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1. Silvio Estaba L, Madrazo González Z, Pujol Gebelli J, Masdevall Noguera C, Rafecas Renau A, Moreno Llorente P: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis]. Cir Esp; 2007 Apr;81(4):197-201
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica por sospecha de metástasis adrenal solitaria.
  • INTRODUCTION: Isolated adrenal metastasis is uncommon.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications, diagnosis and utility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in patients with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted in patients with current or previous tumoral disease and with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • Fifteen LA were performed (one patient was found to have an inoperable tumor at surgery).
  • The most common metastatic disease was non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (10 patients), followed by colorectal cancer metastasis (two patients).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA for metastasis can be performed without oncological disadvantage and should be offered to patients with resectable disease, a DFI > 6 months, and a tumoral size that allows laparoscopic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17403355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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2. Kita M, Tamaki G, Okuyama M, Saga Y, Kakizaki H: Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Nov;53(11):761-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in cases of metastatic adrenal tumor remain controversial.
  • To clarify indications and outcomes of adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis, we performed a retrospective review of all 8 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis between 1990 and 2006 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital.
  • The Primary tumor was renal cell carcinoma in 2 cases, and eccrine poro carcinoma, rectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer and cancer of unknown origin in 1 case each.
  • Of the 4 patients with solitary adrenal metastasis, 3 were considered tumor-free after adrenalectomy, while the remaining patient was not due to unresectable primary tumor.
  • At least in cases of solitary adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy can be effective if other valid methods are unavailable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy

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  • (PMID = 18051798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Rosati G, Tramutola G, D'Alessandro N, Chiacchio R, Vita G, Scutari F, Manzione L: An adrenal gland nodule presenting as an early sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer: report of two cases. Tumori; 2007 Jan-Feb;93(1):103-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An adrenal gland nodule presenting as an early sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer: report of two cases.
  • The presence of an adrenal gland nodule may be an early or late sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer.
  • Adrenal insufficiency can be compatible with bilateral and diffuse involvement of this uncommon site of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Ang TL, Chua TS, Fock KM, Tee AK, Teo EK, Mancer K: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and useful. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2007 Nov;36(11):954-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and useful.
  • INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the use of endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to determine the nature of left adrenal lesions.
  • We described our experience in performing EUS-FNA of left adrenal lesions.
  • Patients with a left adrenal mass and who underwent EUS-FNA formed our study population.
  • OUTCOME: A total of 119 consecutive patients underwent diagnostic EUS +/- FNA, during which the left adrenal gland was routinely examined.
  • Twelve of these patients underwent EUS as part of lung cancer staging and among these 12 lung cancer patients, 2 had left adrenal masses detected by computed tomography (CT).
  • EUS detected left adrenal nodules in 2 other patients which were not visualised by CT.
  • The overall prevalence of a left adrenal mass was 3.4%; in the subgroup with confirmed lung cancer, the prevalence was 33.3%.
  • The mean size of the left adrenal lesion was 30.4 mm (range, 9 to 84.8).
  • EUS-FNA of the left adrenal lesions was performed under Doppler guidance.
  • Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer was diagnosed in 2 patients, including a lesion missed on CT.
  • For the other 2 cases, EUS-FNA revealed benign adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA appears safe and useful for the evaluation of left adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography

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  • (PMID = 18071608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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5. Do YR, Song HS, Kim IH: Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Mar;22(1):18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case.
  • Metastases to the adrenal glands are frequently found at autopsy.
  • In practice, adrenal metastases have generally been accepted as evidence of blood-borne systemic disease.
  • So, clinically curable adrenal metastases is a rare malady.
  • The role for surgical resection in adrenal metastases has not been clearly defined.
  • A 45-year-old man initially underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for treating his advanced gastric cancer.
  • A solitary adrenal metastases was resected 1 year later.
  • We report here on this case to show that for selected cases, surgical resection of adrenal metastases is feasible and this procedure may extend survival for metastatic gastric cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17427640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
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6. Netelenbos T, Nooij MA, Nortier JW: Diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Neth J Med; 2006 Sep;64(8):310-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Diabetes Insipidus.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diabetes insipidus and adrenal insufficiency in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
  • A patient previously treated for bilateral breast cancer with mastectomy, radiation therapy and in remission on hormonal therapy for more than five years presented with abdominal symptoms from breast cancer relapse.
  • Furthermore, primary adrenal insufficiency had developed, ascribed to bilateral tumour invasion of the adrenals.
  • This rare combination of endocrinological failures in a patient with metastatic breast cancer is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


7. Fliedner SM, Lehnert H, Pacak K: Metastatic paraganglioma. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):627-37

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic paraganglioma.
  • Paragangliomas (PGLs) are chromaffin cell tumors arising from ganglia; when arising in the adrenal gland they are called pheochromocytomas.
  • In recent years the opinion that metastatic disease is rare in PGL had to be revised, particularly in patients presenting with extra-adrenal PGL, with PGLs exceeding 5 cm in diameter, and/or those carrying an SDHB germline mutation.
  • Recently, a dopaminergic phenotype (excess dopamine or methoxytyramine) was recognized as a good indicator of metastatic disease.
  • Vast progress in targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (eg, (18)F-FDA, (18)F-FDOPA, (18)F-FDG) now allows for reliable early detection of metastatic disease.
  • Survival of patients with metastatic PGL is variable, and frequently short.
  • Here we review recent advances involving findings about the genetic background, the molecular pathogenesis, new diagnostic indicators, pathologic markers, and emerging treatment options for metastatic PGL.

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • [ErratumIn] Semin Oncol. 2011 Jun;38(3):467
  • (PMID = 21167381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD008735-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS252333; NLM/ PMC3018803
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8. Aïssaoui R, Turki Z, Achiche A, Balti MH, Ben Slama C, Zbiba M: [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):364-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase surrénalienne d'un cancer papillaire de la thyroïde.
  • Adrenal metastases of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are very rare.
  • A 63-year-old woman had undergone 15 years earlier left lobo-ishmectomy for a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 7 years earlier right adrenalectomy for a tumor.
  • In 1999, when the patient was admitted for worsening of glycemic control, a recurrence of the adrenal mass was detected.
  • Histologic examination and thyroglobulin immunochemistry identified metastatic PTC.
  • Distant spread may occur to bone or lung, but exceptionally to the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal localization is often associated with lung or bone metastasis.
  • In our patient, the adrenal metastasis remained isolated for many years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


9. Liu YJ, Wang GM, Zhang YK, Zhang L, Sun LA, Lin ZM, Zhu TY: [The clinical characteristic of adrenal metastatic tumor]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan 15;45(2):124-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The clinical characteristic of adrenal metastatic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: From January 1993 to December 2004, 103 cases of adrenal metastasis were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Lung and hepatocellular carcinoma were the most common primary tumor of adrenal metastatic tumor, which about 36.9% (38/103) and 42.7% (44/103) of all cases, followed by renal carcinoma 6.8% (7/103), colorectal carcinoma 4.9% (5/103), stomach carcinoma 3.9% (4/103), breast cancer 1.9% (2/103), unknown primary tumor 2.9% (3/103).
  • The mean diameter of adrenal metastasis was 3.9 cm.
  • The mean interval from detection of primary tumor to adrenal metastasis was 9.5 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17418043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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10. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Chong S, Lee KS, Kim HY, Kim YK, Kim BT, Chung MJ, Yi CA, Kwon GY: Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls. Radiographics; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):1811-24; discussion 1824-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls.
  • Integrated fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for adrenal gland imaging in cancer patients allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • However, false-positive findings are encountered at integrated PET-CT in approximately 5% of adrenal lesions identified as positive at PET, including adrenal adenomas, adrenal endothelial cysts, and inflammatory and infectious lesions.
  • Moreover, false-negative findings may be seen in adrenal metastatic lesions with hemorrhage or necrosis, small-sized (<10-mm) metastatic nodules, and metastases from pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or carcinoid tumors.
  • An awareness of the potential pitfalls of integrated PET-CT enhances the diagnostic efficacy of this modality by allowing differentiation of metastatic adrenal lesions from other abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2006
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6):1594
  • (PMID = 17102052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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12. Baron M, Hamou L, Laberge S, Callonnec F, Tielmans A, Dessogne P: Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):523-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature.
  • Metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands due to gynaecological neoplasms is a relatively rare condition.
  • The aim of our study was to present four cases of metastases to the adrenal gland due to endometrial adenocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CT scan and MRI have been previously used in an attempt to define the nature of the adrenal mass but this approach is of limited value in diagnosis.
  • Image-guided pathological confirmation of an adrenal lesion may significantly change the staging or management of the primary neoplasm.
  • The authors suggest that isolated adrenal metastasis should be routinely considered for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19051827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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13. Labelle P, De Cock HE: Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals. Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):52-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands in domestic animals.
  • The average rate of adrenal involvement in metastatic cancer was 112/534 (21.0%) in dogs, 12/81 (14.8%) in cats, 18/67 (26.9%) in horses, and 5/16 (31.3%) in cattle.
  • Pulmonary, mammary, prostatic, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas, and melanoma had the highest rates of metastasis to the adrenal glands in dogs.
  • Hemangiosarcoma and melanoma had high rates of adrenal involvement in horses.
  • Adrenal metastases usually occurred in the late stages of the disease.
  • Metastatic lesions represented 126/472 (26.7%) of canine, 12/20 (60.0%) of feline, 21/80 (26.3%) of equine, and 5/9 (55.5%) of bovine adrenal neoplasms.
  • This study shows that adrenal glands should be thoroughly examined during both clinical work-up and postmortems when disseminated neoplasia is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animal Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Srinivas S, Harshman L, Hauke RJ: Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14564

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  • [Title] Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study.
  • METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell with clear cell histology were enrolled at Stanford University and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.
  • Sites of metastases included lung, nodes, liver, adrenal glands, and bone.
  • One pathologic complete response was obtained after a patient underwent metastectomy of adrenal gland after 4 cycles.

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  • (PMID = 27963689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Matsuoka T, Morikage N, Kuga T, Nakayama T, Fujii Y: [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jun;58(6):499-503
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  • [Title] [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case].
  • A 69-year-old man had undertaken left upper lobectomy (ND 2 a) with partial resection of the left lower lobe under the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer, T2N0M0, stage IB in June, 2002.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced tumor in the left adrenal lesion, 3 cm in diameter, in October, 2003.
  • Although a prognosis of LCNEC is poor in general, we should consider the resection of metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from LCNEC for long-term survival expectantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15957427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Eloubeidi MA, Morgan DE, Cerfolio RJ, Eltoum IA: Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland. Gastrointest Endosc; 2008 Mar;67(3):522-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS-guided FNA is commonly performed to sample peri-intestinal targets such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and the left adrenal gland.
  • To our knowledge, EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland has not been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the feasibility and success in sampling an enlarged right adrenal gland.
  • PATIENTS: Consecutive patients that underwent EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: Over a span of 3.5 years, 4 patients underwent transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland with a curvilinear echoendoscope.
  • Three of the patients had metastatic lung cancer to the right adrenal gland; one was proven by surgical histopathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland is feasible and safe.
  • Future large-scale studies are needed to replicate our findings and to determine the rate of successful identification and sampling of the right adrenal gland with the curvilinear echoendoscope.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Endosonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18234198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Lane BR, Tiong HY, Campbell SC, Fergany AF, Weight CJ, Larson BT, Novick AC, Flechner SM: Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2430-6; discussion 2436-7
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  • [Title] Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy.
  • We analyzed initial management and oncological outcomes of adrenal glands after open partial nephrectomy.
  • During partial nephrectomy the ipsilateral adrenal gland was resected if a suspicious adrenal nodule was noted on radiographic imaging, or if intraoperative findings indicated direct extension or metastasis.
  • Pathological analysis revealed direct invasion of the adrenal gland by renal cell carcinoma (1), renal cell carcinoma metastasis (2), other adrenal neoplasms (3) or benign tissue (42, 87%).
  • Metachronous adrenalectomy was ipsilateral (10), contralateral (2) or bilateral (3), revealing metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 11 patients.
  • We propose concomitant adrenalectomy only if a suspicious adrenal lesion is identified radiographically or invasion of the adrenal gland is suspected intraoperatively.
  • Even using such strict criteria only 13% of these suspicious adrenal nodules contained cancer.
  • The rarity of metachronous adrenal metastasis and the lack of an observable benefit to concomitant adrenalectomy support adrenal preservation during partial nephrectomy except as previously outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19371896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Niinobu T, Yamashita S, Nakagawa S, Amano M, Higaki N, Hayashida H, Nakao A, Takiuchi H, Sakon M: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1765-7
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • A 4 x 3.5 cm neoplasm at the left adrenal was detected by CT inspection this time.
  • The diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from HCC.
  • Since HCC is controlled by TAE, the metastatic lesions were not found in other organs and were isolated, of 10 cm or less in size.
  • Pathologial diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • When observing the adaptation standard strictly to the high-risk case, it was thought that the metastatic tumor extraction under laparoscopic surgery could become a low stress cure in consideration of QOL being useful as a local treatment for cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17212101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Hess KR, Varadhachary GR, Taylor SH, Wei W, Raber MN, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL: Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1624-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Unique metastatic patterns cited in the literature often arise from anecdotal clinical observations and autopsy reports.
  • The authors analyzed clinical data from a large number of patients with histologically confirmed, distant-stage adenocarcinoma to evaluate metastatic patterns.
  • METHODS: Tumor registry data were collected between 1994-1996 on 11 primary tumor sites and 15 metastatic sites from 4399 patients.
  • The primary and metastatic sites were cross-tabulated in various ways to identify patterns, and the authors developed algorithms by using multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the locations of primary tumors based on metastatic patterns.
  • RESULTS: Three primary tumors had single, dominant metastatic sites: ovary to abdominal cavity (91%), prostate to bone (90%), and pancreas to liver (85%).
  • The liver was the dominant metastatic site for gastrointestinal (GI) primary tumors (71% of patients), whereas bone and lung metastases were noted most frequently in non-GI primary tumors (43% and 29%, respectively).
  • A single organ was the dominant source of metastases in 7 sites: axillary lymph node from the breast (97%), intestinal lymph node from the colon (84%), thoracic lymph node from the lung (66%), brain from the lung (64%), mediastinal lymph node from the lung (62%), supraclavicular lymph node from the breast (51%), and adrenal gland from the lung (51%).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16518827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Târcoveanu E, Dimofte G, Bradea C, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Anton R, Ferariu D: Adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):116-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal schwannomas are very rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively.
  • We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 55-year-old man during a postoperative checkup for a cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: The biological evaluation was unremarkable, and the radiological examination revealed the adrenal mass that was first considered a metastatic lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A nonsecreting adrenal mass can be easily misjudged, especially in the context of a recently operated on malignancy.
  • Unilateral adrenal metastasis needs pathological confirmation, as it can dramatically affect prognosis.
  • Unusual tumors of the adrenal gland may be found incidentally, and a malignant context will generate difficulties in establishing the right management.

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  • (PMID = 19366556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015893
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21. Xu J, Wang R, Xie ZH, Odero-Marah V, Pathak S, Multani A, Chung LW, Zhau HE: Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1664-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: The ARCaP cell line was established from the ascites fluid of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • This study characterized the host microenvironmental role in cancer progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and bone and adrenal metastasis in parental ARCaP and its derived cell subclones.
  • RESULTS: ARCaP(E) cells, with cobblestone morphology, underwent EMT through cellular interaction with host bone and adrenal gland.
  • Lineage-derived ARCaP(M) cells, with spindle-shape fibroblastic morphology, exhibited decreased cell adhesion and increased metastasis to bone and adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARCaP uniquely models the molecular basis of prostate cancer bone and adrenal metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


22. Uberoi J, Munver R: Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches. Curr Urol Rep; 2009 Jan;10(1):67-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches.
  • The adrenal gland is a potential site of metastasis for various malignancies.
  • Metastases to the adrenal gland are the second most common type of adrenal mass lesion after adenomas.
  • Differentiation of a metastatic lesion from a primary adrenal lesion can be challenging and requires the selective use of radiologic imaging, serologic testing, and adrenal biopsy.
  • In patients who present with an isolated adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy is often considered to aid in cancer control.
  • Numerous studies have reported improved survival with resection of solitary adrenal metastases for various types of primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19116098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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23. DeWitt J, Alsatie M, LeBlanc J, McHenry L, Sherman S: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses. Endoscopy; 2007 Jan;39(1):65-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Although the left adrenal gland is readily visible by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), there are few published data on the utility of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of this site.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of EUS-FNA of left adrenal gland masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we reviewed our EUS and cytology databases to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland between January 1997 and January 2004.
  • RESULTS: Our searches resulted in the identification of a series of 38 consecutive patients who underwent EUS for the evaluation of a lung mass (n = 14), a pancreatic mass (n = 14), obstructive jaundice (n = 1), dysphagia (n = 2), an ampullary adenoma (n = 1), celiac block (n = 1), or a left adrenal gland mass (n = 5).
  • The mean maximal left adrenal mass diameter was 24 mm (range 7-66 mm).
  • Diagnoses after EUS-FNA (the mean number of passes was 3.6) were: metastatic lung cancer (n = 2), esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1); primary pheochromocytoma (n = 1); benign adrenal tissue (n = 21); and granulomatous inflammation (n = 1).
  • The absence of a discrete adrenal mass on EUS occurred more frequently in patients with nondiagnostic biopsies than in those with diagnostic biopsies (56 % vs. 7 %; odds ratio 23.4, 95 %CI 3.5 - 157.0; P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and can be useful for the evaluation and staging of suspected malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17252463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Barbault A, Costa FP, Bottger B, Munden RF, Bomholt F, Kuster N, Pasche B: Amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields for the treatment of cancer: discovery of tumor-specific frequencies and assessment of a novel therapeutic approach. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 14;28:51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields for the treatment of cancer: discovery of tumor-specific frequencies and assessment of a novel therapeutic approach.
  • PURPOSE: Because in vitro studies suggest that low levels of electromagnetic fields may modify cancer cell growth, we hypothesized that systemic delivery of a combination of tumor-specific frequencies may have a therapeutic effect.
  • We undertook this study to identify tumor-specific frequencies and test the feasibility of administering such frequencies to patients with advanced cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined patients with various types of cancer using a noninvasive biofeedback method to identify tumor-specific frequencies.
  • We offered compassionate treatment to some patients with advanced cancer and limited therapeutic options.
  • RESULTS: We examined a total of 163 patients with a diagnosis of cancer and identified a total of 1524 frequencies ranging from 0.1 Hz to 114 kHz.
  • One patient with hormone-refractory breast cancer metastatic to the adrenal gland and bones had a complete response lasting 11 months.
  • One patient with hormone-refractory breast cancer metastatic to liver and bones had a partial response lasting 13.5 months.
  • Four patients had stable disease lasting for +34.1 months (thyroid cancer metastatic to lung), 5.1 months (non-small cell lung cancer), 4.1 months (pancreatic cancer metastatic to liver) and 4.0 months (leiomyosarcoma metastatic to liver).
  • CONCLUSION: Cancer-related frequencies appear to be tumor-specific and treatment with tumor-specific frequencies is feasible, well tolerated and may have biological efficacy in patients with advanced cancer.

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  • [Cites] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Feb 2;92(3):205-16 [10655437.001]
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  • (PMID = 19366446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00805337
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2672058
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25. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism


26. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Dartevelle P, Commo F, Olaussen KA, de Montpreville V, André F, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer; 2010 May;11(3):187-91
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  • [Title] Expression of chemokine receptor CCR6 as a molecular determinant of adrenal metastatic relapse in patients with primary lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that chemokines are involved in organ-specific metastatic relapse.
  • We evaluated the potential implications of chemokine receptors in the development of adrenal metastasis after complete resections of primary non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a unique cohort of 21 primary lung cancers with matched adrenal metastases for the expression of CX3CR1, CXCR4, CCR6, and CCR7, using immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Although CXCR4, CX3CR1, and CCR7 were independently expressed in primary and corresponding metastases, CCR6 was clearly overexpressed in adrenal metastases, compared with corresponding primary tumors.
  • Moreover, CCL20, the ligand of CCR6, was preferentially expressed in adrenal tissues that developed metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: We report for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a potential role for the CCR6 receptor in the organ orientation of the development of metastases in lung cancer.
  • We demonstrated a statistically significant overexpression of CCR6 in adrenal metastases compared with primary lung tumors, indicating that the increased production of CCL20 in adrenal glands might contribute to the selective recruitment of CCR6-expressing cancer cells in lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, CCR6 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20439195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0690
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / CCR7 protein, human; 0 / CX3CR1 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CCL20; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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27. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for adenomatoid tumor .

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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • In brief we report herein the sixth case of cystic lymphangioma-like AT, which was incidentally discovered during clinical follow-up in a 39-year-old man undergoing cancer staging and surveillance after surgery.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19851133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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28. Barrisford GW, Sartor O, Richie JP: Solitary adrenal metastatic lesion in a patient with a history of prostate cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2009 Jan;7(1):64-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary adrenal metastatic lesion in a patient with a history of prostate cancer.
  • Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy among American men.
  • Although prostate cancer-related death approximates only 3%, advanced disease can become widely disseminated.
  • Metastatic disease is often found in a number of common sites.
  • We report the uncommon presentation of a solitary adrenal lesion treated with surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


29. Shantha GP, Kumar AA, Jeyachandran V, Rajamanickam D, Bhaskar E, Paniker VK, Abraham G: Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks.
  • Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity.
  • Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer.
  • Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland.
  • The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency.
  • He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit.
  • The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later.
  • Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks.

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  • [Cites] Endocr Rev. 2002 Jun;23(3):327-64 [12050123.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2002 Dec 1;20(23):4598-600 [12454119.001]
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  • (PMID = 21686682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029429
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30. Bausewein C, Kühnbach R, Haberland B: Adrenal insufficiency caused by bilateral adrenal metastases -- a rare treatable cause for recurrent nausea and vomiting in metastatic breast cancer. Onkologie; 2006 May;29(5):203-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency caused by bilateral adrenal metastases -- a rare treatable cause for recurrent nausea and vomiting in metastatic breast cancer.
  • CASE REPORT: We report of a patient suffering from advanced breast cancer and complaining of severe nausea and vomiting over several weeks without any successful treatment.
  • Adrenal enlargement was noted in an abdominal scan.
  • CONCLUSION: If a patient with advanced cancer presents with unexplained and protracted nausea, vomiting and weakness, particularly if accompanied by hyponatremia and normal potassium levels, adrenal insufficiency due to adrenal metastases should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / diagnosis. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nausea / etiology. Vomiting / etiology


31. Ambika S, Melton A, Lee D, Hesketh PJ: Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Sep;10(5):E1-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GUANINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization.
  • The development of adrenal hemorrhage from lung cancer metastasis is extremely rare.
  • A 54-year-old woman with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer and known bilateral adrenal metastasis developed severe right-sided abdominal pain while undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • The bleeding vessel was identified as the right middle adrenal artery.
  • The patient underwent successful transcatheter embolization (TCE) and occlusion of the right middle adrenal artery using metallic coils, with resolution of the abdominal pain and stabilization of her hemoglobin.
  • TCE can be used to control hemorrhage arising from metastatic involvement of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Catheterization, Peripheral. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Hemorrhage / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Flank Pain. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology


32. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Endocr J. 2005 Dec;52(6):785-8 [16410674.001]
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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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33. Lu Y, Xie D, Huang W, Gong H, Yu J: 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses in lung cancer patients. Neoplasma; 2010;57(2):129-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of adrenal masses in lung cancer patients.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of integrated (18)F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating benign from metastatic malignant adrenal masses in patients with lung cancer.
  • One hundred and ten adrenal masses (size range, 0.5 - 6.3 cm, mean size, 1.9 cm) were evaluated retrospectively in 87 lung cancer patients.
  • PET findings were interpreted as positive if the (18)F-FDG uptake of the adrenal mass was greater than or equal to that of the liver.
  • PET findings were interpreted as negative if the 18F-FDG uptake of the adrenal mass was less than that of the liver.
  • PET/CT findings were positive in 77 adrenal masses.
  • Seventy-four of these were eventually considered to be metastatic adrenal disease.
  • In the end, histopathological examinations of the adrenal lesions demonstrated the presence of adenomas.
  • PET/CT findings were negative in 33 adrenal masses, of which 31 eventually proved to be benign.
  • The 2 adrenal masses that were false-negative, underwent PET/CT twice with a two-month interval.
  • Both adrenal masses were interpreted as metastasis.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting metastatic disease were 97 %( 74 of 76), 94 %( 31 of 34), and 95% (105 of 110), respectively.
  • Integrated (18)F-FDG PET-CT is an accurate, noninvasive technique for differentiating benign from metastatic adrenal lesions detected on CT or MRI in patients with lung cancer.
  • It allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


34. Pfannschmidt J, Schlolaut B, Muley T, Hoffmann H, Dienemann H: Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2005 Aug;49(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with adrenal metastases from lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC) remains controversial.
  • Several studies of adrenalectomy in cases of isolated adrenal metastases from NSCLC suggest that these patients could have improved survival.
  • Our aim is to define the history of patients after resection of solitary metastases to the adrenal gland and to identify characteristics of patients who achieved prolonged survival.
  • METHODS: Between January 1997 and July 2000, 11 patients underwent curative resection for metastatic NSCLC of the adrenal gland in our institution.
  • RESULTS: Eleven patients (seven men and four women) with unilateral adrenal metastases of NSCLC entered the study.
  • Patients with curative resection and metachronous disease (n=6) had a median survival of 30.9 months and tended to do better than patients with synchronous adrenal metastases (n=5) (median survival: 10.3 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


35. Civelek AC, Piotrowski B, Osman MM, Memisoglu E, Khayyat N, Reimers HJ, Naunheim KS: Cutaneous metastatic lung cancer detected with 18F-FDG PET. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Feb;20(2):147-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastatic lung cancer detected with 18F-FDG PET.
  • The plan was to obtain histological confirmation of suspected lung cancer via bronchoscopy and mediastinoscopy.
  • There was a large, intense hypermetabolic focus corresponding to the paratracheal lesion seen on CT, as well as a lesion in the right adrenal gland.
  • The subcutaneous lesion, which previously had not been noted, was biopsied and proved to be metastatic adenocarcinoma consistent with the lung primary.

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  • (PMID = 16615424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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36. Boland GW, Blake MA, Holalkere NS, Hahn PF: PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Apr;192(4):956-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients with PET/CT to determine whether qualitative (visual) assessment, quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV), or standardized uptake ratio (SUR) techniques should be used when attempting to characterize adrenal masses in patients with cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 150 consecutive patients (78 men, 72 women; mean age, 60 years; range, 24-88 years) with documented adrenal lesions.
  • All patients were known to have an underlying primary malignancy and were referred for PET/CT to evaluate the underlying primary and metastatic tumor burden.
  • Definitive lesion characterization was determined by evaluating all histologic adrenal specimens and all relevant prior and follow-up CT scans, including unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and delayed contrast-enhanced washout studies.
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT is a highly accurate method for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses particularly when using qualitative, rather than quantitative, PET data.
  • Without evidence that these lesions are benign by unenhanced CT densitometry or adrenal mass stability or growth from previous CT scans, we recommend that these lesions be characterized using contrast-enhanced washout tests and that if those tests are inconclusive, using percutaneous biopsy if early lesion characterization is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19304700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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37. Pozzessere D, Zafarana E, Buccoliero AM, Pratesi C, Fargnoli R, Di Leo A: Gastric cancer metastatic to the pituitary gland: a case report. Tumori; 2007 Mar-Apr;93(2):217-9
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  • [Title] Gastric cancer metastatic to the pituitary gland: a case report.
  • Gastric carcinoma is a rare cause of metastases in pituitary gland.
  • Gastric carcinoma will be the primary tumor in less than 2% of patients with pituitary gland metastases.
  • We report the case of a 60-years old white man with liver metastasis from gastric cancer with fair presentation symptoms of pituitary gland metastasis.
  • After diagnosis the patient began thyroid and adrenal-replacement therapy and was referred to Radiotherapy Unit for treatment on the sellar and pituitary gland region.


38. Venkatesan AM, Locklin J, Lai EW, Adams KT, Fojo AT, Pacak K, Wood BJ: Radiofrequency ablation of metastatic pheochromocytoma. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2009 Nov;20(11):1483-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiofrequency ablation of metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • In conclusion, RF ablation may be safely performed for metastatic pheochromocytoma given careful attention to peri-procedural management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19875067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL040011-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL040015-02; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZID BC011242-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425891; NLM/ PMC3608423
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39. Sung YM, Lee KS, Kim BT, Choi JY, Chung MJ, Shim YM, Yi CA, Kim TS: (18)F-FDG PET versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT for adrenal gland lesion characterization: a comparison of diagnostic efficacy in lung cancer patients. Korean J Radiol; 2008 Jan-Feb;9(1):19-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] (18)F-FDG PET versus (18)F-FDG PET/CT for adrenal gland lesion characterization: a comparison of diagnostic efficacy in lung cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of integrated PET/CT using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the differentiation of benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in patients with lung cancer and to compare the diagnostic efficacy with the use of PET alone.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-one adrenal lesions (size range, 5-104 mm; mean size, 16 mm) were evaluated retrospectively in 42 lung cancer patients.
  • PET findings were interpreted as positive if the FDG uptake of adrenal lesions was greater than or equal to that of the liver, and the PET/CT findings were interpreted as positive if an adrenal lesion show attenuation > 10 HU and showed increased FDG uptake.
  • Final diagnoses of adrenal gland lesions were made at clinical follow-up (n = 52) or by a biopsy (n = 9) when available.
  • The diagnostic accuracies of PET and PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal lesions were compared using the McNemar test.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five (57%) of the 61 adrenal lesions were metastatic and the remaining 26 lesions were benign.
  • For the depiction of adrenal gland metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET were 74%, 73%, and 74%, respectively, whereas those of integrated PET/CT were 80%, 89%, and 84%, respectively (p values; 0.5, 0.125, and 0.031, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The use of integrated PET/CT is more accurate than the use of PET alone for differentiating benign and metastatic adrenal gland lesions in lung cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627169
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40. Kuczyk M, Wegener G, Jonas U: The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):252-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The therapeutic value of adrenalectomy in case of solitary metastatic spread originating from primary renal cell cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Solitary adrenal metastases occur in about 1.2-10% of renal cell cancer patients.
  • Since the vast majority of intraadrenal lesions can be detected preoperatively, we and others have recently recommended to renounce a routine adrenalectomy during surgery of renal cell cancer.
  • However, the impact of adrenalectomy on the patients' clinical prognosis in case of a solitary metastatic lesion within the adrenal gland remains an issue of controversial discussion.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Between 1981 and 2000, 648 patients (440 males and 208 females) underwent nephrectomy in combination with adrenalectomy in our clinic for the diagnosis of renal cell cancer.
  • Although metastases of the adrenal gland were diagnosed in 48 patients, solitary intraadrenal metastases without further systemic spread were observed in only 13 cases.
  • Several patients' and tumor characteristics (age, tumor stage and size, the presence of regional lymph node metastases, the presence of metastatic lesions at different organ sites as well as the detection of solitary intraadrenal metastases) were correlated with the patients' overall survival by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (logistic Cox regression analysis).
  • The median long - term survival was 13.8 years and 11.7 years for patients with no evidence of metastatic spread as well as for patients with a solitary intraadrenal metastatic lesion, respectively.
  • Accordingly, the long - term survival rates at 5 and 10 years after surgery were 66%/50% and 51%/51% for patients with no evidence of metastatic spread or isolated intraadrenal metastases.
  • DISCUSSION: For patients with a solitary intraadrenal metastatic lesion, adrenalectomy is a potentially curative treatment option.
  • The observation that the long - term survival of the latter patients is comparable to that of patients with organ - confined disease might suggest the establishment of a separate TNM - category for patients revealing a solitary metastasis within the adrenal gland and no hint at further systemic metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology


41. Strong VE, D'Angelica M, Tang L, Prete F, Gönen M, Coit D, Touijer KA, Fong Y, Brennan MF: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;14(12):3392-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Use of laparoscopy for isolated adrenal metastases is controversial.
  • The aims of this study were to characterize patients with isolated adrenal metastases; compare operative characteristics of the laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) versus open adrenalectomy (OA) approach; and compare long-term oncological and surgical outcomes.
  • METHODS: Our adrenal resection database (1995-2006) identified 63 OA and 31 LA cases done for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • The only independent predictor of survival for all (n = 94) was adrenal tumor size less than 4.5 cm (P = 0.01).
  • When comparing LA with OA, no differences in local recurrence, margin status, disease-free interval or overall survival were observed for the entire group, or for patients with metastases only from lung cancer (n = 39) or for those with tumors smaller than 4.5 cm (n = 49).
  • LA provided significantly shorter operative time (175 vs 208 min, P = 0.04), lower estimated blood loss (EBL) (106 vs 749 cc, P < 0.0001), shorter length of hospital stay (2.8 vs 8.0 days, P < 0.0001) and fewer total complications (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is equivalent to OA in terms of margin status, local recurrence, disease-free interval and overall survival.
  • LA for metastatic adrenal lesions is safe, with equivalent long-term oncological outcomes providing the additional benefits of a minimally invasive technique.
  • LA can be recommended as an appropriate initial approach for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Dec;14(12):3288-9 [17896147.001]
  • (PMID = 17665267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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43. Häyry V, Salmenkivi K, Arola J, Heikkilä P, Haglund C, Sariola H: High frequency of SNAIL-expressing cells confirms and predicts metastatic potential of phaeochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1211-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High frequency of SNAIL-expressing cells confirms and predicts metastatic potential of phaeochromocytoma.
  • Phaeochromocytomas are uncommon tumours of adrenal or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue.
  • We found that SNAIL-expressing cells are frequent in metastatic primary tumours and their metastases, whereas in tumours without metastases, SNAIL expression is commonly absent.
  • We conclude that the expression of SNAIL may be of use in predicting the metastatic potential of phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19641025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
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44. Tsalis K, Zacharakis E, Sapidis N, Lambrou I, Zacharakis E, Betsis D: Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jul 25;3:50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis as first presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be found in the lung and adrenal gland.
  • We report case of a patient who presented with adrenal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of HCC.
  • The computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a mass originating from the left adrenal gland.
  • Histologically, the resected lesion was a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor from HCC.
  • Fine needle aspiration/tru-cut biopsy might be useful in the investigation of an accidentally discovered adrenal mass regardless of the size and can lead to the detection of a primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16042808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1187929
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45. Berber E, Siperstein A: Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Feb;20(1):58-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic radiofrequency thermal ablation of adrenal tumors: technical details.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite reports of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), laparoscopic ablative techniques have not been described to treat adrenal tumors.
  • The aim of this study is to describe patient selection criteria and the technique for laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • METHODS: Four patients underwent laparoscopic RFA of adrenal tumors under general anesthesia for adrenal tumors.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included lung metastasis in 2 patients, and renal cell cancer metastasis and cortical adenoma in 1 patient each.
  • Metastatic lesions were not resectable owing to the concomitant liver metastasis in 2 patients and because of local invasion in the third patient.
  • Despite normal catecholamine levels preoperatively, 2 patients had a transient hypertensive period during the ablation possibly owing to the release of catecholamines from the normal adrenal medulla.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenal RFA.
  • Laparoscopic RFA is an option for patients with unresectable adrenal tumors owing to the extent of disease or comorbidities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy / methods. Catheter Ablation / methods. Hot Temperature / therapeutic use. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20173624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Wilson RL, Brown RK, Reisman D: Surgical resection for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer to the pancreas. Lung Cancer; 2009 Mar;63(3):433-5
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  • [Title] Surgical resection for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer to the pancreas.
  • We report the case of a woman with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastatic to the pancreas who underwent pancreatic resection followed by a significant disease-free interval.
  • Resection of NSCLC metastases, other than those to the brain and adrenal gland, are rarely reported.
  • This case proves, in principle, that resection of solitary metastatic lesions in certain clinical conditions can be improved regardless of location.


47. Suyama K, Beppu T, Isiko T, Sugiyama S, Doi K, Masuda T, Ikeda O, Takamori H, Tsuji R, Kanemitsu K, Egami H, Baba H, Saisyoji T: [Hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy to a solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1839-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy to a solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer].
  • A 75-year-old man with right chest pain was diagnosed with primary lung cancer in the right apical portion, and was treated with chemoradiotherapy because of a synchronous left adrenal tumor of 1.6 cm.
  • Since the adrenal tumor did not increase in size for three months and there were no other relapses, the right upper lobectomy of the lung with the excision of the chest wall was performed.
  • Afterward, an enlargement of the left adrenal tumor was encountered; he was admitted to our hospital for an operation.
  • For the metastatic adrenal tumor from lung cancer, we performed a hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • After the first report in 1992, the laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been established as the curative operation to adrenal benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16315957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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48. Kataoka M, Shigemitsu K, Tanabe S, Ohara T, Takahata T, Nose S: Sudden death from metastatic esophageal cancer to the ventricular septum. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Jul;53(7):365-8
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  • [Title] Sudden death from metastatic esophageal cancer to the ventricular septum.
  • A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to esophageal cancer.
  • Cancer existed at the lower esophagus and subtotal esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy was performed.
  • Autopsy showed metastatic lesions to the heart and mediastinal lymph nodes, liver, thoracic vertebrae, kidney, adrenal gland and heart.
  • Metastatic nodules in the heart were on the ventricular septum where the conducting system exists.

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  • (PMID = 16095236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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49. Iwanami T, Uramoto H, Baba T, Takenaka M, Yokoyama E, Oka S, So T, Ono K, So T, Takenoyama M, Hanagiri T, Iwata T, Inoue M, Yasumoto K: [Treatment recommendations for adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Dec;63(13):1101-6; discussion 1106-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment recommendations for adrenal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer].
  • To evaluate the optimum treatment strategy for metastatic adrenal tumors derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we retrospectively analyzed 17 consecutive cases (8 resection cases: 4 synchronous and 4 metachronous: 9 non-resection cases: 3 synchronous and 6 metachronous) who received surgical resection for NSCLC.
  • The mean interval after lung resection and treatment of metachronous adrenal metastasis was 9.9 months.
  • The mean time to progression from treatment of metachronous adrenal metastasis to disease progression was 8.9 months.
  • The 2-year survival of patients following resection versus those who did not undergo a resection for adrenal metastasis was 62.5 and 22.8%, respectively.
  • These data indicate that metastatic adrenal tumors should be resected if the patient can tolerate surgery after appropriate selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


50. Okabe H, Beppu T, Ishiko T, Horino K, Masuda T, Hayashi H, Komori H, Tanaka H, Takamori H, Masahiko H, Baba H: [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):1973-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Multimodal treatment for adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)].
  • The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adrenal metastases are often accompanied with the metastasis from other sites, and their prognosis is poor.
  • The mean interval from the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma to the adrenal metastases was 46 months (1-95 months).
  • If there was a good control observed in the intrahepatic lesion with no metastases besides adrenal glands, we selected a surgical resection of the metastatic adrenal glands.
  • The mean overall survival time after the surgical treatment of the adrenal metastases was 23 months (7-54 months), and we considered it as a good prognosis.
  • The mean progression free survival of the adrenal metastases was 15 months (5-30 months).
  • Besides on such a good clinical outcome, we conclude that aggressive multimodal therapy including surgical resection of metastatic foci may be recommended if the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have no other metastatic sites other than the adrenal gland and liver lesions are well-controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18219869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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51. Kobayashi E, Kawai A, Seki K, Tateishi U, Beppu Y: Bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from malignant fibrous histiocytoma: value of [F-18]FDG PET-CT for diagnosis of occult metastases. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Dec;20(10):695-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal gland metastasis from malignant fibrous histiocytoma: value of [F-18]FDG PET-CT for diagnosis of occult metastases.
  • We report a 71-year-old woman with malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the right buttock and thigh that metastasized to the bilateral adrenal glands without development of pulmonary metastasis.
  • Whole-body [F-18]FDG PET-CT showed abnormal tracer uptakes in the bilateral adrenal glands in addition to high accumulation in the primary soft tissue tumors.
  • CT-guided needle biopsy revealed that both of the adrenal lesions were metastatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of malignant fibrous histiocytoma metastatic to the bilateral adrenal glands without development of pulmonary metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17385309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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52. Selvaggi K, Abrahm J: Metastatic spinal cord compression: the hidden danger. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2006 Aug;3(8):458-61; quiz following 461
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  • [Title] Metastatic spinal cord compression: the hidden danger.
  • In November 2004 he was found to have multiple brain lesions and adrenal, lung, and bone metastases, and in January 2005 underwent resection of his symptomatic right parietal lobe lesion and subsequent whole-brain radiation.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Metastatic melanoma to the cervical spine (C7 vertebra) with spinal cord compression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Shoulder. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16894391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Muñoz A, López-Vivanco G, Mañé JM, Fernández R, Díaz-Aguirregoitia J, Saiz M, Barceló R: Metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma successfully treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Nov;36(11):731-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma successfully treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer is a common condition with a dismal prognosis.
  • Metastatic involvement of adrenal glands is not rare, but usually reflects widespread dissemination.
  • Selected patients with single adrenal metastasis may be cured with surgery, although the level of evidence comes from single cases reports and short retrospective series.
  • Here we report a patient with bilateral adrenal metastases from previously resected non-small-cell lung cancer, who remains free of disease four years after pre-operative chemotherapy and bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17071712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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54. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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55. Agemy L, Harmelin A, Waks T, Leibovitch I, Rabin T, Pfeffer MR, Eshhar Z: Irradiation enhances the metastatic potential of prostatic small cell carcinoma xenografts. Prostate; 2008 Apr 1;68(5):530-9
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  • [Title] Irradiation enhances the metastatic potential of prostatic small cell carcinoma xenografts.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is a rare subset of prostate cancer (0.5-2% of all prostatic carcinomas), predominantly composed of neuroendocrine (NE) cells, with a very poor prognosis.
  • Metastases of both xenografts were located in the adrenal/kidney and inter-scapular regions, areas rich in brown adipose tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinically, this study raises the possibility that radiation to SCCP may promote metastatic disease.
  • For patients in whom prostate biopsy shows a predominance of small cell cancer, it may be necessary to deliver systemic therapy together with the radiotherapy in order to prevent the development of metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18247403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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56. Fumagalli U, de Carli S, de Pascale S, Rimassa L, Bignardi M, Rosati R: Adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: adrenalectomy and long-term survival. Updates Surg; 2010 Aug;62(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: adrenalectomy and long-term survival.
  • Treatment of adrenal metastases from cancer of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is not defined.
  • The aim of the present work is to analyze retrospectively our experience in treating patients with adrenal metastases from EGJ adenocarcinoma.
  • Five patients were diagnosed an adrenal metastases from EGJ adenocarcinoma, synchronous (s) in one and metachronous (m) in four, in the latter 11 months (mean) after esophagectomy.
  • At diagnosis, three patients had synchronous metastases to mediastinal nodes (1 s and 2 m), 1 (m) had synchronous metastases to bone, and 1 (m) had an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • These patients are alive with no evidence of disease 16, 40 and 50 months after diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • The patient with bone metastasis received chemotherapy only and died 12 months after diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • In conclusion, our experience indicates that patients with adrenal metastases from adenocarcinoma of the EGJ may benefit from adrenalectomy if the gland is the only site of metastasis beyond lymphnodal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Esophagogastric Junction. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20845103.001).
  • [ISSN] 2038-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Updates in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Updates Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Brouwers FM, Petricoin EF 3rd, Ksinantova L, Breza J, Rajapakse V, Ross S, Johann D, Mannelli M, Shulkin BL, Kvetnansky R, Eisenhofer G, Walther MM, Hitt BA, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, Mannion DP, Wall MR, Wolfe GM, Fusaro VA, Liotta LA, Pacak K: Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):263-72
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  • [Title] Low molecular weight proteomic information distinguishes metastatic from benign pheochromocytoma.
  • Metastatic lesions occur in up to 36% of patients with pheochromocytoma.
  • Currently there is no way to reliably detect or predict which patients are at risk for metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • Thus, the discovery of biomarkers that could distinguish patients with benign disease from those with metastatic disease would be of great clinical value.
  • Both approaches were able to identify combinations of LMW molecules which could distinguish all metastatic from all benign pheochromocytomas in a separate blinded validation set.
  • In the future, measurement of these biomarkers could be potentially used to improve the ability to identify patients with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Proteome / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15947101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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58. Mazzaglia PJ, Monchik JM: Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Limited value of adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm: a decade of experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of percutaneous adrenal biopsy in the evaluation of adrenal neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing image-guided adrenal biopsy from 1997 to 2007.
  • Eighty-eight biopsies (53.4%) were performed in patients with a prior diagnosis of cancer.
  • Forty-five (26.4%) were performed when imaging study results suggested previously undiagnosed cancer with a simultaneous adrenal metastasis.
  • Thirty (20.2%) were performed for isolated adrenal incidentalomas.
  • In patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma, a radiology report recommended biopsy 33% of the time for characteristics inconsistent with benign adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is unhelpful in patients with isolated adrenal incidentaloma.
  • The value of biopsy remains the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma in patients with a nonadrenal primary malignancy, proven by the more than 70% positive rate in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19451490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Nevo I, Sagi-Assif O, Edry Botzer L, Amar D, Maman S, Kariv N, Leider-Trejo LE, Savelyeva L, Schwab M, Yron I, Witz IP: Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants. Neoplasia; 2008 Aug;10(8):816-27
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  • [Title] Generation and characterization of novel local and metastatic human neuroblastoma variants.
  • The disease usually arises in the adrenal medulla, and it is characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity in its progression.
  • Currently, models consisting of metastatic and nonmetastatic cell variants of the same genetic background exist for several types of cancer; however, none exists for NB.
  • SH-SY5Y and MHH-NB-11 NB cells were inoculated orthotopically into the adrenal glands of athymic nude mice.
  • Neuroblastoma cells metastasizing to the lungs were isolated from mice bearing adrenal tumors.
  • Lung metastatic variants were generated by repeated cycles of in vivo passage.
  • The NB metastatic variant in each model displayed unique properties, and both metastatic variants demonstrated a metastatic phenotype in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Experimental / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18683320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; J06Y7MXW4D / Deferoxamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504768
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60. Daniele L, Cassoni P, Bacillo E, Cappia S, Righi L, Volante M, Tondat F, Inghirami G, Sapino A, Scagliotti GV, Papotti M, Novello S: Epidermal growth factor receptor gene in primary tumor and metastatic sites from non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Jun;4(6):684-8
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor gene in primary tumor and metastatic sites from non-small cell lung cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop distant metastases.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors are capable of reducing brain and adrenal metastases.
  • METHODS: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, the EGFR gene status was evaluated in a series of 38 cerebral or adrenal metastases collected from two institutions and in the corresponding primary tumors.
  • Among the seven cases FISH-positive at the metastatic site but negative in the primary tumor, six were brain metastases, and one was an adrenal metastasis; all were polysomic for chromosome 7, none were amplified.
  • CONCLUSION: Because the molecular asset of EGFR may change during the metastatic progression of NSCLC to brain (but not to adrenal), the selection of patients with brain metastasis for specific targeted therapies by EGFR FISH analysis should be performed on metastatic lesions rather than on their corresponding primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics


61. Phan AT: Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):489-507; viii-ix
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor long-term prognosis.
  • Accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of the patient presenting with an adrenal mass maximize the opportunity for optimal treatment planning.
  • In metastatic or recurrent disease, systemic treatment options are limited to chemotherapy with or without mitotane.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17548036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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62. Sultan I, Ghandour K, Al-Jumaily U, Hashem S, Rodriguez-Galindo C: Local control of the primary tumour in metastatic neuroblastoma. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(10):1728-32
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  • [Title] Local control of the primary tumour in metastatic neuroblastoma.
  • We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database for patients older than 2years with metastatic neuroblastoma who were diagnosed from 1998 to 2005.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19447607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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64. Nair N, Basu S: Selected cases demonstrating the value of furosemide-primed 18F-FDG PET in identifying adrenal involvement. J Nucl Med Technol; 2005 Sep;33(3):166-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selected cases demonstrating the value of furosemide-primed 18F-FDG PET in identifying adrenal involvement.
  • The adrenals are often a site of metastatic spread of cancer, and evaluation of the adrenals is important in assessing the extent of disease involvement in several malignancies.
  • PET with 18F-FDG has been found extremely effective in detecting adrenal involvement not identified on CT or not meeting the CT size criteria for malignancy.
  • It is not infrequent for physicians to report doubt about adrenal involvement and to suggest that the PET findings be correlated with CT findings.
  • We present 5 case vignettes, with representative illustrations, providing convincing evidence of the usefulness of this simple, noninvasive interventional procedure in ruling out suspected adrenal involvement that is otherwise difficult to assess, thereby obviating any further confirmation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Furosemide. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16145224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-4916
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nucl Med Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
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65. Joseph JM, Gross N, Lassau N, Rouffiac V, Opolon P, Laudani L, Auderset K, Geay JF, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Vassal G: In vivo echographic evidence of tumoral vascularization and microenvironment interactions in metastatic orthotopic human neuroblastoma xenografts. Int J Cancer; 2005 Mar 1;113(6):881-90
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  • [Title] In vivo echographic evidence of tumoral vascularization and microenvironment interactions in metastatic orthotopic human neuroblastoma xenografts.
  • Tumor progression and metastatic dissemination still represent major obstacles to the successful treatment of advanced stage disease.
  • We have developed an orthotopic model of metastatic human NB in the nude mouse, using 2 well-characterized NB cell lines.
  • Tumor growth, vascular properties and metastatic patterns were investigated using a sensitive and newly developed in vivo echographic technology in addition to immunohistochemistry and PCR analyses.
  • Results show that implantation of low numbers of NB cells directly into the adrenal gland of nude mice resulted in rapid and homogeneous tumor growth without tumor morbidity.
  • Nude mice were shown to rapidly develop highly vascularized adrenal tumors that selectively metastasized to the liver and bone marrow.
  • In conclusion, such model faithfully reproduces the growth, vascular and metastatic patterns as observed in patients.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15514941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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66. Tanaka T, Fujita H, Sueyoshi S, Tanaka Y, Sasahara H, Mori N, Nagano T, Yamana H, Shirouzu K: Second-line combination chemotherapy with docetaxel for cisplatin-pretreated refractory metastatic esophageal cancer: a preliminary report of initial experience. Chemotherapy; 2007;53(6):449-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Second-line combination chemotherapy with docetaxel for cisplatin-pretreated refractory metastatic esophageal cancer: a preliminary report of initial experience.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with esophageal cancer often develop metastatic disease after esophageal resection and generally receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
  • The efficacy and toxicity of the combination of docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (DFC) as a second-line chemotherapy were evaluated in patients with postoperative metastatic esophageal cancer refractory to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with metastatic esophageal cancer after esophagectomy refractory to cisplatin-based therapy were included in this study.
  • CONCLUSION: DFC is a feasible and promising regimen as a second-line therapy in metastatic/recurrent esophageal cancer refractory to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17952006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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67. Cho MM, Kobayashi K, Aoki T, Nishioka K, Yoshida K, Hatano N, Hirose H, Moon JH, Matsumoto T, Uemura Y, Kaneko T, Okagawa K: Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy. Dis Esophagus; 2007;20(1):79-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from esophageal carcinoma following esophagectomy.
  • However, we experienced a case with good prognosis following resection of a solitary adrenal metastatic tumor.
  • The patient was a 70-year-old man diagnosed with type 2 esophageal cancer (Lt-Ae, T2N1M0, Stage IIB) who was treated with esophagectomy.
  • Eight months following surgery, solitary adrenal metastasis was detected by CT, and was resected.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only five cases with resected solitary adrenal metastases including our case, have been reported, and show a greater than 1-year survival.

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  • (PMID = 17227316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Mittendorf EA, Lim SJ, Schacherer CW, Lucci A, Cormier JN, Mansfield PF, Gershenwald JE, Ross MI, Lee JE: Melanoma adrenal metastasis: natural history and surgical management. Am J Surg; 2008 Mar;195(3):363-8; discussion 368-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma adrenal metastasis: natural history and surgical management.
  • BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding melanoma metastasis to the adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of melanoma patients with adrenal metastasis was performed.
  • RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients with adrenal metastasis were identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with melanoma adrenal metastasis have a poor prognosis.
  • Surgical treatment should be considered only in highly selected patients, such as those with limited extra-adrenal metastatic disease who can be rendered disease free.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18206850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA93459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Shoji Y, Dohke M, Masuda T, Nakamura F, Yano T, Niizeki H, Kashimura N, Matsunami O: Solitary adrenal metastasis in a patient with sigmoid colon cancer; report of a case. Int J Gastrointest Cancer; 2006;37(4):120-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary adrenal metastasis in a patient with sigmoid colon cancer; report of a case.
  • A 73-year-old man had sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer in December 2001.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right adrenal mass and no other abnormality.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was a solitary adrenal metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer; the lesion was removed in September 2002.
  • On pathology, adrenal metastasis was confirmed.
  • Although the patient's serum CEA normalized soon thereafter, 12 months after adrenalectomy, the CEA again increased; the patient had local recurrence of the resected adrenal lesion and liver metastasis.
  • Adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer is not unusual; however, a solitary metastasis is rarely found and resected surgically.
  • As surgical treatment of the metastatic lesion could improve patients' prognosis to some extent if it is detected early, the possibility of adrenal metastasis should be kept in mind when colorectal cancer patients are followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18175226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-3649
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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70. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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71. DeWitt JM: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of right adrenal masses: report of 2 cases. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Feb;27(2):261-7
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of right adrenal masses: report of 2 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Although transgastric endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biopsy is a safe and accurate method for sampling of the left adrenal gland, only 2 reports describing EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the right adrenal gland have been published to date.
  • The aim of this series was to report 2 additional successful cases of EUS-FNA of right adrenal masses.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective single-center case series, prospectively updated cytology and EUS databases between January 1997 and September 2007 were reviewed to identify all patients who underwent attempted EUS-FNA of either adrenal gland.
  • Those who underwent EUS-FNA of the right adrenal gland were identified and reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of 52 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of either adrenal gland, 2 had attempted biopsy of the right adrenal gland and constituted the study population.
  • The first patient had a history of colon cancer and was found to have a right adrenal mass during workup of jaundice.
  • The second patient also had a history of colon cancer and was found to have an enlarging right adrenal mass and a subcarinal mass during follow-up computed tomography.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA showed a pheochromocytoma in the first patient and metastatic colon cancer in the second patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This series further shows that EUS-FNA of right adrenal masses is feasible and may be an option for sampling of these lesions.
  • Prospective studies comparing EUS with percutaneous FNA of adrenal masses are indicated to help delineate the indications and limitations of each technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 18204017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Wan WH, Tan KY, Ng C, Tay KH, Mancer K, Tay MH, Chia WK, Soo KC, Ooi LL: Metastatic malignant phaeochromocytoma: A rare entity that underlies a therapeutic quandary. Asian J Surg; 2006 Oct;29(4):294-302
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant phaeochromocytoma: A rare entity that underlies a therapeutic quandary.
  • Treatment of metastatic malignant phaeochromocytoma is also not well defined owing to its rarity.
  • The database of the Singapore Cancer Registry was used to trace all cases of metastatic malignant phaeochromocytoma from 1984 to 2004, and the case records were then reviewed retrospectively.
  • There were four patients with metastatic malignant phaeochromocytoma seen in Singapore in the last 20 years.
  • In the metastatic context, debulking surgery does not appear to be of curative benefit, although it may be undertaken for good palliation.

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  • (PMID = 17098666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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73. Kazanowska B, Reich A, Jelen M, Chybicka A: Chronic metastatic neuroblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Apr;50(4):898-900
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic metastatic neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17914736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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74. Lin TY, Chou YY, Hsiao FC, Wang YC, Chang PY, Yao NS: Lung cancer metastatic to the masticator space. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):349-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lung cancer metastatic to the masticator space.
  • BACKGROUND: Distant metastasis from lung cancer occurs most frequently to the brain, bone, adrenal gland, liver, lymph nodes, and spinal cord.
  • However, masticator space metastasis is rarely found among lung cancer patients.
  • Clinicians should carefully evaluate cancer patients who report a painful sensation in the cheek.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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75. Shimoda M, Kubota K, Kita J, Katoh M, Iwasaki Y: Is a patient with metastatic pancreatic tumor from rectal cancer a candidate for resection? Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Jun;54(76):1262-5
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  • [Title] Is a patient with metastatic pancreatic tumor from rectal cancer a candidate for resection?
  • A 54-year-old man who had undergone Miles' operation for rectal cancer in 1999 was found to have four brain metastases, which were treated by partial resection and gamma knife therapy in February 2003.
  • During follow-up, ultrasound (US) showed a hypoechoic lesion in the head of the pancreas, and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated low-density tumors in the pancreatic head and left adrenal gland.
  • Histologically, these tumors were diagnosed as metastases from the rectal cancer.
  • In summary, patients with metastases from rectal cancer to multiple organs, including the pancreas, may not be candidates for pancreatic resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreaticoduodenectomy


76. Artifon EL, Lucon AM, Sakai P, Gerhardt R, Srougi M, Takagaki T, Ishioka S, Bhutani MS: EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Dec;66(6):1201-5
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  • [Title] EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastasis from non-small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS presents an alternative access to the left adrenal, making it possible to perform echo-guided needle biopsies.
  • OBJECTIVES: We present a case of EUS-guided therapy as alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastases.
  • CT scan revealed an invasive process in the left upper lobe of the lung and a mass in the left adrenal area that was considered highly suspicious for left adrenal metastases from the patient's lung carcinoma.
  • Cytopathologic examination of EUS-guided FNA confirmed the diagnosis of left adrenal metastasis.
  • Because the patient's main clinical symptom was disabling abdominal pain, we considered the possibility of injection of alcohol into the left adrenal metastases under EUS guidance to ablate the metastatic lesion and potentially relieve the abdominal pain.
  • RESULTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: On follow-up 3 days after EUS-guided left adrenal ablation, the patient had no abdominal pain.
  • CONCLUSION: EUS-guided alcohol ablation of left adrenal metastases in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer may provide palliation of cancer-related abdominal pain.
  • There may be potential for combining this (minimally invasive and easily performed EUS-guided therapeutic) technique for ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis in patients with lung cancer with other modalities (e.g., surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy) directed toward the primary pulmonary malignancy and adjacent mediastinal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Endosonography / methods. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18061721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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77. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • The level of vascular endothelium growth factor tended to increase with increasing the stage of adrenocortical cancer.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • Presumably, vascular endothelium growth factor is involved into mechanisms of growth, invasion, and metastatic growth of adrenocortical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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78. Coleman RE, Stubbs JB, Barrett JA, de la Guardia M, Lafrance N, Babich JW: Radiation dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and safety of ultratrace Iobenguane I-131 in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma or metastatic carcinoid. Cancer Biother Radiopharm; 2009 Aug;24(4):469-75
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  • [Title] Radiation dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and safety of ultratrace Iobenguane I-131 in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma or metastatic carcinoid.
  • These findings support the further development of Ultratrace 131I-MIBG for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, such as metastatic Pheo and carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / adverse effects. 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / pharmacokinetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Paraganglioma / radiotherapy. Pheochromocytoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19694582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8852
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biotherapy & radiopharmaceuticals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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79. Song JH, Chaudhry FS, Mayo-Smith WW: The incidental indeterminate adrenal mass on CT (&gt; 10 H) in patients without cancer: is further imaging necessary? Follow-up of 321 consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 Nov;189(5):1119-23
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  • [Title] The incidental indeterminate adrenal mass on CT (> 10 H) in patients without cancer: is further imaging necessary? Follow-up of 321 consecutive indeterminate adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether follow-up imaging evaluation is necessary for incidentally discovered indeterminate adrenal lesions (> 10 H) on CT in patients with no known malignancy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer search of CT reports from January 2000 to December 2003 identified patients with incidentally detected, indeterminate, but benign-appearing adrenal lesions who had no known malignancy and no clinical suspicion of hyperfunctioning adrenal mass.
  • Patients with adrenal masses diagnostic on the initial CT or heterogeneous masses were excluded.
  • There were no metastatic adrenal lesions, even among the 13 patients who subsequently developed malignancy elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: All of the incidentally detected adrenal masses with a CT attenuation of > 10 H were benign in patients with no known malignancy.
  • Follow-up imaging to characterize an incidental adrenal mass appears to have a limited role in this patient cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Risk Assessment / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data


80. Bisenkov LN, Shalaev SA, Orzheshkovskiĭ OV, Platunov SK, Efremov FA: [One-stage operations on the lungs and other organs in multifocal and metastatic cancer]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2005;(4):33-6
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  • [Title] [One-stage operations on the lungs and other organs in multifocal and metastatic cancer].
  • Surgical treatment of 135 patients with multifocal and metastatic cancer of the lungs and other organs is analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery


81. Castillo O, Cortés O, Kerkebe M, Pinto I, Arellano L, Contreras M: [Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adrenal pathology: experience with 200 cases]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Oct;30(9):926-32
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of adrenal pathology: experience with 200 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Cirugia laparoscópica en el tratamiento de enfermedades adrenales: experiencia en 200 casos.
  • METHODS: We included 200 laparoscopic adrenal surgeries performed consecutively in 183 patients with surgical adrenal pathology between November 1994 and November 2005.
  • RESULTS: The most frequents clinical diagnosis were hyperaldosteronism (17.5%), metastatic cancer (15.8%), pheochromocytoma (15.3%), Cushing syndrome (7.1%), adrenal cyst (4.9%) and myelolipoma (2.7%).
  • A total of 164 total adrenalectomies, 29 partial adrenalectomies and 7 marsupializations of adrenal cysts were performed.
  • The size of the suprarenal gland and/or tumor varied between 1 and 14 cm (average 5.6 cm).
  • In 8 of the patients, there was another laparoscopic procedure besides the adrenal surgery: cholecystectomies (2), marsupialization of a renal cyst (2), block nephrectomy (2), partial nephrectomy for a tumor (1) and pancreatic cystectomy (1).
  • CONCLUSION: The accumulated experience with 200 laparoscopic adrenal procedures has allowed the management of endocrine pathologies, such as, aldosteroma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing syndrome and rare entities, such as, cysts, myelolipomas in a suitable manner.
  • Additionally, it has permitted us to extend the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure for large adrenal masses and selected oncology cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17175933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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82. Raynaud CM, Mercier O, Commo F, Dartevelle P, Gomez-Roca C, de Montpreville V, Sabatier L, Soria JC: Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases. Lung Cancer; 2009 Aug;65(2):144-9
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  • [Title] Telomere length, telomeric proteins and DNA damage repair proteins are differentially expressed between primary lung tumors and their adrenal metastases.
  • INTRODUCTION: The development of molecular targeted therapies as anti-cancer strategies raises important questions regarding the biological and molecular behavior of the metastatic sites as compared to their corresponding primary tumors.
  • We analysed telomere related markers (telomere length and telomeric proteins) and DNA damage repair (DDR) markers in a cohort of patients with surgically resected primary lung NSCLC and adrenal metastasis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a single series of 21 patients who had undergone surgery of both their primary lung tumor and its related adrenal gland metastasis in a single Institution.
  • Telomere length was independent from primary or metastatic status (p=0.29).
  • There was no correlation between primary and metastatic sites, although approximately 65% of metastases had shorter telomeres than their corresponding primary tumors.
  • In the same way, telomeric protein expression was independent from primary/metastatic localization.
  • Cluster analysis of each specimen according to its protein's expression levels and telomere length showed that matched primary tumors/adrenal metastasis were mostly separated into different clusters.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Repair / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomere / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19091442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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83. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy


84. Gurel B, Ali TZ, Montgomery EA, Begum S, Hicks J, Goggins M, Eberhart CG, Clark DP, Bieberich CJ, Epstein JI, De Marzo AM: NKX3.1 as a marker of prostatic origin in metastatic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1097-105
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  • [Title] NKX3.1 as a marker of prostatic origin in metastatic tumors.
  • Although most studies have shown that staining for NKX3.1 protein is positive in the majority of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas, it has been shown to be downregulated in many high-grade prostate cancers, and completely lost in the majority of metastatic prostate cancers (eg, in 65% to 78% of lesions).
  • This raised the question that this antibody may perform better than earlier used antibodies in metastatic prostate tumors.
  • However, the sensitivity and specificity for prostate carcinomas for this antibody in metastatic lesions was not determined.
  • Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are excellent tissue markers of prostate cancer, at times they may be expressed at low levels, focally, or not at all in poorly differentiated primary and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of NKX3.1 as a marker of metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostatic origin.
  • Immunohistochemical staining against NKX3.1, PSA, and PSAP was carried out on a tissue microarray (TMA) (0.6-mm tissue cores) of hormone naïve metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma specimens from lymph nodes, bone, and soft tissue.
  • To determine the specificity of NKX3.1 for prostatic adenocarcinoma, we used TMAs that contained cancers from various sites including the urinary bladder, breast, colon, salivary gland, stomach, pancreas, thyroid, and central nervous system, and standard paraffin sections of cancers from other sites including the adrenal cortex, kidney, liver, lung, and testis.
  • The sensitivity for identifying metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas overall was 98.6% (68/69 cases positive) for NKX3.1, 94.2% (65/69 cores positive) for PSA, and 98.6% (68/69 cores positive) for PSAP.
  • The sole positive nonprostatic cancer case was an invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.
  • NKX3.1 seems to be a highly sensitive and specific tissue marker of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • In the appropriate clinical setting, the addition of IHC staining for NKX3.1, along with other prostate-restricted markers, may prove to be a valuable adjunct to definitively determine prostatic origin in poorly differentiated metastatic carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20588175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058236-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA58236
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NKX3-1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS272269; NLM/ PMC3072223
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85. Brasse D, Mathelin C, Leroux K, Chenard MP, Blaise S, Stoll I, Tomasetto C, Rio MC: Matrix metalloproteinase 11/stromelysin-3 exerts both activator and repressor functions during the hematogenous metastatic process in mice. Int J Cancer; 2010 Sep 1;127(6):1347-55

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase 11/stromelysin-3 exerts both activator and repressor functions during the hematogenous metastatic process in mice.
  • Although it has been shown to favor primary tumor development, its role in metastatic processes remains unclear.
  • We studied the hematogenous metastatic activity of C26 mouse colon cancer cells injected into the tail vain of wild-type or MMP11-deficient mice during 2 months.
  • Histological analyses of the lung, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, mammary gland, ovary and salivary gland, performed at the end of experiment, also showed lower numbers of metastases in wild-type mice, regardless of organ.
  • Furthermore, they point-out the paradoxical role of MMP11 in favoring the onset and growth of lung metastases but limiting lung foci number, and inhibiting the cancer cell dissemination to other organs.
  • These data highlight the complexity of the metastatic process in which the same factor can play activator or repressor functions depending on the metastatic step.

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  • (PMID = 20209494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 11
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86. Kulke MH, Stuart K, Enzinger PC, Ryan DP, Clark JW, Muzikansky A, Vincitore M, Michelini A, Fuchs CS: Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 20;24(3):401-6
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  • [Title] Phase II study of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • We evaluated the efficacy of an oral regimen of temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with metastatic carcinoid, pheochromocytoma, or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16421420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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87. Gomez-Roca C, Raynaud CM, Penault-Llorca F, Mercier O, Commo F, Morat L, Sabatier L, Dartevelle P, Taranchon E, Besse B, Validire P, Italiano A, Soria JC: Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Oct;4(10):1212-20
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  • [Title] Differential expression of biomarkers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites.
  • The correlation of biomarker expression between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis has not yet been well documented and analyzed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • The ERCC1 status was discordant in 20 cases (41%), with a trend toward overexpression in brain and adrenal metastases (p = 0.01 and p = 0.08, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism


88. Strong VE, Kennedy T, Al-Ahmadie H, Tang L, Coleman J, Fong Y, Brennan M, Ghossein RA: Prognostic indicators of malignancy in adrenal pheochromocytomas: clinical, histopathologic, and cell cycle/apoptosis gene expression analysis. Surgery; 2008 Jun;143(6):759-68
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  • [Title] Prognostic indicators of malignancy in adrenal pheochromocytomas: clinical, histopathologic, and cell cycle/apoptosis gene expression analysis.
  • The histologic differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is difficult, the latter diagnosed by the presence of metastatic disease or recurrence.
  • AIM: To determine if postoperative histologic evaluation using the previously proposed Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and cell cycle/apoptosis markers can predict patients at risk for recurrence.
  • METHODS: Using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center adrenal database, we identified 48 patients with 51 resected pheochromocytomas (1987-2006).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology


89. Martiniova L, Kotys MS, Thomasson D, Schimel D, Lai EW, Bernardo M, Merino MJ, Powers JF, Ruzicka J, Kvetnansky R, Choyke PL, Pacak K: Noninvasive monitoring of a murine model of metastatic pheochromocytoma: a comparison of contrast-enhanced microCT and nonenhanced MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Mar;29(3):685-91
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  • [Title] Noninvasive monitoring of a murine model of metastatic pheochromocytoma: a comparison of contrast-enhanced microCT and nonenhanced MRI.
  • PURPOSE: To compare contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (microCT) and nonenhanced respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an animal model of metastatic pheochromocytoma.
  • Animal models are becoming important in the study of cancer treatment and imaging is useful in minimizing the number of animals needed and reducing costs associated with autopsies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female nude mice were injected by tail vein with a mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cell line (MPC 4/30PRR) to create a metastatic model.
  • Additionally, MRI was more sensitive for lesions in the kidneys, bone, ovaries, and adrenal glands.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19243052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS037685-05; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37685; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS104000; NLM/ PMC2750094
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90. Martiniova L, Lai EW, Elkahloun AG, Abu-Asab M, Wickremasinghe A, Solis DC, Perera SM, Huynh TT, Lubensky IA, Tischler AS, Kvetnansky R, Alesci S, Morris JC, Pacak K: Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2009;26(3):239-50
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  • [Title] Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature.
  • There is presently no cure for metastatic pheochromocytoma and no reliable way to distinguish malignant from benign tumors before the development of metastases.
  • For this purpose, we have recently established a mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma using tail vein injection of mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells.
  • We optimized this model modifying the number of cells injected, length of trypsin pre-treatment, and incubation temperature and duration for the MPC cells before injection, and by serial passage and re-selection of tumors exhibiting the metastatic phenotype.
  • These results show that number of cells injected, the pre-injection incubation temperature, and duration of trypsin treatment are important factors to produce faster growing, more aggressive tumors that yielded secondary metastatic lesions.
  • Serial harvest, culture and re-selection of metastatic liver lesions produced even more aggressive pheochromocytoma cells that retained their biochemical phenotype.
  • Microarray gene expression comparison and quantitative real-time PCR of these more aggressive cells to the MPC-parental cell line identified genes that may be important for the metastatic process.

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  • [Cites] Int J Cancer. 2005 Mar 10;114(1):139-43 [15523699.001]
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  • (PMID = 19169894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7276
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIC HG200365-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIC HG200365-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037685; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 37685; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIC HG200365-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS420223; NLM/ PMC3505859
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91. Sperone P, Berruti A, Gorzegno G, Paccotti P, Terzolo M, Porpiglia F, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):560-2
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  • [Title] Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane.
  • Adreno-cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis.
  • Complete surgical resection of the primary tumor and, when feasible, of the local and distant metastases offers the best prospects for long-term survival; conversely, the role of systemic therapy in patients developing unresectable metastatic disease is unclear.
  • We describe the case of a young female patient (36 yr) who presented with an androgen-releasing metastatic ACC.
  • The left adrenal gland was then removed and histopathological examination showed extensive tumor necrosis and the absence of viable cancer cells.
  • This report shows that chemotherapy plus mitotane could result in complete pathological remission, which may be a surrogate for long-term progression- free survival in metastatic ACC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16840836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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92. Antonelli A, Cozzoli A, Simeone C, Zani D, Zanotelli T, Portesi E, Cosciani Cunico S: Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients. BJU Int; 2006 Mar;97(3):505-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: a single-centre experience of 45 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report, in a retrospective study, the diagnostic problems and oncological results of surgery in patients with either synchronous or metachronous adrenal metastasis, which are uncommon in renal cancer, at 2-10% of patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 1179 patients treated for renal cancer between 1987 and 2003, 914 had renal surgery with concomitant ipsilateral adrenalectomy (routinely in 875 and for abnormal findings on computed tomography, CT, in 39) and 15 contralateral adrenalectomy (all after suspicious findings on CT).
  • During the follow-up after renal surgery, another 14 patients had adrenalectomy for CT evidence of an abnormal adrenal gland, contralateral to the previous renal tumour in 12 and bilaterally in two.
  • RESULTS: Of 914 ipsilateral adrenal glands removed during renal surgery, 854 (93.5%) were normal on pathological examination, 28 (3%) had a benign pathology, six (0.8%) were directly infiltrated by the tumour and 26 (2.7%) were metastatic.
  • For both benign and metastatic ipsilateral adrenal pathology, CT had sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values of 47%, 99%, 73% and 96%, respectively.
  • Of 29 contralateral glands removed because of suspicious CT findings (15 at diagnosis of renal cancer, 14 during the follow-up) there was no abnormality in one (3.4%), a benign pathology in seven (24%) and a metastasis in 21 (72%).
  • Thus there were 32 synchronous (incidence 2.7%; ipsilateral to the renal tumour in 24, contralateral in six and bilateral in two), and 13 metachronous adrenal metastases (incidence 1.0%; contralateral in 11 and bilateral in two).
  • No ipsilateral adrenal metastases were discovered at diagnosis or during the follow-up in the 382 patients with an organ-confined renal tumour of <4 cm in diameter.
  • Twenty-seven patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis (synchronous in 14, metachronous in 13) had statistically significantly (P < 0.001) better survival than the 18 (all synchronous) with multiple sites of metastatic disease.
  • In particular, there was long-term survival (mean 83 months) in 10 patients with an isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Sparing the ipsilateral adrenal is advisable only for organ-confined renal tumours of <4 cm in diameter; clinical local staging of renal cancer is the best predictor of the risk of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, CT had good diagnostic ability for the contralateral adrenal gland, especially during the follow-up.
  • Some patients with isolated adrenal metastasis could be treated by metastasectomy, with long-term survival free of disease and confirming that, even if in a few and unselectable patients, removing all the neoplastic bulk can be curative.
  • Nevertheless, the high rate of relapse underlines the need for an effective systemic therapy, and more so for widespread metastatic disease that currently cannot be cured.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16469016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Otsuki H, Ito K, Kosaka T, Mikami H, Yoshii H, Asakuma J, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):879-82
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • Right adrenal tumor was found by computed tomography and he was referred to our hospital.
  • Imaging studies revealed right adrenal tumor (8 cm) with marked swelling of surrounding lymph nodes and synchronous left renal tumor (2 cm) that was weakly enhanced by contrast media.
  • Needle biopsy of the left kidney proved to be clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the preoperative diagnosis was left RCC and right primary adrenal cancer with lymph node metastasis.
  • Pathological findings of right adrenal tumor and lymph nodes were both metastatic adenocarcinoma, which was not consistent with RCC or adrenal-derived carcinoma.
  • According to pathological findings and an elevation of carcinoembryogenic antigen, the adrenal lesion was diagnosed as adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


94. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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95. Tanaka K, Yamada K, Sasaki H, Kishi K, Noura S, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Miyashiro I, Ohue M, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A surgical case of solitary lymph node metastatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1938-40
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  • [Title] [A surgical case of solitary lymph node metastatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy].
  • No evidence of recurrence in the intra- and extra hepatic organs such as adrenal gland, lung, bone, and brain except for intra abdominal solitary lymph node metastasis was observed.
  • Then the metastatic lymph node was removed surgically.

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  • (PMID = 17212152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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96. Wada H, Nagano H, Nakamura M, Yoshioka S, Kato H, Noda T, Damdinsuren B, Marubashi S, Miyamoto A, Takeda Y, Umeshita K, Dono K, Monden M: [A successful surgical treatment for solitary pulmonary and adrenal metastases after hepatic resection to hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1835-8
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  • [Title] [A successful surgical treatment for solitary pulmonary and adrenal metastases after hepatic resection to hepatocellular carcinoma--a case report].
  • We report a 65-year-old man who received a successful surgical treatment for both pulmonary and adrenal metastases after curative resection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • Thirty-eight months after the first hepatic resection, a metastatic lesion of the right pulmonary lobe was detected by computed tomography (CT).
  • After 6 months of the chemotherapy, a metastatic lesion of lung became decreased in size.
  • However, a metastatic lesion of the right adrenal gland was detected by abdominal CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16315956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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97. Gonias S, Goldsby R, Matthay KK, Hawkins R, Price D, Huberty J, Damon L, Linker C, Sznewajs A, Shiboski S, Fitzgerald P: Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 1;27(25):4162-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
  • METHODS: Fifty patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, age 10 to 64 years, were treated with [(131)I]MIBG doses ranging from 492 to 1,160 mCi (median, 12 mCi/kg).
  • CONCLUSION: Although serious toxicity may occur, the survival and response rates achieved with high-dose [(131)I]MIBG suggest its utility in the management of selected patients with metastatic PHEO and PGL.

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  • (PMID = 19636009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 2MO1 RR0127
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734428
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98. Lehmann J, Suttmann H, Albers P, Volkmer B, Gschwend JE, Fechner G, Spahn M, Heidenreich A, Odenthal A, Seif C, Nürnberg N, Wülfing C, Greb C, Kälble T, Grimm MO, Fieseler CF, Krege S, Retz M, Schulte-Baukloh H, Gerber M, Hack M, Kamradt J, Stöckle M: Surgery for metastatic urothelial carcinoma with curative intent: the German experience (AUO AB 30/05). Eur Urol; 2009 Jun;55(6):1293-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery for metastatic urothelial carcinoma with curative intent: the German experience (AUO AB 30/05).
  • INTERVENTION: Resected metastatic sites were the following: retroperitoneal lymph nodes (56.8%), distant lymph nodes (11.3%), lung (18.2%), bone (4.5%), adrenal gland (2.3%), brain (2.3%), small intestine (2.3%), and skin (2.3%).
  • MEASUREMENTS: Overall, cancer-specific and progression-free survival from time of diagnosis and metastasectomy of UCM.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median survival from initial diagnosis of UCM and subsequent resection was as follows: overall survival, 35 mo and 27 mo; cancer-specific survival, 38 mo and 34 mo; and progression-free survival, 19 mo and 15 mo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term cancer control and possible cure can be achieved in a subgroup of patients following surgical removal of UCM.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2009 Jun;55(6):1300-1 [19124189.001]
  • (PMID = 19058907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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99. Brady MJ, Thomas J, Wong TZ, Franklin KM, Ho LM, Paulson EK: Adrenal nodules at FDG PET/CT in patients known to have or suspected of having lung cancer: a proposal for an efficient diagnostic algorithm. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):523-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal nodules at FDG PET/CT in patients known to have or suspected of having lung cancer: a proposal for an efficient diagnostic algorithm.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review with waiver of informed consent of data in 1388 consecutive patients who underwent PET/CT for known or suspected lung cancer was completed, and 187 adrenal nodules were identified in 147 patients.
  • Applying a further cutoff of SUV ratio > 2.5 enabled identification of 22 of 37 metastatic lesions and exclusion of all fluorodeoxyglucose-avid benign nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Definitive identification of many metastases can be accomplished by applying an SUV ratio cutoff of greater than 2.5, allowing pragmatic management of adrenal nodules that initially test positive with the combined PET/CT criteria SUV(max) > 3.1 and mean attenuation > 10 HU.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods


100. Meier R, Mühlethaler-Mottet A, Flahaut M, Coulon A, Fusco C, Louache F, Auderset K, Bourloud KB, Daudigeos E, Ruegg C, Vassal G, Gross N, Joseph JM: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion. PLoS One; 2007;2(10):e1016
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The chemokine receptor CXCR4 strongly promotes neuroblastoma primary tumour and metastatic growth, but not invasion.
  • We show here that CXCR4 overexpression in non-metastatic CXCR4-negative NB cells IGR-NB8 and in moderately metastatic, CXCR4 expressing NB cells IGR-N91, strongly increased tumour growth of primary tumours and liver metastases, without altering the frequency or the pattern of metastasis.
  • High levels of CXCL12 were detected in the mouse adrenal gland (the primary tumour site), and in the liver suggesting a paracrine effect of host-derived CXCL12 on NB growth.

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  • (PMID = 17925864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1995764
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