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Items 1 to 100 of about 851
1. Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP: Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):667-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare, highly malignant tumors that account for only 0.2% of deaths due to cancer.
  • Given the limited number of patients seen in most medical centers with this diagnosis, series usually reported are small and clinical trials not randomized or blinded.
  • In an attempt to answer important questions concerning the management of patients with adrenal cancer, a consensus conference was organized and held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, 11-13 September 2003, with the participation of an international group of physicians who had reported on the largest series of patients with this disease and who had recognized basic and clinical research expertise in adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition to setting up guidelines in specific areas of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cancer, the conference recommended and initiated the planning of an international prospective trial for treatment of patients with adrenal cancer in stages III and IV.
  • In terms of new therapies, first trials of dendritic cell therapy in human subjects with adrenal cancer have been started, but it is too early to comment on efficacy.
  • There are no clinical gene therapy trials for human adrenal cortical cancer.
  • The adrenals are a preferred target for adenovirus and the results of gene therapy in preclinical studies are promising.
  • In addition, there is evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitors can further enhance the rate of adenoviral infectivity in human adrenal cancer cells.
  • The use of these and other agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer should be hypothesis-driven and based on a thorough analysis of tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16172199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M 01-RR000 42
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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2. Wu PP, Kuo SC, Huang WW, Yang JS, Lai KC, Chen HJ, Lin KL, Chiu YJ, Huang LJ, Chung JG: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):1435-42
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  • [Title] (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induced apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathway.
  • Nevertheless, there are no reports to date about the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways of EGCG on the induction of apoptosis in human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect and molecular mechanisms of EGCG on human adrenal NCI-H295 cancer cells.
  • When NCI-H295 cells were treated with 20 microM EGCG, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased and intracellular free Ca(2+) increased in a time-dependent manner as analysed by flow cytometry.
  • Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that EGCG may be a drug candidate for the treatment of human adrenal cancer in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Catechin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Calcium / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured


3. Yoon M, Kim S: Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT. Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Sep;44(3):230-1

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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT.
  • We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month.
  • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer.
  • The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic liposarcoma upon pathological examination.
  • When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic liposarcoma should be considered.

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  • (PMID = 24899957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1869-3474
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4042936
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal cancer / F-18 FDG / Liposarcoma / PET/CT / Pleomorphic / Retroperitoneal
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4. Krsek M: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • Adrenal cancer is a rare disease which is often diagnosed at a late stage and usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Further, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and current treatment options in patients with adrenal cancer are summarized.
  • The multidisciplinary approach as well as centralized care is necessary for successful management of patients with adrenal cancer and for improvement of their poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):6 [19227948.001]
  • (PMID = 19227956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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5. Kim HM, Ikeda M, Okano M, Miyoshi N, Hirose H, Yamashita S, Takemasa I, Mizushima T, Yamamoto H, Sekimoto M, Doki Y, Mori M: [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2548-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of recurrent sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis successfully treated by operation and chemotherapy].
  • We report a case of 57-year-old woman suffering from advanced sigmoid colon cancer with adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence.
  • Sigmoidectomy was performed for sigmoid colon cancer in January 2002.
  • However, adrenal and para-aortic lymph node recurrence was detected in February 2007, and mFOLFOX6 was performed as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • She had no recurrence for almost 3 years after a resection of adrenal and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Aorta. Bevacizumab. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; 1-UFT protocol; Folfox protocol
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6. Katanoda K, Hayashi K, Yamamoto K, Sobue T: Secular trends in neuroblastoma mortality before and after the cessation of national mass screening in Japan. J Epidemiol; 2009;19(5):266-70
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  • METHODS: Utilizing vital statistics data from 1980 through 2006, we analyzed the secular trends in NB mortality by using cancer of the adrenal gland as a surrogate.
  • RESULTS: The number of deaths from cancer of the adrenal gland was closely correlated with the number of deaths from NB.

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  • (PMID = 19652443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-9092
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3924130
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7. Simi L, Malentacchi F, Luciani P, Gelmini S, Deledda C, Arvia R, Mannelli M, Peri A, Orlando C: Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:201
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  • [Title] Seladin-1 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in adrenal cancer.
  • Adrenal glands show the highest levels of seladin-1 expression, which are significantly reduced in adrenal carcinomas (ACC).
  • Furthermore, to evaluate the presence of an epigenetic regulation also 'in vivo', seladin-1 methylation and its mRNA expression were measured in 9 ACC and in 5 normal adrenal glands.
  • In ACC, methylation density of seladin-1 promoter was higher (2682 +/- 686) than in normal adrenal glands (362 +/- 97; p = 0.02).
  • Seladin-1 mRNA expression in ACC (1452 +/- 196) was significantly lower than in normal adrenal glands (3614 +/- 949; p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Modification Methylases / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20465827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2875219
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8. Gross MD, Korobkin M, Bou-Assaly W, Rubello D: Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses. Discov Med; 2010 Jan;9(44):24-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally-discovered adrenal masses.
  • Unanticipated adrenal masses are frequently encountered in modern, high resolution diagnostic imaging.
  • Most often, these masses are benign adrenal adenomas, but when detected they necessitate a clinical evaluation sufficient to exclude subclinical endocrine disease, primary adrenal cancer, and remote metastases to the adrenal glands from other malignancies.
  • These "incidentally-discovered" adrenal masses or so-called "adrenal incidentalomas" can be further evaluated with CT, MRI, and nuclear medicine imaging techniques.
  • A substantial literature supports the use of each of these modalities to non-invasively characterize these neoplasms that have been considered by some as a 'disease' of modern imaging technology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20102682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7930
  • [Journal-full-title] Discovery medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Discov Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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9. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • Initially, a kidney sparing procedure with partial tangential excision of the involved renal vein wall was performed.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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10. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Over a 17 months time course, transgenic adrenals developed malignant characteristics such as uncontrolled neovascularization and loco-regional metastatic invasion.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


11. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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12. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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13. Srinivas S, Harshman L, Hauke RJ: Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14564

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell cancer: preliminary results of a phase II intra-patient dose-escalation study.
  • METHODS: Patients with treatment-naïve metastatic renal cell with clear cell histology were enrolled at Stanford University and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.
  • Sites of metastases included lung, nodes, liver, adrenal glands, and bone.
  • One pathologic complete response was obtained after a patient underwent metastectomy of adrenal gland after 4 cycles.

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  • (PMID = 27963689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Imataki O, Makimoto A, Kojima R, Sakiyama M, Hosono A, Takaue Y: Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr;11(2):156-8
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy including paclitaxel and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of adrenal cancer with multiple metastases.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy in adolescents and young adults.
  • The prognosis of unresectable/metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma remains very poor because the rarity of the tumor has made it difficult to establish treatment guidelines, and diagnosis and the resultant treatment can be greatly delayed.
  • We treated a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed with adrenocortical carcinoma of the right adrenal gland which extended to the inferior vena cava.
  • Although she underwent surgical resection of the extensive tumor as the primary treatment, the disease recurred in the lung and liver as multiple metastases shortly after surgery.
  • Although this experience is limited, we suggest that TIP chemotherapy was effective for adrenocortical carcinoma, and a graft-versus-tumor effect after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy


15. Kato M, Higashihara E: [Urological cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Sep;32(9):1255-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Urological cancer].
  • We reported laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer, our experience of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Nephrectomy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16184920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Giordano TJ: Adrenocortical tumors: an integrated clinical, pathologic, and molecular approach at the University of Michigan. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Oct;134(10):1440-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The University of Michigan Health System has a rich tradition in the study and treatment of endocrine neoplasia.
  • Recently, an integrated clinical and research program focused on primary cancer of the adrenal gland has been developed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the foundation of the University of Michigan Adrenal Cancer Program that consists of 3 components:.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20923297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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17. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Altmann KH, Hofmann T, Stepien H: Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Oct-Dec;22(4):889-95
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  • [Title] Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.
  • However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Lactones / pharmacology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Resorcinols / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50

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  • (PMID = 20074452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / L 783277; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Resorcinols; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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18. Murray SA, Nickel BM, Gay VL: Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • In the adrenal gland, as in most other tissues, intercellular communication provides the potential for regulation of a number of complex interactive cell processes including differentiation, steroidogenesis, migration, and proliferation.
  • This review is concerned with the regulation of gap junctions and cell function in cortical cells of the adrenal gland and in pathological disorders such as adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Cell Proliferation. Gap Junctions / metabolism. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Connexins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18973789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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19. Horstmann M, Merseburger AS, Stenzl A, Kuczyk M: [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 May;45(5):605-8
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  • [Title] [Systemic therapy of malignant adrenal tumors].
  • Systemic treatment of advanced-stage adrenal malignancies is most often only palliative.
  • Mitotane alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin, etoposide, and vincristine are established therapeutic concepts for the treatment of metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • New therapeutic options are tumor vaccination and treatment with antiangiogenic drugs.
  • Metaiodobenzylguanidine as a radiotherapeutic drug or chemotherapeutic combination therapies that include cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine are applied for systemic treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas.. However, the clinical efficacy of the latter regimen needs further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care / methods. Terminal Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 16622644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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20. Gazymov MM, Filipov DS: [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes]. Urologiia; 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):9-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal tumors: topical diagnosis and surgical outcomes].
  • A total of 128 adrenalectomies were made for catechol-producing tumor (n = 69), mineralocorticism (n = 27), primary and metastatic adrenal cancer (n = 20), other tumors (n = 12).
  • The rest patients improved, i.e. their malignant hypertension converted to a benign one.
  • If cancer involves the upper segment of the kidney, the tumor often invades the adrenal.
  • Therefore, pre- and intraoperative search for adrenal tumor must be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16281831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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21. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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22. Montoya M, Brown JW, Fishman LM: Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):302-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the growth and survival of human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is usually fatal within a short time after diagnosis.
  • We have investigated the effects on the growth and survival of SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cells in culture of some currently used and some potentially new agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer.
  • All the other agents tested required much higher doses for effect, including mitotane, the current most commonly used chemotherapy for adrenal cancer, with an EC (50) of 3.3x10 (-4) M.
  • These data suggest that paclitaxel, 2-methoxyestradiol, and cytosine arabinofuranoside should be further evaluated for their potential in the chemotherapy of adrenal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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23. Strosberg JR, Hammer GD, Doherty GM: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jul;7(7):752-8; quiz 759
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  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors that arise from the cortex of the adrenal gland with an incidence 1 to 2 per million.
  • The rarity of this tumor translates into a paucity of experience in managing patients in most medical centers.
  • This article describes the basic diagnostic and prognostic issues in adrenal cancer management, and presents detailed rationales for therapeutic management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Metanephrine / analysis. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19635227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Catecholamines; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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25. Maru S, Yamashita N, Shinno Y: [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):643-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal multilocular echinococcosis: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man was consulted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal tumor shown by computed tomography.
  • 131I-adosterol scintigram showed decreased uptake on the right adrenal.
  • Right adrenalectomy was done in consider to adrenal cancer.
  • By the pathological findings and the serological tests (ELISA, and Western Blot examination), the tumor was diagnosed as an adrenal multilocular echinococcosis.
  • In Europe, the primary hydatid cyst is found in the adrenal in only 0.05% of the total case.
  • Moreover, adrenal multilocular echinococcosis is extremely rare case, and is not presented yet in the world.
  • By the patient' s residential history, echinococcosis shoud be considered to differential diagnosis of the adrenal tumor in urology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcus multilocularis / isolation & purification. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17564109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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27. Cherifi-Gatta B, Gaye D, Laurent F, Tabarin A: [Adrenal incidentalomas]. Rev Prat; 2008 May 15;58(9):979-89
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Incidentalomes et tumeurs de la loge de la surrénale.
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass, generally more than 1 cm in diameter, that is discovered serendipitously during a radiologic examination performed for indications other than an evaluation of adrenal disease.
  • The prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas is at least 1% in patients who underwent abdominal CT examination.
  • Surgery is mandatory in patients with secretory tumours (pheochromocytoma, secreting cortical adenomas) and with adrenal cancer.
  • However, the vast majority of adrenal incidentalomas are benign cortical adenomas and surgery is mandatory only in a minority of patients.
  • Systematic aetiological investigation of adrenal incidentalomas should therefore be performed in order to guide the decision on surgical or non surgical management.
  • The optimal duration and modalities of follow-up for patients with adrenal incidentalomas are uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18672664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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28. Kasperlik-Załuska AA, Słowińska-Srzednicka J, Rosłonowska E, Kochman M, Jeske W, Otto M, Cichocki A, Słapa RZ, Zgliczyński W: Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):69-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral, incidentally found adrenal tumours - results of observation of 1790 patients registered at a single endocrinological centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: During the last 22 years we registered 1790 patients with incidentally found adrenal tumours (AI, adrenal incidentalomas).
  • The group of patients with bilateral adrenal tumours included 258 women and 93 men, 25-83 years old.
  • Hormonal investigations and imaging examinations were performed to search for subclinical adrenal hyperfunction and to define the malignant potential of the tumours.
  • Histological findings included malignant tumours: metastases - 9, adrenal cancer - 7, and lymphomas - 5; and non-malignant tumours: adenomas - 24, nodular hyperplasia - 14, myelolipomas - 4, and pheochromocytomas - 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Indications for surgery were recommended in 20% of patients with bilateral AI, most frequently for adenomas, nodular hyperplasia, and oncological pathologies, with a good prognosis in the non-malignant group. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 69-73).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / surgery. Child. Comorbidity. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Poland / epidemiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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29. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173

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  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19830057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740268
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30. Mezhir JJ, Song J, Piano G, Testa G, Raman J, Al-Ahmadie HA, Angelos P: Adrenocortical carcinoma invading the inferior vena cava: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2008 Sep;14(6):721-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a man with a right-sided adrenocortical carcinoma that invaded the inferior vena cava and was managed by radical resection and vein patch repair.
  • RESULTS: In a 34-year-old man with new-onset abdominal pain, abdominal imaging disclosed a large right adrenal mass with invasion into the inferior vena cava.
  • Laboratory values revealed that the adrenal mass was likely nonfunctional.
  • At surgical intervention with use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the mass was removed en bloc with the adrenal gland, right kidney, and the wall of the inferior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava was reconstructed with bovine pericardium.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite direct invasion or extension of tumor thrombus into the inferior vena cava (or both), complete (R0) resection can be obtained.
  • Thus, this scenario should not preclude attempted curative resection in patients with adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18996792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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31. Otsuki H, Ito K, Kosaka T, Mikami H, Yoshii H, Asakuma J, Kaji T, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):879-82
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma with unusual sites of lymph node metastasis and concomitant renal cell carcinoma: a case report].
  • Right adrenal tumor was found by computed tomography and he was referred to our hospital.
  • Imaging studies revealed right adrenal tumor (8 cm) with marked swelling of surrounding lymph nodes and synchronous left renal tumor (2 cm) that was weakly enhanced by contrast media.
  • Needle biopsy of the left kidney proved to be clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the preoperative diagnosis was left RCC and right primary adrenal cancer with lymph node metastasis.
  • Pathological findings of right adrenal tumor and lymph nodes were both metastatic adenocarcinoma, which was not consistent with RCC or adrenal-derived carcinoma.
  • According to pathological findings and an elevation of carcinoembryogenic antigen, the adrenal lesion was diagnosed as adrenal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary


32. Haghpanah V, Soliemanpour B, Heshmat R, Mosavi-Jarrahi AR, Tavangar SM, Malekzadeh R, Larijani B: Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system. Indian J Cancer; 2006 Apr-Jun;43(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Endocrine cancer in Iran: based on cancer registry system.
  • BACKGROUND: A population-based registry of endocrine cancer cases in four Iranian provinces, was performed for the years 1996-2000.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in each province were grouped according to age, gender and tumor specifics (site, morphology, behavior) and the data was coded according to the international classification of diseases for oncology.
  • RESULTS: A total of 319 cases of primary endocrine cancer were found and registered, including 313 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 6 cases of adrenal cancer.
  • For the 6 cases of adrenal cancer, 4 were neuroblastoma and 2 were pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Iodine / metabolism. Iran / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16790945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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33. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1319-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal imaging with multidetector CT: evidence-based protocol optimization and interpretative practice.
  • Computed tomography (CT) is an integral tool in the assessment of adrenal masses.
  • Dedicated adrenal CT is performed for a range of indications, including hormonal abnormalities suggestive of a functional adrenal mass and adrenal cancer staging.
  • Whether an adrenal mass is identified serendipitously or is being imaged for further characterization, there are several CT findings that contribute to the diagnosis, such as lesion size, precontrast attenuation, level of enhancement at 60 seconds and on delayed images, percentage washout on delayed images, histogram analysis, and extent (involvement of the inferior vena cava and bilaterality).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Evidence-Based Medicine. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2009 Nov;29(7):2198
  • (PMID = 19755598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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34. Nagase H, Yokouchi H, Ide Y, Okada K, Yanagisawa T, Mukai R, Ota H, Maruyama K, Murata K, Kinuta M: [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2747-9
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  • [Title] [The case of a person who was revealed by adrenal metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma].
  • Computed tomography revealed a tumor of right adrenal gland and a tumor of upper lobe of the right lung.
  • Adrenal tumor had rapidly increased, so we performed adrenectomy.
  • At first adrenal tumor was diagnosed as primary adrenal cancer because its histological findings did not coincide with those of common histologic types of lung cancer.
  • As there were possibilities that one of adrenal or lung tumor was primary and the other was metastatic or both of the two were double primary, we performed right upper lobectomy.
  • Lung tumor was diagnosed as primary pleomorphic carcinoma containing spindle-shaped tumor cells and adenocarcinoma, and then the diagnosis of adrenal tumor was corrected as metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Two months after the lung operation, cervical lymph node swelling, metastasis of stomach and local recurrence of adrenal tumor appeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Fitzgerald PJ: Is elevated norepinephrine an etiological factor in some cases of epilepsy? Seizure; 2010 Jul;19(6):311-8
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  • (5) pheochromocytoma, which is a rare cancer of the adrenal glands that can boost NE levels;.
  • (6) comorbidity of epilepsy with bipolar disorder, hypertension, and obesity, where all four conditions may involve elevated NE; and (7) psychological stress, which is associated with increased release of NE.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / pharmacology. Bipolar Disorder / complications. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20493725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2688
  • [Journal-full-title] Seizure
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Seizure
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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36. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81

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  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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37. Fitzgerald PJ: Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer? Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 15;124(2):257-63
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  • [Title] Is norepinephrine an etiological factor in some types of cancer?
  • I examine evidence that the signaling molecule norepinephrine (NE) is an etiological factor in some types of cancer.
  • (ii) human studies of tricyclic antidepressant use and cancer rate;.
  • (iii) existence of pheochromocytoma, a cancer of the adrenal glands;.
  • (iv) cancer rate in families with individuals who have bipolar disorder;.
  • (v) hypertension and cancer risk;.
  • (vi) excessive body weight and cancer risk; and (vii) psychological stressors and cancer risk.
  • Three aspects of the body's NE system are consistent with it playing an etiological role in various types of cancer: (i) NE circulates in the blood and can thereby access organ systems throughout the body, in addition to direct peripheral release by the sympathetic nervous system and being released within the brain;.
  • Most importantly, use of existing pharmaceutical drugs that either lower the level of NE (such as clonidine) or block NE receptors may lower the probability of an individual developing cancer, and this hypothesis could be tested immediately by an epidemiologist through examination of existing medical records.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / chemically induced. Norepinephrine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):737-8; author reply 739 [20333678.001]
  • (PMID = 19004004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic; MN3L5RMN02 / Clonidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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38. Advani A, Johnson SJ, Nicol MR, Papacleovoulou G, Evans DB, Vaikkakara S, Mason JI, Quinton R: Adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by aberrant expression of aromatase in an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(7):651-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare, with feminizing symptoms attributed to aromatase expression in the adrenal tumor.
  • A right adrenal mass was identified on CT scanning and the patient underwent an open adrenalectomy.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the adrenal cancer confirmed aberrant expression of aromatase in most, although not all, carcinoma cells.
  • Transcripts associated with utilization of promoters II, I.1 and I.3 were prominently represented in the tumor aromatase mRNA.
  • This case highlights that clinical features of feminizing adrenocortical carcinomas can be secondary to estrogen production by aberrantly transcribed and translated aromatase within the tumor.
  • The diagnosis of adrenocortical adenocarcinoma should be considered in men presenting with low testosterone and gonadotropins, particularly in the presence of feminizing features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aromatase / genetics. Hypogonadism / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20467160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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39. Liang YY, Dai YP, Cao MX, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Oct;25(10):1275-8
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland--a report of 21 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, the occurrence of metastasis to the adrenal gland is increasing, while the early and differentiated diagnosis still remains difficult.
  • Whether metastasis to the adrenal gland needs to be resected and when and how the resection should be done are controversial.
  • This study was to explore the surgical indications of metastasis to the adrenal gland and the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 21 patients with metastatic tumors in the adrenal gland, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Mar.
  • Literature of the diagnosis and therapy was reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The diagnosis rates of ultrasonography and spiral or thin-cut computed tomography (CT) were 70.0% (7/10) and 84.6% (11/13).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography and CT are important diagnosis methods for metastatic adrenal cancer.
  • No evidence of tumor invasion revealed by preoperative imaging studies, no adjacent lymphadenopathy and no extraladrenal metastasis are indications of adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17059775.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. Wang XJ, Shen ZJ, Zhu Y, Zhang RM, Shun FK, Shao Y, Rui WB, He W: Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients. BJU Int; 2010 Mar;105(6):849-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm): the Ruijin clinical experience in 88 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of retroperitoneoscopic partial adrenalectomy (RPA) for small adrenal tumours, as with modern imaging methods small adrenal lesions are being diagnosed more commonly, and retroperitoneoscopic adrenal surgery for small adrenal tumours (< or =1 cm) can be challenging.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 389 consecutive retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomies from September 2005 to December 2008, 88 of which were small adrenal tumours and treated by RPA.
  • We used RPA for adrenal tumours and total adrenalectomy for adrenal cancer.
  • During the surgery, the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum was freed first, and the whole adrenal tissue was dissected completely.
  • RESULTS: There were no deaths; conversions to open surgery were necessary in four patients (4.5%), the reasons being a missing target in two, massive haemorrhage caused by central adrenal vein injury in one, and severe adhesion in one.
  • The mean (range) size of the adrenal tumours was 0.7 (0.5-1.0) cm, including 69 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 11 nonfunctional adrenal adenomas, three Cushing syndrome, two phaeochromocytomas, two myelolipomas and one melanoma.
  • Tumour size did not correlate with estimated blood loss and operative duration.
  • CONCLUSION: RPA is a safe, effective and minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with small adrenal tumours.
  • Freeing the internal part of the adrenal gland close to the retroperitoneum first, and exploring the whole adrenal tissue during surgery are the key points of RPA.
  • The location of the small adrenal tumour can be different from that shown on imaging before surgery, and the abnormality of the adrenal gland should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19751254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • We analyzed the results of a multi-centre trial that was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We obtained our data from the results of a questionnaire that was distributed by mail or email in May 2005 to several surgical units operating in the Campania Region, Italy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • [Cites] Surgery. 2000 Dec;128(6):973-82;discussion 982-3 [11114632.001]
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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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42. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors > 6 cm is controversial because of the risk of malignancy, but data to support this position are mostly from small series.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that size is useful for predicting malignancy, and that at a size threshold of > or = 4 cm, the likelihood of malignancy doubles (to 10%) and it is more than ninefold higher for tumors > or = 8 cm (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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44. Haleblian GE, Wilson C, Haddad D, Albala DM: Adrenocortical carcinoma: role of laparoscopic surgery in treatment. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 Sep;7(9):1295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disorder with a prevalence of one case per 1.7 million people and a generally poor prognosis.
  • It accounts for 0.02% of all cancer cases and 0.2% of cancer deaths.
  • Within the past three decades, accurate diagnosis, precise radiologic localization, satisfactory preoperative medical management, appropriate anesthesia and refined surgical techniques have come together to render the surgical management of adrenal abnormalities a safe endeavor with predictable outcomes.
  • While there is a general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, controversy remains regarding the use of laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancies.
  • This paper provides an overview of adrenal cancer and reviews the literature on laparoscopic adrenalectomy for cancer, including the operative techniques, indications and contraindications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17892430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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45. Benavente-Chenhalls LA, Vella A, Farley DR, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Richards ML: Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant adrenal neoplasm masquerading as worrisome adrenal hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) associated with adrenal neoplasm is rare.
  • This study assesses the clinical and pathological impact of AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm to establish management strategies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted over a 25-year period with a diagnosis of AH and malignant adrenal neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Malignant adrenal neoplasms were reported in 14 of 217 patients (6.4%) presenting with AH.
  • In 10 patients the adrenal tumor was metastatic.
  • All primary adrenal tumors were unilateral.
  • Computed tomography (n = 12) demonstrated adrenal masses ranging in size from 6.8 to 11.0 cm (mean, 9 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients with AH in the setting of malignant adrenal neoplasm had metastatic tumors to the adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20499282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Narimoto K, Mizokami A, Izumi K, Mihara S, Sawada K, Sugata T, Shimamura M, Miyazaki K, Nishino A, Namiki M: Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen. Int J Urol; 2010 Apr;17(4):337-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal androgen levels as predictors of outcome in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with combined androgen blockade using flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical effects of flutamide as a second-line anti-androgen for combined androgen blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with bicalutamide as a first-line anti-androgen.
  • Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.
  • In vitro, 3 micromol/L flutamide suppressed DHEA, androstenedione and androstenediol synthesis compared with bicalutamide in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that flutamide suppresses the adrenal androgens in comparison with bicalutamide.
  • Metabolites from adrenal androgens contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / blood. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / secretion. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy


47. Tsuru N, Suzuki K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Minim Access Surg; 2005 Oct;1(4):165-72

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We also reviewed the results separately for aldosteronoma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and primary or metastatic adrenal cancer.Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for adrenal disorders, excluding primary adrenal cancer.
  • It is important for the surgeon to remove the tumor and the surrounding fat en bloc, especially in the case of large or irregular tumors because of the potential for malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 21206659.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-9941
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimal access surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Access Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004118
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cushing's syndrome / adrenal cancer / adrenalectomy / aldosteronoma / pheochromocytoma
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48. Butler C, Butler WM, Rizvi AA: Sustained remission with the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in stage IV metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pract; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):441-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An 8-cm left adrenal lesion was found on computed tomography, removed surgically, and confirmed as adrenal carcinoma on pathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib provide targeted oncologic treatment and may be effective in treating advanced adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20061282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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49. Stell A, Sinnott R, Jiang J: Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:259-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enabling secure, distributed collaborations for adrenal tumor research.
  • One such collaboration, which spans several specialist centres across France, Germany, Italy and the UK, is ENSAT - the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors.
  • We describe the architecture, implementation and use to date of this facility to support the ENSAT adrenal cancer research network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Biomedical Research. Cooperative Behavior. Neoplasms. Public Health Informatics

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  • (PMID = 20543447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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50. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Cyclic AMP / physiology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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51. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, Schröder S, Füssel M, Rieber EP, Kuhlisch E, Ehninger G, Bornstein SR: Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 genotype and altered Fas/Fas ligand expression in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1768-74
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  • A distinctive feature of malignant adrenocortical neoplasms is decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression.
  • Therefore, MHC class II phenotype and genotype and expression patterns of the Fas/Fas ligand system were investigated in 24 adrenocortical tumors (n(Adenomas) = 14, n(Carcinomas) = 10) and an adrenal cancer cell line (NCI-H295).
  • In summary, the DRB1*01 genotype may be correlated to a higher risk for malignancy.
  • Additional studies on MHC class II genotype and phenotype and the altered Fas/Fas ligand system in adrenal neoplasms may help to identify mechanisms of immune escape and suggest new diagnostic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15585555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / HLA-DRB1 Chains; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
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52. Muehling BM, Toelkes S, Schelzig H, Barth TF, Sunder-Plassmann L: Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Feb;10(2):228-31
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  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) are increasingly used in the treatment of progressive cancers.
  • Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR.
  • Our investigation of a pilot character represents a 'biomarker-based' analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate 'tumor profiling' at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19948538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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53. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 20826579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
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54. Cerquetti L, Bucci B, Marchese R, Misiti S, De Paula U, Miceli R, Muleti A, Amendola D, Piergrossi P, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane increases the radiotherapy inhibitory effect and induces G2-arrest in combined treatment on both H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cell lines. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):623-34
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  • This drug and radiotherapy are used also in adrenal cancer treatment even if their biological action in this neoplasia remains unknown.
  • We investigated the effects of o,p'-DDD and ionizing radiations (IR) on cell growth inhibition and cell cycle perturbation in H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • This combination treatment induced an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology. Radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Division / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B1. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / radiation effects. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Steroids / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18509009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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55. Arvanitis LD, Pitelka LA, Gattuso P: Adrenocortical carcinoma presenting with a peritoneal effusion. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):514-6
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  • In this report, we describe the fine-needle aspiration findings of a case of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that spread to the peritoneal cavity in an 80-year-old female.
  • Although ACC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the adrenal gland, its metastatic spread to the peritoneal cavity is exceptionally unusual.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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57. Silvio Estaba L, Madrazo González Z, Pujol Gebelli J, Masdevall Noguera C, Rafecas Renau A, Moreno Llorente P: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis]. Cir Esp; 2007 Apr;81(4):197-201
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected isolated adrenal metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica por sospecha de metástasis adrenal solitaria.
  • INTRODUCTION: Isolated adrenal metastasis is uncommon.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications, diagnosis and utility of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in patients with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted in patients with current or previous tumoral disease and with isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • Fifteen LA were performed (one patient was found to have an inoperable tumor at surgery).
  • The most common metastatic disease was non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (10 patients), followed by colorectal cancer metastasis (two patients).
  • The mean tumor size was 4.7 cm and was 3.8 cm on computed tomography (p = 0.09).
  • At the end of the study, five patients were alive: two were disease free, one had recurrent disease, one had margin involvement and one was awaiting resection of the primary tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA for metastasis can be performed without oncological disadvantage and should be offered to patients with resectable disease, a DFI > 6 months, and a tumoral size that allows laparoscopic resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17403355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with phaeochromocytoma - specifics, potential complications and drug strategies]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2008 Jan;43(1):20-7; quiz 28
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  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control. Hypertension / prevention & control. Nitroprusside / administration & dosage. Phenoxybenzamine / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control


59. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


60. Cavlan D, Bharwani N, Grossman A: Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):638-48
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  • [Title] Androgen- and estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers.
  • Androgen-secreting adrenal cancers are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for only a tiny proportion of the total number of women presenting with signs of androgen excess.
  • Estrogen-secreting adrenal cancers are rarer still.
  • Understanding how these tumors work benefits from an appreciation of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, as it is said that secretion in cancers is an anarchic version of normal adrenal function.
  • Selection of patients in whom we should have a high suspicion of a malignancy is vital, so that biochemical investigation and imaging is deployed appropriately.
  • When an adrenal tumor is found to secrete androgens or estrogens to excess, it can be difficult to confirm that it is a cancer, as there is significant overlap in the secretory patterns and imaging appearances of benign and malignant disease.
  • The most reliable indicator of malignancy in these tumors remains the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Estrogens / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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61. Coulter CL: Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;16(5):235-42
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  • [Title] Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors.
  • Conversely, tumor progression and the development of cancer probably occur through a process of dysregulation and dedifferentiation.
  • Similarities exist between normal human fetal adrenal cortex and adrenal cancers, such as high expression of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor II.
  • This review is prompted by recent gene profiling studies that have identified genes differentially expressed between normal and abnormal adrenal glands.
  • Several of these genes are specific growth factors or key cell cycle regulators, in addition to genes not previously associated with adrenal growth or function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / embryology

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  • (PMID = 15949953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Somatomedins
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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62. Mohammad K, Sadikot RT: Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer. South Med J; 2009 Jun;102(6):665-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting manifestation of nonsmall cell lung cancer.
  • The adrenals are a common site of metastases for lung cancers; adrenal insufficiency, however, as a presenting feature of lung cancer, is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of primary adrenal insufficiency secondary to metastases from adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • CT scans showed a right upper lobe mass and bilateral adrenal masses.
  • The frequent occurrence of constitutional symptoms, metabolic derangements, and cardiovascular compromise in patients with advanced cancer may lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of adrenal insufficiency in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis


63. Aïssaoui R, Turki Z, Achiche A, Balti MH, Ben Slama C, Zbiba M: [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):364-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase surrénalienne d'un cancer papillaire de la thyroïde.
  • Adrenal metastases of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are very rare.
  • A 63-year-old woman had undergone 15 years earlier left lobo-ishmectomy for a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 7 years earlier right adrenalectomy for a tumor.
  • Histologic examination showed a benign cortical tumor.
  • In 1999, when the patient was admitted for worsening of glycemic control, a recurrence of the adrenal mass was detected.
  • According to the hormone evaluation it was a non-functional tumor.
  • Re-reading the histology slide of the first adrenalectomy agreed with the diagnosis.
  • Distant spread may occur to bone or lung, but exceptionally to the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal localization is often associated with lung or bone metastasis.
  • In our patient, the adrenal metastasis remained isolated for many years.
  • It has been reported that survival rate decreases considerably after appearance of a distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


64. Sfaxi M, Bouzouita A, Bouasker I, Kourda N, Ben Slama MR, Ben Jilani Baltaji S, Chebil M: [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Jun;69(3):249-53
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  • [Title] [Primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma. A case report rarer than B-cell lymphoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome surrénalien primitif bilatéral de phénotype T. Un cas clinique beaucoup plus rare que le lymphome B.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare condition.
  • Adrenal lymphoma is often bilateral and in most of the cases of B-cell type.
  • The prognosis is bad and patient can die early because of acute adrenal insufficiency.
  • We report a case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary bilateral adrenal T-cell lymphoma.
  • Clinical features and imaging are not specific. (18)F-FDG PET Scan is an excellent mean to detect malignant tumor of adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18455145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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65. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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66. Eloubeidi MA, Morgan DE, Cerfolio RJ, Eltoum IA: Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland. Gastrointest Endosc; 2008 Mar;67(3):522-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS-guided FNA is commonly performed to sample peri-intestinal targets such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and the left adrenal gland.
  • To our knowledge, EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland has not been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the feasibility and success in sampling an enlarged right adrenal gland.
  • PATIENTS: Consecutive patients that underwent EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: Over a span of 3.5 years, 4 patients underwent transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland with a curvilinear echoendoscope.
  • Four passes were performed in all cases, and the diagnosis was rendered on the first pass.
  • Three of the patients had metastatic lung cancer to the right adrenal gland; one was proven by surgical histopathologic examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland is feasible and safe.
  • Future large-scale studies are needed to replicate our findings and to determine the rate of successful identification and sampling of the right adrenal gland with the curvilinear echoendoscope.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Ampulla of Vater. Cohort Studies. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenum. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18234198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Chong S, Lee KS, Kim HY, Kim YK, Kim BT, Chung MJ, Yi CA, Kwon GY: Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls. Radiographics; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):1811-24; discussion 1824-6
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  • [Title] Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls.
  • Integrated fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for adrenal gland imaging in cancer patients allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • However, false-positive findings are encountered at integrated PET-CT in approximately 5% of adrenal lesions identified as positive at PET, including adrenal adenomas, adrenal endothelial cysts, and inflammatory and infectious lesions.
  • Moreover, false-negative findings may be seen in adrenal metastatic lesions with hemorrhage or necrosis, small-sized (<10-mm) metastatic nodules, and metastases from pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or carcinoid tumors.
  • An awareness of the potential pitfalls of integrated PET-CT enhances the diagnostic efficacy of this modality by allowing differentiation of metastatic adrenal lesions from other abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2006
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6):1594
  • (PMID = 17102052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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68. Kwiatkowski F, Abrial C, Gachon F, Chevrier R, Curé H, Chollet P: [Stress, cancer and circadian rhythm of melatonin]. Pathol Biol (Paris); 2005 Jun;53(5):269-72
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  • [Title] [Stress, cancer and circadian rhythm of melatonin].
  • [Transliterated title] Stress, cancer et rythme circadien de la mélatonine.
  • More typical of adult age, hypothalamus-pineal gland axis (HP), responsible for melatonin production, may be impaired because of chronic stress, mainly through sleep disturbances or addictive behaviours.
  • Circadian cycle of melatonin is closely related to immune functions and its disturbance seems to induce, among populations undergoing frequent changes of life rhythm, a significant raise of cancer incidence: night shift workers, air pilots...
  • Stress then seems enable to increase cancer risk through its negative impact on HHS and HP axis and therefore on immunity.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Melatonin / physiology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Stress, Physiological / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Pineal Gland / secretion. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15939136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0369-8114
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologie-biologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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69. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • The development of molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival could help for histological diagnosis and determination of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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70. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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71. Târcoveanu E, Dimofte G, Bradea C, Moldovanu R, Vasilescu A, Anton R, Ferariu D: Adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):116-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal schwannomas are very rare tumors that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively.
  • We report the case of a left adrenal schwannoma incidentally discovered in a 55-year-old man during a postoperative checkup for a cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: The biological evaluation was unremarkable, and the radiological examination revealed the adrenal mass that was first considered a metastatic lesion.
  • Histological examination established the correct diagnosis of schwannoma, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A nonsecreting adrenal mass can be easily misjudged, especially in the context of a recently operated on malignancy.
  • Unilateral adrenal metastasis needs pathological confirmation, as it can dramatically affect prognosis.
  • Unusual tumors of the adrenal gland may be found incidentally, and a malignant context will generate difficulties in establishing the right management.

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  • (PMID = 19366556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015893
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72. Lane BR, Tiong HY, Campbell SC, Fergany AF, Weight CJ, Larson BT, Novick AC, Flechner SM: Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2430-6; discussion 2436-7
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  • [Title] Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy are not clearly defined and some surgeons perform it routinely for large and/or upper pole renal tumors.
  • We analyzed initial management and oncological outcomes of adrenal glands after open partial nephrectomy.
  • During partial nephrectomy the ipsilateral adrenal gland was resected if a suspicious adrenal nodule was noted on radiographic imaging, or if intraoperative findings indicated direct extension or metastasis.
  • Pathological analysis revealed direct invasion of the adrenal gland by renal cell carcinoma (1), renal cell carcinoma metastasis (2), other adrenal neoplasms (3) or benign tissue (42, 87%).
  • Metachronous adrenalectomy was ipsilateral (10), contralateral (2) or bilateral (3), revealing metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 11 patients.
  • We propose concomitant adrenalectomy only if a suspicious adrenal lesion is identified radiographically or invasion of the adrenal gland is suspected intraoperatively.
  • Even using such strict criteria only 13% of these suspicious adrenal nodules contained cancer.
  • The rarity of metachronous adrenal metastasis and the lack of an observable benefit to concomitant adrenalectomy support adrenal preservation during partial nephrectomy except as previously outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19371896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Bandier PC, Hansen A, Thorelius L: [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Jan 26;171(5):306-8
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  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenomatoid tumor i binyre.
  • An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman.
  • Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally.
  • A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific.
  • Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma.
  • In general, it is recommended to obtain biopsies from suprarenal processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Mar 16;171(12):1015; author reply 1015 [19306484.001]
  • (PMID = 19176156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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74. Durocher F, Sanchez R, Ricketts ML, Labrie Y, Laudet V, Simard J: Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Nov;97(3):289-98

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.
  • The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids.
  • In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland.
  • A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da.
  • Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Multienzyme Complexes / classification. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Ovary / enzymology. Progesterone Reductase / classification. Progesterone Reductase / metabolism. Steroid Isomerases / classification. Steroid Isomerases / metabolism. Testis / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16143518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY914174
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase-delta(5) 3-ketosteroid isomerase; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 73R90F7MQ8 / Pregnenolone; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 5.3.3.- / Steroid Isomerases
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75. Ang TL, Chua TS, Fock KM, Tee AK, Teo EK, Mancer K: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and useful. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2007 Nov;36(11):954-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and useful.
  • INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the use of endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to determine the nature of left adrenal lesions.
  • We described our experience in performing EUS-FNA of left adrenal lesions.
  • Patients with a left adrenal mass and who underwent EUS-FNA formed our study population.
  • OUTCOME: A total of 119 consecutive patients underwent diagnostic EUS +/- FNA, during which the left adrenal gland was routinely examined.
  • Twelve of these patients underwent EUS as part of lung cancer staging and among these 12 lung cancer patients, 2 had left adrenal masses detected by computed tomography (CT).
  • EUS detected left adrenal nodules in 2 other patients which were not visualised by CT.
  • The overall prevalence of a left adrenal mass was 3.4%; in the subgroup with confirmed lung cancer, the prevalence was 33.3%.
  • The mean size of the left adrenal lesion was 30.4 mm (range, 9 to 84.8).
  • EUS-FNA of the left adrenal lesions was performed under Doppler guidance.
  • Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer was diagnosed in 2 patients, including a lesion missed on CT.
  • For the other 2 cases, EUS-FNA revealed benign adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA appears safe and useful for the evaluation of left adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography

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  • (PMID = 18071608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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76. Niinobu T, Yamashita S, Nakagawa S, Amano M, Higaki N, Hayashida H, Nakao A, Takiuchi H, Sakon M: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1765-7
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • We present a case of a 70-year-old man with an anamnesis of intra-cerebral bleeding that resulted in right half of the body paralysis and right diaphragm paralysis, The present clinical history indicated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis during a regular hospital visit, and the patient had a total of 4 TAEs enforced from three years before.
  • A 4 x 3.5 cm neoplasm at the left adrenal was detected by CT inspection this time.
  • The diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from HCC.
  • Pathologial diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • When observing the adaptation standard strictly to the high-risk case, it was thought that the metastatic tumor extraction under laparoscopic surgery could become a low stress cure in consideration of QOL being useful as a local treatment for cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17212101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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77. Rosati G, Tramutola G, D'Alessandro N, Chiacchio R, Vita G, Scutari F, Manzione L: An adrenal gland nodule presenting as an early sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer: report of two cases. Tumori; 2007 Jan-Feb;93(1):103-5
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  • [Title] An adrenal gland nodule presenting as an early sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer: report of two cases.
  • The presence of an adrenal gland nodule may be an early or late sign of metastatic spread from colorectal cancer.
  • It usually appears when the internal malignancy is widely disseminated and has been previously diagnosed.
  • Adrenal insufficiency can be compatible with bilateral and diffuse involvement of this uncommon site of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology


78. Balestra MR, Napolitano L, Legnini M, Innocenti P: [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal gland metastasis: case report]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S130-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery of adrenal gland metastasis: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] La chirurgia laparoscopica delle metastasi surrenaliche: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognised as the gold standard for the surgical treatment of adrenal lesion.
  • Also the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for metastasis is controversial.
  • This study, in according with literature dates, aimed to confirm that patients are most likely to have prolonged survival after resection of adrenal metastases and confirms that oncological outcome of laparoscopic adrenalectomy are similar with open adrenalectomy.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The study included patients who underwent LA from 2000 to 2005.
  • Indications for LA were adrenal masses with no radiological evidence of involvement of the surrounding structure, or solitary metastases with well-controlled primary cancer.
  • Primary tumors were the followings: lymphoma non-Hodgkin, lung cancer.
  • Patients age was mean 69 (range, 62-77), the lesions were at right adrenal gland.
  • Mean diameter of the tumor was 4.5 cm (range, 4.2-4.8 cm).
  • Tumor free margins were obtained.
  • CONCLUSION: LA seems to be a feasible option if the principles of oncological surgery are respected.
  • Adrenalectomy for metastasis, with intent to prolong survival, should be offered to patient with favourable tumor biology, such as those with significant DFI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16437949.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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79. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • Orthotopic cell transplantation models are important for a complete understanding of cell-cell interactions as well as tumor biology.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • In the absence of fibrinogen/thrombin for clot formation, much of the injected material was extruded to the outside of the gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • When 3 x 10(5) cells were implanted orthotopically, by 16 days the cell mass had expanded and had invaded the cortex, whereas when 1 x 10(5) cells were used, tumor masses were much smaller.
  • When mice were sacrificed at different time points, we found that tumor growth resulting was progressive and that by 26 days cells there was extensive invasion into the cortex or almost complete replacement of the cortex with tumor cells.
  • Orthotopic transplantation of 3 x 10(5) cells resulted in extensive invasion and destruction of the gland by 26 days.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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80. Thiel EL, Trost BA, Tower RL: A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 1;54(7):1032-4
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  • [Title] A composite pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma of the adrenal gland.
  • At surgery, the mass was noted to arise from the right adrenal gland.
  • The final diagnosis was a cystic composite-pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • This compound adrenal tumor is only the fourth case reported in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20162688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Xu J, Wang R, Xie ZH, Odero-Marah V, Pathak S, Multani A, Chung LW, Zhau HE: Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1664-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: The ARCaP cell line was established from the ascites fluid of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • This study characterized the host microenvironmental role in cancer progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and bone and adrenal metastasis in parental ARCaP and its derived cell subclones.
  • RESULTS: ARCaP(E) cells, with cobblestone morphology, underwent EMT through cellular interaction with host bone and adrenal gland.
  • Lineage-derived ARCaP(M) cells, with spindle-shape fibroblastic morphology, exhibited decreased cell adhesion and increased metastasis to bone and adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARCaP uniquely models the molecular basis of prostate cancer bone and adrenal metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Clone Cells. Disease Progression. Environment. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organ Specificity / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured


82. Boland GW, Blake MA, Holalkere NS, Hahn PF: PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Apr;192(4):956-62
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  • [Title] PET/CT for the characterization of adrenal masses in patients with cancer: qualitative versus quantitative accuracy in 150 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate a large cohort of patients with PET/CT to determine whether qualitative (visual) assessment, quantitative standardized uptake value (SUV), or standardized uptake ratio (SUR) techniques should be used when attempting to characterize adrenal masses in patients with cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 150 consecutive patients (78 men, 72 women; mean age, 60 years; range, 24-88 years) with documented adrenal lesions.
  • All patients were known to have an underlying primary malignancy and were referred for PET/CT to evaluate the underlying primary and metastatic tumor burden.
  • Definitive lesion characterization was determined by evaluating all histologic adrenal specimens and all relevant prior and follow-up CT scans, including unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and delayed contrast-enhanced washout studies.
  • All 26 malignant lesions were characterized by PET: All showed qualitative and quantitative signal intensity greater than the liver.
  • By combining unenhanced and qualitative CT data with the retrospective PET data, the analysis yielded a sensitivity of 100% for the detection of malignancy, a specificity of 99%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, and an accuracy of 99% (Table 1).
  • CONCLUSION: PET/CT is a highly accurate method for differentiating benign from malignant adrenal masses particularly when using qualitative, rather than quantitative, PET data.
  • Occasional benign lesions do show mild to moderate increased FDG uptake compared with that of the liver and may mimic some malignant lesions.
  • Without evidence that these lesions are benign by unenhanced CT densitometry or adrenal mass stability or growth from previous CT scans, we recommend that these lesions be characterized using contrast-enhanced washout tests and that if those tests are inconclusive, using percutaneous biopsy if early lesion characterization is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19304700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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83. Vikram R, Yeung HD, Macapinlac HA, Iyer RB: Utility of PET/CT in differentiating benign from malignant adrenal nodules in patients with cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Nov;191(5):1545-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of PET/CT in differentiating benign from malignant adrenal nodules in patients with cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of combined PET/CT in differentiating benign from malignant adrenal nodules measuring at least 1 cm in diameter in patients with cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the radiology reports and images of patients with known malignant disease who had undergone PET/CT for cancer staging or surveillance and who had adrenal nodules at least 1 cm in diameter.
  • We identified 112 adrenal nodules in 96 patients.
  • Adrenal nodules were considered to have a positive PET result if the average standardized uptake value was greater than that of the liver.
  • Follow-up data and biopsy reports were used to determine the pathologic status of the adrenal nodules.
  • RESULTS: Thirty adrenal lesions were malignant.
  • Twenty-five of the 30 malignant nodules had positive PET results.
  • Patients with four of five malignant nodules with negative PET results had received previous therapy.
  • The positive predictive value for detection of malignant lesions was 67%, and the negative predictive value was 93%.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal masses that are not FDG avid are likely to be benign with a high negative predictive value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18941099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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84. Turner DJ, Miskulin J: Management of adrenal lesions. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jan;21(1):34-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal lesions.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal lesions are commonly seen on modern imaging modalities, and although the majority are benign, potentially lethal entities necessitate exclusion.
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in diagnosis and therapies for adrenal lesions.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: New tumor markers and genetic risk factors continue to be discovered, and improved diagnostic techniques have made adrenal incidentalomas more common than ever before.
  • Laparoscopic approaches for adrenal lesions continue to evolve for functional lesions, and also for lesions 12 cm and larger.
  • Open adrenalectomy continues to be the most appropriate for adrenocortical cancer.
  • SUMMARY: All adrenal lesions should prompt a functional hormonal assessment and additional imaging to determine malignancy employed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19125016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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85. Ambika S, Melton A, Lee D, Hesketh PJ: Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Sep;10(5):E1-4
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  • [Title] Massive retroperitoneal adrenal hemorrhage secondary to lung cancer metastasis treated by adrenal artery embolization.
  • The development of adrenal hemorrhage from lung cancer metastasis is extremely rare.
  • A 54-year-old woman with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer and known bilateral adrenal metastasis developed severe right-sided abdominal pain while undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • The bleeding vessel was identified as the right middle adrenal artery.
  • The patient underwent successful transcatheter embolization (TCE) and occlusion of the right middle adrenal artery using metallic coils, with resolution of the abdominal pain and stabilization of her hemoglobin.
  • TCE can be used to control hemorrhage arising from metastatic involvement of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Catheterization, Peripheral. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Hemorrhage / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Flank Pain. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology


86. DeWitt J, Alsatie M, LeBlanc J, McHenry L, Sherman S: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses. Endoscopy; 2007 Jan;39(1):65-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Although the left adrenal gland is readily visible by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), there are few published data on the utility of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of this site.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of EUS-FNA of left adrenal gland masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we reviewed our EUS and cytology databases to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland between January 1997 and January 2004.
  • RESULTS: Our searches resulted in the identification of a series of 38 consecutive patients who underwent EUS for the evaluation of a lung mass (n = 14), a pancreatic mass (n = 14), obstructive jaundice (n = 1), dysphagia (n = 2), an ampullary adenoma (n = 1), celiac block (n = 1), or a left adrenal gland mass (n = 5).
  • The mean maximal left adrenal mass diameter was 24 mm (range 7-66 mm).
  • Diagnoses after EUS-FNA (the mean number of passes was 3.6) were: metastatic lung cancer (n = 2), esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1); primary pheochromocytoma (n = 1); benign adrenal tissue (n = 21); and granulomatous inflammation (n = 1).
  • The absence of a discrete adrenal mass on EUS occurred more frequently in patients with nondiagnostic biopsies than in those with diagnostic biopsies (56 % vs. 7 %; odds ratio 23.4, 95 %CI 3.5 - 157.0; P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and can be useful for the evaluation and staging of suspected malignancy.
  • Nondiagnostic biopsies are more common when sampling diffusely enlarged glands, compared with glands with a focal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17252463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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87. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • The important clinical question is whether these lesions are benign adenomas or malignant primary or secondary masses.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • However, there remains a significant overlap between imaging features of some lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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88. Bisceglia M, Carosi I, Scillitani A, Pasquinelli G: Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):424-32
The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for adenomatoid tumor .

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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma-like adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: Case presentation and review of the literature.
  • They are very rarely located in extragenital sites, and are exceedingly rare in the adrenal.
  • AT of the adrenal gland (AT-AG) are nonfunctioning, usually discovered incidentally and confused on imaging with other more common adrenal neoplasms.
  • On light microscopy the diagnosis may be very difficult if the tumor is rich in vacuolated cells, mimicking metastatic signet ring-cell adenocarcinoma.
  • In brief we report herein the sixth case of cystic lymphangioma-like AT, which was incidentally discovered during clinical follow-up in a 39-year-old man undergoing cancer staging and surveillance after surgery.
  • The adrenal tumor was 5.5 cm in size and was fully investigated immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioma, Cystic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19851133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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89. Hunt I, Rankin SC, Lang-Lazdunski L: Combined lung resection and transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and homolateral solitary adrenal metastasis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2006 Jul;30(1):194-5
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  • [Title] Combined lung resection and transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and homolateral solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • Surgery may offer a long-term survival benefit to a small proportion of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and solitary adrenal metastasis.
  • We describe a technique that allows a single incision, single operation through a transdiaphragmatic approach to the ipsilateral adrenal gland following a standard lung resection through a postero-lateral thoracotomy.
  • By using this approach, along with the harmonic scalpel to aid adrenal dissection, both lobectomy and adrenalectomy can be carried out safely and effectively with minimal perioperative and postoperative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery


90. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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91. Baron M, Hamou L, Laberge S, Callonnec F, Tielmans A, Dessogne P: Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):523-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic spread of gynaecological neoplasms to the adrenal gland: case reports with a review of the literature.
  • Metastatic involvement of the adrenal glands due to gynaecological neoplasms is a relatively rare condition.
  • The aim of our study was to present four cases of metastases to the adrenal gland due to endometrial adenocarcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancer.
  • CT scan and MRI have been previously used in an attempt to define the nature of the adrenal mass but this approach is of limited value in diagnosis.
  • Image-guided pathological confirmation of an adrenal lesion may significantly change the staging or management of the primary neoplasm.
  • The authors suggest that isolated adrenal metastasis should be routinely considered for surgical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19051827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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92. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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93. Pan ZQ, Fang ZQ, Lu WL, Liang C, Wu ZH, Liu XM, Hou L, Zhang H, Zhuo SY, Liao MJ, Gao BF: [Differentially expressed genes in adrenal gland of H22 liver cancer mice with different syndromes and in different stages]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao; 2008 Aug;6(8):843-51
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  • [Title] [Differentially expressed genes in adrenal gland of H22 liver cancer mice with different syndromes and in different stages].
  • OBJECTIVE: To reveal the characteristics of gene expression in adrenal gland of H22 tumor mice with typical syndromes and in different liver cancer stages.
  • METHODS: By the quantitative four diagnosis and syndrome differentiation methods and GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Array, we observed adrenal gland gene expression in H22 tumor mice with pathogenic factor-toxin predominance syndrome and qi deficiency syndrome in the earlier stage, yang-qi deficiency syndrome in the intermediate stage, and qi-yin-yang deficiency syndrome in the advanced stage.
  • CONCLUSION: With the development of the tumorigenesis, the symptoms and signs and differentially expressed genes in adrenal gland of H22 tumor mice can be measured.
  • Up-regulated and down-regulated coincident genes may be the features of H22 tumor mice different from those of normal mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Medicine, Chinese Traditional


94. Shantha GP, Kumar AA, Jeyachandran V, Rajamanickam D, Bhaskar E, Paniker VK, Abraham G: Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic (non-metastatic) adrenal insufficiency preceded the onset of primary lung cancer by 12 weeks.
  • Clinically evident adrenal insufficiency associated with lung cancer is a rare entity.
  • Among reported cases, adrenal insufficiency has occurred with or succeeded the primary lung cancer.
  • Adrenal insufficiency has also been secondary to metastasis to the adrenal gland.
  • The present report concerns a 61-year-old man, a chronic smoker, who presented to us with symptomatic adrenal insufficiency.
  • He had no evidence of lung cancer during this visit.
  • The primary lung cancer was only identified 12 weeks later.
  • Additionally, his adrenals showed no evidence of metastasis.
  • Hence his adrenal insufficiency had been a paraneoplastic manifestation of the lung cancer, and it had also preceded the primary by 12 weeks.

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  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029429
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95. Horvath A, Stratakis CA: Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Jun;15(3):227-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • It focuses on the role of genetic defects in cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling-related molecules, namely PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, and PDE8B in the predisposition to tumor formation.
  • This review also discusses the involvement of cAMP signaling and related pathways and their impact on the adrenocortical tumor formation.
  • SUMMARY: Recent findings indicate the importance of cAMP signaling for normal adrenocortical functioning and the sensitivity of the adrenal gland to subtle alterations in cAMP levels.
  • The identification of low-penetrance mutations in more than one phosphodiesterase in patients with adrenocortical hyperplasia is suggestive for a complementary role of the different phosphodiesterases in adrenal gland abnormalities and possible involvement of other members of this pathway in adrenocortical tumor defects.

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  • (PMID = 18438169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101741; NLM/ PMC2671149
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96. Zografos GN, Kothonidis K, Ageli C, Kopanakis N, Dimitriou K, Papaliodi E, Kaltsas G, Pagoni M, Papastratis G: Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal ganglioneuroma. JSLS; 2007 Oct-Dec;11(4):487-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal ganglioneuroma.
  • We report on a 23-year-old woman with a right adrenal tumor 13 cm in diameter who was treated by laparoscopy.
  • The patient was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally diagnosed on abdominal ultrasonography.
  • A subsequent computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen confirmed a 12 x 7 x 8-cm homogenous mass of the right adrenal.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid mass measuring 13 x 7 x 7.5 cm arising from the right adrenal.
  • Histology was consistent with an adrenal ganglioneuroma.

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  • (PMID = 18237516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015852
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97. Fung MM, Viveros OH, O'Connor DT: Diseases of the adrenal medulla. Acta Physiol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;192(2):325-35
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Autonomic Nervous System Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diseases of the adrenal medulla.
  • The adrenal glands are vital in the organism's response to environmental stress.
  • Pathology within the adrenal medulla and the autonomic nervous system is primarily because of neoplasms.
  • The most common tumour, called phaeochromocytoma when located in the adrenal medulla, originates from chromaffin cells and excretes catecholamines, but may be referred to as secreting paragangliomas when found in extra-adrenal chromaffin cells.
  • Neoplasms, such as neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas, may also be of neuronal lineage.

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  • (PMID = 18021328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-1716
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Physiol (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-090004; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-090004
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS57919; NLM/ PMC2576282
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98. Do YR, Song HS, Kim IH: Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Mar;22(1):18-20
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Stomach Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenalectomy for metastatic disease to the adrenal gland from gastric cancer: report of a case.
  • Metastases to the adrenal glands are frequently found at autopsy.
  • In practice, adrenal metastases have generally been accepted as evidence of blood-borne systemic disease.
  • So, clinically curable adrenal metastases is a rare malady.
  • The role for surgical resection in adrenal metastases has not been clearly defined.
  • A 45-year-old man initially underwent total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for treating his advanced gastric cancer.
  • A solitary adrenal metastases was resected 1 year later.
  • We report here on this case to show that for selected cases, surgical resection of adrenal metastases is feasible and this procedure may extend survival for metastatic gastric cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17427640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687596
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99. Ringbaek TJ, Krasnik M, Clementsen P, Skov BG, Rasmussen EN, Vilmann P: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound/fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of a malignant adrenal gland in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer and a negative CT scan. Lung Cancer; 2005 May;48(2):247-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lung Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound/fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of a malignant adrenal gland in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer and a negative CT scan.
  • Adrenal metastasis is only seen on CT scan is less than 5% of patients with otherwise resectable NSCLS, but this diagnosis has a major impact on treatment and prognosis.
  • We present a case of a patient with NSCLC and an adrenal metastasis, which was diagnosed by EUS/FNA of an enlarged adrenal gland, who had false-negative CT scan for adrenal metastasis.
  • Prospective studies are needed to assess the incremental yield of EUS/FNA over upper abdominal CT scan and PET for detecting left adrenal metastasis in patients with suspected or proven otherwise respectable NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


100. Fernández Sarabia MT, Rodríguez García JM, Cardenal Escarcena A, Serrano Vicente J, García Bernardo L: Adrenal metastasis of breast cancer with involvement of the inferior vena cava. Clin Transl Oncol; 2008 Nov;10(11):761-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal metastasis of breast cancer with involvement of the inferior vena cava.
  • Tumour thrombosis of the inferior cava vein is usually associated with primary renal cell cancer.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of adrenal metastasis of breast cancer extending into the inferior vena cava.
  • The authors focus on the role of combined PET-CT imaging in the accurate detection of malignant thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Radical. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Venous Thrombosis / diagnostic imaging. Venous Thrombosis / drug therapy. Venous Thrombosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19015074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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