modern, high resolution diagnostic imaging.
  • Most often, these masses are benign adrenal adenomas, but when detected they necessitate a clinical evaluation sufficient to exclude subclinical endocrine disease, primary adrenal cancer, and remote metastases to the adrenal glands from other malignancies.
  • These "incidentally-discovered" adrenal masses or so-called "adrenal incidentalomas" can be further evaluated with CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques.
  • A substantial literature supports the use of each of these modalities to non-invasively characterize these neoplasms that have been considered by some as a 'disease' of modern imaging technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20102682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7930
  • [Journal-full-title] Discovery medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Discov Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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50. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


51. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Dartevelle P, Commo F, Olaussen KA, de Montpreville V, André F, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer; 2010 May;11(3):187-91
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  • [Title] Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer.
  • We evaluated the potential implications of chemokine receptors in the development of adrenal metastasis after complete resections of primary non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a unique cohort of 21 primary lung cancers with matched adrenal metastases for the expression of CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR6, and CCR7, using immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Although CXCR4, CX3CR1, and CCR7 were independently expressed in primary and corresponding metastases, CCR6 was clearly overexpressed in adrenal metastases, compared with corresponding primary tumors.
  • Moreover, CCL20, the ligand of CCR6, was preferentially expressed in adrenal tissues that developed metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: We report for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a potential role for the CCR6 receptor in the organ orientation of the development of metastases in lung cancer.
  • We demonstrated a statistically significant overexpression of CCR6 in adrenal metastases compared with primary lung tumors, indicating that the increased production of CCL20 in adrenal glands might contribute to the selective recruitment of CCR6-expressing cancer cells in lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, CCR6 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20439195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0690
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / CCR7 protein, human; 0 / CX3CR1 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL20; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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52. Fitzgerald PJ: Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer? Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;124(2):257-63
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  • [Title] Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer?
  • I examine evidence that the signaling molecule norepinephrine (NE) is an etiological factor in some types of cancer.
  • (ii) human studies of tricyclic antidepressant use and cancer rate;.
  • (iii) existence of pheochromocytoma, a cancer of the adrenal glands;.
  • (iv) cancer rate in families with individuals who have bipolar disorder;.
  • (v) hypertension and cancer risk;.
  • (vi) excessive body weight and cancer risk; and (vii) psychological stressors and cancer risk.
  • Three aspects of the body's NE system are consistent with it playing an etiological role in various types of cancer: (i) NE circulates in the blood and can thereby access organ systems throughout the body, in addition to direct peripheral release by the sympathetic nervous system and being released within the brain;.
  • Most importantly, use of existing pharmaceutical drugs that either lower the level of NE (such as clonidine) or block NE receptors may lower the probability of an individual developing cancer, and this hypothesis could be tested immediately by an epidemiologist through examination of existing medical records.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / chemically induced. Norepinephrine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):737-8; author reply 739 [20333678.001]
  • (PMID = 19004004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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53. Stava CJ, Jimenez C, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Endocrine sequelae of cancer and cancer treatments. J Cancer Surviv; 2007 Dec;1(4):261-74
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  • [Title] Endocrine sequelae of cancer and cancer treatments.
  • INTRODUCTION: Exposure to cancer and its treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, may result in late adverse effects including endocrine dysfunction.
  • Endocrine disorders are the most commonly reported long-term complications of cancer treatment, especially by adult survivors of childhood cancers.
  • This review will explore the endocrinologic adverse effects from non-endocrine cancer therapies.
  • Endocrine disorders including hypothalamus dysfunction, hypopituitarism, syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion, diabetes insipidus, growth hormone disorders, hyperprolactinemia, gonadotropin deficiency, serum thyroid hormone-binding protein abnormalities, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypomagnesium, hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, adrenal dysfunction, gonadal dysfunction, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and glycosuria were identified and their association with cancer therapies were outlined.
  • DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: The journal articles have highlighted the association of cancer therapies, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with endocrine dysfunction.
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Recognition and awareness of endocrine sequelae of cancer treatments may permit for early detection and appropriate follow-up care for cancer survivors, thus improving their overall health and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / etiology. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Health Status. Hypothalamic Diseases / etiology. Metabolic Diseases / etiology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18648961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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54. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


55. Stell A, Sinnott R, Jiang J: Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:259-63
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  • [Title] Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.
  • One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
  • We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Biomedical Research. Cooperative Behavior. Neoplasms. Public Health Informatics

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  • (PMID = 20543447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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56. Yoon M, Kim S: Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT. Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Sep;44(3):230-1
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT.
  • We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month.
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer.
  • The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic liposarcoma upon pathological examination.
  • When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic liposarcoma should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 24899957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-3474
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4042936
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal cancer / F-18 FDG / Liposarcoma / PET/CT / Pleomorphic / Retroperitoneal
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57. Gurel B, Ali TZ, Montgomery EA, Begum S, Hicks J, Goggins M, Eberhart CG, Clark DP, Bieberich CJ, Epstein JI, De Marzo AM: NKX3.1 as a marker of prostatic origin in metastatic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1097-105
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  • NKX3.1 is a prostatic tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 8p.
  • Although most studies have shown that staining for NKX3.1 protein is positive in the majority of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas, it has been shown to be downregulated in many high-grade prostate cancers, and completely lost in the majority of metastatic prostate cancers (eg, in 65% to 78% of lesions).
  • Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are excellent tissue markers of prostate cancer, at times they may be expressed at low levels, focally, or not at all in poorly differentiated primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas.
  • To determine the specificity of NKX3.1 for prostatic adenocarcinoma, we used TMAs that contained cancers from various sites including the urinary bladder, breast, colon, salivary gland, stomach, pancreas, thyroid, and central nervous system, and standard paraffin sections of cancers from other sites including the adrenal cortex, kidney, liver, lung, and testis.
  • The sole positive nonprostatic cancer case was an invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.

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  • (PMID = 20588175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058236-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA58236
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NKX3-1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS272269; NLM/ PMC3072223
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58. Acar C, Akkas BE, Sen I, Sozen S, Kitapci MT: False positive 18F-FDG PET scan in adrenal oncocytoma. Urol Int; 2008;80(4):444-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] False positive 18F-FDG PET scan in adrenal oncocytoma.
  • 18F-FDG whole-body positron emulsion tomography (18F-FDG PET) has become an established imaging modality for a variety of cancers.
  • Today, 18F-FDG PET is utilized to differentiate benign from malignant non-functioning adrenal masses.
  • Abdominal CT revealed a left 6.5 x 4.5 cm adrenal mass with regular margins and focal calcification.
  • To make a differential diagnosis, 18F-FDG PET was performed.
  • The final pathologic evaluation revealed adrenal oncocytoma.
  • We present the disassociation between preoperative 18F-FDG PET and pathologic findings of a benign adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18587259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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59. Cherifi-Gatta B, Gaye D, Laurent F, Tabarin A: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Rev Prat; 2008 May 15;58(9):979-89
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomes et tumeurs de la loge de la surrénale.
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass, generally more than 1 cm in diameter, that is discovered serendipitously during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas is at least 1% in patients who underwent abdominal CT examination.
  • Surgery is mandatory in patients with secretory tumours (pheochromocytoma, secreting cortical adenomas) and with adrenal cancer.
  • However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are benign cortical adenomas and surgery is mandatory only in a minority of patients.
  • Systematic aetiological investigation of adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be performed in order to guide the decision on surgical or non surgical management.
  • The optimal duration and modalities of follow-up for patients with adrenal incidentalomas are uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18672664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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60. Mohammad K, Sadikot RT: Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer. South Med J; 2009 Jun;102(6):665-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer.
  • The adrenals are a common site of metastases for lung cancers; adrenal insufficiency, however, as a presenting feature of lung cancer, is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to metastases from adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • CT scans showed a right upper lobe mass and bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The frequent occurrence of constitutional symptoms, metabolic derangements, and cardiovascular compromise in patients with advanced cancer may lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of adrenal insufficiency in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


61. Bakthavathsalam G, Shanmugasundaram VP, Prabakaran J, Venkatesh SP, Sowndaravalli DV, Jain CB: Nonfunctioning adrenocorticalcarcinoma. Int Surg; 2008 Mar-Apr;93(2):81-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses detected through imaging for nonadrenal disease, often referred to as adrenal incidentalomas, were first described approximately 20 years ago.
  • Despite the rarity of primary endocrine cancers of the adrenal, adrenal masses are one of the most prevalent of all human tumors.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma approaches 3% in middle age and increases to as much as 10% in the elderly.
  • This report describes the case of a 30-year-old man who presented primarily with complaints of deep vein thrombosis of the left leg secondary to a nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18998286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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62. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors > 6 cm is controversial because of the risk of malignancy, but data to support this position are mostly from small series.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that size is useful for predicting malignancy, and that at a size threshold of > or = 4 cm, the likelihood of malignancy doubles (to 10%) and it is more than ninefold higher for tumors > or = 8 cm (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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64. Murray SA, Nickel BM, Gay VL: Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):51-6
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  • [Title] Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • In the adrenal gland, as in most other tissues, intercellular communication provides the potential for regulation of a number of complex interactive cell processes including differentiation, steroidogenesis, migration, and proliferation.
  • This review is concerned with the regulation of gap junctions and cell function in cortical cells of the adrenal gland and in pathological disorders such as adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Cell Proliferation. Gap Junctions / metabolism. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Connexins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18973789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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65. Fitzgerald PJ: Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy? Seizure; 2010 Jul;19(6):311-8
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  • (5) pheochromocytoma, which is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands that can boost NE levels;.
  • (6) comorbidity of epilepsy with bipolar disorder, hypertension, and obesity, where all four conditions may involve elevated NE; and (7) psychological stress, which is associated with increased release of NE.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / pharmacology. Bipolar Disorder / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20493725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Seizure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Seizure
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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66. Espina AG, Méndez-Vidal C, Moreno-Mateos MA, Sáez C, Romero-Franco A, Japón MA, Pintor-Toro JA: Induction of Dlk1 by PTTG1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and correlates with malignant transformation. Mol Biol Cell; 2009 Jul;20(14):3353-62
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  • [Title] Induction of Dlk1 by PTTG1 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and correlates with malignant transformation.
  • Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is an oncogene highly expressed in a variety of endocrine, as well as nonendocrine-related cancers.
  • Dlk1 is known to participate in several differentiation processes, including adipogenesis, adrenal gland development, and wound healing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipocytes / cytology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19477929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-4586
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Dlk1 protein, mouse; 0 / Foxa2 protein, mouse; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Securin; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; 135845-92-0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2710844
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67. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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68. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine as a radiotherapeutic drug or chemotherapeutic combination therapies that include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine are applied for systemic treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.. However, the clinical efficacy of the latter regimen needs further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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69. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


70. Kozak KR, Milne GL, Morrow JD, Cuiffo BP: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy pathogenesis: a case highlighting the potential role for cyclo-oxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol; 2006 Aug;2(8):452-6; quiz following 456
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  • DIAGNOSIS: Recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer with adrenal metastasis, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with non-small-cell lung cancer, and hyperprostaglandinuria.
  • MANAGEMENT: Rofecoxib 25 mg daily for hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, palliative external-beam radiation (44 Gy in 22 fractions) for mediastinal mass, palliative external-beam radiation (30 Gy in 12 fractions), followed 2 years later with radiofrequency ablation, for left adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lactones / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Sulfones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16932737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8382
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77839; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK48831; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM15431; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00095
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Sulfones; 0QTW8Z7MCR / rofecoxib; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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71. Murthy SR, Pacak K, Loh YP: Carboxypeptidase E: elevated expression correlated with tumor growth and metastasis in pheochromocytomas and other cancers. Cell Mol Neurobiol; 2010 Nov;30(8):1377-81
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  • [Title] Carboxypeptidase E: elevated expression correlated with tumor growth and metastasis in pheochromocytomas and other cancers.
  • Expression of carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a prohormone processing enzyme in different cancer types, was analyzed from data in the GEO profile database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) and experimentally in pheochromocytomas.
  • Analysis of microarray data demonstrated that significantly elevated levels of CPE mRNA was found in many metastatic non-endocrine cancers: cervical, colon rectal, renal cancers, Ewing sarcomas (bone cancer), and various types of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, whereas expression of CPE mRNA was virtually absent in their respective counterpart normal tissues.
  • Moreover, there was higher CPE mRNA expression in cells from the metastatic tumor compared to those from the primary tumor in colorectal cancer.
  • However, studies of neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytomas, revealed expression of not only wild-type CPE, but a variant which was correlated with tumor behavior.
  • Thus, collectively the data suggest that CPE may play a role in promoting tumor growth and invasion.
  • CPE could potentially serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for metastasis in different cancer types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carboxypeptidase H / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pheochromocytoma / enzymology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 21061162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD008804-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.17.10 / Carboxypeptidase H
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS230055; NLM/ PMC3057539
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72. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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73. Ohta S, Lai EW, Pang AL, Brouwers FM, Chan WY, Eisenhofer G, de Krijger R, Ksinantova L, Breza J, Blazicek P, Kvetnansky R, Wesley RA, Pacak K: Downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma. Int J Cancer; 2005 Mar 10;114(1):139-43
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  • [Title] Downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • There is no reliable method currently available to predict malignant potential of pheochromocytoma based on conventional histology or genetic, molecular or immunohistochemical markers.
  • Metastasis suppressor genes affect the spread of several cancers and, therefore, may provide promise as prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • We hypothesized that the downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes in malignant pheochromocytoma may play a role in malignant behavior.
  • These genes are known to be involved in the regulation of important cancer-related cellular events, such as cell growth regulation and apoptosis (nm23-H1, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, TIMP-4, TXNIP and CRSP-3), cell-cell communication (BRMS-1), invasion (CRMP-1) and cell adhesion (E-Cad and KiSS1).
  • The study included 15 benign and 10 malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • Six metastasis suppressor genes (nm23-H1, TIMP-4, BRMS-1, TXNIP, CRSP-3 and E-Cad) were downregulated significantly in malignant compared to benign pheochromocytoma (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test).
  • We applied a non-linear rule using median malignant value (MMV) as a threshold to use metastasis suppressor genes to distinguish malignant from benign samples.
  • After cross-validation, the non-linear rule produced no errors in 10 malignant samples and 3 errors in the 15 benign samples, with an overall error rate of 12%.
  • These results suggest that downregulation of metastasis suppressor genes reflect malignant pheochromocytoma with a high degree of sensitivity.
  • Thus, we conclude that altered function of these metastasis suppressor gene pathways may play an important role in the malignant behavior of pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Cadherins / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Male. Mediator Complex. Middle Aged. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases. Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15523699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / MED23 protein, human; 0 / Mediator Complex; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase
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74. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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76. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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77. Hamrahian AH, Ioachimescu AG, Remer EM, Motta-Ramirez G, Bogabathina H, Levin HS, Reddy S, Gill IS, Siperstein A, Bravo EL: Clinical utility of noncontrast computed tomography attenuation value (hounsfield units) to differentiate adrenal adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas: Cleveland Clinic experience. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):871-7
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of noncontrast computed tomography attenuation value (hounsfield units) to differentiate adrenal adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas: Cleveland Clinic experience.
  • Radiological characterization of an adrenal tumor as adenoma may decrease the need for follow-up imaging studies, biopsies, and unnecessary adrenalectomies.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 299 adrenalectomies in 290 patients at Cleveland Clinic Foundation over a recent 5-yr period to assess the value of noncontrast Hounsfield units (HU) in characterizing whether an adrenal mass is adenoma or nonadenoma.
  • The mean (+/- SD) HU value for the adrenocortical adenoma/hyperplasia group was 16.2 +/- 13.6 and significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than primary adrenocortical cancers (36.9 +/- 4.1), metastases (39.2 +/- 15.2), and pheochromocytomas (38.6 +/- 8.2).
  • The size of the adrenal tumor had less value with only 40.7 and 81.3% sensitivity and 94.7 and 61.4% specificity for 2- and 4-cm cutoff values.
  • A combination of less than or equal to 4-cm adrenal mass size and noncontrast computed tomography HU less than or equal to 20 had 42.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
  • Our study, the largest with surgical histopathology as the gold standard for diagnosis, supports a noncontrast computed tomography attenuation value of 10 HU as a safe cutoff value to differentiate adrenal adenomas/hyperplasias from nonadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15572420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Haghpanah V, Soliemanpour B, Heshmat R, Mosavi-Jarrahi AR, Tavangar SM, Malekzadeh R, Larijani B: Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system. Indian J Cancer; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system.
  • BACKGROUND: A population-based registry of endocrine cancer cases in four Iranian provinces, was performed for the years 1996-2000.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in each province were grouped according to age, gender and tumor specifics (site, morphology, behavior) and the data was coded according to the international classification of diseases for oncology.
  • RESULTS: A total of 319 cases of primary endocrine cancer were found and registered, including 313 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 6 cases of adrenal cancer.
  • For the 6 cases of adrenal cancer, 4 were neuroblastoma and 2 were pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Iodine / metabolism. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16790945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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79. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • Initially, a kidney sparing procedure with partial tangential excision of the involved renal vein wall was performed.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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80. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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81. Novara G, Ficarra V, Antonelli A, Artibani W, Bertini R, Carini M, Cosciani Cunico S, Imbimbo C, Longo N, Martignoni G, Martorana G, Minervini A, Mirone V, Montorsi F, Schiavina R, Simeone C, Serni S, Simonato A, Siracusano S, Volpe A, Carmignani G, SATURN Project-LUNA Foundation: Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):588-95
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  • [Title] Validation of the 2009 TNM version in a large multi-institutional cohort of patients treated for renal cell carcinoma: are further improvements needed?
  • BACKGROUND: A new edition of the TNM was recently released that includes modifications for the staging system of kidney cancers.
  • Specifically, T2 cancers were subclassified into T2a and T2b (< or =10 cm vs >10 cm), tumors with renal vein involvement or perinephric fat involvement were classified as T3a cancers, and those with adrenal involvement were classified as T4 cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate the recently released edition of the TNM staging system for primary tumor classification in kidney cancer.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed cancer-specific survival (CSS) after surgery.
  • In multivariable analysis, the novel classification of the primary tumor was a powerful independent predictor of CSS (p for trend <0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recently released seventh edition of the primary tumor staging system for kidney tumors is a powerful predictor of CSS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2011 Apr;185(4):1223 [22115474.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Oct;58(4):517-9; discussion 519-21 [20728266.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Eur Urol. 2011 Jan;59(1):182. Schiavina, Roberto [corrected to Schiavina, Riccardo]
  • (PMID = 20674150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Investigator] De Cobelli O; Schiavina R; Antonelli A; Corti S; Cosciani Cunico S; Simeone C; Castelli M; Cimino S; Favilla V; Morgia G; Billia M; Terrone C; Volpe A; Imbimbo C; Longo N; Mirone V; Carini M; Masieri L; Minervini A; Serni S; Carmignani G; Oneto F; Simonato A; Varca V; Rocco F; Artibani W; Ficarra V; Novara G; Costantini E; Porena M; Zucchi A; Morgia G; Ciciliato S; Lampropoulou N; Siracusano S; Fontana D; Gontero P; Tizzani A; Brunelli M; Martignoni G; Valotto C; Zattoni F
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82. Winczyk K: [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):156-66
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  • [Title] [The role of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARgamma) in neoplasms of endocrine glands].
  • PPARgamma take part in many processes such as adipogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis and inflammation and carcinogenesis.
  • The expression of PPARgamma was detected in normal and tumor cells of endocrine glands.
  • The reports about oncostatic effects of PPARgamma agonists in pituitary adenomas, thyroid cancers and adrenal tumor are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18465691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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83. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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84. Shen KR, Meyers BF, Larner JM, Jones DR, American College of Chest Physicians: Special treatment issues in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest; 2007 Sep;132(3 Suppl):290S-305S
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  • [Title] Special treatment issues in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
  • BACKGROUND: This chapter of the guidelines addresses patients who have particular forms of non-small cell lung cancer that require special considerations.
  • This includes patients with Pancoast tumors, T4N0,1M0 tumors, satellite nodules in the same lobe, synchronous and metachronous multiple primary lung cancers (MPLCs), solitary brain and adrenal metastases, and chest wall involvement.
  • For ensuring that these guidelines were supported by the most current data available, publications that were appropriate to the topics covered in this chapter were obtained by performance of a literature search of the MEDLINE computerized database.
  • Recommendations were developed by the writing committee, graded by a standardized method (see "Methodology for Lung Cancer Evidence Review and Guideline Development" chapter), and reviewed by all members of the lung cancer panel before approval by the Thoracic Oncology NetWork, Health and Science Policy Committee, and the Board of Regents of the American College of Chest Physicians.
  • RESULTS: In patients with a Pancoast tumor, a multimodality approach seems to be optimal, involving chemoradiotherapy and surgical resection, provided appropriate staging has been conducted.
  • Such patients, however, seem to benefit from resection as part of the treatment as opposed to chemoradiotherapy alone when carefully staged and selected.
  • Patients with a satellite lesion in the same lobe as the primary tumor have a good prognosis and require no modification of the approach to evaluation and treatment than what would be dictated by the primary tumor alone.
  • However, it is difficult to know how best to treat patients with a focus of the same type of cancer in a different lobe.
  • Although MPLCs do occur, the survival results after resection for either a synchronous presentation or a metachronous presentation with an interval of < 4 years between tumors are variable and generally poor, suggesting that many of these patients may have had a pulmonary metastasis rather than a second primary lung cancer.
  • A thorough and careful evaluation of these patients is warranted to try to differentiate between patients with a metastasis and a second primary lung cancer, although criteria to distinguish them have not been defined.
  • Selected patients with a solitary focus of metastatic disease in the brain or adrenal gland seem to benefit substantially from resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Pancoast Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17873175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Papewalis C, Kouatchoua C, Wuttke M, Jacobs B, Scherbaum WA, Schott M: Chromogranin a as potential tumour antigen in pheochromocytoma. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):707-9
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  • [Title] Chromogranin a as potential tumour antigen in pheochromocytoma.
  • Importantly, in vitro studies demonstrated the presence of naturally occurring CgA-specific cytotoxic T cells in patients with neuroendocrine cancers.
  • Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the potential role of CgA as tumour antigen in pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Chromogranin A / immunology. Pheochromocytoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19370504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromogranin A
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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86. Martarelli D, Pompei P, Baldi C, Mazzoni G: Mebendazole inhibits growth of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines implanted in nude mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(5):809-17
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland which requires new therapeutic approaches as its early diagnosis is difficult and prognosis poor despite therapies used.
  • Recently, mebendazole has been proved to be effective against different cancers.
  • Mebendazole significantly inhibited cancer cells growth, both in vitro and in vivo, the effects being due to the induction of apoptosis.
  • Moreover, mebendazole inhibited invasion and migration of cancer cells in vitro, and metastases formation in vivo.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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87. Guerrero MA, Kebebew E: Adrenocortical carcinoma and synchronous malignancies. J Cancer; 2010;1:108-11
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  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumor that accounts for 0.02% of all reported cancers.
  • ACC commonly arises in a sporadic manner, but may also manifest as part of a familial syndrome.
  • Regardless of the setting, ACC rarely arises concurrent with other malignant tumors.
  • We also provide a literature review of the past 20 years to identify other patients with ACC and synchronous malignant tumors, and those with familial syndromes associated with an increased risk of developing ACC.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with synchronous malignant tumors of the uterus, ovary and adrenal gland.
  • Review of the literature revealed only 5 other cases in which a patient had concurrent ACC and malignant tumors in other organs.

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  • (PMID = 20842232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1837-9664
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2938073
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / Ovarian cancer / Synchronous malignancies / Uterine cancer / and Hereditary syndrome
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88. Bowes T, Singh B, Gupta RS: Subcellular localization of fumarase in mammalian cells and tissues. Histochem Cell Biol; 2007 Mar;127(3):335-46
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  • In thin sections from kidney, liver, heart, adrenal gland and anterior pituitary, strong and specific labeling due to fumarase antibody was only detected in mitochondria.
  • Although the cellular function of fumarase at these extramitochondrial locations is not known, the appearance/localization of fumarase outside mitochondria may help explain how mutations in this mitochondrial protein can give rise to a number of different types of cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17111171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indicators and Reagents; EC 4.2.1.2 / Fumarate Hydratase; KOO5CM684H / Digitonin
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89. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • In summary, the DRB1*01 genotype may be correlated to a higher risk for malignancy.
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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90. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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91. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.


92. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


93. Krsek M: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • Adrenal cancer is a rare disease which is often diagnosed at a late stage and usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Further, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and current treatment options in patients with adrenal cancer are summarized.
  • The multidisciplinary approach as well as centralized care is necessary for successful management of patients with adrenal cancer and for improvement of their poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):6 [19227948.001]
  • (PMID = 19227956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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94. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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95. Muehling BM, Toelkes S, Schelzig H, Barth TF, Sunder-Plassmann L: Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Feb;10(2):228-31
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  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) are increasingly used in the treatment of progressive cancers.
  • Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR.
  • Our investigation of a pilot character represents a 'biomarker-based' analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate 'tumor profiling' at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis