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1. Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Ilias I: Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma with special emphasis on MEN2 syndrome. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Apr-Jun;8(2):111-6
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  • Although a limited number of studies are available, [18F]-fluorodopamine ([18F]DA) PET has been found to be the best overall imaging modality in the localization of PHEO.
  • For adrenal PHEOs, this method seems to be comparable to other functional modalities such as [18F]-fluorodopa ([18F]DOPA) PET or [123I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine ([123I]MIBG)scintigraphy.
  • In patients with metastatic PHEO, the sensitivity of [18F]DA PET is superior to [123I]MIBG.
  • The so called "flip-flop" imaging showing superiority of non-specific [18F] flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET over specific [18F]DA PET has been described in rapidly progressive, often metastatic SDHB-associated PHEOs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Dihydroxyphenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Paraganglioma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19570738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD008735-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • [Number-of-references] 38
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS750185; NLM/ PMC4713023
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2. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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3. Matsuoka T, Morikage N, Kuga T, Nakayama T, Fujii Y: [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jun;58(6):499-503
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  • [Title] [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case].
  • A 69-year-old man had undertaken left upper lobectomy (ND 2 a) with partial resection of the left lower lobe under the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer, T2N0M0, stage IB in June, 2002.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced tumor in the left adrenal lesion, 3 cm in diameter, in October, 2003.
  • Although a prognosis of LCNEC is poor in general, we should consider the resection of metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from LCNEC for long-term survival expectantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15957427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Târcoveanu E, Dimofte G, Bradea C, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Anton R, Ferariu D: Adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):116-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal schwannomas are very rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively.
  • We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 55-year-old man during a postoperative checkup for a cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: The biological evaluation was unremarkable, and the radiological examination revealed the adrenal mass that was first considered a metastatic lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A nonsecreting adrenal mass can be easily misjudged, especially in the context of a recently operated on malignancy.
  • Unilateral adrenal metastasis needs pathological confirmation, as it can dramatically affect prognosis.
  • Unusual tumors of the adrenal gland may be found incidentally, and a malignant context will generate difficulties in establishing the right management.

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  • (PMID = 19366556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
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5. Nair N, Basu S: Selected cases demonstrating the value of furosemide-primed 18F-FDG PET in identifying adrenal involvement. J Nucl Med Technol; 2005 Sep;33(3):166-71
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  • [Title] Selected cases demonstrating the value of furosemide-primed 18F-FDG PET in identifying adrenal involvement.
  • The adrenals are often a site of metastatic spread of cancer, and evaluation of the adrenals is important in assessing the extent of disease involvement in several malignancies.
  • PET with 18F-FDG has been found extremely effective in detecting adrenal involvement not identified on CT or not meeting the CT size criteria for malignancy.
  • It is not infrequent for physicians to report doubt about adrenal involvement and to suggest that the PET findings be correlated with CT findings.
  • We present 5 case vignettes, with representative illustrations, providing convincing evidence of the usefulness of this simple, noninvasive interventional procedure in ruling out suspected adrenal involvement that is otherwise difficult to assess, thereby obviating any further confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Furosemide. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16145224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-4916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nucl Med Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
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6. Nevo I, Sagi-Assif O, Edry Botzer L, Amar D, Maman S, Kariv N, Leider-Trejo LE, Savelyeva L, Schwab M, Yron I, Witz IP: Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants. Neoplasia; 2008 Aug;10(8):816-27
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  • [Title] Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants.
  • The disease usually arises in the adrenal medulla, and it is characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity in its progression.
  • Currently, models consisting of metastatic and nonmetastatic cell variants of the same genetic background exist for several types of cancer; however, none exists for NB.
  • SH-SY5Y and MHH-NB-11 NB cells were inoculated orthotopically into the adrenal glands of athymic nude mice.
  • Neuroblastoma cells metastasizing to the lungs were isolated from mice bearing adrenal tumors.
  • Lung metastatic variants were generated by repeated cycles of in vivo passage.
  • The NB metastatic variant in each model displayed unique properties, and both metastatic variants demonstrated a metastatic phenotype in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18683320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; J06Y7MXW4D / Deferoxamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504768
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7. Moch H, Artibani W, Delahunt B, Ficarra V, Knuechel R, Montorsi F, Patard JJ, Stief CG, Sulser T, Wild PJ: Reassessing the current UICC/AJCC TNM staging for renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol; 2009 Oct;56(4):636-43
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  • CONTEXT: The outcome prediction for renal cell cancer (RCC) remains controversial, and although many parameters have been tested for prognostic significance, only a few have achieved widespread acceptance in clinical practice.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search in English was performed using the National Library of Medicine database and the following keywords: renal cell cancer, kidney neoplasm, and staging.
  • In detail, perirenal fat invasion, direct infiltration of the ipsilateral adrenal gland, invasion of the urinary collecting system, infiltration of renal sinus fat, and vena cava and renal vein thrombosis are disputed.
  • Finally, staging of lymph node metastases and distant metastatic disease is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 19595500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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8. Youn JC, Rhee Y, Park SY, Kim WH, Kim SJ, Chung HC, Hong SW, Lim SK: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr J; 2006 Jun;53(3):339-43
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  • An 85-year-old man who had undergone a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer presented with severe hypothyroidism and hoarseness 21 months after the operation.
  • Core biopsy of the thyroid gland showed invasion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells.
  • There were multiple lung parenchymal nodules and adrenal masses at the time of evaluation.
  • From these findings and the clinical observations, thyroid metastasis with hypothyroidism developing acutely from metastatic colon adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.

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  • (PMID = 16714841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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9. Tsalis K, Zacharakis E, Sapidis N, Lambrou I, Zacharakis E, Betsis D: Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jul 25;3:50
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be found in the lung and adrenal gland.
  • We report case of a patient who presented with adrenal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of HCC.
  • The computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a mass originating from the left adrenal gland.
  • Histologically, the resected lesion was a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor from HCC.
  • Fine needle aspiration/tru-cut biopsy might be useful in the investigation of an accidentally discovered adrenal mass regardless of the size and can lead to the detection of a primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16042808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1187929
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10. Huang H, Abraham J, Hung E, Averbuch S, Merino M, Steinberg SM, Pacak K, Fojo T: Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine: recommendation from a 22-year follow-up of 18 patients. Cancer; 2008 Oct 15;113(8):2020-8
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  • Eighteen patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma were studied.
  • The authors conclude that CVD therapy is not indicated in every patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, but should be considered in the management of patients with symptoms and where tumor shrinkage might be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18780317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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11. Ayas S, Gurbuz A, Karateke A, Cetiner H: Placental site trophoblastic tumor with multiple metastases and complete response to salvage BEP regimen: a case report and review of the literature. Med Oncol; 2009;26(1):96-100
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  • Multiple metastases in lungs, liver, kidneys, breast, pancreas, and adrenal and thyroid glands were detected.
  • All metastatic lesions disappeared with EMA-CO treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / therapeutic use. Digestive System Neoplasms / blood. Digestive System Neoplasms / secondary. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / blood. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Kidney Neoplasms / blood. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / blood. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Pelvis / surgery. Pregnancy. Uterine Hemorrhage. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18506643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; BEP protocol; EMA-CO protocol
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12. Matsukawa H, Shiozaki S, Takakura N, Aoki H, Fujiwara Y, Ohno S, Ojima Y, Harano M, Nishizaki M, Choda Y, Ninomiya M: [A 6-year survival case of locally advanced unresectable pancreatic tail cancer treated with chemo-radiation therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2355-7
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  • [Title] [A 6-year survival case of locally advanced unresectable pancreatic tail cancer treated with chemo-radiation therapy].
  • We report a case of locally advanced unresectable pancreatic tail cancer patient who survived over 6 years by chemo-radiation therapy (CRT).
  • A 61-year-old male was pointed out by CT to have pancreatic tail cancer of 5.6 cm in diameter that invaded to the stomach, left kidney and adrenal gland, nerve plexus of celiac and superior mesenteric artery, was diagnosed as locally advanced unresectable pancreatic tail cancer.
  • Finally, 6 years and 6 months after the first diagnosis, he died of pancreatic cancer.
  • A long-term survival of locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer is very rare.
  • In the case of pancreatic cancer that CRT is effective to the remission of primary lesion, CRT is potentially useful to perform for the control of metastatic lesion or palliative therapy.

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  • (PMID = 21224571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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13. Lee SE, Jeon EJ, Oh JH, Shim KH, Lee J, Kim EH, Choi SW, Min KO: [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan;51(1):40-4
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis].
  • The most common metastatic sites of gastric cancer are liver, lung, bone and adrenal gland.
  • However, skin metastases from gastric cancer are relatively rare.
  • We herein report a case of advanced gastric cancer with perianal skin metastasis in a 70-year-old male.
  • Endoscopy and abdominal CT scan demonstrated the stage IV gastric cancer.
  • We suspected that the perianal lesion was originated from gastric cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18349561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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14. Plaza JA, Perez-Montiel D, Mayerson J, Morrison C, Suster S: Metastases to soft tissue: a review of 118 cases over a 30-year period. Cancer; 2008 Jan 1;112(1):193-203
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  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumors presenting as soft tissue masses are relatively rare and can be the source of diagnostic confusion both clinically and pathologically.
  • The primary tumor was located in the skin (19 patients), lung (13 patients), breast (13 patients), kidney (12 patients), colon and rectum (12 patients), uterus (8 patients), ovary (5 patients), head and neck (tongue, pharynx, larynx, nasal cavity, and mandible) (5 patients), esophagus (2 patients), stomach (2 patients), cervix (2 patients), small bowel (2 patients), bone (2 patients), adrenal gland (1 patient), eye (1 patient), testis (1 patient), urinary bladder (1 patient), and salivary gland (1 patient).

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  • [Copyright] 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18040999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Sperone P, Berruti A, Gorzegno G, Paccotti P, Terzolo M, Porpiglia F, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):560-2
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  • [Title] Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane.
  • Adreno-cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis.
  • Complete surgical resection of the primary tumor and, when feasible, of the local and distant metastases offers the best prospects for long-term survival; conversely, the role of systemic therapy in patients developing unresectable metastatic disease is unclear.
  • We describe the case of a young female patient (36 yr) who presented with an androgen-releasing metastatic ACC.
  • The left adrenal gland was then removed and histopathological examination showed extensive tumor necrosis and the absence of viable cancer cells.
  • This report shows that chemotherapy plus mitotane could result in complete pathological remission, which may be a surrogate for long-term progression- free survival in metastatic ACC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16840836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Netelenbos T, Nooij MA, Nortier JW: Diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Neth J Med; 2006 Sep;64(8):310-3
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  • [Title] Diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
  • A patient previously treated for bilateral breast cancer with mastectomy, radiation therapy and in remission on hormonal therapy for more than five years presented with abdominal symptoms from breast cancer relapse.
  • Furthermore, primary adrenal insufficiency had developed, ascribed to bilateral tumour invasion of the adrenals.
  • This rare combination of endocrinological failures in a patient with metastatic breast cancer is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


17. Kita M, Tamaki G, Okuyama M, Saga Y, Kakizaki H: Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Nov;53(11):761-6
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in cases of metastatic adrenal tumor remain controversial.
  • To clarify indications and outcomes of adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis, we performed a retrospective review of all 8 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis between 1990 and 2006 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital.
  • The Primary tumor was renal cell carcinoma in 2 cases, and eccrine poro carcinoma, rectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer and cancer of unknown origin in 1 case each.
  • Of the 4 patients with solitary adrenal metastasis, 3 were considered tumor-free after adrenalectomy, while the remaining patient was not due to unresectable primary tumor.
  • At least in cases of solitary adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy can be effective if other valid methods are unavailable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 18051798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Kauhanen S, Seppänen M, Ovaska J, Minn H, Bergman J, Korsoff P, Salmela P, Saltevo J, Sane T, Välimäki M, Nuutila P: The clinical value of [18F]fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography in primary diagnosis, staging, and restaging of neuroendocrine tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Mar;16(1):255-65
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  • The mean s.d. sizes of primary and metastatic lesions detected by PET were 26+/-11 and 16+/-9 mm respectively.
  • For the NETs located in the head-neck-thoracic region (n=19), the overall accuracy of PET was 89% including 12 cases of recurrent medullary thyroid cancer with a sensitivity of 90%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Jun;16(2):661
  • (PMID = 19088184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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19. Phan AT: Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):489-507; viii-ix
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor long-term prognosis.
  • Accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of the patient presenting with an adrenal mass maximize the opportunity for optimal treatment planning.
  • In metastatic or recurrent disease, systemic treatment options are limited to chemotherapy with or without mitotane.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17548036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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20. Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB: The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):569-85
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  • Although a subset of these tumours has metastatic disease at initial presentation, a significant number develops metastases during follow-up after excision of an apparently benign tumour.
  • Functional imaging using radiolabelled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and more recently, (18)F-fluorodopamine and (18)F-fluorodopa positron emission tomography offer substantial sensitivity and specificity to correctly detect metastatic phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma and helps identify patients suitable for treatment with radiopharmaceuticals.
  • Chemotherapy has been used for metastatic disease with only a partial and mainly palliative effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17914089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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21. Lu Y, Xie D, Huang W, Gong H, Yu J: 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses in lung cancer patients. Neoplasma; 2010;57(2):129-34
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses in lung cancer patients.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of integrated (18)F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating benign from metastatic malignant adrenal masses in patients with lung cancer.
  • One hundred and ten adrenal masses (size range, 0.5 - 6.3 cm, mean size, 1.9 cm) were evaluated retrospectively in 87 lung cancer patients.
  • PET findings were interpreted as positive if the (18)F-FDG uptake of the adrenal mass was greater than or equal to that of the liver.
  • PET findings were interpreted as negative if the 18F-FDG uptake of the adrenal mass was less than that of the liver.
  • PET/CT findings were positive in 77 adrenal masses.
  • Seventy-four of these were eventually considered to be metastatic adrenal disease.
  • In the end, histopathological examinations of the adrenal lesions demonstrated the presence of adenomas.
  • PET/CT findings were negative in 33 adrenal masses, of which 31 eventually proved to be benign.
  • The 2 adrenal masses that were false-negative, underwent PET/CT twice with a two-month interval.
  • Both adrenal masses were interpreted as metastasis.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting metastatic disease were 97 %( 74 of 76), 94 %( 31 of 34), and 95% (105 of 110), respectively.
  • Integrated (18)F-FDG PET-CT is an accurate, noninvasive technique for differentiating benign from metastatic adrenal lesions detected on CT or MRI in patients with lung cancer.
  • It allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


22. Gomez-Roca C, Raynaud CM, Penault-Llorca F, Mercier O, Commo F, Morat L, Sabatier L, Dartevelle P, Taranchon E, Besse B, Validire P, Italiano A, Soria JC: Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Oct;4(10):1212-20
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  • [Title] Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites.
  • The correlation of biomarker expression between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis has not yet been well documented and analyzed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • The ERCC1 status was discordant in 20 cases (41%), with a trend toward overexpression in brain and adrenal metastases (p = 0.01 and p = 0.08, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism


23. Lin TY, Chou YY, Hsiao FC, Wang YC, Chang PY, Yao NS: Lung cancer metastatic to the masticator space. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):349-51
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  • [Title] Lung cancer metastatic to the masticator space.
  • BACKGROUND: Distant metastasis from lung cancer occurs most frequently to the brain, bone, adrenal gland, liver, lymph nodes, and spinal cord.
  • However, masticator space metastasis is rarely found among lung cancer patients.
  • Clinicians should carefully evaluate cancer patients who report a painful sensation in the cheek.


24. Jarrell ST, Vortmeyer AO, Linehan WM, Oldfield EH, Lonser RR: Metastases to hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Neurosurg; 2006 Aug;105(2):256-63
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  • OBJECT: Patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may be at increased risk for the development of tumor-to-tumor metastases.
  • To gain insight into the biological nature of these lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), to determine their prevalence in a familial neoplasia syndrome, and to better define their management, the authors retrospectively examined a series of cases in which metastatic lesions developed within hemangioblastomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease.
  • The primary site of metastatic disease was the kidney in five patients (renal cell carcinoma) and the pancreas in one (a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / diagnosis


25. Costa DB, Parker JA, Schumer ST: Modern treatment of lung cancer: case 3. Non-metastatic bilateral F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose avid adrenal glands in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 20;23(30):7740-2
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  • [Title] Modern treatment of lung cancer: case 3. Non-metastatic bilateral F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose avid adrenal glands in non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals


26. Ghayee HK, Wyne KL, Yau FS, Snyder WH 3rd, Holt S, Gokaslan ST, Nwariaku F: The many faces of pheochromocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 May;31(5):450-8
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging localized a 6.6-cm right adrenal mass with features consistent with a pheochromocytoma.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left adrenal mass and CT-guided biopsy was consistent with a pheochromocytoma, although prior studies were negative.
  • Further testing revealed she had a recurrent metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • Finally, treatment with iodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine may be a therapeutic option for those patients with metastatic pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18560264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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27. Pfannschmidt J, Dienemann H: Surgical treatment of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2010 Sep;69(3):251-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Patients with stage IV metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are generally believed to have an incurable disease.
  • Patients with oligometastatic disease represent a distinct subset of patients among those with metastatic disease.
  • This article discusses the biology of the oligometastatic state in patients with lung cancer and the selection of patients for surgery, as well as the prognostic factors that influence survival of the patient.
  • Patients with resected brain metastasis achieve 5-year survival rates between 11% and 30%, and those with adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis achieve 5-year survival rates of 26%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / surgery


28. Shantha GP, Kumar AA, Jeyachandran V, Rajamanickam D, Bhaskar E, Paniker VK, Abraham G: Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks.
  • Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity.
  • Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer.
  • Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland.
  • The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency.
  • He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit.
  • The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later.
  • Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks.

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  • (PMID = 21686682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029429
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29. Kim H, Park BK, Kim CK: Spontaneous regression of pulmonary and adrenal metastases following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a recurrent renal cell carcinoma. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Sep-Oct;9(5):470-2
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of pulmonary and adrenal metastases following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of a recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • The spontaneous regression of metastatic lesions from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare, but may be encountered following cytoreductive treatments.
  • We report a case of a recurrent RCC with multiple metastatic lesions which spontaneously regressed after undergoing radiofrequency ablation of the renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary


30. Mercuri S, Gazzeri R, Galarza M, Esposito S, Giordano M: Primary meningeal pheochromocytoma: case report. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):169-72
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  • Reported cases include metastatic tumors without known cases of primary pheochromocytomas.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A female patient with a history of a surgically treated adrenal pheochromocytoma presented 23 years later with headache, nausea and blood hypertension.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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31. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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32. Kuczyk M, Wegener G, Jonas U: The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):252-7
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  • [Title] The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Solitary adrenal metastases occur in about 1.2-10% of renal cell cancer patients.
  • Since the vast majority of intraadrenal lesions can be detected preoperatively, we and others have recently recommended to renounce a routine adrenalectomy during surgery of renal cell cancer.
  • However, the impact of adrenalectomy on the patients' clinical prognosis in case of a solitary metastatic lesion within the adrenal gland remains an issue of controversial discussion.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Between 1981 and 2000, 648 patients (440 males and 208 females) underwent nephrectomy in combination with adrenalectomy in our clinic for the diagnosis of renal cell cancer.
  • Although metastases of the adrenal gland were diagnosed in 48 patients, solitary intraadrenal metastases without further systemic spread were observed in only 13 cases.
  • Several patients' and tumor characteristics (age, tumor stage and size, the presence of regional lymph node metastases, the presence of metastatic lesions at different organ sites as well as the detection of solitary intraadrenal metastases) were correlated with the patients' overall survival by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (logistic Cox regression analysis).
  • The median long - term survival was 13.8 years and 11.7 years for patients with no evidence of metastatic spread as well as for patients with a solitary intraadrenal metastatic lesion, respectively.
  • Accordingly, the long - term survival rates at 5 and 10 years after surgery were 66%/50% and 51%/51% for patients with no evidence of metastatic spread or isolated intraadrenal metastases.
  • DISCUSSION: For patients with a solitary intraadrenal metastatic lesion, adrenalectomy is a potentially curative treatment option.
  • The observation that the long - term survival of the latter patients is comparable to that of patients with organ - confined disease might suggest the establishment of a separate TNM - category for patients revealing a solitary metastasis within the adrenal gland and no hint at further systemic metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology


33. DeWitt J, Alsatie M, LeBlanc J, McHenry L, Sherman S: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses. Endoscopy; 2007 Jan;39(1):65-71
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Although the left adrenal gland is readily visible by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), there are few published data on the utility of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of this site.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of EUS-FNA of left adrenal gland masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we reviewed our EUS and cytology databases to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland between January 1997 and January 2004.
  • RESULTS: Our searches resulted in the identification of a series of 38 consecutive patients who underwent EUS for the evaluation of a lung mass (n = 14), a pancreatic mass (n = 14), obstructive jaundice (n = 1), dysphagia (n = 2), an ampullary adenoma (n = 1), celiac block (n = 1), or a left adrenal gland mass (n = 5).
  • The mean maximal left adrenal mass diameter was 24 mm (range 7-66 mm).
  • Diagnoses after EUS-FNA (the mean number of passes was 3.6) were: metastatic lung cancer (n = 2), esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1); primary pheochromocytoma (n = 1); benign adrenal tissue (n = 21); and granulomatous inflammation (n = 1).
  • The absence of a discrete adrenal mass on EUS occurred more frequently in patients with nondiagnostic biopsies than in those with diagnostic biopsies (56 % vs. 7 %; odds ratio 23.4, 95 %CI 3.5 - 157.0; P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and can be useful for the evaluation and staging of suspected malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Ultrasonography


34. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Dartevelle P, Commo F, Olaussen KA, de Montpreville V, André F, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer; 2010 May;11(3):187-91
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  • [Title] Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that chemokines are involved in organ-specific metastatic relapse.
  • We evaluated the potential implications of chemokine receptors in the development of adrenal metastasis after complete resections of primary non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a unique cohort of 21 primary lung cancers with matched adrenal metastases for the expression of CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR6, and CCR7, using immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Although CXCR4, CX3CR1, and CCR7 were independently expressed in primary and corresponding metastases, CCR6 was clearly overexpressed in adrenal metastases, compared with corresponding primary tumors.
  • Moreover, CCL20, the ligand of CCR6, was preferentially expressed in adrenal tissues that developed metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: We report for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a potential role for the CCR6 receptor in the organ orientation of the development of metastases in lung cancer.
  • We demonstrated a statistically significant overexpression of CCR6 in adrenal metastases compared with primary lung tumors, indicating that the increased production of CCL20 in adrenal glands might contribute to the selective recruitment of CCR6-expressing cancer cells in lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, CCR6 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20439195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0690
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / CCR7 protein, human; 0 / CX3CR1 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL20; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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35. Bisenkov LN, Shalaev SA, Orzheshkovskiĭ OV, Platunov SK, Efremov FA: [One-stage operations on the lungs and other organs in multifocal and metastatic cancer]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(4):33-6
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  • [Title] [One-stage operations on the lungs and other organs in multifocal and metastatic cancer].
  • Surgical treatment of 135 patients with multifocal and metastatic cancer of the lungs and other organs is analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery


36. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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37. Barrisford GW, Sartor O, Richie JP: Solitary adrenal metastatic lesion in a patient with a history of prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2009 Jan;7(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Solitary adrenal metastatic lesion in a patient with a history of prostate cancer.
  • Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among American men.
  • Although prostate cancer-related death approximates only 3%, advanced disease can become widely disseminated.
  • Metastatic disease is often found in a number of common sites.
  • We report the uncommon presentation of a solitary adrenal lesion treated with surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


38. Ohta S, Lai EW, Morris JC, Bakan DA, Klaunberg B, Cleary S, Powers JF, Tischler AS, Abu-Asab M, Schimel D, Pacak K: MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice. Int J Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2236-41
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  • Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy.
  • This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer.
  • We report a new mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma, generated using tail vein injection of the mouse pheochromocytoma cell (MPC) line that reproducibly generated multiple liver tumors in the animals.
  • This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16841334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS 37685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS43416; NLM/ PMC2288741
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39. Mizuno S, Iida T, Fujita S: Adult-onset adrenal ganglioneuroblastoma - Bone metastasis two years after surgery: report of a case. Surg Today; 2010 May;40(5):482-6
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  • [Title] Adult-onset adrenal ganglioneuroblastoma - Bone metastasis two years after surgery: report of a case.
  • This report presents a case of an adrenal GNB in a 53-year-old man with bone metastasis after surgery.
  • The patient experienced an increased frequency of urination and was found to have a nonfunctioning tumor in the right adrenal gland.
  • Two years after surgery, multiple metastatic lesions were found in the patient's lumbar spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / surgery. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20425556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Martiniova L, Lai EW, Elkahloun AG, Abu-Asab M, Wickremasinghe A, Solis DC, Perera SM, Huynh TT, Lubensky IA, Tischler AS, Kvetnansky R, Alesci S, Morris JC, Pacak K: Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2009;26(3):239-50
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  • [Title] Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature.
  • There is presently no cure for metastatic pheochromocytoma and no reliable way to distinguish malignant from benign tumors before the development of metastases.
  • For this purpose, we have recently established a mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma using tail vein injection of mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells.
  • We optimized this model modifying the number of cells injected, length of trypsin pre-treatment, and incubation temperature and duration for the MPC cells before injection, and by serial passage and re-selection of tumors exhibiting the metastatic phenotype.
  • These results show that number of cells injected, the pre-injection incubation temperature, and duration of trypsin treatment are important factors to produce faster growing, more aggressive tumors that yielded secondary metastatic lesions.
  • Serial harvest, culture and re-selection of metastatic liver lesions produced even more aggressive pheochromocytoma cells that retained their biochemical phenotype.
  • Microarray gene expression comparison and quantitative real-time PCR of these more aggressive cells to the MPC-parental cell line identified genes that may be important for the metastatic process.

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  • (PMID = 19169894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7276
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIC HG200365-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIC HG200365-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 37685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIC HG200365-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS420223; NLM/ PMC3505859
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41. Sung YM, Lee KS, Kim BT, Choi JY, Chung MJ, Shim YM, Yi CA, Kim TS: (18)F-FDG PET versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT for adrenal gland lesion characterization: a comparison of diagnostic efficacy in lung cancer patients. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Jan-Feb;9(1):19-28
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  • [Title] (18)F-FDG PET versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT for adrenal gland lesion characterization: a comparison of diagnostic efficacy in lung cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of integrated PET/CT using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the differentiation of benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in patients with lung cancer and to compare the diagnostic efficacy with the use of PET alone.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-one adrenal lesions (size range, 5-104 mm; mean size, 16 mm) were evaluated retrospectively in 42 lung cancer patients.
  • PET findings were interpreted as positive if the FDG uptake of adrenal lesions was greater than or equal to that of the liver, and the PET/CT findings were interpreted as positive if an adrenal lesion show attenuation > 10 HU and showed increased FDG uptake.
  • Final diagnoses of adrenal gland lesions were made at clinical follow-up (n = 52) or by a biopsy (n = 9) when available.
  • The diagnostic accuracies of PET and PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal lesions were compared using the McNemar test.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five (57%) of the 61 adrenal lesions were metastatic and the remaining 26 lesions were benign.
  • For the depiction of adrenal gland metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET were 74%, 73%, and 74%, respectively, whereas those of integrated PET/CT were 80%, 89%, and 84%, respectively (p values; 0.5, 0.125, and 0.031, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The use of integrated PET/CT is more accurate than the use of PET alone for differentiating benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in lung cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627169
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42. Agemy L, Harmelin A, Waks T, Leibovitch I, Rabin T, Pfeffer MR, Eshhar Z: Irradiation enhances the metastatic potential of prostatic small cell carcinoma xenografts. Prostate; 2008 Apr 1;68(5):530-9
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  • [Title] Irradiation enhances the metastatic potential of prostatic small cell carcinoma xenografts.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare subset of prostate cancer (0.5-2% of all prostatic carcinomas), predominantly composed of neuroendocrine (NE) cells, with a very poor prognosis.
  • Metastases of both xenografts were located in the adrenal/kidney and inter-scapular regions, areas rich in brown adipose tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinically, this study raises the possibility that radiation to SCCP may promote metastatic disease.
  • For patients in whom prostate biopsy shows a predominance of small cell cancer, it may be necessary to deliver systemic therapy together with the radiotherapy in order to prevent the development of metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18247403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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43. Strong VE, Kennedy T, Al-Ahmadie H, Tang L, Coleman J, Fong Y, Brennan M, Ghossein RA: Prognostic indicators of malignancy in adrenal pheochromocytomas: clinical, histopathologic, and cell cycle/apoptosis gene expression analysis. Surgery; 2008 Jun;143(6):759-68
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  • [Title] Prognostic indicators of malignancy in adrenal pheochromocytomas: clinical, histopathologic, and cell cycle/apoptosis gene expression analysis.
  • The histologic differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is difficult, the latter diagnosed by the presence of metastatic disease or recurrence.
  • AIM: To determine if postoperative histologic evaluation using the previously proposed Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and cell cycle/apoptosis markers can predict patients at risk for recurrence.
  • METHODS: Using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center adrenal database, we identified 48 patients with 51 resected pheochromocytomas (1987-2006).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


44. Shoji Y, Dohke M, Masuda T, Nakamura F, Yano T, Niizeki H, Kashimura N, Matsunami O: Solitary adrenal metastasis in a patient with sigmoid colon cancer; report of a case. Int J Gastrointest Cancer; 2006;37(4):120-3
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  • [Title] Solitary adrenal metastasis in a patient with sigmoid colon cancer; report of a case.
  • A 73-year-old man had sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer in December 2001.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right adrenal mass and no other abnormality.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was a solitary adrenal metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer; the lesion was removed in September 2002.
  • On pathology, adrenal metastasis was confirmed.
  • Although the patient's serum CEA normalized soon thereafter, 12 months after adrenalectomy, the CEA again increased; the patient had local recurrence of the resected adrenal lesion and liver metastasis.
  • Adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer is not unusual; however, a solitary metastasis is rarely found and resected surgically.
  • As surgical treatment of the metastatic lesion could improve patients' prognosis to some extent if it is detected early, the possibility of adrenal metastasis should be kept in mind when colorectal cancer patients are followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18175226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-3649
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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45. Silvio Estaba L, Madrazo González Z, Pujol Gebelli J, Masdevall Noguera C, Rafecas Renau A, Moreno Llorente P: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis]. Cir Esp; 2007 Apr;81(4):197-201
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica por sospecha de metástasis adrenal solitaria.
  • INTRODUCTION: Isolated adrenal metastasis is uncommon.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications, diagnosis and utility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in patients with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted in patients with current or previous tumoral disease and with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • Fifteen LA were performed (one patient was found to have an inoperable tumor at surgery).
  • The most common metastatic disease was non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (10 patients), followed by colorectal cancer metastasis (two patients).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA for metastasis can be performed without oncological disadvantage and should be offered to patients with resectable disease, a DFI > 6 months, and a tumoral size that allows laparoscopic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17403355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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46. Woo SM, Park JW, Han SS, Choi JI, Lee WJ, Park SJ, Hong EK, Kim CM: Isolated pancreatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Apr 15;2(4):209-12
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  • The most common organ of HCC metastasis is lung, followed by bone and adrenal gland.
  • The lesion was successfully resected with the pancreas, and no other metastatic lesions have been found in follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 21160600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999179
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatocellular carcinoma / Metastasis / Pancreas
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47. Zelinka T, Timmers HJ, Kozupa A, Chen CC, Carrasquillo JA, Reynolds JC, Ling A, Eisenhofer G, Lazúrová I, Adams KT, Whatley MA, Widimsky J Jr, Pacak K: Role of positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of bone involvement in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: specific implications for succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B gene mutations. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):311-23
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  • [Title] Role of positron emission tomography and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of bone involvement in metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: specific implications for succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B gene mutations.
  • We performed a retrospective analysis of 71 subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (30 subjects with mutation of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme subunit B (SDHB) gene and 41 subjects without SDHB mutation).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radionuclide Imaging. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18310297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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48. Ludvigsen L, Toxvaerd A, Mahdi B, Krarup-Hansen A, Bergenfeldt M: Successful resection of an advanced duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor after down-staging with imatinib: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(12):1105-9
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  • Imatinib mesylate, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is highly efficient against locally advanced or metastatic GIST.
  • We performed Whipple's procedure combined with en bloc resection of the right kidney and adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 18030576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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49. Alcasabas P, Dettore A, Ozgönenel B, Bhambhani K, Ravindranath Y, Savaşan S: Vacuolated neuroblastoma cells mimicking FAB L(3) lymphoblasts in bone marrow aspirates. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Feb;48(2):227-9
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  • Abundant cytoplasmic vacuolation of neuroblasts has been noted on bone marrow aspirate (BMA) smears of two patients with metastatic neuroblastoma.
  • Cytoplasmic vacuolations of neuroblasts may be a feature of metastatic neuroblastoma cells in BMA smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology


50. Brasse D, Mathelin C, Leroux K, Chenard MP, Blaise S, Stoll I, Tomasetto C, Rio MC: Matrix metalloproteinase 11/stromelysin-3 exerts both activator and repressor functions during the hematogenous metastatic process in mice. Int J Cancer; 2010 Sep 1;127(6):1347-55
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase 11/stromelysin-3 exerts both activator and repressor functions during the hematogenous metastatic process in mice.
  • Although it has been shown to favor primary tumor development, its role in metastatic processes remains unclear.
  • We studied the hematogenous metastatic activity of C26 mouse colon cancer cells injected into the tail vain of wild-type or MMP11-deficient mice during 2 months.
  • Histological analyses of the lung, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, mammary gland, ovary and salivary gland, performed at the end of experiment, also showed lower numbers of metastases in wild-type mice, regardless of organ.
  • Furthermore, they point-out the paradoxical role of MMP11 in favoring the onset and growth of lung metastases but limiting lung foci number, and inhibiting the cancer cell dissemination to other organs.
  • These data highlight the complexity of the metastatic process in which the same factor can play activator or repressor functions depending on the metastatic step.

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  • (PMID = 20209494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 11
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51. Kim EY, Yoo SY, Kim JH, Sung KW: Pancreatic metastasis in a child suffering with treated stage 4 neuroblastoma. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Jan-Feb;9(1):84-6
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  • We present here a very rare case of metastatic relapse in the pancreas of a 4-year-old boy who had been treated for stage 4 neuroblastoma.
  • Computed tomography showed multiple metastatic masses in the pancreas with secondary pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary


52. Iihara M: [Therapeutic strategy for pheochromocytoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1623-6
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  • Pheochromocytoma is the most common type of neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Pheochromocytoma has been termed a 10% tumor because roughly 10% of such tumors are malignant, multifocal, bilateral, and arise in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery is a treatment of choice for bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • Cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine combined chemotherapy and (131)I-MIBG therapy are required for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


53. Lehmann J, Suttmann H, Albers P, Volkmer B, Gschwend JE, Fechner G, Spahn M, Heidenreich A, Odenthal A, Seif C, Nürnberg N, Wülfing C, Greb C, Kälble T, Grimm MO, Fieseler CF, Krege S, Retz M, Schulte-Baukloh H, Gerber M, Hack M, Kamradt J, Stöckle M: Surgery for metastatic urothelial carcinoma with curative intent: the German experience (AUO AB 30/05). Eur Urol; 2009 Jun;55(6):1293-9
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  • [Title] Surgery for metastatic urothelial carcinoma with curative intent: the German experience (AUO AB 30/05).
  • INTERVENTION: Resected metastatic sites were the following: retroperitoneal lymph nodes (56.8%), distant lymph nodes (11.3%), lung (18.2%), bone (4.5%), adrenal gland (2.3%), brain (2.3%), small intestine (2.3%), and skin (2.3%).
  • MEASUREMENTS: Overall, cancer-specific and progression-free survival from time of diagnosis and metastasectomy of UCM.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median survival from initial diagnosis of UCM and subsequent resection was as follows: overall survival, 35 mo and 27 mo; cancer-specific survival, 38 mo and 34 mo; and progression-free survival, 19 mo and 15 mo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term cancer control and possible cure can be achieved in a subgroup of patients following surgical removal of UCM.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2009 Jun;55(6):1300-1 [19124189.001]
  • (PMID = 19058907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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54. Tanaka T, Fujita H, Sueyoshi S, Tanaka Y, Sasahara H, Mori N, Nagano T, Yamana H, Shirouzu K: Second-line combination chemotherapy with docetaxel for cisplatin-pretreated refractory metastatic esophageal cancer: a preliminary report of initial experience. Chemotherapy; 2007;53(6):449-53
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  • [Title] Second-line combination chemotherapy with docetaxel for cisplatin-pretreated refractory metastatic esophageal cancer: a preliminary report of initial experience.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with esophageal cancer often develop metastatic disease after esophageal resection and generally receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
  • The efficacy and toxicity of the combination of docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (DFC) as a second-line chemotherapy were evaluated in patients with postoperative metastatic esophageal cancer refractory to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with metastatic esophageal cancer after esophagectomy refractory to cisplatin-based therapy were included in this study.
  • CONCLUSION: DFC is a feasible and promising regimen as a second-line therapy in metastatic/recurrent esophageal cancer refractory to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome


55. Ilias I, Pacak K: Diagnosis, localization and treatment of pheochromocytoma in MEN 2 syndrome. Endocr Regul; 2009 Apr;43(2):89-93
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  • Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) in patients with MEN 2 are usually found in the adrenals after the manifestation of medullary thyroid cancer.
  • Among these specific modalities positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-fluorodopamine ([18F]DA) stands out as the best overall method.
  • If PHEO/PGL-specific modalities turn out to be negative functional imaging should follow with nonspecific modalities (particularly if recurrent, metastatic or malignant disease is suspected).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


56. Kosaka T, Mikami S, Miyajima A, Oya M: Metastatic type-2 papillary renal cell carcinoma responded to interleukin-2 therapy: case report. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2008 Apr;12(2):155-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic type-2 papillary renal cell carcinoma responded to interleukin-2 therapy: case report.
  • This report documents a case of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) which successfully responded to interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy.
  • A 59-year-old male presented with a left renal mass measuring 3.0 cm in diameter and a right adrenal mass measuring 5.0 cm in diameter.
  • The histological findings revealed pT1bN1M1 type-2 PRCC and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the right adrenal gland.
  • A CT scan revealed a metastatic nodule measuring 6.0 cm in diameter near the surface of the liver at 4 months after the operation.
  • However, a new metastatic nodule measuring 6.0 cm in diameter was found which came in contact with the spleen.
  • At 9 months of follow-up after the dose escalation, a CT scan revealed a dramatic decrease in the size of these two metastatic nodules to 1.5 and 0.5 cm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy


57. Tanaka T, Sekimura A, Tanaka H, Tonegawa K, Ogawa K, Haneda H: [Gallbladder metastasis of large cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Nov;62(12):1069-72
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  • [Title] [Gallbladder metastasis of large cell lung cancer].
  • Pathological diagnosis was adenosquamous cell carcinoma After 1 year and 4 months later, left adrenal gland tumor was found by CT scan, and the surgery was conducted.
  • Pathologically, it was diagnosed as metastasis from lung cancer.
  • By reevaluation of pathology of the gallbladder, the tumor was found to have similar component of resected lung cancer, suggesting the possibility of the tumor to be metastatic.

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  • (PMID = 19894573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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58. Boland GW, Blake MA, Holalkere NS, Hahn PF: PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Apr;192(4):956-62
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  • [Title] PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients with PET/CT to determine whether qualitative (visual) assessment, quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV), or standardized uptake ratio (SUR) techniques should be used when attempting to characterize adrenal masses in patients with cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 150 consecutive patients (78 men, 72 women; mean age, 60 years; range, 24-88 years) with documented adrenal lesions.
  • All patients were known to have an underlying primary malignancy and were referred for PET/CT to evaluate the underlying primary and metastatic tumor burden.
  • Definitive lesion characterization was determined by evaluating all histologic adrenal specimens and all relevant prior and follow-up CT scans, including unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and delayed contrast-enhanced washout studies.
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT is a highly accurate method for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses particularly when using qualitative, rather than quantitative, PET data.
  • Without evidence that these lesions are benign by unenhanced CT densitometry or adrenal mass stability or growth from previous CT scans, we recommend that these lesions be characterized using contrast-enhanced washout tests and that if those tests are inconclusive, using percutaneous biopsy if early lesion characterization is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19304700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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59. Häyry V, Salmenkivi K, Arola J, Heikkilä P, Haglund C, Sariola H: High frequency of SNAIL-expressing cells confirms and predicts metastatic potential of phaeochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1211-8
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  • [Title] High frequency of SNAIL-expressing cells confirms and predicts metastatic potential of phaeochromocytoma.
  • Phaeochromocytomas are uncommon tumours of adrenal or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue.
  • We found that SNAIL-expressing cells are frequent in metastatic primary tumours and their metastases, whereas in tumours without metastases, SNAIL expression is commonly absent.
  • We conclude that the expression of SNAIL may be of use in predicting the metastatic potential of phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19641025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
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60. Berber E, Siperstein A: Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Feb;20(1):58-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite reports of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laparoscopic ablative techniques have not been described to treat adrenal tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to describe patient selection criteria and the technique for laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • METHODS: Four patients underwent laparoscopic RFA of adrenal tumors under general anesthesia for adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included lung metastasis in 2 patients, and renal cell cancer metastasis and cortical adenoma in 1 patient each.
  • Metastatic lesions were not resectable owing to the concomitant liver metastasis in 2 patients and because of local invasion in the third patient.
  • Despite normal catecholamine levels preoperatively, 2 patients had a transient hypertensive period during the ablation possibly owing to the release of catecholamines from the normal adrenal medulla.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • Laparoscopic RFA is an option for patients with unresectable adrenal tumors owing to the extent of disease or comorbidities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Catheter Ablation / methods. Hot Temperature / therapeutic use. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20173624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Gonias S, Goldsby R, Matthay KK, Hawkins R, Price D, Huberty J, Damon L, Linker C, Sznewajs A, Shiboski S, Fitzgerald P: Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 1;27(25):4162-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • METHODS: Fifty patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, age 10 to 64 years, were treated with [(131)I]MIBG doses ranging from 492 to 1,160 mCi (median, 12 mCi/kg).
  • CONCLUSION: Although serious toxicity may occur, the survival and response rates achieved with high-dose [(131)I]MIBG suggest its utility in the management of selected patients with metastatic PHEO and PGL.

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  • (PMID = 19636009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2MO1 RR0127
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734428
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62. Rao S, Patel A, Levin K, Lu M, Garbarino K, Myers D, Walker EM, Ryu S, Ho Kim J, Movsas B: How often are previously undetected radiographic abnormalities detected at the time of CT simulation for breast cancer patients? Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):262-4
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  • [Title] How often are previously undetected radiographic abnormalities detected at the time of CT simulation for breast cancer patients?
  • CT simulation scan reports of 332 consecutive breast cancer patients from 2000 to 2006 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of 332 patients with CT simulations for breast cancer treatment planning, 52 patients (16%) had a newly detected abnormality noted.
  • Of these, 31 patients (or 60% of the abnormal findings) were deemed by diagnostic radiology to have potentially significant findings (e.g., "can not exclude metastatic disease"), and a follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging scan was recommended.
  • Abnormalities in this category included previously undetected lung nodules, liver lesions, kidney/adrenal lesions, and sclerotic bony lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a significant proportion of breast cancer patients undergoing CT planning studies were diagnosed with potential abnormalities for which follow-up was recommended by diagnostic radiology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Bone and Bones / radiography. Cysts / radiography. False Negative Reactions. Female. Granuloma / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / radiography. Humans. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Mediastinum / radiography. Middle Aged. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / radiography. Myxoma / radiography. Thyroid Diseases / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19823073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Leboeuf R, Bénard F, Langlois MF: Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;31(7):382-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the thyroid gland are considered a rare cause of thyroid tumor.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous papillary and breast carcinoma within the thyroid gland.
  • F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) done for the evaluation of her metastatic breast cancer revealed a thyroid incidentaloma with a high metabolic rate (standardized uptake value [SUV] of 13).
  • However, small metastatic implants of breast carcinoma were seen within the opposite thyroid lobe.
  • CONCLUSION: This is a rare description of a concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an FDG PET incidentaloma alongside breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid and breast cancer sometimes occur in the same patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy, Segmental. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radiography. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16785803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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64. Yoda A, Nakayama S, Abe K, Inoue K, Nakamura Y, Tagawa T, Hayashi T, Mukae H, Kohno S, Ozono Y: [Two cases of pleomorphic carcinoma with severe systemic inflammation]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Aug;47(8):751-7
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  • Further examination revealed metases of lung cancer in the left adrenal gland, mediastinal and iliac lymph nodes.
  • Serological study revealed elevated level of G-CSF, likely due to G-CSF producing metastatic tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19764522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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65. Castillo O, Cortés O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L, Contreras M: [Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adrenal pathology: experience with 200 cases]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Oct;30(9):926-32
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adrenal pathology: experience with 200 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Cirugia laparoscópica en el tratamiento de enfermedades adrenales: experiencia en 200 casos.
  • METHODS: We included 200 laparoscopic adrenal surgeries performed consecutively in 183 patients with surgical adrenal pathology between November 1994 and November 2005.
  • RESULTS: The most frequents clinical diagnosis were hyperaldosteronism (17.5%), metastatic cancer (15.8%), pheochromocytoma (15.3%), Cushing syndrome (7.1%), adrenal cyst (4.9%) and myelolipoma (2.7%).
  • A total of 164 total adrenalectomies, 29 partial adrenalectomies and 7 marsupializations of adrenal cysts were performed.
  • The size of the suprarenal gland and/or tumor varied between 1 and 14 cm (average 5.6 cm).
  • In 8 of the patients, there was another laparoscopic procedure besides the adrenal surgery: cholecystectomies (2), marsupialization of a renal cyst (2), block nephrectomy (2), partial nephrectomy for a tumor (1) and pancreatic cystectomy (1).
  • CONCLUSION: The accumulated experience with 200 laparoscopic adrenal procedures has allowed the management of endocrine pathologies, such as, aldosteroma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome and rare entities, such as, cysts, myelolipomas in a suitable manner.
  • Additionally, it has permitted us to extend the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure for large adrenal masses and selected oncology cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17175933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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66. Lao XM, Chen DY, Zhang YQ, Xiang J, Guo RP, Lin XJ, Li JQ: Primary carcinosarcoma of the liver: clinicopathologic features of 5 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jun;31(6):817-26
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  • Satellite nodules, portal vein tumor thrombi, direct invasion into local tissues (right diaphragm, right adrenal gland, and gastric wall) as well as metastatic foci in lungs and abdominal lymph nodes were identified.
  • The poor prognosis of hepatic carcinosarcoma may be due to their highly invasive and metastatic features.

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  • (PMID = 17527068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Tibaldi C, Vasile E, Bernardini I, Orlandini C, Andreuccetti M, Falcone A: Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct;134(10):1143-9
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  • [Title] Baseline elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood is associated with poor survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prognostic model.
  • PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of several baseline variables in stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer to create a model based on independent prognostic factors.
  • Performance status of 2, squamous histology, number of metastatic sites >2, presence of bone, brain, liver and contralateral lung metastases and elevated leukocyte count in peripheral blood were all statistically significant prognostic factors in univariate analyses whereas the other tested variables (sex, stage, age, presence of adrenal gland and skin metastases) were not.

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  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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68. Hamada S, Ito K, Tobe M, Otsuki H, Hama Y, Kato Y, Sugiura Y, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: Bilateral adrenal leiomyosarcoma treated with multiple local therapies. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug;14(4):356-60
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal leiomyosarcoma treated with multiple local therapies.
  • A 62-year-old woman presented with right flank pain, and computed tomography (CT) showed bilateral adrenal tumors (right, 8 cm; left, 4 cm).
  • There were no abnormal findings on physical examination, and adrenal hormone levels in serum and urine were within normal limits.
  • Radiological studies showed a right adrenal tumor with intratumoral hemorrhage, a cystic tumor in the left adrenal gland, and no sign of distant metastasis.
  • Because laboratory tests showed normal levels of adrenal hormones, we considered the tumors to be nonfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • The right adrenal tumor was surgically removed because it was thought to be malignant, and histological examination revealed that it was a leiomyosarcoma.
  • Because the left adrenal tumor grew rapidly despite two courses of the chemotherapy, it too was surgically removed.
  • Multiple local treatments including RFA, radiotherapy, and resection were effective for the local control of metastatic lesions of adrenal leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation. Leiomyosarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19705248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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69. Martiniova L, Kotys MS, Thomasson D, Schimel D, Lai EW, Bernardo M, Merino MJ, Powers JF, Ruzicka J, Kvetnansky R, Choyke PL, Pacak K: Noninvasive monitoring of a murine model of metastatic pheochromocytoma: a comparison of contrast-enhanced microCT and nonenhanced MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Mar;29(3):685-91
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  • [Title] Noninvasive monitoring of a murine model of metastatic pheochromocytoma: a comparison of contrast-enhanced microCT and nonenhanced MRI.
  • PURPOSE: To compare contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (microCT) and nonenhanced respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an animal model of metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • Animal models are becoming important in the study of cancer treatment and imaging is useful in minimizing the number of animals needed and reducing costs associated with autopsies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female nude mice were injected by tail vein with a mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cell line (MPC 4/30PRR) to create a metastatic model.
  • Additionally, MRI was more sensitive for lesions in the kidneys, bone, ovaries, and adrenal glands.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19243052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS037685-05; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37685; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS104000; NLM/ PMC2750094
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70. Antonelli A, Cozzoli A, Simeone C, Zani D, Zanotelli T, Portesi E, Cosciani Cunico S: Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients. BJU Int; 2006 Mar;97(3):505-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report, in a retrospective study, the diagnostic problems and oncological results of surgery in patients with either synchronous or metachronous adrenal metastasis, which are uncommon in renal cancer, at 2-10% of patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 1179 patients treated for renal cancer between 1987 and 2003, 914 had renal surgery with concomitant ipsilateral adrenalectomy (routinely in 875 and for abnormal findings on computed tomography, CT, in 39) and 15 contralateral adrenalectomy (all after suspicious findings on CT).
  • During the follow-up after renal surgery, another 14 patients had adrenalectomy for CT evidence of an abnormal adrenal gland, contralateral to the previous renal tumour in 12 and bilaterally in two.
  • RESULTS: Of 914 ipsilateral adrenal glands removed during renal surgery, 854 (93.5%) were normal on pathological examination, 28 (3%) had a benign pathology, six (0.8%) were directly infiltrated by the tumour and 26 (2.7%) were metastatic.
  • For both benign and metastatic ipsilateral adrenal pathology, CT had sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values of 47%, 99%, 73% and 96%, respectively.
  • Of 29 contralateral glands removed because of suspicious CT findings (15 at diagnosis of renal cancer, 14 during the follow-up) there was no abnormality in one (3.4%), a benign pathology in seven (24%) and a metastasis in 21 (72%).
  • Thus there were 32 synchronous (incidence 2.7%; ipsilateral to the renal tumour in 24, contralateral in six and bilateral in two), and 13 metachronous adrenal metastases (incidence 1.0%; contralateral in 11 and bilateral in two).
  • No ipsilateral adrenal metastases were discovered at diagnosis or during the follow-up in the 382 patients with an organ-confined renal tumour of <4 cm in diameter.
  • Twenty-seven patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis (synchronous in 14, metachronous in 13) had statistically significantly (P < 0.001) better survival than the 18 (all synchronous) with multiple sites of metastatic disease.
  • In particular, there was long-term survival (mean 83 months) in 10 patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Sparing the ipsilateral adrenal is advisable only for organ-confined renal tumours of <4 cm in diameter; clinical local staging of renal cancer is the best predictor of the risk of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, CT had good diagnostic ability for the contralateral adrenal gland, especially during the follow-up.
  • Some patients with isolated adrenal metastasis could be treated by metastasectomy, with long-term survival free of disease and confirming that, even if in a few and unselectable patients, removing all the neoplastic bulk can be curative.
  • Nevertheless, the high rate of relapse underlines the need for an effective systemic therapy, and more so for widespread metastatic disease that currently cannot be cured.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery


71. Uberoi J, Munver R: Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches. Curr Urol Rep; 2009 Jan;10(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches.
  • The adrenal gland is a potential site of metastasis for various malignancies.
  • Metastases to the adrenal gland are the second most common type of adrenal mass lesion after adenomas.
  • Differentiation of a metastatic lesion from a primary adrenal lesion can be challenging and requires the selective use of radiologic imaging, serologic testing, and adrenal biopsy.
  • In patients who present with an isolated adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy is often considered to aid in cancer control.
  • Numerous studies have reported improved survival with resection of solitary adrenal metastases for various types of primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19116098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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72. Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW: The incidental indeterminate adrenal mass on CT (&gt; 10 H) in patients without cancer: is further imaging necessary? Follow-up of 321 consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 Nov;189(5):1119-23
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  • [Title] The incidental indeterminate adrenal mass on CT (> 10 H) in patients without cancer: is further imaging necessary? Follow-up of 321 consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether follow-up imaging evaluation is necessary for incidentally discovered indeterminate adrenal lesions (> 10 H) on CT in patients with no known malignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer search of CT reports from January 2000 to December 2003 identified patients with incidentally detected, indeterminate, but benign-appearing adrenal lesions who had no known malignancy and no clinical suspicion of hyperfunctioning adrenal mass.
  • Patients with adrenal masses diagnostic on the initial CT or heterogeneous masses were excluded.
  • There were no metastatic adrenal lesions, even among the 13 patients who subsequently developed malignancy elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: All of the incidentally detected adrenal masses with a CT attenuation of > 10 H were benign in patients with no known malignancy.
  • Follow-up imaging to characterize an incidental adrenal mass appears to have a limited role in this patient cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Risk Assessment / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data


73. Kimura N, Watanabe T, Noshiro T, Shizawa S, Miura Y: Histological grading of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and relationship to prognosis: a clinicopathological analysis of 116 adrenal pheochromocytomas and 30 extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas including 38 malignant tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):23-32
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  • [Title] Histological grading of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas and relationship to prognosis: a clinicopathological analysis of 116 adrenal pheochromocytomas and 30 extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas including 38 malignant tumors.
  • Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas show varied histological patterns, and it is difficult to diagnose malignancy or predict the clinical course using current histological criteria.
  • In the present study, we reviewed 146 sympathetic paragangliomas including 116 adrenal (102 unilateral, 14 bilateral) and 30 extra-adrenal tumors including 38 metastatic tumors.
  • The data show that using this grading scoring system for sympathetic paragangliomas correlates with both metastatic potential and patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / secondary

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  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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74. Levy MT, Braun JT, Pennant M, Thompson LD: Primary paraganglioma of the parathyroid: a case report and clinicopathologic review. Head Neck Pathol; 2010 Mar;4(1):37-43
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  • Paragangliomas are relatively uncommon neoplasms that arise in adrenal and extra-adrenal paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Our patient was a 69 year old woman who presented with a thyroid gland mass, with extension into the substernal space.
  • The parathyroid tissue showed a very well defined zellballen arrangement of paraganglion cells within the parenchyma of the parathyroid gland.
  • Isolated paraganglioma within the parathyroid is rare, and should be separated from parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia or metastatic disease to assure appropriate management.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20237987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825535
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75. Do YR, Song HS, Kim IH: Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Mar;22(1):18-20
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case.
  • Metastases to the adrenal glands are frequently found at autopsy.
  • In practice, adrenal metastases have generally been accepted as evidence of blood-borne systemic disease.
  • So, clinically curable adrenal metastases is a rare malady.
  • The role for surgical resection in adrenal metastases has not been clearly defined.
  • A 45-year-old man initially underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for treating his advanced gastric cancer.
  • A solitary adrenal metastases was resected 1 year later.
  • We report here on this case to show that for selected cases, surgical resection of adrenal metastases is feasible and this procedure may extend survival for metastatic gastric cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology


76. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • In patients with metastatic or progressive disease, medical treatment is started with mitotane that requires a close monitoring of its blood level.
  • Local treatment (radiofrequency, chemoembolization, and radiation therapy) can have some indications for metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy


77. Basu S, Nair N: Relapse of cervical cancer presenting as symptoms of Collet-Sicard syndrome with metastatic subcutaneous and adrenal deposits. Lancet Oncol; 2006 Jul;7(7):610
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  • [Title] Relapse of cervical cancer presenting as symptoms of Collet-Sicard syndrome with metastatic subcutaneous and adrenal deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


78. Meier R, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Flahaut M, Coulon A, Fusco C, Louache F, Auderset K, Bourloud KB, Daudigeos E, Ruegg C, Vassal G, Gross N, Joseph JM: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion. PLoS One; 2007;2(10):e1016
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  • [Title] The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion.
  • We show here that CXCR4 overexpression in non-metastatic CXCR4-negative NB cells IGR-NB8 and in moderately metastatic, CXCR4 expressing NB cells IGR-N91, strongly increased tumour growth of primary tumours and liver metastases, without altering the frequency or the pattern of metastasis.
  • High levels of CXCL12 were detected in the mouse adrenal gland (the primary tumour site), and in the liver suggesting a paracrine effect of host-derived CXCL12 on NB growth.

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  • (PMID = 17925864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1995764
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79. Sultan I, Ghandour K, Al-Jumaily U, Hashem S, Rodriguez-Galindo C: Local control of the primary tumour in metastatic neuroblastoma. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(10):1728-32
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  • [Title] Local control of the primary tumour in metastatic neuroblastoma.
  • We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database for patients older than 2years with metastatic neuroblastoma who were diagnosed from 1998 to 2005.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19447607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Ihnen M, Köhler N, Kersten JF, Milde-Langosch K, Beck K, Höller S, Müller V, Witzel I, Jänicke F, Kilic E: Expression levels of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM/CD166) in primary breast carcinoma and distant breast cancer metastases. Dis Markers; 2010;28(2):71-8
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  • [Title] Expression levels of Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM/CD166) in primary breast carcinoma and distant breast cancer metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM/CD166) gained increasing attention regarding tumorprogression and metastatic spread in breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to examine ALCAM expression levels in primary breast cancer and distant metastases of the same patient within 29 autopsy cases to better understand the underlying mechanisms of metastases and the role of adhesion molecules in this process.
  • ALCAM expression level average differs between immunoreactive score (IRS) (mean) 4.16 (lung)-5.00 (adrenal gland).
  • Of the metastatic ALCAM expression levels we obtained an intra-class correlation (ICC) of 80.9%, indicating a strong cluster effect of measurements in the same patient.
  • ALCAM expression scores in metastatic sites and in the primary analyzed by hierarchical regression analysis showed that ALCAM expression in the primary is prognostic for ALCAM expression in all different sites of metastases (slope=0.773, p < 0.001, r(2)= 0.504).
  • This could show a tumorbiological context of ALCAM for the development of metastases in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20364042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ALCAM protein, human; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal; 0 / Fetal Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3833419
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81. Kobayashi E, Kawai A, Seki K, Tateishi U, Beppu Y: Bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from malignant fibrous histiocytoma: value of [F-18]FDG PET-CT for diagnosis of occult metastases. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Dec;20(10):695-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from malignant fibrous histiocytoma: value of [F-18]FDG PET-CT for diagnosis of occult metastases.
  • We report a 71-year-old woman with malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the right buttock and thigh that metastasized to the bilateral adrenal glands without development of pulmonary metastasis.
  • Whole-body [F-18]FDG PET-CT showed abnormal tracer uptakes in the bilateral adrenal glands in addition to high accumulation in the primary soft tissue tumors.
  • CT-guided needle biopsy revealed that both of the adrenal lesions were metastatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic to the bilateral adrenal glands without development of pulmonary metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17385309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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82. Tanaka K, Yamada K, Sasaki H, Kishi K, Noura S, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Miyashiro I, Ohue M, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A surgical case of solitary lymph node metastatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1938-40
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  • [Title] [A surgical case of solitary lymph node metastatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy].
  • No evidence of recurrence in the intra- and extra hepatic organs such as adrenal gland, lung, bone, and brain except for intra abdominal solitary lymph node metastasis was observed.
  • Then the metastatic lymph node was removed surgically.

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  • (PMID = 17212152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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83. Sudbrock F, Schmidt M, Simon T, Eschner W, Berthold F, Schicha H: Dosimetry for 131I-MIBG therapies in metastatic neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Jul;37(7):1279-90
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  • [Title] Dosimetry for 131I-MIBG therapies in metastatic neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • Despite the significant role of the radiopharmaceutical (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for the treatment of metastatic neuroblastoma, phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma details for a reliable dosimetry are still sparse.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy. Radiometry / methods

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  • (PMID = 20179922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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84. Xu J, Wang R, Xie ZH, Odero-Marah V, Pathak S, Multani A, Chung LW, Zhau HE: Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1664-73
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: The ARCaP cell line was established from the ascites fluid of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • This study characterized the host microenvironmental role in cancer progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and bone and adrenal metastasis in parental ARCaP and its derived cell subclones.
  • RESULTS: ARCaP(E) cells, with cobblestone morphology, underwent EMT through cellular interaction with host bone and adrenal gland.
  • Lineage-derived ARCaP(M) cells, with spindle-shape fibroblastic morphology, exhibited decreased cell adhesion and increased metastasis to bone and adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARCaP uniquely models the molecular basis of prostate cancer bone and adrenal metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


85. Balaji R, Ramachandran K, Kusumakumari P: Neuroimaging patterns of central nervous system metastases in neuroblastoma: report of 2 recent cases and literature review. J Child Neurol; 2009 Oct;24(10):1290-3
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  • The first patient in our study had multiple cystic parenchymal metastases with calcific mural nodules, while the second patient developed solid hemorrhagic parenchymal metastatic lesions along with extensive leptomeningeal and dural deposits.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Brain / pathology. Brain / radiography. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


86. Adjallé R, Plouin PF, Pacak K, Lehnert H: Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Sep;41(9):687-96
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  • The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19672813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD008735-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 92
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS470438; NLM/ PMC3658628
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87. Fitzgerald PA, Goldsby RE, Huberty JP, Price DC, Hawkins RA, Veatch JJ, Dela Cruz F, Jahan TM, Linker CA, Damon L, Matthay KK: Malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a phase II study of therapy with high-dose 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG). Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Aug;1073:465-90
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  • For patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, who have good *I-MIBG uptake on diagnostic scanning, high-dose 131I-MIBG therapy was effective in producing a sustained CR, PR, or SD in 67% of patients, with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / therapeutic use. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17102115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2M01 RR01271
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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88. Srirangalingam U, Khoo B, Walker L, MacDonald F, Skelly RH, George E, Spooner D, Johnston LB, Monson JP, Grossman AB, Drake WM, Akker SA, Pollard PJ, Plowman N, Avril N, Berney DM, Burrin JM, Reznek RH, Kumar VK, Maher ER, Chew SL: Contrasting clinical manifestations of SDHB and VHL associated chromaffin tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):515-25
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  • VHL-related tumours were predominantly adrenal phaeochromocytomas (22/26; 84.6%), while SDHB-related tumours were predominantly extra-adrenal paragangliomas (19/25; 76%).
  • Multifocal disease was present in 9/15 (60%) of the VHL cohort (bilateral phaeochromocytomas) and only 3/16 (19%) of the SDHB cohort, while metastatic disease was found in 5/16 (31%) of the SDHB cohort but not in the VHL cohort to date.
  • These data indicate that SDHB-related tumours are predominantly extra-adrenal in location and associated with higher catecholamine secretion and more malignant disease, in subjects who appear more symptomatic.
  • VHL-related tumours tend to be adrenal phaeochromocytomas, frequently bilateral and associated with a milder phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19208735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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89. Delaney HM, Prauner RD, Person DA: Germline p53 mutation in a Micronesian child with adrenocortical carcinoma and subsequent osteosarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Nov;30(11):803-6
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  • More than a decade later (2003), she was diagnosed with metastatic osteosarcoma with the primary in her right proximal fibula.
  • Given this child's remarkable history of malignancy, she underwent testing for a genetic mutation that is associated with increased cancer formation.
  • One such cancer syndrome is called Li-Fraumeni syndrome where approximately 70% of patients carry a genetic mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene.
  • Patients with LFS are at risk for developing cancers of the breast, soft tissues, brain, bone, adrenal gland, and blood cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Osteosarcoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


90. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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91. Singer EA, Golijanin DJ, Messing EM: Androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer: why does it fail and can its effects be prolonged? Can J Urol; 2008 Dec;15(6):4381-7
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  • [Title] Androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer: why does it fail and can its effects be prolonged?
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the cornerstone of treatment for advanced prostate cancer for over 65 years.
  • Although there can be worrisome side effects, data will be presented that for men with metastatic prostate cancer, immediate ADT can reduce the likelihood of developing the rare but catastrophic sequellae of metastatic disease, although it is unlikely to prolong survival compared with waiting for symptoms before initiating ADT.
  • Additionally, for patients with extremely high risk prostate cancer that is not distantly metastatic (e.g. have a life expectancy from prostate cancer less than 10 years with all other available treatments except immediate ADT) and, whose life expectancy from non-prostate cancer diseases is excellent during this period, early ADT both alone and in conjunction with definitive local treatment prolongs survival.
  • Moreover, ADT seems to be most effective when the cancer volume is low.
  • The biological mechanisms explaining how prostate cancer escapes from ADT's control include:.
  • 2) The human prostate gland, and particularly prostate cancer, may be able to synthesize androgens from both cholesterol and adrenal androgens.
  • This may occur because prostate cancer tissue has higher concentrations of androgens than does the serum in patients receiving ADT.
  • Indeed, the epithelial AR, particularly in advanced prostate cancer, may have anti-proliferative and anti-tumor progression properties.


92. Suyama T, Ueda T, Fukasawa S, Imamura Y, Nakamura K, Miyasaka K, Sazuka T, Egoshi K, Nihei N, Hamano M, Ichikawa T, Maruoka M: Combination of gemcitabine and paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;39(4):244-50
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  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of the gemcitabine and paclitaxel combination regimen as second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) who have previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy for the metastatic disease.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients with advanced or metastatic UC who had received platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with an outpatient gemcitabine and paclitaxel combination regimen.
  • None of the patients (n = 3) with adrenal metastasis responded to this regimen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Aged. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 19211575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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93. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Lai EW, Joshi BH, Martiniova L, Dogra R, Fujisawa T, Leland P, de Krijger RR, Lubensky IA, Elkahloun AG, Morris JC, Puri RK, Pacak K: Overexpression of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha2 in neuroendocrine malignant pheochromocytoma: a novel target for receptor directed anti-cancer therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2952-7
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  • [Title] Overexpression of interleukin-13 receptor-alpha2 in neuroendocrine malignant pheochromocytoma: a novel target for receptor directed anti-cancer therapy.
  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Human and murine neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma overexpress the IL-13Ralpha2 chain, and an IL-13PE-based receptor-directed anticancer approach may prove useful in treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 19491224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / pseudomonas exoprotein A protein, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2730867
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96. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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97. Debus J, Eberhardt W, Hoffmann H, Passlick B, Rübe C, Thomas M: [The boundaries of curation]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 5:12-20
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  • Local interventions improve the prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can, in many cases, enable long-term survival.
  • This article focuses on the use of bimodal treatment in stage IIIA/IIIB disease, exploration of the mediastinum, trimodal therapy in the case of patients with N2 disease identified prior to treatment, curative resection in metastatic disease, and the use of stereotactic radiation therapy in NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20523102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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98. Rajarubendra N, Bolton D, Lawrentschuk N: Diagnosis of bone metastases in urological malignancies--an update. Urology; 2010 Oct;76(4):782-90
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  • Early detection of metastatic bony lesions assists with tailoring patient management and potentially improving quality of life.
  • Newer therapies such as zolderonic acid for prostate cancer have reinvigorated the importance of clinicians treating bony disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers. Biomarkers, Tumor. Bone Resorption. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Osteolysis. Physical Examination. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20346492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.1 / ALPL protein, human; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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99. Shimoda M, Kubota K, Kita J, Katoh M, Iwasaki Y: Is a patient with metastatic pancreatic tumor from rectal cancer a candidate for resection? Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Jun;54(76):1262-5
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  • [Title] Is a patient with metastatic pancreatic tumor from rectal cancer a candidate for resection?
  • A 54-year-old man who had undergone Miles' operation for rectal cancer in 1999 was found to have four brain metastases, which were treated by partial resection and gamma knife therapy in February 2003.
  • During follow-up, ultrasound (US) showed a hypoechoic lesion in the head of the pancreas, and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated low-density tumors in the pancreatic head and left adrenal gland.
  • Histologically, these tumors were diagnosed as metastases from the rectal cancer.
  • In summary, patients with metastases from rectal cancer to multiple organs, including the pancreas, may not be candidates for pancreatic resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreaticoduodenectomy


100. Hosogi H, Nagayama S, Kanamoto N, Yoshizawa A, Suzuki T, Nakao K, Sakai Y: Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Dec;39(12):837-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 44-year-old woman was hospitalized because of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome, caused by bilateral ovarian metastases from an advanced ascending colon cancer due to FAP of intermediate type.
  • At 10 months post-operative with no detectable metastatic lesions, the residual colorectum and the larger, left adrenal gland were resected, and the hormonal hypersecretion was normalized.
  • Direct sequencing of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene revealed a nonsense germline mutation at codon 1577 and an additional nonsense somatic mutation at codon 554 in cancer tissues.

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP).
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Familial Polyposis.
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  • (PMID = 19684041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
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