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1. Mitchell IC, Nwariaku FE: Adrenal masses in the cancer patient: surveillance or excision. Oncologist; 2007 Feb;12(2):168-74
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses in the cancer patient: surveillance or excision.
  • An increasing number of patients with a history of solid organ malignancy now undergo surveillance imaging as part of their follow-up or for evaluation of other conditions.
  • This imaging has led to both greater identification of asymptomatic adrenal masses and subsequent confusion among clinicians regarding the evaluation and treatment.
  • In this review, we explore methods of biochemical testing in such patients and discuss the role of imaging techniques in their ability to differentiate benign versus malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17296812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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2. Böttger C, Warth A, Nawroth PP, Isermann B: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. Med Klin (Munich); 2010 Apr;105(4):237-41
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  • [Transliterated title] Neuroendokrines Karzinom der Lunge: eine diagnostische und therapeutische Herausforderung.
  • Based on a biopsy of a bronchial tumor, a small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the lung was diagnosed and chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin was initiated.
  • As the tumor progressed under chemotherapy, the bronchial biopsy was reevaluated and further biopsies of liver and adrenal metastases were obtained.
  • The diagnosis was corrected, and an atypical neuroendocrine bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed.
  • Under octreotide therapy, the patient remained stable for 1 year, when a discrete progress of the primary tumor in the lung was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Calcitonin / metabolism. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Lung / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / pathology. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Thyroid Gland / pathology


3. Cailotto C, Lei J, van der Vliet J, van Heijningen C, van Eden CG, Kalsbeek A, Pévet P, Buijs RM: Effects of nocturnal light on (clock) gene expression in peripheral organs: a role for the autonomic innervation of the liver. PLoS One; 2009;4(5):e5650
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  • More recently it was shown that the same light stimulus induces immediate changes in clock gene expression in the pineal and adrenal, suggesting a role of peripheral clocks in the organ-specific output.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / radiation effects. Animals. Autonomic Denervation. Circadian Rhythm / genetics. Circadian Rhythm / radiation effects. Hormones / metabolism. Male. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19478857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2682563
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4. Hennings J, Lindhe O, Bergström M, Långström B, Sundin A, Hellman P: [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1410-4
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS: Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19).
  • The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection.
  • Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative.
  • SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC.
  • MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Antineoplastic Agents. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16403816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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5. Hirai T, Tsujihata M, Ueda T, Nonomura N, Okuyama A: A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2007 Oct;14(10):952-3
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  • [Title] A case of polymyositis associated with adrenal carcinoma.
  • The association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis and cancer is well recognized.
  • Most descriptions have been of dermatomyositis-associated cancer, however, a few have been of polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer.
  • Here, we report a 69-year-old man in whom polymyositis-associated adrenal cancer was diagnosed.
  • Imaging studies showed a solid tumor measuring 14 x 9 cm in the retroperitoneum.
  • After surgical excision of the tumor, including the left kidney, the serum levels of creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase normalized, and symptoms of myositis disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Polymyositis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17880299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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6. Håkansson N, Stenlund C, Gustavsson P, Johansen C, Floderus B: Arc and resistance welding and tumours of the endocrine glands: a Swedish case-control study with focus on extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Occup Environ Med; 2005 May;62(5):304-8
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  • [Title] Arc and resistance welding and tumours of the endocrine glands: a Swedish case-control study with focus on extremely low frequency magnetic fields.
  • AIMS: To analyse occupational exposure to ELF magnetic fields from welding, and tumours of the endocrine glands.
  • A total of 174 incident cases of tumours of the endocrine glands, 1985-94, were identified and data were obtained from 140 (80%) of these cases; 1692 controls frequency matched on sex and age were selected, and information on 1306 (77%) individuals was obtained.
  • RESULTS: There was an overall increased risk for all tumours of the endocrine glands for individuals who had been welding sometime during the follow up.
  • We found an increased risk for the adrenal glands in relation to arc welding, and for the parathyroid glands in relation to both arc welding and resistance welding.
  • An imprecise increase in risk was also noted for tumours of the pituitary gland for arc welding.
  • CONCLUSION: The increased risks of endocrine gland tumours related to welding might be explained by exposure to high levels of ELF magnetic fields.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Magnetics / adverse effects. Occupational Diseases / etiology. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Welding
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Air Pollutants, Occupational / toxicity. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / etiology. Risk Factors. Solvents / toxicity. Sweden / epidemiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15837851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7926
  • [Journal-full-title] Occupational and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Occup Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Nieman LK: Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4106-13
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  • [Title] Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Unsuspected adrenal masses, or incidentalomas, are increasingly found with the widespread use of thoracic and abdominal imaging.
  • These masses may be hormonally active or nonfunctional and malignant or benign.
  • This is particularly important before surgical resection, which is routinely recommended for masses larger than 4 cm in diameter without a clear-cut diagnosis and for others with hormonal secretion or ominous imaging characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Algorithms. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20823463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2936073
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8. Ferrández A, Pho L, Solomon C, Samowitz WS, Kuwada SK, Knecht TP, Gilfeather M, Burt RW: An evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the clinical considerations, management, and surveillance of adrenal lesions in familial adenomatous polyposis: report of three cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Nov;49(11):1781-90
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  • [Title] An evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the clinical considerations, management, and surveillance of adrenal lesions in familial adenomatous polyposis: report of three cases.
  • Adrenal masses are commonly discovered incidentally in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, and adrenal malignancies have been rarely reported.
  • Adrenal lesions often are detected unexpectedly and are thus becoming a common clinical problem in this population.
  • Adrenal lesions encompass a heterogeneous spectrum of pathologic entities, including primary adrenocortical and medullary tumors, benign or malignant lesions, hormonally active or inactive lesions, metastases, and infections.
  • When an adrenal mass is detected, the clinician needs to address two crucial questions:.
  • 1) is the mass malignant?
  • This article presents three new cases of incidental adrenal lesions in familial adenomatous polyposis, reviews the medical literature for this setting, and provides an overview of the diagnostic clinical approach and management of the adrenal findings in familial adenomatous polyposis patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications


9. Grignon D, Paner GP: Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):63-8
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus.
  • Renal sinus fat invasion was incorporated as one of the parameters for pT stage definition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) only in the latest 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/tumor-node-metastasis staging protocol.
  • The current pT3a subcategory (in addition to adrenal gland involvement) groups 2 modes of extrarenal extension by RCC, either by peripheral perinephric fat extension or by renal sinus fat invasion.
  • Recent prospective studies have shown that with more directed gross sampling and histologic evaluation, renal sinus invasion is actually more commonly diagnosed than previously reported, or when compared with retrospectively sampled RCC nephrectomy specimens.
  • These studies have demonstrated that renal sinus invasion is the principal pathway for extrarenal extension for clear cell RCC; the incidence of which is related to size (tumors greater than 4 cm more frequently involve the renal sinus).
  • More significantly, a recent retrospective study of pT3a clear cell RCC nephrectomy specimens showed that tumors invading the renal sinus fat portend a more aggressive outcome than tumors invading only the peripheral perinephric fat.
  • Clear cell RCCs invading the renal sinus are more likely to have higher nuclear grade, regional lymph node involvement and sarcomatoid transformation than tumors invading only the perinephric fat.
  • Given the importance of renal sinus invasion, sampling strategies for nephrectomy specimens should be modified to focus in this region as appropriate and pathologists should be familiar with the histologic criteria for staging renal sinus invasion.

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  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1218-21 [16145373.001]
  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1199-202; discussion 1202 [16145369.001]
  • (PMID = 17471114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Conzo G, Tricarico A, Belli G, Candela S, Corcione F, Del Genio G, Ferulano GP, Giardiello C, Livrea A, Marzano LA, Porcelli A, Sperlongano P, Vincenti R, Palazzo A, De Martino C, Musella M: Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series. Can J Surg; 2009 Dec;52(6):E281-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas in the laparoscopic era and the role of correct surgical indications: observations from 255 consecutive adrenalectomies in an Italian series.
  • We analyzed the results of a multi-centre trial that was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) to obtain a correct preoperative diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We obtained our data from the results of a questionnaire that was distributed by mail or email in May 2005 to several surgical units operating in the Campania Region, Italy.
  • RESULTS: The distribution of pathologic findings demonstrates that the number of lesions caused by cancer discovered from a preoperative indication of incidentaloma has been even smaller (1/114, 0.8%) than the previous numbers reported in the literature.
  • Moreover, whereas most patients with adrenal cancer had lesions larger than 6 cm (7/8, 87.5%), the majority of patients with adrenal metastases had lesions 6 cm or smaller (10/12, 83.3%).
  • Adrenal malignancies when metastatic are often 6 cm or smaller.
  • If they are single and they originated from a non-small lung cancer, they must be removed.
  • The endocrine surgery unit remains the best setting to evaluate and treat adrenal gland surgical pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20011165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2310
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2792399
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11. Cleary S, Phillips JK, Huynh TT, Pacak K, Elkahloun AG, Barb J, Worrell RA, Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G: Neuropeptide Y expression in phaeochromocytomas: relative absence in tumours from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. J Endocrinol; 2007 May;193(2):225-33
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  • This study examined influences of hereditary factors and differences in catecholamine production on tumour expression of NPY, as assessed by quantitative PCR, enzyme immunoassay and immunohistochemistry.
  • Phaeochromocytomas included hereditary adrenaline-producing tumours (adrenergic phenotype) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), predominantly noradrenaline-producing tumours (noradrenergic phenotype) in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, and other adrenergic and noradrenergic tumours where there was no clear hereditary syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Neuropeptide Y / analysis. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / chemistry. Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase / analysis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17470513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CT999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptide Y; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.1.1.28 / Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase
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12. Liu YJ, Wang GM, Zhang YK, Zhang L, Sun LA, Lin ZM, Zhu TY: [The clinical characteristic of adrenal metastatic tumor]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan 15;45(2):124-7
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  • [Title] [The clinical characteristic of adrenal metastatic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of adrenal metastasis.
  • METHODS: From January 1993 to December 2004, 103 cases of adrenal metastasis were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Lung and hepatocellular carcinoma were the most common primary tumor of adrenal metastatic tumor, which about 36.9% (38/103) and 42.7% (44/103) of all cases, followed by renal carcinoma 6.8% (7/103), colorectal carcinoma 4.9% (5/103), stomach carcinoma 3.9% (4/103), breast cancer 1.9% (2/103), unknown primary tumor 2.9% (3/103).
  • The mean diameter of adrenal metastasis was 3.9 cm.
  • The mean interval from detection of primary tumor to adrenal metastasis was 9.5 months.
  • And 79.6% (82/103) were detected as a part of multiorgan metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is no particular presentation of clinic and imaging, diagnosis depending on history, follow-up and the pathological presentation of primary tumor.
  • When the primary tumor could be resected or be well controlled, and there is no other evidence of metastasis, adrenalectomy is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17418043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Krysiak R, Frysz-Naglak D, Okopień B: [Current views on the role of dehydroepiandrosterone in physiology, pathology and therapy]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2008 Jan;24(139):66-71
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  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate metabolite (DHEAS) are the major androgens secreted by the human adrenal gland.
  • The decline in their production is the most characteristic age-related change in the adrenal cortex.
  • This process, known as 'adrenopause' may contribute to the increased incidence of atherosclerosis, cancer, or dementia in older people.
  • Whereas DHEA therapy seems to be effective in treating patients with adrenal insufficiency and systemic lupus erythematosus, clinical studies investigating the potential efficacy of DHEA therapy in multiple other disorders (Alzheimer disease, depression, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunctions) have not provided consistent results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenarche / physiology. Aging / metabolism. Dehydroepiandrosterone / metabolism. Dehydroepiandrosterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Aged. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / prevention & control. Cardiovascular System / metabolism. Dementia / metabolism. Dementia / prevention & control. Humans. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18634257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / dehydroepiandrosterone receptor; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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14. Lee S, Nakamura E, Yang H, Wei W, Linggi MS, Sajan MP, Farese RV, Freeman RS, Carter BD, Kaelin WG Jr, Schlisio S: Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: developmental culling and cancer. Cancer Cell; 2005 Aug;8(2):155-67
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  • [Title] Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: developmental culling and cancer.
  • We also found that the prolyl hydroxylase EglN3 acts downstream of c-Jun and is specifically required among the three EglN family members for apoptosis in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis. Pheochromocytoma / enzymology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Dioxygenases. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases. Immediate-Early Proteins / metabolism. Mutation. Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism. Neurons / enzymology. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Signal Transduction. Succinate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Sympathetic Nervous System / cytology. Sympathetic Nervous System / growth & development. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein


15. Ramírez Plaza CP, Santoyo Santoyo J, Domínguez López ME, Eloy-García Carrasco C, Cobo Dols M, Suárez Muñoz MA, Fernández Aguilar JL, de la Fuente Perucho A: [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 Mar;58(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Adrenal carcinoma: 7 year disease free survival after complete primary tumor resection and repeated resection of local-regional and distant recurrences. Review after one case with poor initial life expectancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal: supervivencia a 7 años libre de enfermedad tras resección completa del tumor primario y resecciones repetidas de recidivas locorregional y a distancia. Revisión a raiz de un caso con una pobre esperanza de vida inicial.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the case of a female patient with adrenal carcinoma who had undergone surgery and presented with local-regional and distant recurrences, emphasizing the importance of the aggressive surgical treatment to achieve long-term survival which is unexpected sometimes.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who consulted for left flank pain, being diagnosed of an adrenal tumor by radiological tests; she underwent surgical excision of a left adrenal carcinoma (stage II).
  • Currently, the patient is alive and free of disease 7 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal cancer recurrences have been considered lethal in the short-term.
  • Nevertheless, an aggressive surgical approach of local recurrences and metastasic disease may significantly prolong patient's survival and, sometimes, leave the patient disease free several years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15847268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Salman T, Seker M, Bilici A, Basak-Oven Ustaalioglu B, Gumus M, Yaylaci M: Lung cancer presenting with extreme leukocytosis. J BUON; 2010 Jan-Mar;15(1):193
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  • [Title] Lung cancer presenting with extreme leukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Leukocytosis / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20414953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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17. Gil J, Kalembkiewicz M, Polak E, Kostecka-Matyja M: [Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2007 Jul;117(7):317-21
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  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm occurring with a frequency of 1-2 cases per million.
  • It is characterized by significant malignancy with mean survival of about 28 months, and in the presence of documented metastases survival is shorter up to 8 months.
  • This type of a tumor is slightly more frequent in women (58.6%) than in men (41.4%).
  • The tumor size is still the best single predictor of prognosis.
  • Histopathology specimen from biopsy or obtained during operation should be stained for Melan A, which can confirm the adrenal origin of the tumor.
  • We presented the case of functioning adrenocortical cancer in 37-year-old patient who at time of diagnosis had 12 cm in diameter tumor of the left adrenal gland and metastases to the liver and lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17966598.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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18. Thompson MA, Habra MA, Routbort MJ, Holsinger FC, Perrier ND, Waguespack SG, Rodriguez MA: Primary adrenal natural killer/T-cell nasal type lymphoma: first case report in adults. Am J Hematol; 2007 Apr;82(4):299-303
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  • [Title] Primary adrenal natural killer/T-cell nasal type lymphoma: first case report in adults.
  • We report the first case of a primary adrenal natural killer (NK)/T-cell nasal type lymphoma in adults.
  • The patient presented with an enlarging left adrenal mass and the initial concern was for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Rapid recurrence in the contralateral adrenal gland was treated with a single cycle of chemotherapy before he died due to infectious complications and progressive disease.
  • This case demonstrates the aggressive presentation of a novel subset of primary adrenal lymphoma that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly enlarging adrenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphocyte Subsets / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17094095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / RNA, Viral
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19. Mathur A, Kemp CD, Dutta U, Baid S, Ayala A, Chang RE, Steinberg SM, Papademetriou V, Lange E, Libutti SK, Pingpank JF, Alexander HR, Phan GQ, Hughes M, Linehan WM, Pinto PA, Stratakis CA, Kebebew E: Consequences of adrenal venous sampling in primary hyperaldosteronism and predictors of unilateral adrenal disease. J Am Coll Surg; 2010 Sep;211(3):384-90
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  • [Title] Consequences of adrenal venous sampling in primary hyperaldosteronism and predictors of unilateral adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: In patients with primary hyperaldosteronism, distinguishing between unilateral and bilateral adrenal hypersecretion is critical in assessing treatment options.
  • Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) has been advocated by some to be the gold standard for localization of the responsible lesion, but there remains a lack of consensus for the criteria and the standardization of technique.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of 114 patients with a biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism who all underwent CT scan and AVS before and after corticotropin (ACTH) stimulation.
  • Factors associated with AVS lateralization included a low renin value, high plasma aldosterone-to plasma-renin ratio, and adrenal mass > or = 3 cm on CT scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Renin / blood. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Veins

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20800196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-12
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS206381; NLM/ PMC2930893
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20. Fuchs D, Christofferson R, Stridsberg M, Lindhagen E, Azarbayjani F: Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments. J Transl Med; 2009;7:16
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  • [Title] Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments.
  • The aim of this study was primarily to characterize tumor spread in an orthotopic, metastatic model for aggressive, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and secondarily to study the effects of daily administration of the chemotherapeutic agent CHS 828 on tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and spread.
  • METHODS: MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32, 2 x 10(6)) were injected into the left adrenal gland in SCID mice through a flank incision.
  • Nine weeks later, a new laparotomy was performed to confirm tumor establishment and to estimate tumor volume.
  • Differences between groups in tumor volume were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and in metastatic spread using Fisher's exact test.
  • RESULTS: The orthotopic model resembled clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread.
  • Treatment with CHS 828 resulted in tumor regression (p < 0.001) and reduction in viable tumor fraction (p < 0.001) and metastatic spread (p < 0.05) in correlation with reduced plasma levels of the putative tumor marker chromogranin A (p < 0.001).
  • These effects were due to increased tumor cell death and reduced angiogenesis.
  • CONCLUSION: The metastatic animal model in this study resembled clinical neuroblastoma and is therefore clinically relevant for examining new treatment strategies for this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Autopsy. Calgranulin A / blood. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyanides / toxicity. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Guanidines / toxicity. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19284605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Cyanides; 0 / Guanidines; 0 / N-(6-chlorophenoxyhexyl)-N''-cyano-N''-4-pyridylguanidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667491
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21. Jhaveri KA, Reichensperger J, Toth LA, Sekino Y, Ramkumar V: Reduced basal and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated adenosine A1 receptor expression in the brain of nuclear factor-kappaB p50-/- mice. Neuroscience; 2007 Apr 25;146(1):415-26
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  • Radioligand binding assays in the cortex revealed a significantly lower number of A(1)AR (maximal binding capacity, Bmax) in the cortex of p50-/- mice (151+/-62 fmol/mg protein) versus 479+/-181 fmol/mg protein in the F2 (N=5 per strain, P<0.05), but no change in the equilibrium dissociation constant.
  • Similar reductions in A1AR were measured in the hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus and in peripheral tissues, such as the adrenal gland, kidney and spleen.

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  • (PMID = 17350174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-4522
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR017543; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR017543-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR017543-01; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-7543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B p50 Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Adenosine A1; 0 / Xanthines; 102146-07-6 / 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS23082; NLM/ PMC2034751
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22. Shprung T, Gozes I: A novel method for analyzing mitochondrial movement: inhibition by paclitaxel in a pheochromocytoma cell model. J Mol Neurosci; 2009 Mar;37(3):254-62
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  • A method was developed to assess mitochondrial movement in the living cell that is dependent, in part, on microtubule and/or associating protein interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Mitochondria. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism. PC12 Cells / cytology. PC12 Cells / drug effects. PC12 Cells / physiology. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18636346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-8696
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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23. Havekes B, van der Klaauw AA, Weiss MM, Jansen JC, van der Mey AG, Vriends AH, Bonsing BA, Romijn JA, Corssmit EP: Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas detected by screening in patients with SDHD-associated head-and-neck paragangliomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):527-36
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas detected by screening in patients with SDHD-associated head-and-neck paragangliomas.
  • Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas were treated surgically after appropriate blockade.
  • Twenty-eight out of the 93 patients were included in our study and underwent additional imaging for pheochromocytomas/extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • In 11 out of the 28 patients intra-adrenal pheochromocytomas were found.
  • Extra-adrenal paragangliomas were discovered in eight patients.
  • The high prevalence of pheochromocytomas/extra-adrenal paragangliomas in patients with SDHD-associated HNP warrants regular screening for tumors in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Paraganglioma, Extra-Adrenal / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19289533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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24. McNeill A, Rattenberry E, Barber R, Killick P, MacDonald F, Maher ER: Genotype-phenotype correlations in VHL exon deletions. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 Oct;149A(10):2147-51
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  • Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations in the VHL gene.
  • Type 2 subtypes of VHL syndrome are characterized by the presence of pheochromocytoma and the three Type 2 subtypes are associated with differing risks of hemangioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • These results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that patients with VHL syndrome caused by large VHL deletions that include C3orf10 may be designated as having a specific subtype (Type 1B) of the disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Deletion. Phenotype. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein / genetics. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Hemangioblastoma / complications. Hemangioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / complications. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Retinal Neoplasms / complications. Retinal Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19764026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRK1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / FANCD2 protein, human; 0 / Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
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25. Rottenburger C, Juettner E, Harttrampf AC, Hentschel M, Kontny U, Roessler J: False-positive radio-iodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) accumulation in a mast cell-infiltrated infantile haemangioma. Br J Radiol; 2010 Aug;83(992):e168-71
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  • Here, we present a case of a false-positive (123)I-MIBG scan in a case of a mast-cell infiltrated infantile haemangioma and discuss the possible uptake mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine / pharmacokinetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Hemangioma / metabolism. Mast Cells / metabolism

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  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
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26. Thomas JL, Mack VL, Glow JA, Moshkelani D, Terrell JR, Bucholtz KM: Structure/function of the inhibition of human 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 by trilostane. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2008 Jul;111(1-2):66-73
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  • The human type 1 (placenta, breast tumors) and type 2 (gonads, adrenals) isoforms of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3beta-HSD) are key enzymes in biosynthesis of all active steroid hormones.
  • Human 3beta-HSD1 is a critical enzyme in the conversion of DHEA to estradiol in breast tumors and may be a major target enzyme for the treatment of breast cancer.
  • 3beta-HSD2 participates in the production of cortisol and aldosterone in the human adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 18524572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114717-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114717; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114717; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114717-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 2ZD004190S / Threonine; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 5.3.3.- / Steroid Isomerases; L0FPV48Q5R / trilostane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS65567; NLM/ PMC2580795
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27. Koncz E, Schmid KW: [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31(6):445-8
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  • [Title] [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I].
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) is a rare hereditary cancer syndrome, which is manifested as a variety of endocrine and non-endocrine tumours and lesions caused by specific germline mutations of the MEN1 gene, a tumour suppressor gene.
  • The combined use of genetic and clinical tools for the diagnosis of MEN1-associated tumours substantially improves both the course of the disease and the quality of life of affected patients.
  • This review summarizes the relevant morphological and clinical features of MEN1-associated endocrine and non-endocrine neoplasms and lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / genetics. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 20960195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Geli J, Kiss N, Karimi M, Lee JJ, Bäckdahl M, Ekström TJ, Larsson C: Global and regional CpG methylation in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas: association to malignant behavior. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;14(9):2551-9
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  • [Title] Global and regional CpG methylation in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas: association to malignant behavior.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to quantitatively assess promoter and global methylation changes in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas and its relation to tumor phenotypes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of 53 primary tumors (42 benign, 11 malignant) was analyzed by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing.
  • Based on methylation levels in the tumor suppressor genes, p16(INK4A), CDH1, DCR2, RARB, RASSF1A, NORE1A, TP73, APC, DAPK1, p14(ARF), and PTEN, a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was defined as concerted hypermethylation in three or more genes.
  • RESULTS: Five primary tumors (9.4%) exhibited a CIMP phenotype, four of which were malignant paragangliomas.
  • CIMP was significantly associated with malignant behavior (P = 0.005) and younger age at presentation (P < 0.007) but did not result from BRAF V600E mutation.
  • Global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements was observed in tumors compared with normal adrenal samples (P < 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: We here describe the identification of CIMP in abdominal paragangliomas and a strong association of this phenotype with malignant behavior, as well as young age at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements / genetics. Male. Middle Aged


29. Mittendorf EA, Lim SJ, Schacherer CW, Lucci A, Cormier JN, Mansfield PF, Gershenwald JE, Ross MI, Lee JE: Melanoma adrenal metastasis: natural history and surgical management. Am J Surg; 2008 Mar;195(3):363-8; discussion 368-9
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  • [Title] Melanoma adrenal metastasis: natural history and surgical management.
  • BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding melanoma metastasis to the adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of melanoma patients with adrenal metastasis was performed.
  • RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients with adrenal metastasis were identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with melanoma adrenal metastasis have a poor prognosis.
  • Surgical treatment should be considered only in highly selected patients, such as those with limited extra-adrenal metastatic disease who can be rendered disease free.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18206850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA93459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kino M, Suzuki H, Naya Y, Komiya A, Imamoto T, Ichikawa T, Tatsuno I, Ishida H, Shindo T, Seki N: Comparative genomic hybridization reveals frequent losses of 1p and 3q in benign pheochromocytomas of Japanese patients. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2007 Jun;175(2):169-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17556075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Shi H, Cao D, Wei L, Sun L, Guo A: Primary choriocarcinoma of the liver: a clinicopathological study of five cases in males. Virchows Arch; 2010 Jan;456(1):65-70
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  • At presentation, the tumor was confined to the liver in two patients and therefore surgically resected.
  • All five patients died from the tumor within 2 to 8 months.
  • The other three patients had metastatic choriocarcinoma in the lung (two patients), peritoneum (one patient), adrenal glands (one patient), and brain (one patient).
  • None of the patients had any evidence of a testicular tumor or scar after examination of the entirely submitted testes.
  • No tumor was observed in central nervous system, mediastinum, or other organs other than described above.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for keratin, HCG, and focally positive for human placental lactogen.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Placental Lactogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20013345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen
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32. Kirkali Z, Algaba F, Scarpelli M, Trias I, Selvaggi FP, Van Poppel H: What does the urologist expect from the pathologist (and what can the pathologists give) in reporting on adult kidney tumour specimens? Eur Urol; 2007 May;51(5):1194-201
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  • [Title] What does the urologist expect from the pathologist (and what can the pathologists give) in reporting on adult kidney tumour specimens?
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the parameters required by the urologist to determine the prognosis and the treatment of renal cancer in adults, and to establish the potential therapeutic targets of the new treatments that started to show clinical efficacy.
  • Criteria for nuclear grading should be different for the subtypes of renal cell carcinoma, and the WHO 2004 histological classification is clinically useful.
  • The TNM 2002 classification is useful, but some adjustments should be made, particularly as referred to the tumour size cut-off, assessment of the invasion of the renal sinus fat tissue, and invasion of the ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • The Fuhrman's grading system is useful in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and probably also in papillary RCC, but a redefinition for chromophobe RCC is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nephrectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pathology, Clinical

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2007 May;51(5):1166-8; discussion 1168-70 [17257741.001]
  • (PMID = 17125908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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33. Mittendorf EA, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND: Pheochromocytoma: advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization, and treatment. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):509-25; ix
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma: advances in genetics, diagnosis, localization, and treatment.
  • Pheochromocytomas are rare, catecholamine-secreting tumors arising most frequently in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal glands.
  • Advances continue to be made not only in the genetic evaluation of these patients but also in the biochemical confirmation and tumor localization.
  • Surgery remains the definitive treatment, and advances in laparoscopic techniques as well as cortical-sparing procedures have reduced the morbidity associated with tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Pheochromocytoma

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  • (PMID = 17548037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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34. Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP: Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):667-80
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  • [Title] Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare, highly malignant tumors that account for only 0.2% of deaths due to cancer.
  • Given the limited number of patients seen in most medical centers with this diagnosis, series usually reported are small and clinical trials not randomized or blinded.
  • In an attempt to answer important questions concerning the management of patients with adrenal cancer, a consensus conference was organized and held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, 11-13 September 2003, with the participation of an international group of physicians who had reported on the largest series of patients with this disease and who had recognized basic and clinical research expertise in adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition to setting up guidelines in specific areas of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cancer, the conference recommended and initiated the planning of an international prospective trial for treatment of patients with adrenal cancer in stages III and IV.
  • In terms of new therapies, first trials of dendritic cell therapy in human subjects with adrenal cancer have been started, but it is too early to comment on efficacy.
  • There are no clinical gene therapy trials for human adrenal cortical cancer.
  • The adrenals are a preferred target for adenovirus and the results of gene therapy in preclinical studies are promising.
  • In addition, there is evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitors can further enhance the rate of adenoviral infectivity in human adrenal cancer cells.
  • The use of these and other agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer should be hypothesis-driven and based on a thorough analysis of tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16172199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M 01-RR000 42
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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36. Neumann HP, Eng C: The approach to the patient with paraganglioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Aug;94(8):2677-83
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  • Up to one third of all symptomatic presentations of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma are due to germline mutations in one of six genes defining multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, and the paraganglioma syndromes types 1, 3, and 4.
  • This genetic classification forms the basis early diagnosis and follow-up including management of relatives.
  • Easily available clinical information such as tumor location and number, age, gender, and family history must be used to prioritize which gene should be tested.
  • Mutation carriers should undergo regular check-up to detect and treat metachronous paraganglial and extraparaganglial tumors, and depending on syndrome, other extraparaganglial neoplasias such as medullary thyroid cancer and renal clear cell carcinomas in time.
  • Adrenal and extraadrenal retroperitoneal tumors should be operated by surgeons highly experienced in minimal invasive, endoscopic techniques.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Male. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Terminology as Topic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19657044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 6.3.2.19 / VHL protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2730863
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37. Nakamura A, Shimizu C, Nagai S, Taniguchi S, Umetsu M, Atsumi T, Wada N, Yoshioka N, Ono Y, Sasano H, Koike T: Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jan;30(1):65-9
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  • A benign virilizing adrenal adenoma is rare among adrenal neoplasms in middle-aged women.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a left adrenal tumor, and an adrenocortical scintigraphy revealed uptake of the tracer on the left side.
  • Histopathological features of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with those of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunoreactivity of all the steroidogenic enzymes was apparent in the tumor cells and particularly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DHEA-ST) immunoreactivity was markedly expressed.
  • Cortical atrophy and reduced expression of DHEA-ST were detected in the cortex of the adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Insulin Resistance. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / therapy. Virilism / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17318025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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38. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Zgliczynski W, Slapa RZ, Cichocki A: Retroperitoneal hemorrhage from adrenocortical carcinoma as a poor prognostic factor. Int J Biomed Sci; 2008 Mar;4(1):78-81
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  • A sudden retroperitoneal hemorrhage may sometimes be the first symptom of the adrenal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 23675071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614665
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adrenal cancer / retroperitoneal hemorrhage / steroids
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39. Murray SA, Nickel BM, Gay VL: Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):51-6
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  • [Title] Gap junctions as modulators of adrenal cortical cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • In the adrenal gland, as in most other tissues, intercellular communication provides the potential for regulation of a number of complex interactive cell processes including differentiation, steroidogenesis, migration, and proliferation.
  • This review is concerned with the regulation of gap junctions and cell function in cortical cells of the adrenal gland and in pathological disorders such as adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Cell Proliferation. Gap Junctions / metabolism. Steroids / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Animals. Cell Movement / physiology. Connexins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18973789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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40. Tanaka K, Yamada K, Sasaki H, Kishi K, Noura S, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Miyashiro I, Ohue M, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A surgical case of solitary lymph node metastatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1938-40
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  • No evidence of recurrence in the intra- and extra hepatic organs such as adrenal gland, lung, bone, and brain except for intra abdominal solitary lymph node metastasis was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17212152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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41. Lehrfeld T, Natale R, Sharma S, Mendoza PJ, Schwab Ii CW, Lee DI: Robot-assisted excision of a retroperitoneal mass between the left renal artery and vein. JSLS; 2010 Jul-Sep;14(3):447-9
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  • [Title] Robot-assisted excision of a retroperitoneal mass between the left renal artery and vein.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are rare.
  • METHODS: We present a case of a 64-year-old female with a 3.5-cm mass located between her left renal artery and vein, treated by a 4-port robot-assisted transperitoneal laparoscopic approach.
  • RESULTS: Careful dissection of the tumor away from the renal hilum was accomplished without major vascular injury.
  • A pedicle to the tumor was identified and ligated.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a peri-hilar excision of a pheochromocytoma using this approach.
  • CONCLUSION: Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas are rare and can present in difficult locations.
  • While surgical excision may be challenging, the da Vinci Robot may be used effectively and safely for the treatment of these perihilar masses.

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  • (PMID = 21333207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
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42. Machens A, Dralle H: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and the RET protooncogene: from bedside to bench to bedside. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2006 Mar 9;247(1-2):34-40
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 and the RET protooncogene: from bedside to bench to bedside.
  • Although the initial characterization of the various MEN-2 associated phenotypes (familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A and 2B) evolved at the bedside, it was at the bench where the underlying RET (REarranged during Transfection) germline mutations were identified.
  • Molecular information has revolutionized our understanding and continues to transform the clinical management of this fascinating endocrine tumor syndrome of neural crest derivation, which consists of medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma.
  • With the continuing expansion of our knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms and our growing therapeutic abilities, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is gradually returning home to the bedside, closing the loop from bedside to bench to bedside.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Age Factors. Animals. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Genotype. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hyperplasia. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / pathology. Neural Crest / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Syndrome. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16343738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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43. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • Orthotopic cell transplantation models are important for a complete understanding of cell-cell interactions as well as tumor biology.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • In the absence of fibrinogen/thrombin for clot formation, much of the injected material was extruded to the outside of the gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • When 3 x 10(5) cells were implanted orthotopically, by 16 days the cell mass had expanded and had invaded the cortex, whereas when 1 x 10(5) cells were used, tumor masses were much smaller.
  • When mice were sacrificed at different time points, we found that tumor growth resulting was progressive and that by 26 days cells there was extensive invasion into the cortex or almost complete replacement of the cortex with tumor cells.
  • Orthotopic transplantation of 3 x 10(5) cells resulted in extensive invasion and destruction of the gland by 26 days.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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44. Ricketts CJ, Forman JR, Rattenberry E, Bradshaw N, Lalloo F, Izatt L, Cole TR, Armstrong R, Kumar VK, Morrison PJ, Atkinson AB, Douglas F, Ball SG, Cook J, Srirangalingam U, Killick P, Kirby G, Aylwin S, Woodward ER, Evans DG, Hodgson SV, Murday V, Chew SL, Connell JM, Blundell TL, Macdonald F, Maher ER: Tumor risks and genotype-phenotype-proteotype analysis in 358 patients with germline mutations in SDHB and SDHD. Hum Mutat; 2010 Jan;31(1):41-51
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  • [Title] Tumor risks and genotype-phenotype-proteotype analysis in 358 patients with germline mutations in SDHB and SDHD.
  • Succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) and D (SDHD) subunit gene mutations predispose to adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytomas, head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL), and other tumor types.
  • We report tumor risks in 358 patients with SDHB (n=295) and SDHD (n=63) mutations.
  • Risks of malignant pheochromocytoma and renal tumors (14% at age 70 years) were higher in SDHB mutation carriers; 55 different mutations (including a novel recurrent exon 1 deletion) were identified.
  • Analysis of the largest cohort of SDHB/D mutation carriers has enhanced estimates of penetrance and tumor risk and supports in silicon protein structure prediction analysis for functional assessment of mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Paraganglioma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Mutat. 2010 Jun;31(6):761-2 [20513144.001]
  • (PMID = 19802898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Human mutation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mutat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / / DHCS/06/06/013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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45. Del Pizzo JJ: Radiographic evaluation of the incidental adrenal lesion. Curr Urol Rep; 2006 Jan;7(1):69-72
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  • [Title] Radiographic evaluation of the incidental adrenal lesion.
  • The detection of incidental adrenal masses has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques such as CT and MRI.
  • The work-up and treatment of these incidentally found adrenal masses continue to be a clinical challenge for radiologists, endocrinologists, and adrenal surgeons.
  • The approach to the evaluation of most of these adrenal masses depends on the radiologic appearance of the lesion, and whether the patient has a known underlying malignancy.
  • The aim of this article is to review imaging features of pathologic abnormalities of the adrenal gland.
  • Recent advances in noninvasive imaging methods that attempt to differentiate benign from malignant lesions also are addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis

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46. Schmid H, Mussack T, Wörnle M, Pietrzyk MC, Banas B: Clinical management of large adrenal cystic lesions. Int Urol Nephrol; 2005;37(4):767-71
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  • [Title] Clinical management of large adrenal cystic lesions.
  • The widespread use of ultrasonography and computed tomography has resulted in an increased diagnosis of large sized adrenal cysts with diameters of more than 5 cm.
  • Most of these adrenal cystic lesions are clinically silent and are therefore often diagnosed incidentally.
  • Since up to 7% of adrenal cysts are malignant, a careful hormonal, morpho-functional and instrumental evaluation is mandatory.
  • In particular, functioning adrenal carcinomas or pheochromocytomas have to be ruled out.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology as well as examination of a punch biopsy specimen of the cystic wall are of limited value, as there is considerable overlap in cytologic and histologic features of benign and malignant adrenal cystic lesions.
  • Immediate surgical excision is indicated in the presence of symptoms, suspicion of malignancy, increase in the size or detection of a functioning adrenal cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16362596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
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47. Wang KX, Shi Y, Denhardt DT: Osteopontin regulates hindlimb-unloading-induced lymphoid organ atrophy and weight loss by modulating corticosteroid production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Sep 11;104(37):14777-82
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  • Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional secreted phosphoglycoprotein, plays diverse roles in bone biology, immune regulation, cell survival, inflammation, and cancer metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Hindlimb Suspension / physiology. Lymphatic System / pathology. Osteopontin / physiology. Weight Loss / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Atrophy. Cell Count. Corticosterone / blood. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Spleen / cytology. Spleen / immunology. Spleen / physiology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / cytology. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / immunology. Thymus Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17785423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1976226
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48. Schlittler LA, Dallagasperina VW, Carlotto JR, Vilarroel RU, Lazaretti NS: True adrenal cyst mimicking renal cancer in a young woman: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7351
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  • [Title] True adrenal cyst mimicking renal cancer in a young woman: a case report.
  • The adrenal cyst is a rare disease that represents approximately 5% of discovered adrenal lesions, which are usually discovered incidentally.
  • True adrenal cysts originate to cells from mesothelium.
  • The potential of cyst adrenal to become malignant has been reported to be 7% and a radical excision of a potentially malignant mass are indicate.
  • We report a case of a 48 year old woman that presented with pain in left hypochondrium and epigastrium, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and microscopic hematuria.
  • After the diagnosis suspicion surgery was performed with a monoblock resection of left kidney and left adrenal gland because of kidney cancer diagnosis as considered.
  • The microscopically analysis of surgical specimen, diagnosed a true epithelial cyst of adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 19918521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769351
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49. Khan MU, Khan S, El-Refaie S, Win Z, Rubello D, Al-Nahhas A: Clinical indications for Gallium-68 positron emission tomography imaging. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Jun;35(6):561-7
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  • The advantage of in-house preparation of (68)Ga without necessity of a cyclotron, and the new generator configuration with future possibility of freeze-dried kits would make it a promising PET agent for the future.
  • Pre-clinical experience employing animal models and investigation of tracer kinetics/tumour uptake measurements using dynamic (68)Ga-PET have provided data regarding identification of Somatostatin receptors subtypes on many tumours.
  • Diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment planning for meningiomas in pertinent clinical setting is another potential use of (68)Ga-PET.
  • Limited studies have shown its utility in prostate cancer but further studies are contemplated.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallium Radioisotopes. Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Digestive System Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Meningioma / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19201567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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50. Błaut K, Wiśniewski P, Syrenicz A, Sworczak K: Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Oct;27(5):569-72
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  • [Title] Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog.
  • LHRH analogs have become a promising modality in prostate cancer therapy as an alternative to surgical castration, and the use of these agents is generally considered to be safe.
  • We present a case of a 74 year old patient who was diagnosed of prostate cancer at the age of 68.
  • Imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) revealed the presence of a pituitary tumor and hemorrhage within the gland.
  • The tumor had negative immunohistochemical GH, ACTH and PRL staining.
  • As a result the patient required adrenal and thyroid replacement.
  • During 6 years of follow-up there was no evidence of prostate cancer recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


51. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA, Cichocki A: Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2005;5(2):125-32
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  • [Title] Clinical role of determination of plasma mitotane and its metabolites levels in patients with adrenal cancer: results of a long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / blood. Mitotane / analogs & derivatives. Mitotane / blood

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  • (PMID = 16471038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 34113-46-7 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)acetic acid; 3424-82-6 / 2,2-(2-chlorophenyl-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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52. Ohno N, Terada N, Komada M, Saitoh S, Costantini F, Pace V, Germann PG, Weber K, Yamakawa H, Ohara O, Ohno S: Dispensable role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 in rodent adrenal medulla regarding generation of pheochromocytoma and plasmalemmal localization of TSLC1. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2009 Mar;1793(3):506-15
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  • [Title] Dispensable role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1 in rodent adrenal medulla regarding generation of pheochromocytoma and plasmalemmal localization of TSLC1.
  • Protein 4.1B is a membrane skeletal protein expressed in various organs, and is associated with tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) in vitro.
  • Although involvement of 4.1B in the intercellular junctions and tumor-suppression was suggested, some controversial results posed questions to the general tumor-suppressive function of 4.1B and its relation to TSLC1 in vivo.
  • In this study, the expression of 4.1B and its interaction with TSLC1 were examined in rodent adrenal gland, and the involvement of 4.1B in tumorigenesis and the effect of 4.1B deficiency on TSLC1 distribution were also investigated using rodent pheochromocytoma and 4.1B-knockout mice.
  • Although plasmalemmal immunolocalization of 4.1B was shown in chromaffin cells of rodent adrenal medulla, expression of 4.1B was maintained in developed pheochromocytoma, and morphological abnormality or pheochromocytoma generation could not be found in 4.1B-deficient mice.
  • Furthermore, molecular interaction and colocalization of 4.1B and TSLC1 were observed in mouse adrenal gland, but the immunolocalization of TSLC1 along chromaffin cell membranes was not affected in the 4.1B-deficient mice.
  • These results suggest that the function of 4.1B as tumor suppressor might significantly differ among organs and species, and that plasmalemmal retention of TSLC1 would be maintained by molecules other than 4.1B interacting in rodent chromaffin cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


53. Guller U, Turek J, Eubanks S, Delong ER, Oertli D, Feldman JM: Detecting pheochromocytoma: defining the most sensitive test. Ann Surg; 2006 Jan;243(1):102-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To define the most sensitive biochemical test to establish the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and also to assess the potential role of iodine 131-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy (I-MIBG) in the diagnosis of this tumor.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pheochromocytoma is a rare, catecholamine-producing tumor with preferential localization in the adrenal gland.
  • Despite its importance, the most sensitive test to establish the diagnosis remains to be defined.
  • Spells (defined as profuse sweating, tachycardia, and headache) and hypertension at diagnosis were present in 51.4% and 66.6%, respectively.
  • Bilateral disease was found in 12.5%, malignant pheochromocytoma in 29.6%, and hereditary forms in 23.0%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tests of choice to establish the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma are urinary normetanephrine and platelet norepinephrine.
  • We thus advocate performing an MIBG scan if the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is clinically suspected and catecholamine measurements are within the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Radionuclide Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16371743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1449983
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54. Almeida MQ, Stratakis CA: Carney complex and other conditions associated with micronodular adrenal hyperplasias. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):907-14
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  • [Title] Carney complex and other conditions associated with micronodular adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Carney complex (CNC) is a multiple neoplasia syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and is characterized by skin tumors and pigmented lesions, myxomas, schwannomas, and various endocrine tumors.
  • Phosphodiesterase-11A (the PDE11A gene) and -8B (the PDE8B gene) mutations were found in patients with isolated adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome, as well in patients with PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases. Carney Complex

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  • (PMID = 21115159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-12
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245097; NLM/ PMC3000540
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55. Yamazaki K, Sugio K, Yamanaka T, Hirai F, Osoegawa A, Tagawa T, Fukuyama S, Wataya H, Seto T, Ichinose Y: Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer patients with postoperative recurrence following third-generation chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Apr;30(4):1311-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer patients with postoperative recurrence following third-generation chemotherapy.
  • AIM: To analyse the prognostic factors for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent cytotoxic chemotherapy with third generation agents or epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) for recurrence.
  • Univariate analysis showed female gender, age younger than 65 years, ECOG performance status of 0-1, never-smoker status, and adenocarcinoma prolonged survival, whereas metastasis to the liver or adrenal gland shortened survival.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed age, performance status, cell type and metastasis to the adrenal gland to be independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Age, performance status, cell type, and metastasis to the adrenal were independent prognostic factors in NSCLC patients treated with third-generation agents or EGFR-TKI for recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Rate


56. Wirowski D, Treckmann J, Böhner H: [Paraneoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular and subclavian veins as first manifestation of gall bladder cancer]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Dec;133(49):2562-4
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  • [Title] [Paraneoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular and subclavian veins as first manifestation of gall bladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Paraneoplastische Thrombose der Vena jugularis interna und Vena subclavia als Erstmanifestation eines Gallenblasenkarzinoms.
  • INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomograph (CT) and phlebography showed extensive thrombosis of sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular, brachiocephalic and subclavian veins on the left side.
  • Reoperation was performed but not all tumor tissue was resected.
  • CONCLUSION: If a paraneoplastic thrombosis but susected but the search for a tumor has been unsuccessful, even an asymptomatic cholecystolithiasis should be treated with a cholecystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jugular Veins. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / radiography. Subclavian Vein. Thrombosis / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Aged. Cholelithiasis / radiography. Cholelithiasis / surgery. Female. Humans. Phlebography. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


57. Pant-Purohit M, Cheng L, Einhorn L: Apparent surgical cure for metastatic small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jun;3(6):682-3
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  • [Title] Apparent surgical cure for metastatic small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male


58. Mikayama Y, Yamamoto N, Watanabe T, Tamura S, Tamagawa H, Shiozawa M, Morinaga S, Akaike M: [Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2536-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer].
  • A 77-year-old man had sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer.
  • Two years thereafter, abdominal computed tomography scanning and FDG-PET showed the right adrenal mass.
  • Right adrenalectomy was performed with a diagnosis of solitary adrenal metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer.
  • On pathology, adrenal metastasis was confirmed.
  • We conclude that patients with solitary adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer may benefit from surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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59. Rajaratnam A, Waugh J: Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances. Australas Radiol; 2005 Aug;49(4):325-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances.
  • Malignant melanoma is an extremely aggressive form of cancer.
  • Adrenal metastases are found in 50% of cases of malignant melanoma, and are most often clinically and biochemically silent.
  • Clinical presentation varies, and the diagnosis of adrenal metastases is often made incidentally, and frequently years after treatment of the primary lesion.
  • An adrenal mass lesion seen on a CT scan, greater than 5 cm in diameter, with central or irregular areas of necrosis/haemorrhage (and no lipomatous component) is characteristic of a metastasis from malignant melanoma, in the setting of normal gland function.
  • Oval, low-attenuation (on CT) adrenal masses less than 3 cm in diameter should not be considered benign in a patient with any prior history of melanoma.
  • Careful imaging review of the adrenal glands should be undertaken in all patients with malignant melanoma.
  • Early diagnosis of these distant metastases has important prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • The four cases presented illustrate the spectrum of presentations and clinical course of adrenal metastases from malignant melanoma.
  • The accompanying CT images show the characteristic appearances of adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


60. Qin Y, Yao L, King EE, Buddavarapu K, Lenci RE, Chocron ES, Lechleiter JD, Sass M, Aronin N, Schiavi F, Boaretto F, Opocher G, Toledo RA, Toledo SP, Stiles C, Aguiar RC, Dahia PL: Germline mutations in TMEM127 confer susceptibility to pheochromocytoma. Nat Genet; 2010 Mar;42(3):229-33
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  • The wild-type allele was consistently deleted in tumor DNA, suggesting a classic mechanism of tumor suppressor gene inactivation.
  • Our studies identify TMEM127 as a tumor suppressor gene and validate the power of hereditary tumors to elucidate cancer pathogenesis.


61. de Krijger RR, van Nederveen FH, Korpershoek E, Dinjens WN: New developments in the detection of the clinical behavior of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):137-41
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  • Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing tumors that are, by definition, located in the adrenal medulla.
  • Extra-adrenal catecholamine-producing tumors are called paragangliomas (PGL), which should be distinguished from head and neck paragangliomas, which are of parasympathetic origin.
  • The relative rarity of PCC and PGL combined with a frequency of malignancy from as low as 2% up to 25% has hampered the power of past research and can only be overcome by multicenter collaborative efforts.
  • In this article, recent attempts at marker detection, such as those mentioned above, as well as emerging knowledge on the molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant PCC and PGL will be presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17159246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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62. Rao S, Patel A, Levin K, Lu M, Garbarino K, Myers D, Walker EM, Ryu S, Ho Kim J, Movsas B: How often are previously undetected radiographic abnormalities detected at the time of CT simulation for breast cancer patients? Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jun;33(3):262-4
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  • [Title] How often are previously undetected radiographic abnormalities detected at the time of CT simulation for breast cancer patients?
  • CT simulation scan reports of 332 consecutive breast cancer patients from 2000 to 2006 were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Of 332 patients with CT simulations for breast cancer treatment planning, 52 patients (16%) had a newly detected abnormality noted.
  • Abnormalities in this category included previously undetected lung nodules, liver lesions, kidney/adrenal lesions, and sclerotic bony lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a significant proportion of breast cancer patients undergoing CT planning studies were diagnosed with potential abnormalities for which follow-up was recommended by diagnostic radiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Computer Simulation. Diagnostic Errors. Incidental Findings. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Aged. Bone and Bones / radiography. Cysts / radiography. False Negative Reactions. Female. Granuloma / radiography. Heart Neoplasms / radiography. Humans. Kidney / radiography. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Mediastinum / radiography. Middle Aged. Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / radiography. Myxoma / radiography. Thyroid Diseases / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19823073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Hirsch D, Benbassat CA, Drozd T, Okon E, Blum I: Pituitary and bilateral adrenal enlargement: an unusual presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):454-8
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  • [Title] Pituitary and bilateral adrenal enlargement: an unusual presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We describe a patient in whom headache and left external ophthalmoplegia were the only presenting signs of a clinically silent and radiographically undetectable HCC, that had metastasized to the pituitary and both adrenal glands.
  • Pituitary histology and adrenal needle biopsy failed to establish the final diagnosis, which was reached only after surgical exploration of the abdomen.
  • This case illustrates the difficulties encountered in the histopathological diagnosis of pituitary metastasis and the need for good clinical judgment when confronting pituitary tumors with atypical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Headache / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16075930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Rescinito G, Zandrino F, Cittadini G Jr, Santacroce E, Giasotto V, Neumaier CE: Characterization of adrenal adenomas and metastases: correlation between unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Radiol; 2006 Feb;47(1):71-6
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  • [Title] Characterization of adrenal adenomas and metastases: correlation between unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation of absolute attenuation values of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) with signal intensity (SI) quantitative analysis on chemical shift (CS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-one adrenal masses (27 adenomas, 14 metastases) were studied with CS MR imaging and unenhanced CT.
  • The CS-r of malignant and benign lesions overlapped considerably, and five adenomas (all with indeterminate Hounsfield Unit values at CT) were misclassified as potentially malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Since CS MR imaging and CT both depict the presence of lipids within adrenal lesions, absolute attenuation values are highly correlated with MR quantitative analysis.
  • SI-i is the most reliable tool for differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastases, showing better accuracy than lesion-to-spleen CS-r, in particular for adenomas with indeterminate absolute attenuation values.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16498936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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65. Youn JC, Rhee Y, Park SY, Kim WH, Kim SJ, Chung HC, Hong SW, Lim SK: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr J; 2006 Jun;53(3):339-43
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  • An 85-year-old man who had undergone a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer presented with severe hypothyroidism and hoarseness 21 months after the operation.
  • Core biopsy of the thyroid gland showed invasion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells.
  • There were multiple lung parenchymal nodules and adrenal masses at the time of evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16714841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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66. Holland WP, Midthun DE: Massive adrenal metastasis. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Feb;1(2):168
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  • [Title] Massive adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17409847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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67. Matsuoka T, Morikage N, Kuga T, Nakayama T, Fujii Y: [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jun;58(6):499-503
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  • [Title] [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case].
  • A 69-year-old man had undertaken left upper lobectomy (ND 2 a) with partial resection of the left lower lobe under the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer, T2N0M0, stage IB in June, 2002.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), T3N0M0, stage IIB.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced tumor in the left adrenal lesion, 3 cm in diameter, in October, 2003.
  • Tumor marker, NSE was slightly elevated on blood examination.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as metastasis of LCNEC.
  • Although a prognosis of LCNEC is poor in general, we should consider the resection of metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from LCNEC for long-term survival expectantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15957427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Ryu HS, Hwang ET, Choi CS, Kim TH, Kim HC, Yun KJ, Park DE: [A case of hepatocellular carcinoma invading the gallbladder misdiagnosed as a primary gallbladder carcinoma]. Korean J Hepatol; 2009 Mar;15(1):80-4
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  • Extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is occasionally seen in the lung, bone, adrenal gland, and lymph nodes.
  • Since there is no peritoneum between the gallbladder and the liver fossa, a gallbladder cancer easily invades the liver; however, HCC seldom invades the gallbladder because it rarely destroys the muscle layer or the collagen fibers of the gallbladder wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19346788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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69. Singh KP, Roy D: SKCG-1: a new candidate growth regulatory gene at chromosome 11q23.2 in human sporadic Wilms tumours. Br J Cancer; 2006 May 22;94(10):1524-32
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  • Using arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR), we have identified a novel genetic alteration located at chromosome 11q23.2 and this genetic alteration was common in 38% of the human Wilms tumour samples analysed.
  • Further characterisation by cloning and sequencing of this genomic region revealed that it represents a part of an uncharacterised gene.
  • We have named this gene as Sporadic Kidney Cancer Gene-1 (SKCG-1).
  • The transcript of SKCG-1 was abundantly present in brain, kidney, liver, testis, salivary gland, foetal brain, foetal liver, whereas relatively lower expression in heart, stomach, prostate and no expression in spleen, colon, lung, small intestine, muscle, adrenal gland, uterus, skin, PBL, and bone marrow was detected.
  • Thus, the findings of this study revealed (i) SKCG-1, a new gene located at 11q23.2 and harbouring genetic alteration in Wilms tumours, (ii) the presence of SKCG-1 gene transcripts in various human normal tissues and its lower expression or absence in Wilms and breast tumours indicate that it may be associated with tumour growth suppressor activity, (iii) the presence of an open reading frame in the cDNA sequence of SKCG-1 indicates that it has potential to encode a protein, (iv) increased cell growth by silencing this gene in HEK293 cells further supports a potential role of this gene in growth of kidney epithelial cells.
  • Our findings suggest that SKCG-1 may have a tumour suppressor role, and implicate genetic alteration in this gene as a potential oncogenic pathway and therapeutic target in kidney and breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16622458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY662656
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES010851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 4788; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 10851
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SKCG-1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361289
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70. Benitah N, Yeh BM, Qayyum A, Williams G, Breiman RS, Coakley FV: Minor morphologic abnormalities of adrenal glands at CT: prognostic importance in patients with lung cancer. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):517-22
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  • [Title] Minor morphologic abnormalities of adrenal glands at CT: prognostic importance in patients with lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the prognostic importance of minor morphologic abnormalities of the adrenal glands at computed tomography (CT) in patients with lung cancer.
  • The authors retrospectively identified 197 patients with lung cancer who underwent serial chest or abdominal CT and did not have a focal adrenal mass at baseline CT.
  • Two readers independently classified the morphologic features of each adrenal gland as normal, smoothly enlarged, or nodular at initial CT examination.
  • They separately recorded the presence or absence of metastases to the adrenal glands (ie, any new focal adrenal mass) at final CT examination; a third independent reader arbitrated when interpretations were discordant (n = 11).
  • Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess for associations between baseline adrenal gland morphologic features and subsequent development of adrenal metastases.
  • RESULTS: At initial CT, reader 1 classified 253 (64%), 70 (18%), and 71 (18%) of the 394 adrenal glands and reader 2 classified 258 (65%), 45 (11%), and 91 (23%) of these glands as normal, smoothly enlarged, or nodular, respectively.
  • The readers had moderate interobserver agreement regarding the classification of adrenal gland morphologic features (kappa = 0.54).
  • Metastases subsequently developed in 13 adrenal glands in 11 patients.
  • Cox proportional hazard models revealed no significant association between baseline adrenal gland morphologic features and subsequent development of adrenal metastases (P = .50 and P = .20 for readers 1 and 2, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with lung cancer, smooth enlargement or nodularity of the adrenal glands at baseline CT is not associated with increased risk of subsequently developing adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / statistics & numerical data. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk


71. Chung SD, Wang SM, Lai MK, Huang CY, Liao CH, Huang KH, Pu YS, Chueh SC, Yu HJ: Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis after nephroureterectomy. BJU Int; 2009 Apr;103(8):1047-51
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  • [Title] Lymphovascular invasion predicts poor outcome of urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis after nephroureterectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with renal pelvic urothelial carcinoma (UC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 76 patients with primary renal pelvic UC were treated by nephroureterectomy (NU).
  • Inclusion criteria included nonmetastatic renal pelvic UC with no previous history of bladder cancer, concomitant ureteric lesion, or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • At follow-up, eight cancer-related deaths (10.5%) were censored, and 66 patients (85.9%) were alive and disease-free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal metastases from primary renal pelvic UCs were rare.
  • The present results suggest that ipsilateral adrenalectomy is not necessary during radical NU for treating patients with renal pelvic UCs.
  • LVI appears to be a better prognostic factor for predicting poor outcome of renal pelvic UC than pT stage or tumour grade when using the current tumour-nodes-metastases staging system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / mortality. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] BJU Int. 2009 Apr;103(8):1143 [19338572.001]
  • (PMID = 19076143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Thomas JL, Bucholtz KM, Sun J, Mack VL, Kacsoh B: Structural basis for the selective inhibition of human 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human breast tumor MCF-7 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 25;301(1-2):174-82
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  • [Title] Structural basis for the selective inhibition of human 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human breast tumor MCF-7 cells.
  • Human 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase type 1 (3beta-HSD1) is a critical enzyme in the conversion of DHEA to estradiol in breast tumors and may be a target enzyme for inhibition in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
  • Human 3beta-HSD2 participates in the production of cortisol and aldosterone in the human adrenal gland in this population.
  • In our recombinant human breast tumor MCF-7 Tet-off cells that express either 3beta-HSD1 or 3beta-HSD2, trilostane and epostane inhibit the DHEA-induced proliferation of MCF-7 3beta-HSD1 cells with 12- to 16-fold lower IC(50) values compared to the MCF-7 3beta-HSD2 cells.

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  • (PMID = 18955108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114717-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114717; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114717; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114717-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Coenzymes; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 2DI9HA706A / Estrone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; L0FPV48Q5R / trilostane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101740; NLM/ PMC2667100
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73. Hrasćan R, Pećina-Slaus N, Martić TN, Colić JF, Gall-Troselj K, Pavelić K, Karapandza N: Analysis of selected genes in neuroendocrine tumours: insulinomas and phaeochromocytomas. J Neuroendocrinol; 2008 Aug;20(8):1015-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Insulinomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours that may be either sporadic or manifestation of a familial cancer syndromes and are both derived from the neural crest.
  • The results of our analysis demonstrate that the most frequent changes were point mutations of k-ras: 23% of insulinomas and 62% of phaeochromocytomas harboured k-ras mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Insulinoma / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult


74. Strong VE, D'Angelica M, Tang L, Prete F, Gönen M, Coit D, Touijer KA, Fong Y, Brennan MF: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;14(12):3392-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Use of laparoscopy for isolated adrenal metastases is controversial.
  • The aims of this study were to characterize patients with isolated adrenal metastases; compare operative characteristics of the laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) versus open adrenalectomy (OA) approach; and compare long-term oncological and surgical outcomes.
  • METHODS: Our adrenal resection database (1995-2006) identified 63 OA and 31 LA cases done for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • The only independent predictor of survival for all (n = 94) was adrenal tumor size less than 4.5 cm (P = 0.01).
  • When comparing LA with OA, no differences in local recurrence, margin status, disease-free interval or overall survival were observed for the entire group, or for patients with metastases only from lung cancer (n = 39) or for those with tumors smaller than 4.5 cm (n = 49).
  • LA provided significantly shorter operative time (175 vs 208 min, P = 0.04), lower estimated blood loss (EBL) (106 vs 749 cc, P < 0.0001), shorter length of hospital stay (2.8 vs 8.0 days, P < 0.0001) and fewer total complications (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is equivalent to OA in terms of margin status, local recurrence, disease-free interval and overall survival.
  • LA for metastatic adrenal lesions is safe, with equivalent long-term oncological outcomes providing the additional benefits of a minimally invasive technique.
  • LA can be recommended as an appropriate initial approach for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Dec;14(12):3288-9 [17896147.001]
  • (PMID = 17665267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Meyer-Rochow GY, Sidhu SB: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Cancer Treat Res; 2010;153:135-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Paraganglioma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19957224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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76. DeWitt J, Alsatie M, LeBlanc J, McHenry L, Sherman S: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses. Endoscopy; 2007 Jan;39(1):65-71
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Although the left adrenal gland is readily visible by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), there are few published data on the utility of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of this site.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of EUS-FNA of left adrenal gland masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we reviewed our EUS and cytology databases to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland between January 1997 and January 2004.
  • RESULTS: Our searches resulted in the identification of a series of 38 consecutive patients who underwent EUS for the evaluation of a lung mass (n = 14), a pancreatic mass (n = 14), obstructive jaundice (n = 1), dysphagia (n = 2), an ampullary adenoma (n = 1), celiac block (n = 1), or a left adrenal gland mass (n = 5).
  • The mean maximal left adrenal mass diameter was 24 mm (range 7-66 mm).
  • Diagnoses after EUS-FNA (the mean number of passes was 3.6) were: metastatic lung cancer (n = 2), esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1); primary pheochromocytoma (n = 1); benign adrenal tissue (n = 21); and granulomatous inflammation (n = 1).
  • The absence of a discrete adrenal mass on EUS occurred more frequently in patients with nondiagnostic biopsies than in those with diagnostic biopsies (56 % vs. 7 %; odds ratio 23.4, 95 %CI 3.5 - 157.0; P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and can be useful for the evaluation and staging of suspected malignancy.
  • Nondiagnostic biopsies are more common when sampling diffusely enlarged glands, compared with glands with a focal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Ultrasonography


77. Matysiak W, Jodłowska-Jedrych B: Does administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug determine morphological changes in adrenal cortex: ultrastructural studies. Protoplasma; 2010 Oct;246(1-4):109-18
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  • [Title] Does administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug determine morphological changes in adrenal cortex: ultrastructural studies.
  • In connection with the withdrawal of Vioxx© (rofecoxib) from pharmaceutical market, attempts were made to conduct electron-microscopic evaluation of cortical part of the adrenal gland in preparations obtained from animals under influence of the drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex / ultrastructure. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20721677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6102
  • [Journal-full-title] Protoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Protoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2947012
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78. Kanczkowski W, Tymoszuk P, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Wirth MP, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Abrogation of TLR4 and CD14 expression and signaling in human adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):E421-9
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  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The expression of innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was recently reported in various human tumors, and TLR4 was shown to regulate tumor immune escape processes, proliferation, and resistance to chemotherapeutical agents.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TLR4 expression, signaling, and function in the process of tumorigenesis in the human adrenal cortex.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Real-time PCR analysis of human ACC (n=8), adenoma (n=8), and ACC cell lines (SW13, NCI-H295R, and HAC15) revealed a significant down-regulation of TLR4, MD2 (myeloid differentiation protein-2), and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) mRNA compared with normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • Furthermore, our data show that reintroduction of TLR4 expression in ACCs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for adrenal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Antigens, CD14 / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adult. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values


79. Shen KR, Meyers BF, Larner JM, Jones DR, American College of Chest Physicians: Special treatment issues in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest; 2007 Sep;132(3 Suppl):290S-305S
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  • [Title] Special treatment issues in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
  • BACKGROUND: This chapter of the guidelines addresses patients who have particular forms of non-small cell lung cancer that require special considerations.
  • This includes patients with Pancoast tumors, T4N0,1M0 tumors, satellite nodules in the same lobe, synchronous and metachronous multiple primary lung cancers (MPLCs), solitary brain and adrenal metastases, and chest wall involvement.
  • For ensuring that these guidelines were supported by the most current data available, publications that were appropriate to the topics covered in this chapter were obtained by performance of a literature search of the MEDLINE computerized database.
  • Recommendations were developed by the writing committee, graded by a standardized method (see "Methodology for Lung Cancer Evidence Review and Guideline Development" chapter), and reviewed by all members of the lung cancer panel before approval by the Thoracic Oncology NetWork, Health and Science Policy Committee, and the Board of Regents of the American College of Chest Physicians.
  • RESULTS: In patients with a Pancoast tumor, a multimodality approach seems to be optimal, involving chemoradiotherapy and surgical resection, provided appropriate staging has been conducted.
  • Such patients, however, seem to benefit from resection as part of the treatment as opposed to chemoradiotherapy alone when carefully staged and selected.
  • Patients with a satellite lesion in the same lobe as the primary tumor have a good prognosis and require no modification of the approach to evaluation and treatment than what would be dictated by the primary tumor alone.
  • However, it is difficult to know how best to treat patients with a focus of the same type of cancer in a different lobe.
  • Although MPLCs do occur, the survival results after resection for either a synchronous presentation or a metachronous presentation with an interval of < 4 years between tumors are variable and generally poor, suggesting that many of these patients may have had a pulmonary metastasis rather than a second primary lung cancer.
  • A thorough and careful evaluation of these patients is warranted to try to differentiate between patients with a metastasis and a second primary lung cancer, although criteria to distinguish them have not been defined.
  • Selected patients with a solitary focus of metastatic disease in the brain or adrenal gland seem to benefit substantially from resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Pancoast Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17873175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Lakemeier S, Westhoff CC, Fuchs-Winkelmann S, Schofer MD: Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8173
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  • Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations.
  • CONCLUSION: Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis.

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81. Hori T, Taniguchi K, Kurata M, Nakamura K, Kato K, Ogura Y, Iwasaki M, Okamoto S, Yamakado K, Yagi S, Iida T, Kato T, Saito K, Wang L, Kawarada Y, Uemoto S: Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6094-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • Computed tomography detected a left adrenal mass measuring 3.5 cm multiply 3.0 cm in diameter.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the adrenal tumor only, with a maximum standardized uptake value of 2.8.
  • Selective venography and blood sampling revealed that the concentrations of cortisol, catecholamines and CEA were significantly elevated in the vein draining the tumor.
  • A diagnosis of CEA-producing benign adenoma was made.
  • We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of CEA-producing adrenal adenoma, along with a review of the relevant literature, and discuss our laparoscopic surgery techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250898
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82. Hintze C, Dinkel J, Biederer J, Heussel CP, Puderbach M: [New procedures. Comprehensive staging of lung cancer by MRI]. Radiologe; 2010 Aug;50(8):699-705
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  • [Title] [New procedures. Comprehensive staging of lung cancer by MRI].
  • [Transliterated title] Neue Verfahren. Umfassendes Staging des Lungenkarzinoms mit der MRT.
  • Lung cancer staging according to the TNM system is based on morphological assessment of the primary cancer, lymph nodes and metastases.
  • The predominant metastatic spread to the adrenal glands and spine can be detected in coronal orientation during dedicated MRI of the lungs.
  • In the oncological context the most important techniques are imaging of perfusion and tumor motion.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood supply. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spinal Neoplasms / blood supply. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Stochastic Processes. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


83. Kolańska K, Owecki M, Nikisch E, Sowinski J: High prevalence of obesity in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2010;31(3):418-22
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  • [Title] High prevalence of obesity in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The influence of obesity on cancer development has been proven for numerous tumours.
  • In contrast, the association between obesity and non-secreting adrenal incidentaloma has never been proven.
  • METHODS: 143 patients with benign non-secreting adrenal incidentalomas treated in the Department of Endocrinology at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences between the years 2000-2007 were examined.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This clinical research study demonstrates a strong association between obesity and incidentally discovered non-functioning adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Incidental Findings. Obesity / complications. Obesity / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20588242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; RWP5GA015D / Potassium; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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84. Sadow PM, Rumilla KM, Erickson LA, Lloyd RV: Stathmin expression in pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and in other endocrine tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):97-103
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  • Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors confined to the adrenal glands, and malignant pheochromocytomas can spread to various sites including the liver, lung, and bones.
  • The most reliable criterion for malignancy in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas is metastatic disease.
  • Because there are few immunohistochemical markers that are useful in the diagnosis of malignancy in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas before they metastasize, more markers are needed to characterize these tumors.
  • Stathmin is a widely expressed 17-kDa cytoplasmic, microtubule destabilizing and sequestering phosphoprotein that is important in cell motility and cancer cell metastasis.
  • We examined stathmin expression in tissues from patients with pheochromocytomas (n = 48), malignant pheochromocytomas (n = 28), paragangliomas (n = 42), and malignant paragangliomas (n = 21) by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays (TMA) with a polyclonal antibody against stathmin.
  • Stathmin was more highly expressed in pheochromocytomas compared to normal adrenals, a finding confirmed by Western blot.
  • There was higher expression of stathmin by immunohistochemical staining in malignant pheochromocytomas compared to pheochromocytomas without metastasis when analyzed by maximal staining (p = 0.012).
  • However, it is probably not useful as a stand-alone marker to determine malignancy in pheochromocytomas for individual tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Stathmin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18461287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Hattori Y, Kanamoto N, Kawano K, Iwakura H, Sone M, Miura M, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Arai H, Akamizu T, Nakao K, Maitani Y: Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma. Int J Oncol; 2010 Sep;37(3):695-705
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of tumors from a transgenic mouse adrenal tumor model: comparison with human pheochromocytoma.
  • Adrenal neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma have the same embryonic origin from neural crest cells and mainly arise from the adrenal medulla.
  • Recently, transgenic mice exhibiting tumors in the bilateral adrenal medulla by the expression of SV40 T-antigen were developed.
  • In this study, we investigated mRNA expression in adrenal tumors of transgenic mice and compared them with human pheochromocytoma by DNA microarray analysis.
  • To compare mouse adrenal tumors and human pheochromacytoma, we found that the expressions of noradrenergic neuron-related genes, including dopa decarboxylase, phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase and chromogranin B, were up-regulated in humans but not in mice; however, the expression of neuroblastoma-related genes, including Mycn, paired-like homeobox 2b, gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta3 subunit, islet 1 and kinesin family member 1A, was up-regulated in both species.
  • From the gene expression profiles, the characterization of mouse adrenal tumor, may be similar to that of human adrenal neuroblastoma rather than pheochromacytomas.
  • This mouse model would be a useful tool for the development of anti-cancer drugs and for understanding the etiology of adrenal neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics


86. Ishimoto H, Minegishi K, Higuchi T, Furuya M, Asai S, Kim SH, Tanaka M, Yoshimura Y, Jaffe RB: The periphery of the human fetal adrenal gland is a site of angiogenesis: zonal differential expression and regulation of angiogenic factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2402-8
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  • [Title] The periphery of the human fetal adrenal gland is a site of angiogenesis: zonal differential expression and regulation of angiogenic factors.
  • CONTEXT: Although the inner fetal zone (FZ) of the mid-gestation human fetal adrenal (HFA) produces dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, the function of the outer definitive zone (DZ) remains less clear.
  • We have proposed that the DZ phenotype is that of a pool of progenitor cells, many of which are mitotically active.
  • Recently, we studied HFA expression of a family of vascular endothelial cell-specific angiogenic factors, the angiopoietins (Angs), and demonstrated that Ang2 was localized predominantly in the periphery of the gland.
  • The DZ-predominant expression of Ang2 may be explained, in part, by the parallel pattern of FGF-2 expression.

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  • (PMID = 18364383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32 HD008478; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 08478
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 9041-90-1 / Angiotensin I
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2435642
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87. Jeong JH, Jin JS, Kim HN, Kang SM, Liu JC, Lengner CJ, Otto F, Mundlos S, Stein JL, van Wijnen AJ, Lian JB, Stein GS, Choi JY: Expression of Runx2 transcription factor in non-skeletal tissues, sperm and brain. J Cell Physiol; 2008 Nov;217(2):511-7
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  • In the Runx2 3 kb Tg mouse, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression appeared in various non-skeletal tissues including testis, skin, adrenal gland and brain. beta-gal expression from both 3 kb and 1 kb Tg, reflecting activity of the Runx2 promoter, was readily detectable in seminiferous tubules of the testis and the epididymis.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc
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  • (PMID = 18636555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR039588; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR039588-17; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR039588-17; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR039588; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR049069
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit; 0 / Runx2 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS66013; NLM/ PMC2612588
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88. Turkbey B, Basaran C, Karcaaltincaba M, Akpinar E, Oguz B, Akata D, Ozmen MN, Akhan O: Peritoneal carcinomatosis in urinary bladder cancer. Clin Imaging; 2008 May-Jun;32(3):192-5
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  • [Title] Peritoneal carcinomatosis in urinary bladder cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to describe the computed tomography findings of peritoneal carcinomatosis of urinary bladder cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Patients with urinary bladder cancer were reviewed from patient database of our hospital, and 384 patients with urinary bladder cancer were identified.
  • Computed tomography scans of 105 patients with urinary bladder cancer were retrospectively reviewed.
  • In two patients, liver metastases were detected; additionally, one patient had accompanying pleural implants and one patient had adrenal gland metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis in