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1. Zhang W, Tang ZY, Wang WQ, Ning G: [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 26;86(48):3397-400
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  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • METHODS: MS-related indexes, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, plasma and urinary aldosterone, plasma potassium, basic and upright plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma and urinary cortisol, and plasma ACTH, were examined among 61 patients of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA, Group 1), 23 patients of cortisol-secreting adenoma (CSA, Group 2), 24 patients of nonfunctional adrenal adenoma (NAA, Group 3), and 26 healthy controls (Group 4).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with adrenocortical adenoma have a significantly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially the patients of CSA and NAA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17313850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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2. Kalra MK, Blake MA, Boland GW, Hahn PF: CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement. Radiology; 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3
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  • [Title] CT features of adrenal pheochromocytomas: attenuation value and loss of contrast enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Contrast Media. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


3. Myśliwiec J, Rudy A, Siewko K, Myśliwiec P, Pułka M, Górska M: [Diagnostic difficulties in adrenal incidentaloma--analysis of 125 cases]. Endokrynol Pol; 2007 Sep-Oct;58(5):417-21
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic difficulties in adrenal incidentaloma--analysis of 125 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Trudności diagnostyczne dotyczace 125 przypadkowo wykrytych guzów nadnerczy.
  • The patients were clinically and hormonally examined (metanephrines in daily urine collection, daily cortisol rhythm, short dexamethasone test, aldosterone, and renin plasma activity, Na, K levels in the serum) as well as computer tomography of the adrenal glands were performed.
  • Adenoma was confirmed in 25 patients (in 7 subclinical Cushing syndrome was diagnosed, in 2 Conn disease, in 16 inactive changes), phaeochromocytoma in 6 patients, cysts in 3, lipoma in 2, carcinoma in one, in 4 patients metastases (in 2 of kidney carcinoma, in 1 of malignant melanoma and in 1 of planocellular carcinoma) and in one oncocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Qualification for adrenalectomy requires an assessment of tumor's enlargement, its tissue density, morphology and growth dynamics.
  • The decision as to proceeding with adrenal incidentaloma should be individualized based on clinical symptoms, hormonal tests and tumor morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18058737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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4. Agha A, Hornung M, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: Single-incision retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy and single-incision laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endourol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1765-70
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  • OBJECTIVE: Single-incision surgery is by now practicable in many fields of surgery, including surgery of the adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: All patients had benign adrenal tumors (Conn's adenoma, n = 7; pheochromocytoma, n = 1).

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  • (PMID = 20849304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Handler J: Hypertension associated with large bilateral adrenal masses. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich); 2007 Jul;9(7):572-5
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  • [Title] Hypertension associated with large bilateral adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aldosterone / urine. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Catecholamines / urine. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / urine. Incidental Findings. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pulmonary Edema / diagnosis. Pulmonary Edema / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17617771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-6175
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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6. Tanemoto M, Abe T, Ito S: Diagnosis of aldosterone producing adenomas. Kidney Int; 2008 Feb;73(3):362-3; author reply 363-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of aldosterone producing adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Kidney Int. 2007 Jul;72(2):228 [17625586.001]
  • (PMID = 18195700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-2538
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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7. Kaspareit J, Friderichs-Gromoll S, Buse E, Habermann G: Spontaneous neoplasms observed in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during a 15-year period. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Nov;59(3-4):163-9
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  • The great majority of neoplasms was benign (23 benign neoplasms versus 10 malignant tumors).
  • Most of the tumors (22) in the cynomolgus monkeys were seen in endocrine organs (adrenal cortical adenoma, adrenal hemangioma, C-cell carcinoma, follicular adenoma), respiratory system (nasal cavity adenoma, pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, bronchio-alveolar carcinoma, bronchiolar papilloma, chondromatous hamartoma) and female genital system (uterine polyp, uterine adenoma, uterine leiomyoma and teratoma of the ovary).
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17869495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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8. Browning L, Bailey D, Parker A: D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):293-6
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  • [Title] D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The morphological similarities between the cells of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and those of the adrenal cortex impose diagnostic difficulties, for example in the context of a solitary nodule in the adrenal gland in a patient with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • D2-40, an antibody commonly used to highlight lymphatic endothelial cells, is consistently positive in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • AIMS: To investigate the utility of D2-40 in distinguishing neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortical cells from those of CCRCC, and from phaeochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: D2-40 antibody was applied to tissue sections from 10 normal adrenal glands, 15 renal carcinomas (13 clear cell, 2 papillary variants), 1 metastatic CCRCC in the adrenal gland, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 5 adrenal cortical adenomas, 3 adrenal cortical carcinomas, and 4 phaeochromocytomas.
  • RESULTS: D2-40 was strongly and diffusely positive in the cells of the neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortex, but negative in the cells of the CCRCC, both primary and metastatic, in 100% of the cases.
  • The cells of the adrenal medulla, and those of the phaeochromocytomas, were negative for D2-40.
  • CONCLUSIONS: D2-40 may be a useful marker for distinguishing primary adrenal cortical neoplasms from both metastatic CCRCC and phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytoplasm / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry


9. Groussin L, Cazabat L, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Bertherat J: Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex. Horm Res; 2005;64(3):132-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a main characteristic of CNC.
  • PPNAD is a very rare cause of Cushing's syndrome due to a primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations nor familial history.
  • Interestingly, patients with isolated PPNAD and no familial history of CNC can also present a germline de novo mutation of PRKAR1A.
  • Somatic mutations of PRKAR1A have been found in PPNAD as a mechanism of inactivation of the wild-type allele, in a patient already presenting a germline mutation, and in a subset of sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas with clinical, hormonal, and pathological features quite similar to PPNAD.
  • This review will summarize the recent findings on CNC from the perspective of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16192737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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10. Pieterman CR, Schreinemakers JM, Koppeschaar HP, Vriens MR, Rinkes IH, Zonnenberg BA, van der Luijt RB, Valk GD: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1): its manifestations and effect of genetic screening on clinical outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Apr;70(4):575-81
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  • Patients are divided into two groups: patients with a (i) clinical MEN1 diagnosis and (ii) MEN1 diagnosis by genetic screening.
  • RESULTS: A total of 74 patients was included (median follow-up 5.5 year); 78% had hyperparathyroidism, 46% a pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumour (NET), 38% a pituitary abnormality, 8% a NET of other origin and 16% an adrenal adenoma at the end of follow-up.
  • Compared with patients identified by genetic screening, patients with a clinical MEN1 diagnosis had significantly more manifestations at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and at end of follow-up (P = 0.002).
  • Eleven of 30 patients with a genetic MEN1 diagnosis (mean age at diagnosis 30.0 years) already had manifestations at diagnosis.
  • Genetic diagnosis is associated with less morbidity at diagnosis and at follow-up.
  • Early genetic diagnosis might therefore lead to improvement of long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Testing. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


11. Willenberg HS, Haase M, Papewalis C, Schott M, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(5-6):274-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells.
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is not only the principal regulator of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but also exerts direct actions on peripheral tissues.
  • We analyzed the expression of CRH receptors in microdissected preparations of normal human adrenal glands and in adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, employing immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR of microdissected adrenal tissues, and in situ hybridization.
  • The effect of CRH on adrenal steroidogenesis was tested in adrenal cells.
  • In addition, we found a higher expression of CRH type-1 and 2 receptors mRNAs in preparations of adrenal cortices as compared to pheochromocytomas, a 6-fold increase in preparations of clinically unapparent adrenocortical adenomas, and a 10- to 60-fold increase in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas.
  • Stimulation of the adrenal tumor cell line NCI-H295R with CRH elicited a 1.4-fold increase in DHEA secretion.
  • This result could be reproduced in a culture of primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • We conclude that adrenocortical cells exhibit a higher expression of functional CRH receptors than chromaffin cells and that CRH acts on adrenal DHEA production.
  • The data support the assertion of a direct action of CRH on human adrenocortical cells in addition to an intra-adrenal CRH receptor/adrenocorticotropin system.
  • Enhanced CRH1R expression may be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16721033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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12. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations.
  • The above have clinical implications (i) for patients with GISTs that are cKIT- and PDGFRA-mutation negative: these tumours are usually resistant to treatment with currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may be part of a syndrome such as CT or CSS; and (ii) for patients with an inherited PGL syndrome, family history should be explored to identify any other tumours in the family, and in particular other endocrine lesions and GISTs.


13. Arai H, Kobayashi N, Nakatsuru Y, Masuzaki H, Nambu T, Takaya K, Yamanaka Y, Kondo E, Yamada G, Fujii T, Miura M, Komatsu Y, Kanamoto N, Ariyasu H, Moriyama K, Yasoda A, Nakao K: A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):709-15
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  • [Title] A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity.
  • This report concerns a case of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma without the phenotype of Cushing's syndrome.
  • A left adrenal tumor was incidentally detected in this patient.
  • A diagnosis of adrenal Cushing's syndrome was based on the results of endocrinological and radiological examinations, although she showed none of the physical signs of Cushing's syndrome, glucose intolerance, hypertension or dyslipidermia.
  • After a successful laparoscopic left adrenalectomy, the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Slow tapering of glucocorticoids was needed to prevent adrenal insufficiency after surgery, and the plasma ACTH level remained high even though the serum cortisol level had reached the upper limit of the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18493111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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14. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Osella G, Borretta G, Angeli A, Reimondo G: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1272-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS) is attracting increasing interest since the serendipitous discovery of an adrenal mass has become a rather frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiologic techniques.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent type of adrenal incidentaloma accounting for approximately 50% of cases in surgical series and even greater shares in medical series.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas may secrete cortisol in an autonomous manner that is not fully restrained by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases depending on study protocols and diagnostic criteria.
  • The criteria for qualifying subclinical cortisol excess are controversial and presently there is no consensus on a gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Incidental Findings. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18209865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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15. Taoda T, Hara Y, Takekoshi S, Itoh J, Teramoto A, Osamura RY, Tagawa M: Effect of mitotane on pituitary corticotrophs in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res; 2006 Aug;67(8):1385-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of mitotane administration on the function and morphology of pituitary corticotrophs in clinically normal dogs.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland and brain was performed in mitotane treatment group dogs before and after administration of mitotane.
  • After CRH stimulation testing and MRI, dogs were euthanatized and the pituitary gland and adrenal glands were excised for gross and histologic examination.
  • On gross and histologic examinations, the adrenal cortex was markedly atrophied.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These findings indicate that inhibition of the adrenal cortex by continuous administration of mitotane leads to functional amplification and morphologic enhancement of corticotrophs in clinically normal dogs.
  • In instances of corticotroph adenoma, hypertrophy of individual corticotrophs induced by mitotane may greatly facilitate enlargement of the pituitary gland and increases in ACTH secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Health. Mitotane / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16881851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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16. Wosnitzer B, Gadiraju R: The role of nuclear imaging in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1). Radiol Case Rep; 2010;5(4):452
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells (1).
  • In addition to exhibiting these characteristic tumors, MEN 1 patients also have an increased propensity for other tumors such as carcinoids, adrenal adenomas, angiofibromas, and lipomas (1, 2, 3).
  • The tumors of MEN 1 are usually benign; however, malignancy of some carcinoid, islet cell, and gastrointestinal tract tumors can cause mortality (5, 6, 7, 8).
  • Diagnosis of MEN 1 is usually made by a combination of history and physical examination, biochemical serum testing, and various imaging modalities (9, 10).
  • We present a classic case of MEN 1 with unique presentation and diagnosis using predominantly nuclear imaging in order to emphasize the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN 1.

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  • (PMID = 27307880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4901017
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy / MEN 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
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17. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


18. Almeida MQ, Stratakis CA: Solid tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasias. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Nov;203(1):30-6
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  • MEN type 1 (MEN1) describes the association of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cell tumors with a variety of many other lesions.
  • Other pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes include von Hippel-Lindau disease; neurofibromatosis 1; the recently defined paraganglioma syndromes type 1, 3, and 4; Carney-Stratakis syndrome; and the Carney triad.
  • In the Carney triad, patients can manifest gastrointestinal stromal tumors, lung chondroma, paraganglioma, adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, esophageal leiomyoma, and other conditions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20951316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS241024; NLM/ PMC2957471
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19. Joubert M, Louiset E, Rego JL, Contesse V, Kong LC, Benhaim A, Mittre H, Lefebvre H, Reznik Y, REHOS Study Group: Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 May;68(5):692-9
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  • [Title] Aberrant adrenal sensitivity to vasopressin in adrenal tumours associated with subclinical or overt autonomous hypercortisolism: is this explained by an overexpression of vasopressin receptors?
  • OBJECTIVE: Abnormal responsiveness to arginine vasopressin (AVP) was previously observed in cortisol-producing adrenocortical tumours but the mechanism remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of AVP on cortisol secretion from adrenocortical tumours compared to normal human adrenal gland.
  • DESIGN: A multicentre study based on pharmacological, molecular and immunohistochemical experiments performed in adenomatous and normal adrenal tissues.
  • PATIENTS: Twenty patients with adrenocortical adenomas and subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCCS) or Cushing's syndrome (CS) were compared to six control normal subjects.
  • MEASUREMENTS: In vivo and in vitro cortisol response to vasopressin, vasopressin receptor subtype mRNA measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemical localization of AVP and its V1a receptor in tumour and normal adrenal tissues.
  • AVP receptor subtype mRNA levels were similar in SCCS, CS cells and normal adrenal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SCCS and CS adrenocortical tumours often exhibit in vivo and in vitro hyper-responsiveness to AVP, which is not related to vasopressin receptor overexpression, but may be explained by more efficient coupling pathways or by the indirect action of AVP through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Receptors, Vasopressin / biosynthesis. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology


20. Morelli L, Pusiol T, Piscioli I, Larosa M, Pozzoli GL, Monica B: Concurrent occurrence of three primary neoplasms with different hystotype in the same kidney, associated with an adenoma of the omolateral adrenal gland: first case report. Int J Urol; 2006 Sep;13(9):1236-9
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  • [Title] Concurrent occurrence of three primary neoplasms with different hystotype in the same kidney, associated with an adenoma of the omolateral adrenal gland: first case report.
  • We present an unusual case of concurrent occurrence of three synchronous primary tumors in the same kidney (oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, angiomyolipoma) associated to an adenoma of the omolateral adrenal gland in a patient with no evident clinical symptoms.
  • The immunohistochemistry showed a positivity for KIT in oncocytoma and chromophobe cell carcinoma, and a weak positivity in the angiomyolipoma, only in the cells positive for HMB-45.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16984560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. Tanahashi H, Mune T, Takahashi Y, Isaji M, Suwa T, Morita H, Yamakita N, Yasuda K, Deguchi T, White PC, Takeda J: Association of Lys173Arg polymorphism with CYP11B2 expression in normal adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Nov;90(11):6226-31
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  • [Title] Association of Lys173Arg polymorphism with CYP11B2 expression in normal adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to correlate CYP11B2 genotype with gene expression in adrenal tissue.
  • SUBJECTS: We studied 28 subjects with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and 18 subjects with normal adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16118341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
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22. Wu JC, Tang ZY, Zhang W, Ling DY, Hou RF, Wang WQ, Li XY, Ning G: [Clinical characteristics and surgery outcomes of unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism: study of 145 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 12;86(46):3302-5
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics and surgery outcomes of unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism: study of 145 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, and surgery outcome of unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia (UNAH).
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 145 patients with primary aldosteronism, 67 males and 78 females, aged 37.9 (19-60), including 78 cases of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), 14 cases of UNAH, and 55 cases of idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), were collected.
  • Automatic biochemical apparatus was used to examine the blood and urine electrolytes, renal functions, and urine microalbumin.
  • Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) was conducted in 62 patients to collect blood samples from vena cava and bilateral suprarenal veins to detect the levels of aldosterone and cortisol.
  • All UNAH patients and 3 BAH patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy and three APA patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy or adenoma resection.
  • The accuracy of AVS for diagnosis of UNAH was 85.7% (12/14).
  • CONCLUSION: UNAH can be cured by adrenal surgery.
  • The diagnostic values of clinical examination and adrenal CT are limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17313818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Zhang XP, Wei JX, Zhang WX, Wang ZY, Wu YD, Song DK: [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2009 Jul;28(7):730-3
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  • [Title] [Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal neoplasm: a report of 371 cases].
  • There were 127 cases of primary hyperaldosteronism adenoma, 117 cases of Cushing's adenoma, 58 cases of phaeochromo-cytoma, 37 cases of incidentoma and 32 cases of other types.
  • The type of adrenal diseases, operating time, blood loss, complications and prognosis were summarized and the operating method was analyzed.
  • Two patients suffered from diaphragm injuries, one patient had right renal vein injury and one had colon injury.
  • CONCLUSION: Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy is one of the favorable approaches for the treatment of adrenal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Child, Preschool. Colon / injuries. Diaphragm / injuries. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Renal Veins / injuries. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


24. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • [Title] Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: The mechanisms driving steroid production in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are poorly defined.
  • However, previous studies have shown that steroid production in some cortisol-producing adenomas is regulated by aberrant expression of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • Aldosterone synthase transcription was studied in H295R adrenocortical cells transfected with an LH receptor expression construct and reporter constructs prepared from CYP11B2 5'-flanking DNA.
  • PATIENTS: The patient population consisted of 20 normal control adrenals and 18 adenomas from patients with APAs.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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25. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • Both underwent adrenalectomy and the histological study showed an adrenocortical adenoma with widespread myelolipomatous metaplasia.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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26. Ouzounian S, Tissier F, Gouya H, Kujas M, Louvel A, Legmann P, Bertagna X: [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations]. Presse Med; 2005 Apr 09;34(7):511-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Cushing et adénome cortico-surrénalien. Deux associations étonnantes.
  • CASES: In the first case, we describe the case of a patient with an adrenal adenoma 20 years before the occurrence of Cushing's disease related to the pineal gland.
  • In the second case, two members of the same family were diagnosed almost simultaneously with adrenal cortical adenoma (mother) and Cushing's disease (daughter).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology


27. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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28. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • However, some reports indicate synchronous occurrence with other lesions including adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It has very rarely been reported to occur in association with adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Reimer SB, Pelosi A, Frank JD, Steficek BA, Kiupel M, Hauptman JG: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Jul 1;227(1):101-4, 86
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  • A 13-year-old 4.6-kg (10.2-lb) neutered male domestic long hair cat was evaluated because of a history of lethargy, exercise intolerance, and ventroflexion of the cervical portion of the vertebral column.
  • After extensive assessment at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Michigan State University, the clinical signs were attributed to an aldosterone-secreting tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Subsequently, an insulin-secreting tumor of the pancreas as well as a functional parathyroid gland adenoma were diagnosed.
  • In cats and other species with 1 or more endocrine neoplasms, it is important to perform thorough clinical assessments of patients to identify other endocrine organs that may also be affected concurrently with neoplastic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16013543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report a case of a young hypertensive male who was first seen in 1998 with a right thalamic haemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


32. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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33. Zacharieva S, Atanassova I, Nachev E, Orbetzova M, Kirilov G, Kalinov K, Shigarminova R: Markers of vascular function in hypertension due to Cushing's syndrome. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Jan;37(1):36-9
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  • We did not find significant differences in VEGF levels between patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal tumor.
  • Based on our results, we could not judge the extent to which this VEGF elevation in the patients with Cushing's syndrome was due to the hypertension itself and/or to the presence of adrenal tumor/hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 15702437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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34. Araki A, Shinohara M, Yamakawa J, Tanaka M, Natsui S, Izumi Y: Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas. Int J Urol; 2006 Jan;13(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas.
  • A 47-year-old man was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism due to two left adrenal adenomas, suggested on computed tomography (CT) to be located at the upper and lower adrenal portion.
  • However, adosterol scintigraphy revealed negligible uptake at the upper portion of the left adrenal.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, but macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed only one adrenal tumor.
  • Postoperatively, aldosteronism resolved and repeat CT revealed staining of the adrenal pseudotumor when oral contrast was administered.
  • Since organs located near the adrenals can simulate adrenal tumors, caution must be exercised in interpreting suprarenal masses on CT.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent pseudotumor and true tumor of the ipsilateral adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Diverticulum, Stomach / diagnosis. Preoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16448434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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35. Pimentel-Filho FR, Silva ME, Nogueira KC, Berger K, Cukiert A, Liberman B: Pituitary-adrenal dynamics after ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor resection in patients receiving no steroids post-operatively. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jun;28(6):502-8
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  • [Title] Pituitary-adrenal dynamics after ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor resection in patients receiving no steroids post-operatively.
  • It has recently been suggested that the classical routine of glucocorticoid administration before and after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in Cushing's disease (CD) patients may not be necessary, since it is likely that peritumoral normal corticotrophs are not completely suppressed during this period.
  • We compared the dynamics of ACTH and cortisol from a group of CD patients (cured and not cured), receiving no steroids post-operatively, with a control group of acromegalic patients who presented normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
  • Although all cured CD patients (Group I) presented serum cortisol level lower than 55 nmol/l until 72 h after surgery, none had significant complications related to adrenal insufficiency.
  • Ours findings are in agreement with recent observations that there is probably no need for glucocorticoid administration until clinical and/or laboratorial data are suggestive of adrenal insufficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Adult. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / physiopathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16117190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
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36. Li Q, Zhang XQ, Nie L, Chen GS, Li H, Zhang F, Zhang LY, Hong L, Wang SF, Wang H: Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Aug 6;97(3):420-5
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  • [Title] Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours.
  • Our previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma-like immunoreactivity also appears in human adrenal cortical tumour and phaeochromocytoma.
  • To investigate whether human tumour cells can produce IFN-gamma, we examined 429 biopsy specimens of 30 kinds of tumour and tumour-surrounding tissues in adrenal glands and in kidneys by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
  • IFN-gamma immunoactivity was shown in 34.3% of the adrenal cortical adenomas, 50% of the adrenal cortical carcinomas, 26.7% of the phaeochromocytomas, 26.7% of the clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 22% of the adrenal cortexes and 40% of medullas adjacent to tumours.
  • Western blot analysis has further confirmed the immunohistochemistry results by showing a distinct IFN-gamma band corresponding to 17.4 kDa in tissue extracts from adrenal cortical adenoma, phaeochromocytoma and clear cell RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360327
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37. Almeida MQ, Fragoso MC, Lotfi CF, Santos MG, Nishi MY, Costa MH, Lerario AM, Maciel CC, Mattos GE, Jorge AA, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3524-31
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  • [Title] Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical tumors are heterogeneous neoplasms with incompletely understood pathogenesis.
  • IGF-II overexpression has been consistently demonstrated in adult adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyze expression of IGF-II and its receptor (IGF-IR) in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors and the effects of a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor (NVP-AEW541) on adrenocortical tumor cells.
  • PATIENTS: Fifty-seven adrenocortical tumors (37 adenomas and 20 carcinomas) from 23 children and 34 adults were studied.
  • Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in NCI H295 cells and a new cell line established from a pediatric adrenocortical adenoma.
  • RESULTS: IGF-II transcripts were overexpressed in both pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas.
  • Otherwise, IGF-II was mainly overexpressed in adult adrenocortical carcinomas (270.5 +/- 130.2 vs. 16.1 +/- 13.3; P = 0.0001).
  • IGF-IR expression was significantly higher in pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas than adenomas (9.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.3; P = 0.0001), whereas its expression was similar in adult adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas.
  • IGF-IR expression was a predictor of metastases in pediatric adrenocortical tumors in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.66; P = 0.01).
  • Furthermore, NVP-AEW541 blocked cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cell lines through a significant increase of apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSION: IGF-IR overexpression was a biomarker of pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Additionally, a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor had antitumor effects in adult and pediatric adrenocortical tumor cell lines, suggesting that IGF-IR inhibitors represent a promising therapy for human adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Receptor, IGF Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18611974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, IGF Type 2; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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38. Miwa Y, Nakata M, Kurosawa A, Sasai H, Sasaki N: Adrenal diseases in ferrets in Japan. J Vet Med Sci; 2008 Dec;70(12):1323-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal diseases in ferrets in Japan.
  • Adrenal diseases are quite common in Japanese pet ferrets; however, there have been no reports concerning the epidemiology of ferret adrenal disease in Japan.
  • The purpose of this study was to collect epidemiological data on ferret adrenal disease in Japan by sending a questionnaire to veterinarians throughout Japan.
  • Among the 521 cases that met the criteria for this study, 307 were adrenocortical carcinoma (58.9%), 117 were adrenocortical adenoma (22.5%) and 87 were adrenocortical hyperplasia (16.7%), respectively.
  • Sex, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, age and the sites of the affected adrenal gland in these cases were similar to those reported in North America.
  • Most pet ferrets in Japan are imported from North America, and their husbandry in Japan is similar to that in North America, which may be the cause of the similarity in ferret adrenal disease between North America and Japan.
  • Because a difference in the incidence of ferret adrenal diseases among countries has been reported, further research is necessary to investigate the factors related to the similarities and how to decrease the incidence of adrenal diseases in ferrets in Japan.

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  • (PMID = 19122398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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39. Kidambi S, Raff H, Findling JW: Limitations of nocturnal salivary cortisol and urine free cortisol in the diagnosis of mild Cushing's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Dec;157(6):725-31
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  • [Title] Limitations of nocturnal salivary cortisol and urine free cortisol in the diagnosis of mild Cushing's syndrome.
  • We present 11 cases of CS with normal or mildly elevated UFC in whom NSC was helpful in making a diagnosis.
  • Out of eleven patients, six had an abnormality in the pituitary gland found by MRI and two out of eleven had adrenal masses.
  • The remaining three had normal pituitary MRI but had inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) sampling indicating Cushing's disease.
  • All patients had appropriate surgery, and histopathology of all except one was suggestive of either a cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma or an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Multiple samples (urine/saliva) and DST are needed to make the diagnosis of mild CS.

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  • (PMID = 18057379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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40. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • It is reasonable to screen for primary aldosteronism all hypertensive patients and recommend adrenalectomy when an aldosterone-producing adenoma is confirmed.
  • A subset of adenomas secretes cortisol autonomously and may lead to mild hypercortisolism, a condition defined as subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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41. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior.
  • Myxoid changes have been rarely reported both in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • The above mentioned patterns were absent in all adenomas reviewed.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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42. Dreijerink KM, van Beek AP, Lentjes EG, Post JG, van der Luijt RB, Canninga-van Dijk MR, Lips CJ: Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;153(6):741-6
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  • [Title] Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age.
  • We present a patient with a history of parathyroid adenomas also showing signs of acromegaly.
  • He turned out to be a carrier of a MEN1 germ-line mutation in intron 3 (IVS3-6C > G).


43. Tauchmanovà L, Pivonello R, Di Somma C, Rossi R, De Martino MC, Camera L, Klain M, Salvatore M, Lombardi G, Colao A: Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1779-84
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  • [Title] Bone demineralization and vertebral fractures in endogenous cortisol excess: role of disease etiology and gonadal status.
  • Cushing's disease and adrenal and ectopic Cushing's syndrome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty consecutive patients and 80 controls were prospectively enrolled: 37 patients (21 females) with pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma, 18 (14 females) with adrenocortical adenoma, 15 (11 females) with adrenal carcinoma of mixed secretion, and 10 (three females) with ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • At diagnosis, bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck; vertebral fractures were investigated by standard spinal radiographs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers. Body Mass Index. Carcinoma / blood. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16522701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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44. Okosieme OE, Suruliram P, Brade L, Campbell A, Evans LM: Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia in patients with hypertension. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Dec;60(12):1673-4
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  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenal adenoma, and normal blood pressure was restored after surgical removal of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16669823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics
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45. Bourne AE, Bell SW, Wayment RO, Schwartz BF: Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4694-6
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  • [Title] Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation.
  • Adrenal "incidentalomas" are commonly found on body imaging, and treatment of these lesions 4 cm-6 cm in size is controversial.
  • Most of these lesions are benign adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Lymphoma is a rare disease manifestation in the adrenal gland, and the overwhelming majority are metastatic lesions.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma has never been reported as a primary adrenal lesion.
  • We present a very unique case report of a 5 cm adrenal "incidentaloma" that represents the first reported case of primary Hodgkin lymphoma in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hodgkin Disease / surgery


46. Molino C, Fabbian F, Russo G, Cantelli S, Bortot A, Galdi A, Catizone L: [MEN type 1 and chronic renal failure: a rarely reported association]. G Ital Nefrol; 2007 Jan-Feb;24(1):79-82
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  • [Title] [MEN type 1 and chronic renal failure: a rarely reported association].
  • Association between MEN 1 and nephrocalcinosis is well known, though data published in medical literature regarding Wermer's syndrome and chronic renal failure relation are still rare.
  • CASE: A 70-year-old Caucasian female patient had a history of primitive hyperparathyroidism, prolactinoma, glucagonoma, adrenal adenoma and pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia.
  • During the eight-year follow-up she developed chronic renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 mg/dL, glomerular clearance 35 mL/min) and partial thrombosis of abdominal aortic wall.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between renal failure and MEN 1 is rarely reported, patients affected by Wermer's syndrome have several risk factors of decreasing renal function such as hypertension, nephrolithiasis and diabetes mellitus.
  • Moreover, hyperparathyroidism in MEN 1 is clinically similar to the kidney failure condition; indeed, diffuse hyper-plasia of more than one gland is common.

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  • (PMID = 17342698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Schultz RM, Wisner ER, Johnson EG, MacLeod JS: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a preoperative indicator of vascular invasion from adrenal masses in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2009 Nov-Dec;50(6):625-9
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a preoperative indicator of vascular invasion from adrenal masses in dogs.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) accurately reflected vascular luminal invasion by adrenal masses in dogs.
  • Medical records of 15 dogs with 17 adrenal masses that underwent preoperative CT imaging were reviewed.
  • Six of eight masses with vascular invasion where a histologic diagnosis was obtained were malignant.
  • Contrast-enhanced CT provided accurate preoperative assessment of adrenal masses.
  • Vascular invasion by adrenal masses in this study occurred by way of the lumen of the phrenicoabdominal vein with subsequent intraluminal extension into other veins, rather than by erosion through vessel walls.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / radiography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / veterinary. Pheochromocytoma / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19999346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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48. Peppa M, Ikonomidis I, Hadjidakis D, Pikounis V, Paraskevaidis I, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Kremastinos DT: Dilated cardiomyopathy as the predominant feature of Cushing's syndrome. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Sep;338(3):252-3
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  • We report the case of a patient who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy as the predominant feature of Cushing's syndrome, which was fully reversed after proper surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / diagnosis. Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / complications


49. Caoili EM, Korobkin M, Brown RK, Mackie G, Shulkin BL: Differentiating adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using (18)F-FDG PET/CT: quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Acad Radiol; 2007 Apr;14(4):468-75
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  • [Title] Differentiating adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using (18)F-FDG PET/CT: quantitative and qualitative evaluation.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the ability of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET/CT to distinguish adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas in patients with suspected malignancy.
  • METHODS: Fifty-nine adrenal masses were evaluated with coregistered (18)F-FDG PET (PET/CT).
  • Two reviewers independently graded uptake of (18)F-FDG by visual inspection of the adrenal mass in comparison to liver and background.
  • CT attenuation value of the adrenal mass and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the mass, liver, background, and primary neoplasm (when visible) were measured.
  • Mean SUVs of the adrenal mass, liver, and background and ratios of the SUVs were calculated.
  • RESULTS: Of 47 adenomas, 43 measured <10 HU on unenhanced CT.
  • Using qualitative assessment of FDG activity in the adrenal mass compared with liver, adenomas were less than, equal to, or more active than the liver in 51%, 38%, and 10%, respectively.
  • The mean SUV of adenomas (4.2) was significantly lower (P = .002) than that of their primary malignancies (9.2) but not that of liver (4.3).
  • The mean SUV of adenomas was not significantly different than that of nonadenomas (5.2), but the mean adrenal/liver ratio (1.0) for the adenomas was significantly lower (P = .006) than that of the nonadenomas (2.1).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal adenomas were better differentiated from nonadenomas using unenhanced CT measurements in combination with ratios of the SUvs. Adrenal mass activity, which was visibly less than liver, was more specific for adenoma, whereas adrenal mass activity visibly greater than liver was more specific for malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17368217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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50. Pohl PP, Meyer A, Lammers BJ, Goretzki PE: [Abdominal preoperation. No contraindication for laparoscopic transabdominal adrenalectomy]. Chirurg; 2008 Jun;79(6):571-5
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  • Benign adrenal gland tumors smaller than 6 cm are nowadays the indication for minimally invasive surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / contraindications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Laparoscopy / contraindications. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17879074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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51. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Buziak-Bereza M, Fedorowicz A, Kuźniarz-Rymarz S, Stochmal E, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(12):1270-5
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  • [Title] [Retrospective hormonal analysis of incidentally discovered and operated adrenal tumors for subclinical Cushing's syndrome].
  • In the last twenty years the introduction of new imaging techniques has caused increasing incidence of accidental detection of adrenal tumors, which are usually mild and in most cases are hormonally inactive adenomas.
  • Among hormonal disorders in patients with adrenal incidentalomas the hypercortisolism is often described, which, if not treated properly, leads to multiple organ complications, and further to the patient's death.
  • The aim of the study was the retrospective analysis of the group of patients with adrenal incidentaloma, verified by histopathology for assessment of subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Among the group of 225 patients: 62 men and 163 women with incidentally detected adrenal tumors in age from 19 to 81 years diagnosed and treated in the Department of Clinical Endocrinology, University Hospital in Krakow, 59 patients was sent to surgery: 15 men and 42 women.
  • Group A consisted of patients with adrenal cortical adenoma: 38 people (11 men and 27 women).
  • In group B there were people with so-called other hormonal inactive adrenal tumors - 17 people (4 men and 13 women).
  • In group A the mean morning level of cortisol was 18.23 +/- 6.42 ug/dl and did not differ statistically significantly from the results of group B (mean morning cortisol level of 15.86 +/- 4.6 ug/dl).
  • A detailed analysis of the clinical signs, meticulously carried out and repeated hormonal diagnosis with the use of functional tests should be focused on the detection of subclinical hormonal disorders, which is crucial in preventing organ damage and making a decision of the right treatment of the patient, which is surgical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 21591352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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52. Desmarchelier M, Lair S, Dunn M, Langlois I: Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2008 Oct 15;233(8):1297-301
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism in a domestic ferret with an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: On initial examination, nonregenerative anemia, mild azotemia, and a large left adrenal gland mass were identified.
  • Plasma aldosterone concentration was >3329 pmol/L, confirming a provisional diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism.
  • Histologic examination revealed a large left adrenal gland adenoma, progressive chronic nephropathy, severe pulmonary edema, and focal fibrosis in the left ventricle.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the adrenal gland mass revealed aldosterone within neoplastic adrenocortical cells.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that primary hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a possible cause in ferrets with hypokalemia, hypertension, and an adrenal gland mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fatal Outcome. Female. Ferrets. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / blood. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Hypertension / veterinary. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / etiology. Hypokalemia / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19180717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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53. Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L: [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):330-9
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  • [Title] [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Molekularne podstawy syntezy aldosteronu i kortyzolu w prawidlowych nadnerczach i w gruczolakach kory nadnerczy.
  • The aim of the study is to present genes encoding enzymatic proteins of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis pathway, methods of their transcriptional activity measurement, mRNA expression of the genes in normal adrenal cortex, in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients with Conn and Cushing syndromes, as well as in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients, in which hormonal activity of the tumour was not confirmed.
  • According to presented papers mRNA expression of analyzed genes is best known in tissue obtained from tumours excised from patients with Conn syndrome.
  • On the other hand transcriptional activity of the genes within the other adrenocortical adenomas is documented in lesser degree.
  • It concerns particularly analyses of tissue material obtained from patients, in which hormonal activity of adrenal tumours was not confirmed with biochemical tests.
  • It should be also considered, that the frame of reference for the majority of molecular analyses of adrenocortical tumour tissues was material obtained from little number of normal adrenals, what decreases in some degree credibility of obtained results.
  • Mentioned above remarks may be the basis for conduction of further investigations based on larger material, obtained both from normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reference Values. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18777504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.- / Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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54. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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55. Yoh T, Hosono M, Komeya Y, Im SW, Ashikaga R, Shimono T, Tsuchiya N, Okada M, Hanada K, Yagyu Y, Nishimura Y, Murakami T: Quantitative evaluation of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT attenuation value, and chemical-shift MR imaging for characterizing adrenal adenomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2008 Jul;22(6):513-9
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  • [Title] Quantitative evaluation of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT attenuation value, and chemical-shift MR imaging for characterizing adrenal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate diagnostic ability and features of quantitative indices of three modalities: uptake rate on norcholesterol scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, and fat suppression on chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterizing adrenal adenomas.
  • METHODS: Image findings of norcholesterol scintigraphy, CT, and MRI were reviewed for 78 patients with functioning (n = 48) or nonfunctioning (n = 30) adrenal masses.
  • The norcholesterol uptake rate, attenuation value on unenhanced CT, and suppression on in-phase to opposed-phase MRI were measured for adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: The norcholesterol uptake rate, CT attenuation value, and MR suppression index showed the sensitivity of 60%, 82%, and 100%, respectively, for functioning adenomas of <2.0 cm, and 96%, 79%, and 67%, respectively, for those of >or=2.0 cm.
  • Regarding norcholesterol uptake, the adenoma-to-contralateral gland ratio was significantly higher in cortisol releasing than in aldosterone-releasing adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The norcholesterol uptake rate was reliable for characterization of adenomas among adrenal masses of >or=2.0 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18670858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol
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56. Lombardi CP, Raffaelli M, De Crea C, Rufini V, Treglia G, Bellantone R: Noninvasive adrenal imaging in hyperaldosteronism: is it accurate for correctly identifying patients who should be selected for surgery? Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Sep;392(5):623-8
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  • [Title] Noninvasive adrenal imaging in hyperaldosteronism: is it accurate for correctly identifying patients who should be selected for surgery?
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The most common causes of hyperaldosteronism (HA) are bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), and unilateral primary adrenal hyperplasia (PAH).
  • The remaining 15 patients underwent dexamethasone suppression adrenal cortical scintiscan (ACS) because of equivocal or inconclusive CT scan.
  • CONCLUSION: Non-invasive adrenal imaging studies are accurate in distinguishing between IHA and APA/PAH.
  • Invasive diagnostic tests (adrenal venous sampling) should be indicated only when they do not conclusively localize hypersecretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adosterol. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Dexamethasone. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / surgery. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Radionuclide Imaging. Renin / blood. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17242897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 55623-03-5 / Adosterol; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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57. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68
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  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Gockel I, Heintz A, Polta M, Junginger T: Long-term results of endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome. Am Surg; 2007 Feb;73(2):174-80
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  • [Title] Long-term results of endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • The long-term effect of adrenalectomy on aldosterone-producing adenomas of the adrenal gland is controversially discussed.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term course, with special consideration of factors of persisting hypertension after endoscopic adrenalectomy, for Conn's syndrome.
  • Between February 1994 and March 2004, 40 patients with Conn's syndrome underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome leads to an immediate normalization of the electrolyte balance postoperatively, whereas hypertension resolves in 60.5 per cent of patients in the long-term course.

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  • (PMID = 17305298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Peppa M, Karamitopoulou E, Nikolopoulos P, Peros G, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):641-5
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  • [Title] Large adrenal oncocytoma with uncertain malignant potential: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of oncocytoma, a relatively rare adrenal tumor, which most commonly is detected as an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • METHODS: We present a case report, including laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings, of a 47-year-old obese woman who had hypertension and an incidentally found large, left adrenal mass.
  • RESULTS: On the basis of the hormonal evaluation, this mass was a nonsecreting adrenal tumor, which histologically proved to be an oncocytoma with borderline malignant characteristics.
  • A collective analysis of the few cases of adrenal oncocytoma published in the medical literature showed that our case corresponded to the previously published cases in preponderant location (left side) as well as the general size (11.4 cm in the largest dimension) and weight (372 g).
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal oncocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas, especially if large tumors are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20061289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Rossi GP: Surgically correctable hypertension caused by primary aldosteronism. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;20(3):385-400
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  • However, with the availability of improved diagnostic techniques and the adoption of a systematic and thorough diagnostic work-up they can be identified more commonly than expected.
  • Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for measurement of cortisol and aldosterone has emerged as the 'gold standard' diagnostic test for identifying unilateral causes of primary aldosteronism that are amenable to surgical cure.
  • Adrenalectomy can provide long-term normalisation of blood pressure and correction of primary aldosteronism in about 55% of patients with an aldosterone-producing adenoma and can markedly ameliorate blood pressure control in the rest.
  • This chapter summarises the diagnostic work-up suggested for identifying these forms and examines the other diseases mimicking mineralocorticoid excess that enter into the differential diagnosis of surgically curable primary aldosteronism.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / adverse effects. Aldosterone / secretion. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16980201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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62. Soon PS, Libe R, Benn DE, Gill A, Shaw J, Sywak MS, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Gicquel C, Bertherat J, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB, Robinson BG: Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Ann Surg; 2008 Jan;247(1):157-64
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimal common region of loss on 17p13 in a cohort of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (defined by a Weiss score > or =3) and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (defined by a Weiss score <3) and subsequently to assess 3 genes in this region that could be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • METHODS: Using 12 microsatellite markers across 17p13, LOH analysis was performed on 37 paired blood and adrenocortical tumor samples (23 ACC and 14 ACA samples) to determine the minimal common region of loss for ACCs and ACAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 18156936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 1.13.11.31 / Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.3.- / Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases
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63. Yuge K, Miyajima A, Hasegawa M, Miyazaki Y, Maeda T, Takeda T, Takeda A, Miyashita K, Kurihara I, Shibata H, Kikuchi E, Oya M: Initial experience of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy in patient with aldosterone-producing adenoma. BMC Urol; 2010;10:19
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  • [Title] Initial experience of transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy in patient with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • We present our initial experience with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of partial adrenalectomy (LESS-PA) to treat aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with aldosterone-producing macroadenomas in the left adrenal and aldosterone-producing microadenomas in the right adrenal.
  • The first step involved transumbilical LESS-PA for the left adrenal tumors.
  • A multichannel port was inserted through the center of the umbilicus and the left adrenal gland was approached using bent instruments according to standard traditional laparoscopic procedures.
  • Her right adrenal microadenomas will be treated in the next several months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although our experience is limited, LESS-PA appears to be safe and feasible for treating aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Laparoscopy / instrumentation. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / therapy. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Umbilicus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21092240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3000378
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64. Morelli V, Donadio F, Eller-Vainicher C, Cirello V, Olgiati L, Savoca C, Cairoli E, Salcuni AS, Beck-Peccoz P, Chiodini I: Role of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Clin Invest; 2010 Sep;40(9):803-11
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  • [Title] Role of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) have been associated with and an increased prevalence of metabolic and bone complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Binding Sites / genetics. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Dyslipidemias / epidemiology. Female. Fractures, Bone / epidemiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / epidemiology. Prevalence. Spine


65. Peppa M, Pikounis V, Papaxoinis G, Macheras A, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Adrenocortical carcinoma secreting cortisol, androgens and aldosterone: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8951
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma secreting cortisol, androgens and aldosterone: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and presents with mass effects and less often with signs of hormone excess (approximately 60% of all adrenocortical carcinoma's).
  • Hormonally active adrenocortical carcinomas most commonly secrete cortisol while the co-secretion of multiple steroid hormones is rare.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 59 year-old woman with a medical history of hyperaldosteronism due to a right adrenal adenoma.
  • During follow up, she showed symptoms of hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenemia and a rapid growth of the adrenal mass.
  • She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology revealed the presence of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Six months post-operatively being on treatment with mitotane, she was diagnosed of metastatic disease to the liver.
  • CONCLUSION: The hormonal status should be carefully investigated in all cases of suspected adrenocortical carcinoma, as the pattern of hormone secretion may be a clue to the malignancy of an adrenal lesion.
  • In addition, more data are needed to clarify the clinical and prognostic significance of the combined production of all adrenocortical hormones affecting either the survival or the quality of life of adrenocortical carcinoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 20181215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827070
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66. van Aken MO, Feelders RA, van der Lely AJ, Romijn JA, Lamberts SW, de Herder WW: [Cushing's syndrome. II. New forms of treatment]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2365-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Syndroom van Cushing. II. Nieuwe behandelingen.
  • In Cushing's disease caused by an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma, the introduction ofendoscopic pituitary surgery offers better visualization of the sella than does the traditional explorative surgery.
  • New drugs under investigation include universal somatostatin analogues such as SOM230, and a combination of a somatostatin analogue and dopamine agonist known as dopastatin.
  • In rare cases of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, medicinal treatment aimed at new regulatory pathways of cortisol secretion can be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenergic Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2345-9 [17100122.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Feb 3;151(5):330; author reply 331 [17326480.001]
  • (PMID = 17100127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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67. Weismann D, Fassnacht M, Weinberger F, Hamelmann W, Diehl S, Lorenz K, Baerlehner E, Reincke M, Beuschlein F, Knoefel W, Nies C, Hahner S, Allolio B: Intraoperative haemodynamic stability in patients with phaeochromocytoma--minimally invasive vs conventional open surgery. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Sep;65(3):352-8
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  • Patients undergoing MA for adrenocortical adenomas (aldosteronomas n = 15, inactive adenomas n = 13) served as controls.
  • In comparison to adrenocortical adenomas, MA in phaeochromocytomas was associated with a significantly higher maximum systolic BP (188 +/- 29 vs 154 +/- 22 mmHg, P < 0.001), more frequent hypertensive episodes (1[0-4]vs 0[0-1], P < 0.001), more episodes of systolic BP > 200 mmHg (0[0-4]vs 0[0-1], P = 0.03) and a higher demand for intraoperative fluids (3194 ml vs 1750 ml, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference in haemodynamic stability between MA and CA in phaeochromocytomas, but it is significantly inferior when compared to MA for cortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Adult. Blood Pressure. Case-Control Studies. Chi-Square Distribution. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Heart Rate. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Phenoxybenzamine / therapeutic use. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Mar;66(3):455-6 [17302884.001]
  • (PMID = 16918955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0TTZ664R7Z / Phenoxybenzamine
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68. Bezerra MG, Latronico AC, Fragoso MC: [Endocrine tumors associated to protein Gsalpha/Gi2alpha mutations]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):784-90
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  • The G proteins couple an array of seven transmembrane receptors at the cell surface with a variety of intracellular effectors, which produce second messenger molecules.
  • A subset of endocrine tumors, such as GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, functioning thyroid adenomas, adrenocortical and gonadal tumors were associated with somatic activating mutations in the highly conserved codons of the Gs (Arg201 and Gln227) and Gi (Arg179 and Gln205) proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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69. Razifar P, Hennings J, Monazzam A, Hellman P, Långström B, Sundin A: Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography. BMC Med Imaging; 2009;9:6
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  • [Title] Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography.
  • METHODS: In this study, MVW-PCA was applied to 14 dynamic 11C-metomidate-PET (MTO-PET) examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours.
  • Time activity curves derived from "50% cut-off" ROIs based on an isocontour function whereby the pixels with SUVs between 50 to 100% of the highest radioactivity concentration were delineated, showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Algorithms. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19386097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2342
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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70. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • [Title] 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether dexamethasone suppression treatment can improve (11) C-metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • SUVhs as well as SUVmax were higher in PA compared to nonfunctional adenomas.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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71. Karpac J, Ostwald D, Li GY, Bui S, Hunnewell P, Brennan MB, Hochgeschwender U: Proopiomelanocortin heterozygous and homozygous null mutant mice develop pituitary adenomas. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand); 2006;52(2):47-52
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  • [Title] Proopiomelanocortin heterozygous and homozygous null mutant mice develop pituitary adenomas.
  • Phenotypes of the POMC null homozygous mutants include obesity, pigmentation defects, and adrenal insufficiency.
  • Here, we report that both POMC null homozygous and heterozygous mutants also develop pituitary gland tumors, which result in their premature death.
  • Based on the morphological and immunohistological features, we have classified the tumors as non-invasive, non-secreting, intermediate lobe adenomas.
  • These findings uncover potential novel roles of melanocortins in the regulation of cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Animals. Disease Progression. Heterozygote. Homozygote. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. alpha-MSH / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16914086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1165-158X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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72. Sampol Bas C, Peña Viloria C: [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2005 May-Jun;24(3):191-4
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  • [Title] [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].
  • [Transliterated title] Captación de 123I-MIBG en un hemangioma hepático en el estudio gammagráfico de una lesión suprarrenal.
  • A 60 year old symptom free female in whom a lesion in left adrenal gland was found by chance in a CT scan is presented.
  • 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed a non-physiological uptake in right adrenal gland that is still seen in the delayed image, with normal left gland.
  • MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects. Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Interactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fibula / injuries. Fibula / radiography. Fractures, Bone / complications. Fractures, Bone / radiography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / complications. Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy. Tibial Fractures / complications. Tibial Fractures / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15847786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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73. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
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  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • RESULTS: There was a bimodal age distribution of carcinomas and adenomas, with a first peak occurring before age 5 years.
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • All adenomas in adults were p53 negative, while in children 4 of 11 adenomas (36%) were p53 positive.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Other pathological features, including tumor weight, rate of mitotic figures and immunoexpression of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and PCNA, exhibited a striking difference in adenomas and carcinomas but none demonstrated sensitivity or specificity of 100%.
  • Of all the computerized tomographic characteristics analyzed, including tumor size, shape, necrosis/hemorrhage, attenuation and contrast enhancement, only tumor size (greater than 5 cm) showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% in the differential diagnosis.
  • The role of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in discrimination of adenomas from carcinomas is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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74. Conte-Devolx B, Niccoli P, Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines: [Clinical characteristics of multiple endocrine neoplasia]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2010 Jan;194(1):69-78; discussion 78-9
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 2 (MEN2) are autosomal dominant inherited multiglandular diseases with familial and individual age-related penetrance and variable expression.
  • The most frequent endocrine features of MEN1 are parathyroid involvement (> 95%), duodeno-pancreatic endocrine tissue involvement (80%), pituitary adenoma (30%), and adrenal cortex tumors (25%), with no clear syndromic variants.
  • Identification of the germline MEN1 mutation confirms the diagnosis, but there is no phenotype-genotype correlation.
  • The prognosis of MEN2 is linked to the progression of MTC, which depends mainly on the stage at diagnosis and the quality of initial surgical treatment.
  • This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Digestive System Neoplasms / genetics. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genetic Testing. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20669560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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75. Waalkes MP, Liu J, Ward JM, Powell DA, Diwan BA: Urogenital carcinogenesis in female CD1 mice induced by in utero arsenic exposure is exacerbated by postnatal diethylstilbestrol treatment. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1337-45
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  • Arsenic alone induced some urogenital system tumors, including mostly benign tumors of the ovary and uterus, and adrenal adenoma.
  • Arsenic plus diethylstilbestrol increased ovarian, uterine, and vaginal tumors, and urinary bladder proliferative lesions, including three transitional cell carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 16452187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01 CO 12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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76. Tiyadath BN, Sukumar S, Saheed CS, Hattangadi SB: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy --- is it any different in phaeochromocytoma and non-phaeochromocytoma? Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):244-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for phaeochromocytoma is a feasible, safe and effective treatment.
  • The effects of associated catecholamine release render LA more challenging, although with comparable morbidity to LA for other diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the operative course and outcome of LA in the two groups.
  • RESULTS: The mean operating time and blood loss were slightly higher in LA for phaeochromocytomas compared to LA for other pathologies, but these differences were not statistically significant.
  • Two patients with bilateral phaeochromocytoma had single stage bilateral LA.
  • CONCLUSION: LA is feasible and effective in phaeochromocytoma.
  • LA can be done in a single operation for bilateral masses.

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  • (PMID = 17962126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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77. Okura T, Miyoshi K, Watanabe S, Kurata M, Irita J, Manabe S, Fukuoka T, Higaki J, Sasano H: Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2006 Jun;10(2):127-30
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  • [Title] Coexistence of three distinct adrenal tumors in the same adrenal gland in a patient with primary aldosteronism and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Physical examination revealed no signs of excessive adrenocortical steroid production, as are found in Cushing's syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance image revealed three sequential nodular masses (each 15 mm x 15 mm) in the right adrenal gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the upper and lower tumors were adrenocortical adenomas, and the middle tumor was a black adenoma.
  • Surprisingly, at 33 years of age, she had been diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, due to a cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma, and she had received a left adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged


78. Gaujoux S, Pinson S, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Amar L, Ragazzon B, Launay P, Meatchi T, Libé R, Bertagna X, Audebourg A, Zucman-Rossi J, Tissier F, Bertherat J: Inactivation of the APC gene is constant in adrenocortical tumors from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis but not frequent in sporadic adrenocortical cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;16(21):5133-41
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  • [Title] Inactivation of the APC gene is constant in adrenocortical tumors from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis but not frequent in sporadic adrenocortical cancers.
  • PURPOSE: In adrenocortical tumors (ACT), Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation can be explained by β-catenin somatic mutations only in a subset of tumors.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ACTs from patients with FAP and sporadic adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) with abnormal β-catenin localization on immunohistochemistry but no somatic β-catenin mutations were studied.
  • RESULTS: Four ACTs were observed in three patients with FAP and were ACC, adrenocortical adenoma, and bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia, all with abnormal β-catenin localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Silencing. Genes, APC

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20978149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AMER1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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79. Chiou TT, Chiang PH, Fuh M, Liu RT, Lee WC, Lee WC, Ng HY, Tsai YC, Chuang FR, Huang CC, Lee CT: Factors determining cardiovascular and renal outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2009 May;218(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Factors determining cardiovascular and renal outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma.
  • Primary aldosteronism is an important cause of secondary hypertension, because it is potentially curable, especially in case of unilateral aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA).
  • However, the information is limited concerning the cardiovascular and renal outcomes in this patient population.
  • We studied 52 patients with APA in order to determine the pre-operative and post-operative factors predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes.
  • Patients whose renal function worsened after adrenalectomy had significantly higher pre-operative plasma active renin levels.
  • Thus, in patients with APA, the presence of LVH is correlated with impaired renal function (lower eGFR).
  • In conclusion, pre-operative BP and post-operative plasma aldosterone are important in predicting post-adrenalectomy hypertension, and a lower pre-operative plasma renin predicts the improvement in renal function after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Aldosterone / blood. Cardiovascular System / metabolism. Hypertension. Kidney

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  • (PMID = 19398869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-3329
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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80. Błaut K, Wiśniewski P, Syrenicz A, Sworczak K: Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2006 Oct;27(5):569-72
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  • [Title] Apoplexy of clinically silent pituitary adenoma during prostate cancer treatment with LHRH analog.
  • Since now, only few cases of an apoplexy of previously undiagnosed pituitary adenoma (usually gonadotropinoma) at the beginning of therapy have been described in the medical literature.
  • We present a case of a 74 year old patient who was diagnosed of prostate cancer at the age of 68.
  • There was no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • Imaging (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) revealed the presence of a pituitary tumor and hemorrhage within the gland.
  • As a result the patient required adrenal and thyroid replacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


81. Anagnostis P, Karagiannis A, Tziomalos K, Kakafika AI, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP: Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):163-84
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedures has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for the investigation of an unrelated complaint.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are a cluster of different pathologies, the majority of which are benign and non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19671516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 181
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82. Faria JF, Goldman SM, Szejnfeld J, Melo H, Kater C, Kenney P, Huayllas MP, Demarchi G, Francisco VV, Andreoni C, Srougi M, Ortiz V, Abdalla N: Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience. Radiology; 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the accuracy of in vivo proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in distinguishing adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and metastases, with histologic or computed tomographic findings and follow-up data as the reference standards.
  • Sixty consecutive patients (24 male and 36 female patients; mean age, 53 years) harboring adrenal tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (mean diameter, 4.6 cm +/- 3.4 [standard deviation]) entered the study and were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging system and point-resolved multivoxel (1)H MR spectroscopy.
  • Thirty-eight patients had adenomas; 10, pheochromocytomas; five, carcinomas; and seven, metastases.
  • Metabolite ratios (choline-creatine, choline-lipid, lipid-creatine, and 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine) and cutoff values (obtained by using receiver operating characteristic analyses) were obtained and compared for each type of adrenal mass, which was identified previously on the basis of clinical, hormonal, and pathologic evidence.
  • RESULTS: Cutoff values of 1.20 for the choline-creatine ratio (92% sensitivity, 96% specificity; P < .01), 0.38 for the choline-lipid ratio (92% sensitivity, 90% specificity; P < .01), and 2.10 for the lipid-creatine ratio (45% sensitivity, 100% specificity) enabled adenomas and pheochromocytomas to be distinguished from carcinomas and metastases.
  • A 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine ratio greater than 1.50 enabled distinction of pheochromocytomas and carcinomas from adenomas and metastases (87% sensitivity, 98% specificity; P < .01).
  • CONCLUSION: (1)H MR spectroscopy can be used to characterize adrenal masses on the basis of spectral findings for benign adenomas, carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2007.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956 [19244058.001]
  • (PMID = 18024453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Blanes A, Diaz-Cano SJ: DNA and kinetic heterogeneity during the clonal evolution of adrenocortical proliferative lesions. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1295-303
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  • [Title] DNA and kinetic heterogeneity during the clonal evolution of adrenocortical proliferative lesions.
  • Monoclonal adrenocortical lesions show inverse correlation between proliferation and apoptosis, with proliferation being the single most important criterion of malignancy in adrenal lesions.
  • No study yet has evaluated the variability of proliferation regarding the clonal pattern and diagnosis in adrenocortical nodular hyperplasias (ACNHs), adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs).
  • Statistics included analysis of variance/Student t tests regarding the clonal patterns and diagnosis.
  • Only tetraploid percentage (P = .0496) and 5cER (P = .0352) distinguished polyclonal (3.64 +/- 2.20 and 0.14 +/- 0.15) from monoclonal (7.25 +/- 7.52 and 1.00 +/- 1.74) benign lesions.
  • Cell kinetic heterogeneity is the hallmark of adrenocortical neoplasms: tetraploid/hypertetraploid cell accumulation characterizes monoclonal lesions (suggesting nondisjunctional mitoses), whereas heterogeneously distributed mitotic figures and decreased diploid percentage define ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Nucleus / genetics. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Clone Cells. Disease Progression. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Hyperplasia. Image Cytometry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Kinetics. Mitotic Index. Polyploidy. X Chromosome Inactivation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16949934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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84. Tsunoda K, Abe K, Yamada M, Kato T, Yaoita H, Taguma Y, Goto Y, Ioridani N: A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Hypertens Res; 2008 Aug;31(8):1669-75
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  • [Title] A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • We identified a left adrenal tumor, left renal atrophy, and left renal artery stenosis (RAS) in a 52-year-old man by MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) during evaluation of hypertension.
  • An excessive response of aldosterone and cortisol to adorenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was found upon selective sampling of the left adrenal vein.
  • Selective renal venous sampling showed a left/right renal venous PRA ratio of 1.7.
  • We diagnosed this patient as having aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA) associated with renovascular hypertension (RVH) and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • As an initial treatment, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed.
  • The renal dysfuntion that occurred prior to treatment seemed to prevent complete normalization of blood pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension, Renal / etiology. Renal Artery Obstruction / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Angiography. Blood Pressure. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


85. Bourdeau I, Lampron A, Costa MH, Tadjine M, Lacroix A: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2007 Jun;14(3):219-25
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  • Primary Cushing's syndrome is most often secondary to adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, and more rarely to bilateral adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Corticotropin-independent cortisol-producing hyperplasia is caused by micronodular diseases, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and nonpigmented micronodular hyperplasia and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease can be found either alone or in the context of Carney complex, a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the pathophysiology of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias became better understood following the identification of genes responsible for syndromes associated with corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome and the demonstration of aberrant expression and function of various hormone receptors in adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • This article reviews findings on the molecular and genetic aspects of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome including recent gene expression profiling studies of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias and animal models that provided clues on the pathogenesis of primary Cushing's syndrome.
  • SUMMARY: A better understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias may lead to improved diagnostic and prognostic markers and treatment strategies to assist clinicians in the management of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17940443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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86. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present pathologic and radiographic features of 3 patients with adrenocortical neoplasms-2 with uncertain malignant potential and 1 adenoma with areas of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • METHODS: We describe 3 patients who had adrenocortical neoplasms with foci of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • The lesion size averaged 6.8 cm (range, 3.9 to 11.0), and the mean gland weight was 128.8 g (range, 32.5 to 249).
  • Two patients showed imaging findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Pathologically, 2 of the lesions were classified as adrenocortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 1 lesion was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical neoplasms, including those associated with an uncertain malignant potential, may be associated with areas of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Lee SS, Baek KH, Lee YS, Lee JM, Kang MI, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7):675-9
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with an adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • Oncocytoma is a neoplasm that can arise in several organs, and it has been more commonly described in the kidney, salivary gland and thyroid.
  • Oncocytoma arising in the adrenal gland is a rare finding.
  • Moreover, functioning adrenocortical oncocytoma is exceptionally rare.
  • A 47-yr-old man was incidentally discovered to have a right adrenal mass.
  • The patient had no clinical features suggestive of increased adrenal function.
  • This is a rare case of subclinical Cushing's syndrome that was caused by adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18787391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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88. Unger N, Pitt C, Schmidt IL, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Philipp T, Mann K, Petersenn S: Diagnostic value of various biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Mar;154(3):409-17
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of various biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass.
  • This study compared various biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass.
  • DESIGN: One hundred and fifty subjects were studied, including 24 histologically proven pheochromocytomas, 17 aldosterone-secreting and 21 cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas and 30 nonfunctioning adrenal masses, 16 patients with essential hypertension and 42 healthy normotensive volunteers.
  • CONCLUSION: Plasma metanephrines measured by RIA are reliable screening parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.


89. Ikoma A, Saito T, Murata M, Toyoshima H, Nakamura Y, Kawakami M, Sasano H, Ishikawa SE: Bilateral aldosteronoma associated with secondary aldosteronism in a chronic hemodialysis subject. Intern Med; 2010;49(11):1017-21
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  • We demonstrated a rare case of bilateral aldosteronoma accompanied by secondary aldosteronism in a 37-year-old man with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenocortical tumors, measuring 34 and 40 mm in diameter in right and left tumors, respectively. (131)I-Adosterol scintigram showed bilateral accumulation.
  • The majority of the tumor was composed of a dark-brown portion admixed with sporadic foci of golden-yellow portions.
  • The tumor was composed of clear cortical cells in viable portions.
  • These findings suggest that the presence of secondary aldosteronism, which is closely related to the conditions of chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, eventually promoted the development of bilateral aldosteronoma from the zona glomerulosa hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20519819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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90. Hirose A, Okada Y, Fukushima A, Tanaka Y: [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma]. J UOEH; 2005 Dec 1;27(4):315-23
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  • [Title] [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma].
  • We report a rare case of bilateral primary aldosteronism with renal cell carcinoma.
  • Abdominal CT and MRI revealed tumor masses in both adrenal glands, and a large left renal mass.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas and left renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Pathological diagnosis was left renal cell carcinoma and bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas is relatively rare and its complication with renal cell carcinoma is an extremely rare case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


91. Cho NH, Lee HW, Lim SY, Kang S, Jung WY, Park CS: Genetic aberrance of sporadic MEN 2A component tumours: analysis of RET. Pathology; 2005 Feb;37(1):10-3
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  • AIM: The molecular pathogenesis of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 (parathyroid adenoma with medullary thyroid carcinoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma) is associated with a germ-line mutation in the RET proto-oncogene.
  • METHODS: Direct sequencing for RET exon 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 and immunohistochemistry for RET monoclonal antibody were performed on the archival tissues of 84 cases of sporadic endocrine tumours, including 22 medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs), 35 adrenal pheochromocytomas (APCs), 18 paragangliomas (PGs), and nine parathyroid adenomas (PTAs).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adult. Base Sequence. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Paraganglioma / genetics. Paraganglioma / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Point Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15875728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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92. Agha A, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):233-9
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  • [Title] [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der Nebennierenrinden-Adenome.
  • Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours.
  • The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent.
  • The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart , New York.
  • (PMID = 20549586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Kosaka K, Onoda N, Ishikawa T, Iwanaga N, Yamamasu S, Tahara H, Inaba M, Ishimura E, Ogawa Y, Hirakawa K: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy on a patient with primary aldosteronism during pregnancy. Endocr J; 2006 Aug;53(4):461-6
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  • Her plasma aldosterone level was markedly elevated and magnetic resonance imaging showed a right adrenal tumor.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone producing-adenoma was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


94. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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95. Stasik CN, Giordano TJ, Gauger PG: Ganglioneuroma manifesting as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult with Turner's syndrome. Endocr Pract; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):382-4
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  • [Title] Ganglioneuroma manifesting as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult with Turner's syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of ganglioneuroma masquerading as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult patient with Turner's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: A 31-year-old woman with Turner's syndrome who had previously been treated with growth hormone replacement had an incidentally discovered mass, apparently arising from the left adrenal gland.
  • The mass was "silent" clinically and biochemically, but imaging characteristics were not reassuring for a benign cortical adenoma.
  • Because of uncertainty regarding the nature of the mass, it was removed laparoscopically; during this procedure, it was noted to be intimately associated with, but anatomically distinct from, the left adrenal gland.
  • The pathology report confirmed the presence of a benign ganglioneuroma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although ganglioneuroma has previously been noted to be associated with Turner's syndrome (especially in pediatric patients), to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a ganglioneuroma manifesting as an incidental adrenal mass in an adult patient with Turner's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Turner Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 16638724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Piaditis GP, Kaltsas GA, Androulakis II, Gouli A, Makras P, Papadogias D, Dimitriou K, Ragkou D, Markou A, Vamvakidis K, Zografos G, Chrousos G: High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Dec;71(6):772-8
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  • [Title] High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Previous studies based on standard endocrine testing have shown a variable incidence of autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) or autonomous aldosterone secretion (AAS) in patients with single adrenal adenomas (SAA).
  • Patients We investigated 151 patients with SAA and 72 matched controls with normal adrenal computerized tomography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / administration & dosage. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Case-Control Studies. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 19226269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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97. Tenenbaum F: [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):444-8
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma and nuclear medicine examination].
  • [Transliterated title] Différentes explorations d'un incidentalome surrénalien en médecine nucléaire.
  • In the setting of adrenal incidentaloma, nuclear medicine evaluation is only indicated after biological and imaging work-up has been completed.
  • In lesions without MIBG uptake, 18F FDG or 18F DOPA PET can be considered to characterize chromaffin cell tumours.
  • To characterize lesions of the adrenal cortex, iodocholesterol scintigraphy is performed to confirm the origin of the adenoma and the benign or malignant nature of the lesion since benign adenomas show tracer uptake and malignant lesions show no tracer uptake.
  • 18F FDG PET only characterizes the lesion as benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19421135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2C598205QX / fluorodopa F 18; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 63-84-3 / Dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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98. van Aken MO, Pereira AM, van Thiel SW, van den Berg G, Frölich M, Veldhuis JD, Romijn JA, Roelfsema F: Irregular and frequent cortisol secretory episodes with preserved diurnal rhythmicity in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1570-7
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  • [Title] Irregular and frequent cortisol secretory episodes with preserved diurnal rhythmicity in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome.
  • To evaluate the pathophysiology of altered cortisol secretion in patients with primary adrenal hypercortisolism, cortisol secretion was investigated in 12 patients, seven with a unilateral adenoma and five with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia compared with age- and gender-matched controls and with patients with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.
  • Cortisol burst-mass tended to be smaller in patients with ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia than in unilateral adenoma (P = 0.06).
  • In conclusion, increased cortisol secretion in patients with primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome is caused by amplified pulsatile secretion via event frequency modulation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / secretion. Adult. Aged. Entropy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15598691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060717
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS3327; NLM/ PMC1237022
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99. Zacharieva S, Orbetzova M, Elenkova A, Stoynev A, Yaneva M, Schigarminova R, Kalinov K, Nachev E: Diurnal blood pressure pattern in patients with primary aldosteronism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jan;29(1):26-31
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  • Thirty of them revealed an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and 34 had idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Reduction of night-time BP decline in patients with IHA is more likely to be related to the duration of the disease rather than to the aldosterone levels.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / physiopathology. Adult. Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory. Female. Humans. Hypertension / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Sleep. Spironolactone / therapeutic use. Wakefulness

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  • (PMID = 16553030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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100. Savci G, Yazici Z, Sahin N, Akgöz S, Tuncel E: Value of chemical shift subtraction MRI in characterization of adrenal masses. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Jan;186(1):130-5
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  • [Title] Value of chemical shift subtraction MRI in characterization of adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages of the image subtraction technique in chemical shift MRI for the differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with 42 adrenal masses (eight metastases and 34 nonfunctioning adenomas) underwent chemical shift MRI using a double-echo fast low-angle shot sequence.
  • For quantitative assessment, the signal intensity values of the adrenal masses were measured by one investigator with manually defined regions of interest.
  • Qualitative assessment of the subtraction images was performed independently by two investigators, who reported their confidence in diagnosing adenomas versus nonadenomas based on signal intensity of the adrenal masses on subtraction images.
  • RESULTS: The mean signal intensities were significantly different between adenomas and metastases on subtraction images (213 vs 18; p < 0.0001).
  • There was no overlap in signal intensities between adenomas and metastatic tumors.
  • The accuracy in distinguishing adenomas from metastatic tumors was 100% if the cutoff value of the signal intensity selected was 36-106.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemical shift subtraction MRI provides a high confidence level in distinguishing adrenal adenomas from adrenal metastases.
  • The image subtraction technique also facilitates quantitative and qualitative evaluation of adrenal masses in chemical shift MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Statistics, Nonparametric. Subtraction Technique

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  • (PMID = 16357391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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