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1. Jarral OA, Todd C, Willson PD: Hemorrhagic shock secondary to spontaneous rupture of a non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour: A case report. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E161-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hemorrhagic shock secondary to spontaneous rupture of a non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour: A case report.
  • After emergency laparotomy, angiography, embolisation and histological investigation, a diagnosis of spontaneous rupture of a benign non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour was made.
  • To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of this diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21749812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3038376
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2. Li Q, Zhang XQ, Nie L, Chen GS, Li H, Zhang F, Zhang LY, Hong L, Wang SF, Wang H: Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Aug 6;97(3):420-5
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  • [Title] Expression of interferon-gamma in human adrenal gland and kidney tumours.
  • Our previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma-like immunoreactivity also appears in human adrenal cortical tumour and phaeochromocytoma.
  • To investigate whether human tumour cells can produce IFN-gamma, we examined 429 biopsy specimens of 30 kinds of tumour and tumour-surrounding tissues in adrenal glands and in kidneys by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation.
  • IFN-gamma immunoactivity was shown in 34.3% of the adrenal cortical adenomas, 50% of the adrenal cortical carcinomas, 26.7% of the phaeochromocytomas, 26.7% of the clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 22% of the adrenal cortexes and 40% of medullas adjacent to tumours.
  • Western blot analysis has further confirmed the immunohistochemistry results by showing a distinct IFN-gamma band corresponding to 17.4 kDa in tissue extracts from adrenal cortical adenoma, phaeochromocytoma and clear cell RCCs.
  • These results indicate that IFN-gamma is produced by some types of tumour cells, suggesting it may play a dual role in the development of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17622250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360327
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3. Szajerka A, Dziegiel P, Szajerka T, Zabel M, Winowski J, Grzebieniak Z: Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2959-65

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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the metallothionein (MT), maintenance protein 2 (Mcm-2) and Ki-67 expressions in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in comparison to normal tissue and evaluate the correlations between these markers of proliferation and between these markers and tumor diameter.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 was assessed by immunochemistry in forty-eight adrenocortical adenomas, six adrenocortical carcinomas and eleven normal adrenal cortex tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: The expressions of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 in the adrenocortical carcinomas were significantly higher than in the adenomas and normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The levels of Mcm-2 were also higher in the adrenocortical adenomas compared to the normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The Mcm-2 expression showed a positive correlation to the expression of MT in the adrenocortical carcinomas (r=0.773; p<0.05) and to the expression of Ki-67 in the adrenocortical adenomas (r=0.432; p<0.05).
  • The malignant tumor diameter was positively correlated with the MT and Mcm-2 expressions (r=0.766, p<0.05 and r=0.620, p<0.05, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The assessment of Mcm-2 expression seems to be of special importance as a marker of adrenocortical dysplasia and a reliable indicator of malignancy in suspicious masses of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Metallothionein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19031940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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4. Weng SW, Yang CH, Huang WT, Chen MC, Wang PW: Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour. N Z Med J; 2005 Jun 3;118(1216):U1498
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension secondary to cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • Adrenal cortical tumour-induced malignant hypertension is rare, except for some documented aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • This case in Taiwan is only the second reported case with malignant hypertension secondary to a cortisol-secreting adrenal tumour.
  • The immunohistochemical study of the excised tumour showed strong positive staining of interleukin (IL)-6.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15937532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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5. López PJ, Pierro A, Curry JI, Mushtaq I: Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: an early institutional experience. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Apr;3(2):96-9
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  • Swift access to the vascular pedicle makes this approach ideal for adrenal surgery where haemodynamic instability is a common feature.
  • Dissection was performed with diathermy and/or Harmonic Scalpeltrade mark and the adrenal vessels were divided between clips.
  • Histopathological diagnosis included adrenal cyst (n=1), cystic phaeochromocytoma (n=1), adrenal cortical tumour (n=2) and central Cushing's disease (n=1).
  • This is our technique of choice as it provides a superior view of the adrenal gland and vessels, with good intraoperative haemodynamic stability.

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  • (PMID = 18947710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
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  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF alpha were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, nonfunctioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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7. Meyer A, Behrend M: 32-year survival with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma--update of a case report. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1045-6
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  • [Title] 32-year survival with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma--update of a case report.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with up to 70% of the patients diagnosed at an advanced clinical stage and up to 40% presenting with metastasis.
  • In 2004, we reported a case of a 62-year-old woman with a non-functional ACC of the left adrenal gland (T2 N0 M0, classified as stage II) who survived the disease for 28 years with 3 operations for metastases of the contralateral adrenal gland and 4 operations for metastases of the lung.
  • We can now give an update of a further four years of survival and one additional operation.
  • The case again emphasises the need for thorough radiographic examination and follow-up for the possibility of a repeated re-operation whenever possible to provide long-term survival over decades.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17465241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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8. Jain M, Kapoor S, Mishra A, Gupta S, Agarwal A: Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study.
  • BACKGROUND: Several systems including pathologic criteria alone or in combination with clinical features have been proposed to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and assess their prognosis.
  • Since we see large adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we attempt to evaluate the diagnostic power of Weiss system in large ACC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study clinicopathological characteristics of 42 adrenocortical neoplasms are studied and classified into adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC based on Weiss score of less than or equal to three or greater than three.
  • RESULTS: The histological criteria of Weiss appeared to predict tumor prognosis accurately.
  • CONCLUSION: Weiss score was found to be a good prognostic factor for tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Histocytochemistry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20551521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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9. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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10. Lai P, Bomanji JB, Mahmood S, Nagabhushan N, Syed R, Gacinovic S, Lee SM, Ell PJ: Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2007 Feb;16(1):90-4
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  • [Title] Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging.
  • Tumour thrombus is a rare complication of many solid cancers including renal cell carcinoma, Wilms' tumour, testicular tumour, adrenal cortical carcinoma, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.
  • We describe six patients who harboured occult tumour thrombus detected by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computerized tomography (CT) imaging as part of the staging investigations.
  • Recognition of this rare complication by PET/CT can change the management plan and prevent unnecessary long-term anti-coagulation treatment because of wrong diagnosis of cancer-related venous thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / complications. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17220710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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11. Pianovski MA, Maluf EM, de Carvalho DS, Ribeiro RC, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Boffetta P, Zancanella P, Figueiredo BC: Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):56-60
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  • [Title] Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Several reports refer to an increased frequency of adrenal cortex tumors (ACT) among children in Southern Brazil, yet all data have been derived from hospital-based registries.
  • PROCEDURE: We reviewed all death certificates that mentioned ACT or adrenal neuroblastoma (NB) and which were reported to the Paraná State Department of Health between 1998 and 2003, for individuals younger than 15 years who resided in the Curitiba metropolitan region.
  • The ratio of the adrenal NB and ACT age-adjusted mortality rates was 1.43.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of population-based mortality confirms the evidence from hospital-based registries of a clustering of ACT in Southern Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16200634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Carden CP, Frentzas S, Langham M, Casamayor I, Stephens AW, Poondru S, Wheaton J, Lippman SM, Kaye SB, Kim ES: Preliminary activity in adrenocortical tumor (ACC) in phase I dose escalation study of intermittent oral dosing of OSI-906, a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):3544

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preliminary activity in adrenocortical tumor (ACC) in phase I dose escalation study of intermittent oral dosing of OSI-906, a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumors.
  • IGF-1R blockade increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth in preclinical models.
  • METHODS: Patients (pt) with advanced solid tumours were enrolled to determine safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and preliminary anti-tumor activity.

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  • (PMID = 27961354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex]. Klin Khir; 2005 Jul;(7):42-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex].
  • Possibilities of computer tomography (CT) application for differential diagnosis of tumors of the adrenal cortex (TAC) were studied.
  • While the trustworthy signs of malignancy are absent, it is necessary to conduct morphological verification of the adrenal tumors nature using puncture biopsy and/or intraoperative express-cytological investigation.

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  • (PMID = 16255222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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15. Collins BR: Endocrine diseases of rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2008 Jan;11(1):153-62, vii-viii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical diagnosis of endocrine diseases almost never occurs in free-ranging animals in their native habitat.
  • Feral animals that have clinical endocrine disease, such as neoplasia, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, or diabetes, would exhibit clinical signs of altered behavior that would result in their removal by predators.
  • The diagnosis of endocrine disease thus takes place in the relatively protective environment of captivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Animals, Domestic. Endocrine System Diseases / veterinary. Rodent Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cricetinae. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gerbillinae. Guinea Pigs. Male. Mice. Rats. Rodentia. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18165143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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16. Stephenson TJ: Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):629-43
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  • [Title] Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours.
  • This review encompasses the diagnostic features of malignancy, the routinely observable prognostic features and the prognostic and predictive features emerging from research techniques in the principal endocrine neoplasms: pancreatic and extrapancreatic endocrine cell tumours, thyroid and parathyroid neoplasia, adrenal cortical neoplasms and adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • While each endocrine tissue has its own set of diagnostic features for malignancy, and prognostic features once a diagnosis of malignancy has been established, there are a few common themes.
  • For several endocrine neoplasms, definite recognition of malignancy can be difficult and may depend upon frank invasive or metastatic growth at presentation.
  • The accurate documentation of routinely observable histological features interpreted in the light of current literature has not been superseded by special techniques in the statement of diagnosis or prognosis in the vast majority of endocrine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Peptide Hormones / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Glucagon / analysis. Humans. Insulin / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16681678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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17. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) which tumours may cause harm to the patient, and (2) can we recognize and effectively treat such tumours?
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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18. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • Her diabetes progressively regressed after the removal of tumour and glucose tolerance remained normal up to 1 year of follow-up after surgery and there was no recurrence of tumour.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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19. van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR: Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland. Pathobiology; 2007;74(5):285-90
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  • [Title] Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature for evidence that adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumours develop through a multistep process of carcinogenesis.
  • RESULTS: In the adrenal cortex hyperplasia and adenomas are frequently observed tumours or tumour-like conditions.
  • In contrast, adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • Based on well-validated histopathological scoring systems, benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours can be separated, although a small subset of tumours remains hard to classify.
  • Although extensive follow-up studies might argue against multistep carcinogenesis, analysis of chromosomal imbalances and gene expression profiling studies in these tumours are inconclusive and could give support for both multistep pathogenesis or de novo genesis of carcinomas.
  • In the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas (PCC) are the most frequent tumours in adults, with an incidence of 8 per million.
  • In contrast to cortical tumours, the frequent 1p and 3q loss as an early event in tumourigenesis of benign PCC is verified in multiple studies.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, there appears to be a relationship between cortical and medullary hyperplasia on the one hand and cortical adenomas and PCC on the other.
  • However, whether there is a transition from benign to malignant tumours, both cortical and medullary, remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17890895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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20. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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21. Unger N, Serdiuk I, Sheu SY, Walz MK, Schulz S, Saeger W, Schmid KW, Mann K, Petersenn S: Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Jun;68(6):850-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin receptor subtypes in benign and malignant adrenal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Somatostatin mediates its action through five receptor subtypes (sst1-5) that are widely distributed in various endocrine tissues and tumours.
  • In contrast to their well-established use in neuroendocrine and pituitary tumours, little is known about their potential use in adrenal tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined somatostatin receptor protein expression in adrenal tumours of various aetiologies.
  • DESIGN: Seven benign and eight malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEOs), eight aldosterone-secreting adenomas (APAs), nine cortisol-secreting adenomas (CPAs), seven nonfunctioning adrenal tumours (NFAs) and 25 adrenal carcinomas (CAs) as well as eight normal adrenal glands were investigated.
  • Most cortical adenomas were positive for all five subtypes.
  • However, in the majority of these tumours, less than 30% of cells were positively stained.
  • A high expression of sst4 was found in CPAs but only very few cortical carcinomas exhibited sst immunostaining.
  • The majority presented with more than 60% of tumour cells stained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtypes are expressed in PHEOs as well as in tumours of the adrenal cortex with tumour-specific distribution patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / classification. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18031328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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22. Reusch CE, Sieber-Ruckstuhl N, Wenger M, Lutz H, Perren A, Pospischil A: Histological evaluation of the adrenal glands of seven dogs with hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane. Vet Rec; 2007 Feb 17;160(7):219-24
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  • [Title] Histological evaluation of the adrenal glands of seven dogs with hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane.
  • The lesions in the adrenal glands of seven dogs with hyperadrenocorticism that had been treated with trilostane were studied histologically.
  • The glands of the six dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism had moderate to severe cortical hyperplasia that was either diffuse or nodular.
  • In the dog with a functional adrenal tumour the non-tumour bearing adrenal gland showed mild nodular hyperplasia.
  • Five of the seven dogs had variable degrees of adrenal necrosis, which was severe in two of them.
  • There were variable degrees of cortical haemorrhage in three of the dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dihydrotestosterone / analogs & derivatives. Dog Diseases / pathology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17308018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4900
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary record
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Rec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; L0FPV48Q5R / trilostane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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23. Mahe E, El-Shinnawy I: A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Dec;32(2):123-8
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  • [Title] A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass.
  • The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes.
  • The solid tumour component was strongly positive for vimentin, inhibin and CD56, focally positive for low-molecular-weight cytokeratin (Cam 5.2), calretinin and CD10 (chiefly in the myelolipomatous zones), and negative for chromogranin, S100, HMB-45, melan-A (A103), Mart-1, synaptophysin, SMA, CK7, CK20, ER, PR, TTF-1, CD99 and GCDFP (BRST-2).
  • Ki67 (MIB1) staining indicated a low tumour proliferation index.
  • We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions.
  • In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged


24. Hermsen IG, Gelderblom H, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Haak HR: Extremely long survival in six patients despite recurrent and metastatic adrenal carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):911-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extremely long survival in six patients despite recurrent and metastatic adrenal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumour with a high mortality.
  • The patient is still alive 28 years after diagnosis.
  • The patient is still alive 25 years after diagnosis.
  • The tumour was resected followed by o,p'-DDD treatment.
  • She is still alive 18 years after diagnosis.
  • He is still alive 17 years after the initial diagnosis.
  • After diagnosis, she developed lung metastasis, which were treated with o,p'-DDD and chemotherapy.
  • The patient is still alive with slowly progressive disease 12 years after diagnosis.
  • The patient is still alive 28 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Some patients can have an extremely long survival of ACC, despite recurrent disease and metastases.

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  • (PMID = 18505909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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26. Cohen MM Jr: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: historical, clinicopathological, and etiopathogenetic perspectives. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 May-Jun;8(3):287-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Complications include neonatal hypoglycemia and an increased risk for Wilms tumor, adrenal cortical carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma, among others.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 16010495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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27. Karikari IO, Uschold TD, Selznick LA, Carter JH, Cummings TJ, Friedman AH: Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1144; discussion E1144
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors report a primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with spinal dysraphism presenting with bilateral leg pain and urinary frequency.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging, L2 laminectomy with resection of mass, and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of resected mass revealed the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis as a primary intramedullary tumor of adrenal cortical origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of a primary adrenal tumor in the spinal cord is rare and difficult to explain based on our understanding of embryology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Dysraphism / complications

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  • (PMID = 17143207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Pacak K, Ilias I, Adams KT, Eisenhofer G: Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour. J Intern Med; 2005 Jan;257(1):60-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biochemical diagnosis, localization and management of pheochromocytoma: focus on multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 in relation to other hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of the tumour.
  • Approximately 50% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A or 2B develop pheochromocytoma.
  • These tumours are almost exclusively benign and localized in the adrenal glands.
  • About one-third are bilateral at initial diagnosis.
  • Amongst patients with pheochromocytoma, those with MEN 2A have subtler symptoms compared to those with sporadic disease.
  • Since pheochromocytomas in patients with MEN 2 often secrete catecholamines episodically (but metabolize them continuously to metanephrines), the first choice for biochemical diagnosis is the measurement of free metanephrines in plasma, with urinary fractionated metanephrines being the second choice.
  • Functional imaging with specific ligands (e.g. scintigraphy with [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine or, if available, positron emission tomography with [(18)F]-fluorodopamine, [(18)F]-dihydroxyphenylalanine, [(11)C]-adrenaline or [(11)C]-hydroxyephedrine) may then be particularly useful in patients with distorted anatomy from previous surgery, in cases of equivocal biochemical data despite high clinical suspicion for a tumour, to rule out multifocal disease, or where there is suspicion of metastatic disease (e.g. tumours larger than 5 cm).
  • Laparoscopic surgery is the treatment of choice and subtotal (cortical-sparing) adrenalectomy is the procedure of choice in bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis


29. Puech-Bret N, Bret J, Bennet A, Huyghe E, Mazerolles C, Zabraniecki L, Fournie B: Maffucci syndrome and adrenal cortex tumor. Joint Bone Spine; 2009 Oct;76(5):556-8
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  • [Title] Maffucci syndrome and adrenal cortex tumor.
  • We report the second known case of Maffucci syndrome associated with an adrenal cortex tumor.
  • Endocrine tumors have been reported in patients with multiple enchondromas, although the underlying mechanism of this combination is unknown.
  • Therefore, routine evaluation for involvement of the adrenal cortex may be warranted to improve our knowledge of this syndrome and of its pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Enchondromatosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Amputation. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / radiography. Fingers / surgery. Hemangioma / complications. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Leg / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19782627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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30. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Composite tumors are extremely rare.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • We report a patient with composite neuroblastoma (NB), adrenocortical tumor (ACT), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • LFS predisposes to the development of leukemia, sarcomas, adrenocortical and breast carcinomas, brain tumors and, questionably, NB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Point Mutation. Virilism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Substitution. Aneuploidy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Pedigree

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • VEGF blood concentrations before surgery did not differ in the patients with the cortical tumours as compared to the controls.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • After surgery, sVEGFR1 concentrations decreased significantly in the group with cortical adenomas only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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32. Alsultan A, Lovell MA, Hayes KL, Allshouse MJ, Garrington TP: Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):695-8
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  • [Title] Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) have increased risk for development of embryonal tumors.
  • We present the case of an infant with BWS who has hypomethylation of LIT1 gene in the 11p15.5 chromosomal region and at 6 months of age presented with simultaneous occurrence of neuroblastoma arising from the left adrenal gland and a right adrenocortical tumor.
  • She underwent surgical resection of both tumors and remains tumor free 18 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications


33. Harding B, Lemos MC, Reed AA, Walls GV, Jeyabalan J, Bowl MR, Tateossian H, Sullivan N, Hough T, Fraser WD, Ansorge O, Cheeseman MT, Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 knockout mice develop parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours with hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypercorticosteronaemia. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1313-27
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 knockout mice develop parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours with hypercalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypercorticosteronaemia.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized in man by parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours.
  • The MEN1 gene encodes a 610-amino acid protein (menin) which is a tumour suppressor.
  • To investigate the in vivo role of menin, we developed a mouse model, by deleting Men1 exons 1 and 2 and investigated this for MEN1-associated tumours and serum abnormalities.
  • Men1(+/-) mice developed, by 9 months of age, parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic tumours which were mostly insulinomas, by 12 months of age, pituitary tumours which were mostly prolactinomas, and by 15 months parathyroid adenomas and adrenal cortical tumours.
  • Loss of heterozygosity and menin expression was demonstrated in the tumours, consistent with a tumour suppressor role for the Men1 gene.
  • Men1(+/-) mice with parathyroid neoplasms were hypercalcaemic and hypophosphataemic, with inappropriately normal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations.
  • Pancreatic and pituitary tumours expressed chromogranin A (CgA), somatostatin receptor type 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A.
  • Adrenocortical tumours, which immunostained for 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, developed in seven Men1(+/-) mice, but resulted in hypercorticosteronaemia in one out of the four mice that were investigated.
  • Thus, these Men1(+/-) mice are representative of MEN1 in man, and will help in investigating molecular mechanisms and treatments for endocrine tumours.


34. Mann MW, Ellis SS, Mallory SB: Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Feb;56(2 Suppl):S15-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Ultrasound and abdominal computed tomographic scan revealed a large adrenal mass consistent with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • The patient underwent surgical excision of the well-encapsulated tumor with normalization of his hormones and no subsequent recurrence.
  • Although rare, childhood adrenocortical tumors have a poor prognosis, with the majority of tumors having regional and metastatic disease.
  • Because early diagnosis and complete surgical excision improve prognosis, children with refractory infantile acne should be evaluated for signs of virilization and accelerated growth.
  • Elevated levels of DHEA and DHEA-S should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / etiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17097383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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35. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour.
  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • In some cases, however, these tumours have exhibited malignant behaviour.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection with subsequent imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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36. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report.
  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a solitary tumor mass, eight cm in size, of the right adrenal gland.
  • Laboratory tests showed it to be a hormonally active, androgen secreting tumor (elevated testosterone level), which was consistent with the clinical picture of the disease.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • The finding was verified by computerized tomography and the patient was reoperated on.
  • Cytologic opinion was recidive of primary malignant disease.
  • ACC is a rare malignant epithelial tumor of adrenal cortical cells, with high malignant potential.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • A combined evaluation of clinical features, size or weight, microscopic appearance, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic data is necessary to ensure a correct diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this case report is to present clinical and cytomorphologic features of our case of adrenocortical carcinoma which is very rare in cytology practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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37. Miyoshi Y, Oue T, Oowari M, Soh H, Tachibana M, Kimura S, Kiyohara Y, Yamada H, Bessyo K, Mushiake S, Homma K, Hasegawa T, Sasano H, Ozono K: A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal. Endocr J; 2009;56(8):975-82
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  • [Title] A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.
  • We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty.
  • Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated.
  • The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss.
  • Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty.
  • Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Puberty, Precocious / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19671995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Betz MJ, Shapiro I, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Reincke M, Beuschlein F, German and Austrian Adrenal Network: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):3886-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation.
  • Moreover, recent evidence has suggested that TZDs might have favorable effects in the treatment of a variety of tumors as differentiation-inducing agents.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity with poor prognosis due to its highly malignant phenotype and lack of effective treatment options.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of TZDs on adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: PPARgamma mRNA expression was detectable in all adrenocortical tumors including ACCs at similar levels.
  • Furthermore, incubation of the adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295 with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone led to a decrease in cell viability, a decrease of cellular proliferation, and an increase in apoptosis as well as steroidogenesis.
  • On the molecular level, NCI h295 cells expressed higher levels of ACTH receptor (melanocortin receptor-2) mRNA upon treatment, whereas cyclin E mRNA was reduced, thus reflecting a shift toward an expression pattern found in less aggressive adrenocortical tumors in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anilides / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin E / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15886257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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39. Delhanty PJ, van Koetsveld PM, Gauna C, van de Zande B, Vitale G, Hofland LJ, van der Lely AJ: Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Jul;293(1):E302-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ghrelin and its unacylated isoform stimulate the growth of adrenocortical tumor cells via an anti-apoptotic pathway.
  • Ghrelin is expressed in normal human adrenocortical cells and induces their proliferation through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a).
  • Consequently, it was of interest to us to determine whether acylated ghrelin and its predominant serum isoform, unacylated ghrelin, also act as factors for adrenocortical carcinoma cell growth.
  • To examine a potential ghrelin-regulated system in adrenocortical tumors, we measured proliferative effects of acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines SW-13 and NCI-H295R.
  • Acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the nanomolar range dose-dependently induced adrenocortical cell growth up to 200% of untreated controls, as measured by thymidine uptake and WST1 assay.
  • Acylated and unacylated ghrelin are potential auto/paracrine factors acting through an antiapoptotic pathway to stimulate adrenocortical tumor cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Ghrelin. Humans. Protein Isoforms / pharmacology. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17405826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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40. Fudge EB, von Allmen D, Volmar KE, Calikoglu AS: Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol; 2009;2009:168749

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing Syndrome in a 6-Month-Old Infant due to Adrenocortical Tumor.
  • Cushing syndrome is rare in infancy and usually due to an adrenocortical tumor (ACT).
  • We report an infant with Cushing syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Abdominal MRI revealed a heterogeneous right adrenal mass extending into the inferior vena cava.
  • The tumor was removed surgically en bloc.
  • In conclusion, adrenocortical neoplasms in children are rare, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Jun;48(6):1017-25 [221523.001]
  • [Cites] Med Pediatr Oncol. 1999 Feb;32(2):106-11 [9950198.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Genet. 2006 Jan;43(1):91-6 [16033918.001]
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  • [Cites] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31;98(16):9330-5 [11481490.001]
  • (PMID = 20049152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9856
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pediatr Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798106
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41. Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Sturm N, Feige JJ, Thomas M: Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model. Endocrinology; 2006 Feb;147(2):782-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model.
  • Aberrant expression of ectopic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in adrenal cortex tissue has been observed in several cases of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias and adenomas associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Although there is clear clinical evidence for the implication of these ectopic receptors in abnormal regulation of cortisol production, whether this aberrant GPCR expression is the cause or the consequence of the development of an adrenal hyperplasia is still an open question.
  • To answer it, we genetically engineered primary bovine adrenocortical cells to have them express the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor.
  • We observed the formation of an enlarged and hyperproliferative adenomatous adrenocortical tissue that secreted cortisol in a gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent manner and induced a mild Cushing's syndrome with hyperglycemia.
  • Moreover, we show that tumor development was ACTH independent.
  • Thus, a single genetic event, inappropriate expression of a nonmutated GPCR gene, is sufficient to initiate the complete phenotypic alterations that ultimately lead to the formation of a benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16254030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone; 0 / gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor; 128559-51-3 / RAG-1 protein; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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42. Sandrini F, Villani DP, Tucci S, Moreira AC, de Castro M, Elias LL: Inheritance of R337H p53 gene mutation in children with sporadic adrenocortical tumor. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Apr;37(4):231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inheritance of R337H p53 gene mutation in children with sporadic adrenocortical tumor.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are frequent in Brazil.
  • The mechanisms of adrenal tumorigenesis remain poorly established; the R337H germline mutation in the p53 gene has previously been associated with ACTs in Brazilian children.
  • DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells and/or tumor tissue for sequencing exon 10 of the p53 gene.
  • Two members of the adult group showed asymptomatic adrenal incidentalomas, two showed virilization, and one presented with Cushing's syndrome.
  • The R337H mutation was found in fifteen samples of the nineteen tumor specimens available (78.9%).
  • None of the parents showed ACTs or any other neoplasia at the time of the study.
  • There was no association between the presence of germline or tissue R337H p53 mutation and malignancy at diagnosis.
  • The R337H p53 mutation was inherited from one of the parents of the patients, and there was no association between the presence of this mutation and tumor malignancy in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Mutation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15952083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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43. Tissier F: [Pathology of adrenocortical tumors: review and recent data]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):179-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pathology of adrenocortical tumors: review and recent data].
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie pathologique des tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes de l'adulte : état des lieux et données récentes.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutic is sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • Moreover, morphology is limited for predicting prognosis of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • These genetics findings already have repercussions for the patients in the development of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis and in the future they could help in the development of new morphological approaches, in particular immunohistochemical approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin E / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Mitosis. Mutation. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19298951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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44. Cotesta D, Petramala L, Serra V, Giustini S, Divona L, Calvieri S, De Toma G, Ciardi A, Corsi A, Massa R, Reale MG, Letizia C: Pheochromocytoma associated with adrenocortical tumor in the same gland. Two case reports and literature review. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;31(2):183-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma associated with adrenocortical tumor in the same gland. Two case reports and literature review.
  • Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumours arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal paraganglionic system that show 2 distinctive features, rarity and clinical variability.
  • Pheochromocytoma occasionally is associated with pathological lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • We present 2 cases of patients referred to our hospital with a finding of clinical suspected pheochromocytoma.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed in both cases with laboratory analysis and the lesion was achieved by employing 3 imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzilguanidine (MIBG).
  • The patients underwent adrenalectomy and in the same adrenal gland we found a pheochromocytoma associated with a nonfunctioning cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16682942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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45. Hishiki T, Kazukawa I, Saito T, Terui K, Mitsunaga T, Nakata M, Matsuura G, Minagawa M, Kohno Y, Yoshida H: Diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor in a neonate by detection of elevated blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone measured as a routine neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Oct;43(10):e19-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor in a neonate by detection of elevated blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone measured as a routine neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report.
  • We report herein a case of prenatally detected neonatal adrenocortical tumor (ACT).
  • Computed tomography and ultrasonography after birth revealed a round solid tumor 40 mm in diameter in the right suprarenal area.
  • The precise diagnosis of ACT was unexpectedly obtained based on results from the Japanese neonatal mass screening program.
  • Blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone is routinely measured as a part of this program for early detection of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Japan.
  • Abnormally elevated level of 17-hydroxyprogesterone was reported in the patient and, thus, led to the diagnosis of ACT.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are extremely rare in childhood, particularly in the neonatal period.
  • Some of these tumors secrete abnormally high levels of cortisol, suppressing function of the contralateral adrenal gland and, thus, leading to life-threatening postoperative adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenocortical tumor should always be considered among the differential diagnoses for neonatal suprarenal mass because precise diagnosis will enable the physician to develop appropriate treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Fetal Blood / chemistry. Neonatal Screening
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / prevention & control. Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Infant, Newborn. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Premedication. Testosterone / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Prenatal


46. Tissier F: [Sporadic adrenocortical tumors: genetics and perspectives for the pathologist]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Oct;28(5):409-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sporadic adrenocortical tumors: genetics and perspectives for the pathologist].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes sporadiques de l'adulte : aspects génétiques et perspectives pour le pathologiste.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and few therapeutic options are available.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach provides enough elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • Moreover, morphology is limited for predicting prognosis of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The comprehension of the genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumors led to progress in the identification of genetic abnormalities involved in sporadic adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • Thus, in sporadic adrenocortical tumorigenesis, IGF-II overexpression and cyclin E overproduction have been associated with 11p15 alterations which are observed in Bethwith-Wiedemann syndrome and TP53 inactivating mutations and 17p13 locus abnormalities which are observed in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • Activation of the Wnt/ss-catenin signaling pathway which is observed in familial adenomatous polyposis has been found in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas associated to mutations of CTNNB1, the gene coding ss-catenin, suggesting a central role for this pathway in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • These genetics findings already have had repercussions for patients via the development of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis; in the future they should be helpful in the development of new therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19068395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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47. Pereira RM, Michalkiewicz E, Pianovski MA, França SN, Boguszewski MC, Cat I, Lacerda Filho Ld, Sandrini R: [Treatment of childhood adrenocortical tumor]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):747-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of childhood adrenocortical tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamento do tumor do córtex adrenal na infância.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in children are uncommon.
  • However, the incidence of these tumors in Paraná is 15 times higher than that worldwide.
  • In our experience, disease stage I, absence of spillage during surgery and absence of intravenous thrombus are associated with better survival rates.
  • Preliminary data with the combination of etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and mitotane have shown that in some patients a complete remission is observed both of the tumor and metastasis.
  • Side effects due to these drugs are common and adrenal insufficiency may occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16444357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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48. Al-Zaid T, Alroy J, Pfannl R, Strissel KJ, Powers JF, Layer A, Carpinito G, Tischler AS: Oncocytic adrenal cortical tumor with cytoplasmic inclusions and hyaline globules. Virchows Arch; 2008 Sep;453(3):301-6
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  • [Title] Oncocytic adrenal cortical tumor with cytoplasmic inclusions and hyaline globules.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors, particularly oncocytic tumors, have been reported to contain a variety of intracytoplasmic and intramitochondrial inclusions.
  • Oncocytic cortical tumors can also morphologically mimic pheochromocytomas.
  • We report an unusual, partially oncocytic cortical neoplasm with nesting architecture, intranuclear inclusions, and hyaline globules reminiscent of pheochromocytoma, together with numerous, small, brightly eosinophilic, periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and typical cytoplasmic lipid droplets.
  • Immunohistochemistry and immunoblots were utilized to further characterize the tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated immunoreactivity of both the eosinophilic inclusions and the hyaline globules for adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), which is one of a group of proteins associated with storage of neutral lipids in many cell types.
  • Immunoblots confirmed the presence of ADRP and demonstrated an imbalance between ADRP and perilipin, another neutral lipid-associated protein, in tumor tissue compared to normal adrenal cortex.
  • The findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction in oncocytic cortical tumors may lead to abnormal processing of proteins related to the lipid-storing functions of the adrenal cortex, resulting in unusual cytoplasmic inclusions and extracellular globules resembling the globules in pheochromocytomas.
  • The finding of ADRP as a constituent of inclusions in adrenal cortical tumors has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18688642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / perilipin 2
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49. Behrend EN, Weigand CM, Whitley EM, Refsal KR, Young DW, Kemppainen RJ: Corticosterone- and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical tumor in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 May 15;226(10):1662-6, 1659
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Corticosterone- and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical tumor in a dog.
  • An adrenal gland tumor was visualized via ultrasonography and computed tomography.
  • Histologic examination confirmed that the mass was an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Excess adrenal secretion of corticosterone was hypothesized to be the cause of the signs of glucocorticoid excess.
  • Treatment with mitotane was instituted and successful for a period of 4-months until the dog was euthanatized for neurologic problems that were most likely unrelated to endocrine disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Aldosterone / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Corticosterone / secretion. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15906564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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50. Castellano JJ, Warren MW, Arroyo MR, Cendan JC: Laparoscopic resection of a virilizing adrenocortical tumor. JSLS; 2008 Jul-Sep;12(3):343-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a virilizing adrenocortical tumor.
  • Virilizing adrenocortical tumors are rare.
  • Herein, we describe a case of laparoscopic resection of a testosterone-producing adrenal tumor in a sixteen-year-old female.

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  • (PMID = 18765068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015862
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51. Saeger W, Fassnacht M: [Effects of drugs on the adrenal cortex and its tumors]. Pathologe; 2006 Feb;27(1):61-4
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  • [Title] [Effects of drugs on the adrenal cortex and its tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Wirkungen von Medikamenten auf die Nebennierenrinde und ihre Tumoren.
  • The structure of the normal adrenal cortex is changed by stimulating hormones (ACTH) and inhibiting hormonal drugs (especially glucocorticoids).
  • In the therapy of patients with adrenocortical cancer, mitotane can cause an increase in of necrosis and fibrosis, but also in intracellular lipid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16320017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0O54ZQ14I9 / Aminoglutethimide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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52. Pascual Piédrola JI, Cuesta Alcalá JA, Grasa Lanau V, Labairu Huerta L, Napal Lecumberri S, Ipiens Aznar AP: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Reflections after 24 procedures]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Feb;31(2):98-105
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Adrenalectomía laparoscópica. Consideraciones a propósito de 24 procedimientos.
  • Currently it is the technique of choice for the surgical treatment of the adrenal gland.
  • Surgery was bilateral in two cases (one was MEN II, the other bilateral cortical hyperplasia).
  • Clinical diagnosis was: Pheochromocytoma (n = 10), Cushing (n = 6), Conn (n = 4), metastases from lung carcinoma (n = 2) and non-functioning tumor (n = 2).
  • Tumour diameter was between 1.3 and 6 cm (mean 3.08 +/- 1.25 cm) and tumour weight was between 8 and 92g (mean 30.13 +/- 21 g).
  • Cases by histologic type were: nine cortical adenomas, nine pheochromocytomas, three nodular hyperplasias, two metastases from lung carcinoma, and one adrenal pseudocyst.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The adrenal laparoscopic approach is currently the technique of choice for removing adrenal tumours although with malign tumours or over 7 cm in diameter there are some contraindications and disadvantages relative to open surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17645088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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53. Horvath A, Stratakis CA: Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Jun;15(3):227-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • It focuses on the role of genetic defects in cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling-related molecules, namely PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, and PDE8B in the predisposition to tumor formation.
  • This review also discusses the involvement of cAMP signaling and related pathways and their impact on the adrenocortical tumor formation.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular abnormalities in the phosphodiesterases family are the most recently discovered genetic abnormalities that predispose individuals to various adrenocortical tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Recent findings indicate the importance of cAMP signaling for normal adrenocortical functioning and the sensitivity of the adrenal gland to subtle alterations in cAMP levels.
  • The identification of low-penetrance mutations in more than one phosphodiesterase in patients with adrenocortical hyperplasia is suggestive for a complementary role of the different phosphodiesterases in adrenal gland abnormalities and possible involvement of other members of this pathway in adrenocortical tumor defects.

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  • (PMID = 18438169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101741; NLM/ PMC2671149
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54. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Shibru D, Khafnashar E, Chung KW, Hwang J, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):873-81
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  • [Title] Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common genetic change observed in adrenocortical carcinoma is loss of heterozygozity on chromosome 11q13.
  • As genes on this chromosome may be important in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma, we compared their expression profile between benign and malignant adrenocortical tissue.
  • METHODS: We used the Affymetrix GeneChip (U133 plus 2.0) array in 54 adrenocortical tumors (11 carcinoma and 43 benign).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determined the diagnostic accuracy of the differently expressed genes for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found 25 of the 314 genes on chromosome 11q13 to be differentially expressed between adrenocortical carcinoma and benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • All 25 were downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma by 2-fold to 4.8-fold; 21 were validated to be differentially expressed by RT-PCR (Pearson's coefficient>0.5).
  • Six genes (SERPING1, MRPL48, TM7SF2, DDB1, NDUSF8, PRDX5) validated by RT-PCR were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (p<0.05) with an overall accuracy of 89% for SERPING1, 91% for MRPL48, 87% for TM7SF2, 88% for DDB1, 91% for NDUFS8, and 89% for PRDX5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 25 genes located on chromosome 11q13 that are downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and may be candidate tumor suppressor genes.
  • Six of these genes were good diagnostic markers for distinguishing adrenocortical carcinoma from adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18324346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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55. Okayama S, Imagawa K, Naya N, Iwama H, Somekawa S, Kawata H, Horii M, Nakajima T, Uemura S, Saito Y: Blocking T-type Ca2+ channels with efonidipine decreased plasma aldosterone concentration in healthy volunteers. Hypertens Res; 2006 Jul;29(7):493-7
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  • In a previous in vitro study, we clarified that efonidipine dramatically suppresses aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical tumor cells during angiotensin II (Ang II)- and K+-stimulation, whereas nifedipine, a dominant L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, does not.

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  • (PMID = 17044661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Calcium Channels, T-Type; 0 / Dihydropyridines; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 0 / Nitrophenols; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0214FUT37J / nilvadipine; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 40ZTP2T37Q / efonidipine; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; I9ZF7L6G2L / Nifedipine
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56. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative diagnosis of an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is difficult, often leaving size as the principal predictor of malignancy.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Follow-up data, including clinical examination, biochemical analysis, and repeat scans, were reviewed for evidence of local or systemic recurrent disease.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • The mean age of the patients was 49.9 years (range 22-77 years), and the mean tumor size was 69.0 mm (range 60-80 mm).
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • Two patients died of systemic recurrent disease (liver metastases) at 10 and 19 months, respectively, following surgery; two other patients died 12 and 21 months, respectively following surgery owing to unrelated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology.
  • One patient underwent surgery for local recurrence 54 months after primary surgery; the remaining 14 patients are well with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • We provide an algorithm for the approach to adrenocortical tumors > or = 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Wright CB, Brennan L, Brophy P, Kirsh G, Shapiro M, Potter B, Giss S, Lindeman KE, Obial R, Fannin E: Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2008 Feb;49(1):79-81
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension.
  • She proved, however, to have an adrenal cortical carcinoma which displaced the kidney, exhibiting vascular invasion within the gland and non-adherent extension into the vena cava, atrium, common hepatic vein and left renal vein, where some adherence was present.
  • This unusual tumor required extensive surgery for removal, including use of cardiopulmonary bypass, with good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Heart Atria / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18212691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Toledo RA, Mendonca BB, Fragoso MC, Soares IC, Almeida MQ, Moraes MB, Lourenço DM Jr, Alves VA, Bronstein MD, Toledo SP: Isolated familial somatotropinoma: 11q13-loh and gene/protein expression analysis suggests a possible involvement of aip also in non-pituitary tumorigenesis. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Apr;65(4):407-15
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  • OBJECTIVE: Non-pituitary tumors have been reported in a subset of patients harboring germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene.
  • However, no detailed investigations of non-pituitary tumors of AIP-mutated patients have been reported so far.
  • Subsequently, the mother developed a large virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma and a grade II B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Analyzing the tumoral DNA revealed that the AIP wild-type allele was lost in the daughter's somatotropinoma and the mother's adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Both tumors displayed low AIP protein expression levels.
  • Low AIP gene expression was confirmed by qPCR in the adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • No evidence of LOH was observed in the DNA sample from the mother's B-cell lymphoma, and this tumor displayed normal AIP immunostaining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents the first molecular analysis of non-pituitary tumors in AIP-mutated patients.
  • The finding of AIP inactivation in the adrenocortical tumor suggests that further investigation of the potential role of this recently identified tumor suppressor gene in non-pituitary tumors, mainly in those tumors in which the cAMP and the 11q13 locus are implicated, is likely to be worthwhile.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Gene Expression. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20454499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2862671
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; AIP / Acromegaly / Adrenocortical tumor / FIPA / pituitary tumor
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60. Chevalier N, Carrier P, Piche M, Chevallier A, Wagner K, Tardy V, Benchimol D, Fénichel P: Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):56-9
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Large adrenal tumors are rarely associated with adrenal enzymatic deficiency, except in 11-ss-hydroxylase insufficiency.
  • These tumors are exceptionally malignant.
  • We report here the case of a patient with a congenital 21-hydroxylase deficiency (compound heterozygote for two severe mutations in the CYP21A2 gene) untreated for 20 years.
  • His evaluation at 36 years of age showed a four-centimeter mass in the left adrenal gland, with most characteristics suggestive of malignancy (CT and positron emission tomography [PET] scan).
  • We performed a surgical resection that established the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor of uncertain prognosis (Weiss's score: 3).
  • Even though malignant tumors are unusual in adrenal deficiency, our observation shows the need for a replacement therapy during adulthood, with a regular CT scan follow up in order to diagnose early isolated adrenal adenoma and remove it in case of malignancy suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; EC 1.14.99.10 / CYP21A2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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61. Ziegler CG, Brown JW, Schally AV, Erler A, Gebauer L, Treszl A, Young L, Fishman LM, Engel JB, Willenberg HS, Petersenn S, Eisenhofer G, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15879-84
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  • [Title] Expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in human adrenal tumors and cell lines: antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues.
  • A hallmark of adrenocortical tumor formation is the aberrant expression of peptide receptors relating to uncontrolled cell proliferation and hormone overproduction.
  • Our microarray results have also demonstrated a differential expression of neuropeptide hormone receptors in tumor subtypes of human pheochromocytoma.
  • In light of these findings, we performed a comprehensive analysis of relevant receptors in both human adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tumors and tested the antiproliferative effects of peptide analogues targeting these receptors.
  • Specifically, we examined the receptor expression of somatostatin-type-2 receptor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor or GHRH receptor splice variant-1 (SV-1) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor at the mRNA and protein levels in normal human adrenal tissues, adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, and cell lines.
  • Cytotoxic derivatives of somatostatin AN-238 and, to a lesser extent, AN-162, reduced cell numbers of uninduced and NGF-induced adrenomedullary pheochromocytoma cells and adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Both the splice variant of GHRH receptor SV-1 and the LHRH receptor were also expressed in adrenocortical cancer cell lines but not in the pheochromocytoma cell line.
  • The GHRH receptor antagonist MZ-4-71 and LHRH antagonist Cetrorelix both significantly reduced cell growth in the adrenocortical cancer cell line.
  • In conclusion, the expression of receptors for somatostatin, GHRH, and LHRH in the normal human adrenal and in adrenal tumors, combined with the growth-inhibitory effects of the antitumor peptide analogues, may make possible improved treatment approaches to adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuropeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, Neuropeptide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / analogs & derivatives. 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine / pharmacology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aniline Compounds / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cytostatic Agents / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Gene Expression. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. PC12 Cells. Pyrroles / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Receptors, LHRH / genetics. Receptors, LHRH / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19717419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AN 238; 0 / Aniline Compounds; 0 / Cytostatic Agents; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 2PK59M9GFF / vapreotide; 33189-65-0 / N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-2,5-dichloroaniline; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7568-93-6 / 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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62. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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63. Soon PS, Libe R, Benn DE, Gill A, Shaw J, Sywak MS, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Gicquel C, Bertherat J, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB, Robinson BG: Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Ann Surg; 2008 Jan;247(1):157-64
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimal common region of loss on 17p13 in a cohort of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (defined by a Weiss score > or =3) and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (defined by a Weiss score <3) and subsequently to assess 3 genes in this region that could be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • METHODS: Using 12 microsatellite markers across 17p13, LOH analysis was performed on 37 paired blood and adrenocortical tumor samples (23 ACC and 14 ACA samples) to determine the minimal common region of loss for ACCs and ACAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 18156936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 1.13.11.31 / Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.3.- / Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases
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64. Doghman M, Karpova T, Rodrigues GA, Arhatte M, De Moura J, Cavalli LR, Virolle V, Barbry P, Zambetti GP, Figueiredo BC, Heckert LL, Lalli E: Increased steroidogenic factor-1 dosage triggers adrenocortical cell proliferation and cancer. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Dec;21(12):2968-87
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  • [Title] Increased steroidogenic factor-1 dosage triggers adrenocortical cell proliferation and cancer.
  • Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1/Ad4BP; NR5A1), a nuclear receptor transcription factor, has a pivotal role in adrenal and gonadal development in humans and mice.
  • A frequent feature of childhood adrenocortical tumors is SF-1 amplification and overexpression.
  • Here we show that an increased SF-1 dosage can by itself augment human adrenocortical cell proliferation through concerted actions on the cell cycle and apoptosis.
  • Consistent with these results, increased SF-1 levels selectively modulate the steroid secretion profile of adrenocortical cells, reducing cortisol and aldosterone production and maintaining dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate secretion.
  • On the other hand, sphingosine, which can compete with phospholipids for binding to SF-1, had no effect on the SF-1 dosage-dependent increase of adrenocortical cell proliferation and expression of the FATE1 promoter.
  • In mice, increased Sf-1 dosage produces adrenocortical hyperplasia and formation of tumors expressing gonadal markers (Amh, Gata-4), which originate from the subcapsular region of the adrenal cortex.
  • Our studies reveal a critical role for SF-1 dosage in adrenocortical tumorigenesis and constitute a rationale for the development of drugs targeting SF-1 transcriptional activity for adrenocortical tumor therapy.

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  • (PMID = 17761949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5911/ GSE5912
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD038498; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54-HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Steroids; 4QD397987E / Histidine
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65. Galac S, Kooistra HS, Voorhout G, van den Ingh TS, Mol JA, van den Berg G, Meij BP: Hyperadrenocorticism in a dog due to ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;28(3):338-48
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  • Spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism in dogs is known to be the result of excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland or excessive autonomous glucocorticoid secretion by an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Here, we report on an 8-year-old German shepherd dog in which ACTH-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was a result of ectopic ACTH secretion and could be related to an abdominal neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Ultrasonography revealed two equivalently enlarged adrenal glands, consistent with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • Histological examination of the pituitary gland revealed no neoplasia.
  • Histological examination revealed a metastasized neuroendocrine tumor.
  • In conclusion, the combination of (1) severe dexamethasone-resistant hyperadrenocorticism with elevated circulating ACTH levels, (2) definitive demonstration of the absence of pituitary neoplasia, and (3) an abdominal neuroendocrine tumor allowed the diagnosis of ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Dog Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Abdominal Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Dogs. Hydrocortisone / blood. Liver / ultrasonography. Male. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secretion. Neuroendocrine Tumors / veterinary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary. Ultrasonography / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15760674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0739-7240
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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66. De Groot PC, Van Kamp IL, Zweers EJ, De Kroon CD, Van Wijngaarden WJ: Oligohydramnios in a pregnant woman with Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical adenoma. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med; 2007 May;20(5):431-4
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  • [Title] Oligohydramnios in a pregnant woman with Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • A 28-year-old primigravida with severe oligohydramnios and pre-eclamptic symptoms was found to have Cushing's syndrome caused by an adrenocortical tumor.
  • As clinical features of pre-eclampsia and Cushing's syndrome may overlap, diagnosis can be delayed or even missed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Oligohydramnios / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fetal Death. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Pre-Eclampsia. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17674251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-7058
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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67. Lee R, Al-Ahmadie HA, Boorjian SA, Gonzalez RR, Badillo C, Badillo F, Reuter VE, Steckel J: A case of incidental adrenocortical oncocytoma. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2006 Nov;3(11):618-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of incidental adrenocortical oncocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: A 39-year-old female presented with an incidentally discovered left adrenal mass.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Oncocytic adrenocortical tumor, or adrenal oncocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17088930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Millard RP, Pickens EH, Wells KL: Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Feb 15;234(4):505-8
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  • [Title] Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass in the region of the right adrenal gland.
  • Results of adrenal hormonal analyses revealed considerable increases in serum concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: A mass associated with the right adrenal gland was found during exploratory laparotomy.
  • Adrenalectomy of the right adrenal gland was performed, and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adrenal gland tumors can produce a variety of hormones other than cortisol.
  • An adrenal gland tumor should be considered in neutered cats with newly developed physical and behavioral changes of a sexual nature.
  • In the absence of debilitating conditions that are often associated with hyperadrenocorticism, cats undergoing adrenalectomy for an adrenal gland tumor that is producing sex hormones may have resolution of clinical signs and a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Androstenedione / blood. Cat Diseases / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19222361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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69. Toniato A, Boschin I, Bernante P, Opocher G, Guolo AM, Pelizzo MR, Mantero F: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma: is it really more difficult? Surg Endosc; 2007 Aug;21(8):1323-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the gold standard technique for almost all the adrenal masses, but several Authors still debate about LA in pheochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare feasibility and safety of LA for pheo and analyze the results relative to LA for incidentaloma, Conn's disease and Cushing's disease.
  • METHODS: Between January 1994 and March 2006, 167 LAs were carried out in 160 consecutive patients at our Department and 46 of them were affected by pheo, 60 by Conn's disease, 34 by adrenal incidentaloma and 20 by Cushing's disease.
  • RESULTS: Successful LA was performed in 159 out of 167 cases (95.2%).
  • LA for patients with Cushing's disease (average length of hospital stay and intraoperative blood loss, p < 0.023 and p > 0.002 respectively) and with adrenal incidentaloma (intraoperative blood loss p < 0.009) seems to be a more challenging procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: The evaluation of this relatively large monoinstitutional experience suggests that LA could be considered the most suitable method for removing pheochromocytoma.
  • This tumour tends to be larger than most functional cortical adenomas, nevertheless it allows even a significant reduction in operating time with a faster recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery


70. Müller-Vieira U, Angotti M, Hartmann RW: The adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI-H295R as an in vitro screening system for the evaluation of CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP11B1 (steroid-11beta-hydroxylase) inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Aug;96(3-4):259-70
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  • [Title] The adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI-H295R as an in vitro screening system for the evaluation of CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP11B1 (steroid-11beta-hydroxylase) inhibitors.
  • For studies of the effects of CYP11B2 inhibitors on the adrenal cortex, we selected the NCI-H295R cell line which expresses most of the key enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Line, Tumor. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Aldosterone / metabolism. Aromatase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Fadrozole / pharmacology. Humans. Steroids / analysis. Steroids / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15985365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Steroids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; H3988M64PU / Fadrozole
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71. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Significant modifications concern carcinomas of the oesophagus, oesophagogastric junction, stomach, appendix, biliary tract, lung, skin, prostate and ophthalmic tumours, which will be not addressed in this article.
  • For several tumour entities only minor changes were introduced which might be of importance in daily practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm Staging / trends. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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72. Markou A, Tsigou K, Papadogias D, Kossyvakis K, Vamvakidis K, Kounadi T, Piaditis G: A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):226-30
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • We present a 39-year old female with a benign adrenal tumor characterized by autonomous secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone.
  • CT of the adrenals revealed a 2.5 x 3.0 cm tumor with characteristics of an adenoma on the left adrenal gland.
  • Further investigations revealed suppressed basal ACTH levels, loss of diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and failure to suppress on low dose dexamethasone suppression test, suggesting autonomous cortisol secretion by the tumor.
  • Complete clinical and biochemical remission of the disease was observed after left adrenalectomy.
  • Histology confirmed the presence of an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The flare-up of an autoimmune disease (multiple sclerosis) postoperatively could be coincidental or possibly related to the high normalization of the high cortisol levels acting as a precipitating factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Sclerosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16613821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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73. Mannelli M, Cantini G, Poli G, Mangoni M, Nesi G, Canu L, Rapizzi E, Borgogni E, Ercolino T, Piccini V, Luconi M: Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:23-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells.
  • In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge on PPAR-γ in normal and tumoral corticotropic pituitary and adrenal cells.
  • The receptor expression has been shown in ACTH-secreting cells in both normal and adenomal pituitary as well as in normal and tumor adrenal cortex.
  • Preclinical studies conducted both in vitro on tumor cells and in vivo on xenograft tumor models obtained by subcutaneous injection of cancer cells have evidenced the anticancer properties of TZD, in particular rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PIO).
  • In both pituitary and adrenocortical cancer, RGZ treatment results in inhibition of cell proliferation, through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis, leading to significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft tumor models.
  • In addition, since RGZ can reduce ACTH and corticosterone secretion in mouse corticotropic pituitary tumors, both RGZ and PIO have been used in the treatment of Cushing's disease with variable but generally unsatisfactory results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Corticotrophs / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20829614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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74. Horvath A, Boikos S, Giatzakis C, Robinson-White A, Groussin L, Griffin KJ, Stein E, Levine E, Delimpasi G, Hsiao HP, Keil M, Heyerdahl S, Matyakhina L, Libè R, Fratticci A, Kirschner LS, Cramer K, Gaillard RC, Bertagna X, Carney JA, Bertherat J, Bossis I, Stratakis CA: A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia. Nat Genet; 2006 Jul;38(7):794-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A genome-wide scan identifies mutations in the gene encoding phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A) in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia.
  • Increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling has been associated with PRKAR1A or GNAS mutations and leads to adrenocortical tumors and Cushing syndrome.
  • We investigated the genetic source of Cushing syndrome in individuals with adrenocortical hyperplasia that was not caused by known defects.
  • We performed genome-wide SNP genotyping, including the adrenocortical tumor DNA.
  • Tumor tissues showed 2q31-2q35 LOH, decreased protein expression and high cyclic nucleotide levels and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation.
  • PDE11A codes for a dual-specificity PDE that is expressed in adrenal cortex and is partially inhibited by tadalafil and other PDE inhibitors; its germline inactivation is associated with adrenocortical hyperplasia, suggesting another means by which dysregulation of cAMP signaling causes endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Mutation. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / genetics


75. Ragazzon B, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Val P, Sahut-Barnola I, Tournaire C, Chambon C, Gachancard-Bouya JL, Begue RJ, Veyssière G, Martinez A: Adrenocorticotropin-dependent changes in SF-1/DAX-1 ratio influence steroidogenic genes expression in a novel model of glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cell lines derived from targeted tumorigenesis. Endocrinology; 2006 Apr;147(4):1805-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocorticotropin-dependent changes in SF-1/DAX-1 ratio influence steroidogenic genes expression in a novel model of glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cell lines derived from targeted tumorigenesis.
  • We established the first adrenocortical tumor cell lines with complete zona fasciculata (ZF) cell phenotype from tumors induced in transgenic mice by large T-antigen of simian virus 40 under the control of the aldose reductase-like akr1b7 gene promoter.
  • Adrenocortical tumor cell lines produced high amounts of corticosterone and were responsive to ACTH.
  • Taking advantage of these cells, we have examined the effect of ACTH on DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita critical region on X-chromosome, gene 1) and SF-1 (steroidogenic factor 1), two transcription factors known to respectively repress and activate adrenocortical steroidogenesis by acting on common target genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Corticosterone / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis. Zona Fasciculata / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex. Aldehyde Reductase / genetics. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Steroidogenic Factor 1

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  • (PMID = 16439455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.1.1.21 / Akr1b7 protein, mouse; EC 1.1.1.21 / Aldehyde Reductase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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76. Assié G, Guillaud-Bataille M, Ragazzon B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Clauser E: The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;21(5):325-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pathophysiology, diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors revisited by transcriptome analyses.
  • Accumulating data on adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumor transcriptomes have already identified striking transcriptome differences not only between adenoma and carcinoma but also between two sets of carcinoma, which have very different prognoses.
  • These transcriptome data observing adrenocortical tumor phenotype in great but complex detail, combined with genomic and proteomic information, will function for future research investigating the pathophysiology of their tumorigenesis and hormonal secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Animals. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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77. Kumar S, Mandal AK, Acharya N, Thingnam SK, Bhalla V, Singh SK: Superior mesenteric artery injury during en bloc excision of a massive left adrenal tumor. Urol Int; 2007;78(2):182-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Superior mesenteric artery injury during en bloc excision of a massive left adrenal tumor.
  • We report the first case of inadvertent injury of the superior mesenteric artery during surgery of a large malignant adrenocortical tumor with inferior vena cava thrombus.
  • The cause of inadvertent injury was anatomical distortion of the great vessels due to the massive nature of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Mesenteric Artery, Superior / injuries

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17293663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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78. Stránský P, Hora M, Eret V, Klecka J, Urge T, Grégrová H, Dvoráková E, Hes O, Chudácek Z, Kreuzberg B: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy]. Rozhl Chir; 2009 Sep;88(9):514-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopy has become the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumours in urology.
  • We evaluate our experience with laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in this work.
  • MATERIAL, METHODS: We performed 38 LA between 2003-2008.
  • Nine LA were made in men (24%), in women 29 (76%).
  • Sixteen tumours (42%) were hormonal active (7 pheochromocytoma, 6 primary hyperaldosteronism, 3 peripheral hypercortisolism).
  • Twenty-two tumours were without hormonal activity.
  • Mean tumour size was 4.1 +/- 2 cm (range 1-10.1 cm), mean operation time was 89 +/- 38 minutes (range 32-220 minutes), mean blood loss was 33 +/- 75 ml (range 0-400 ml), mean hospitalization time was 6.1 days (range 3-12 days).
  • There were histologically 15 cortical adenomas, 5 nodular cortical hyperplasia, 1 calcificated hematoma, 3 cysts, 2 potentional malignant tumours on interface between adenoma and carcinoma, 1 cortical carcinoma and 7 pheochromocytoma.
  • We found 3 metastases of renal carcinoma in adrenal gland and one metastasis mesenchymal chondrosarcoma too.
  • CONCLUSION: LA is a quick and safe procedure with minimal morbidity and mortality.
  • Especially benign tumours of smaller size (by 8 cm) are indicated, extensive and especially malignant tumours remain a domain of open approach.
  • Previous operations in abdominal cavity do not have to be a contraindication for LA and operation is possible in patients with monster obesity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20052929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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79. Ranganathan S, Lynshue K, Hunt JL, Kane T, Jaffe R: Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;8(4):483-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are uncommon neoplasms in childhood.
  • Most pediatric adrenal tumors are virilizing and carcinomas are more common than adenomas.
  • Recent molecular data suggest an adenoma-to-carcinoma progression sequence in adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with virilizing symptoms secondary to an adrenal tumor that was resected laparoscopically.
  • The bulk of the tumor was a large, yellow mass with typical features of an adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Child, Preschool. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Hirsutism / etiology. Hirsutism / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16010500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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80. Szekeres M, Turu G, Orient A, Szalai B, Süpeki K, Cserzo M, Várnai P, Hunyady L: Mechanisms of angiotensin II-mediated regulation of aldosterone synthase expression in H295R human adrenocortical and rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Apr 29;302(2):244-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms of angiotensin II-mediated regulation of aldosterone synthase expression in H295R human adrenocortical and rat adrenal glomerulosa cells.
  • In adrenal zona glomerulosa cells angiotensin II (Ang II) is a key regulator of steroidogenesis.
  • Our purpose was to compare the mechanisms of Ang II-induced changes in the expression level of early transcription factors NR4A1 (NGFIB) and NR4A2 (Nurr1) genes, and the CYP11B2 gene encoding aldosterone synthase in H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells and in primary rat adrenal glomerulosa cells.
  • Real-time PCR studies have demonstrated that Ang II increased the expression levels of NR4A1 and NR4A2 in H295R cells within 1 h after stimulation, which persisted up to 6 h; whereas in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells the kinetics of the expression of these genes were more rapid and transient.
  • Studies using MEK inhibitor (PD98059, 20 microM), protein kinase C inhibitor (BIM1, 3 microM) and calmodulin kinase (CAMK) inhibitor (KN93, 10 microM) revealed that in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells CAMK-mediated mechanisms play a predominant role in the regulation of CYP11B2.
  • These data suggest that the previously reported CAMK-mediated stimulation of early transcription factors NGFIB and Nurr1 has a predominant role in Ang II-induced CYP11B2 activation in rat adrenal glomerulosa cells, whereas in H295R cells ERK activation and G protein-independent mechanisms also contribute to this process.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Angiotensin II / pharmacology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Zona Glomerulosa / cytology

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  • (PMID = 19418629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transcription Factors; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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81. Zou CC, Liang L, Dong GP, Zhao ZY: Peripheral precocious puberty: a retrospective study for six years in Hangzhou, China. J Paediatr Child Health; 2008 Jul-Aug;44(7-8):415-8
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  • Congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia (CAH) patients with a median age of 0.2 years were younger than other patients.
  • Major cause of PPP was gonadal abnormalities (34.1%), including 24 girls with autonomous isolated ovarian cysts, one with Sertoli's cell ovarian tumour, five with testicular tumours and one with testotoxicosis.

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  • (PMID = 18564081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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82. Lichtenauer UD, Shapiro I, Geiger K, Quinkler M, Fassnacht M, Nitschke R, Rückauer KD, Beuschlein F: Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R. Endocrinology; 2008 Mar;149(3):1314-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Side population does not define stem cell-like cancer cells in the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI h295R.
  • Recent evidence suggests the existence of a stem cell-like subpopulation of cells in hematological and solid tumor entities, which determine the malignant phenotype of a given tumor through their proliferative potential and chemotherapy resistance.
  • Herein we demonstrate the presence of SP cells in a variety of adrenal specimens, including primary cultures of human adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands as well as established human and murine adrenocortical cancer cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and confocal microscopy.
  • On a functional level, SP cells from the human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295R revealed an expression pattern consistent with a less differentiated phenotype, including lower expression of steroidogenic enzymes such as steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in comparison with non-SP cells.
  • Similarly to the baseline growth kinetics, no survival benefit was evident in SP cells after treatment with cytotoxic agents commonly used in adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Taken together, these findings provide evidence that Hoechst dye exclusion, in contrast to what has been reported for other tumor entities, is not a major tumor stem cell defining marker in adrenocortical NCI h295R tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Humans. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18063677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
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83. Emeriau D, Vallee V, Tauzin-Fin P, Ballanger P: [Morbidity of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to the indication. Report of a series of 100 consecutive cases]. Prog Urol; 2005 Sep;15(4):626-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Morbidity of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy according to the indication. Report of a series of 100 consecutive cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Morbidité de la surrénalectomie laparoscopique uni et bilatérale selon l'indication: a propos de 100 cas consécutifs.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the reference technique for the treatment of adrenal tumours.
  • The mean tumour diameter was 44 mm [10-120 mm].
  • Histology revealed 25 Conn adenomas, 20 cortisol-secreting adenomas and Cushing syndrome, 22 phaeochromocytomas, 20 metastases, 2 adrenal cortical adenomas, and 11 incidentalomas.
  • Four patients in the group with secondary adrenal tumours were alive without recurrence 18, 20, 44 and 48 months after adrenalectomy.
  • Tumours larger than 8 cm can be resected, but with a higher morbidity.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for malignant tumours is associated with higher morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 16459675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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84. Wagner S, Kiupel M, Peterson RA 2nd, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol; 2008 Jul;45(4):439-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen.
  • The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue.
  • We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17.
  • Cyt b(5) immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96%) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production.
  • Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b(5), which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets.
  • Other markers characteristic of gonadal somatic cells, such as luteinizing hormone receptor, aromatase, and GATA4, were coexpressed with cyt b(5) in some of the tumors.
  • We concluded that cyt b(5) is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors.

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  • [Cites] Vet Pathol. 2003 Mar;40(2):136-42 [12637752.001]
  • [Cites] J Endocrinol. 1983 Dec;99(3):361-8 [6417256.001]
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  • (PMID = 18587089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45245; NLM/ PMC2497446
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85. Lerario AM, Mendonça BB, Lin CJ: [Molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):753-68

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis].
  • [Transliterated title] Avanços recentes no conhecimento dos mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na tumorigênese adrenocortical.
  • The adrenocortical tumorigenesis is a complex process, which involves multiple genetic changes.
  • A better knowledge on the mechanisms involved in tumor development would enable an early identification of malignant disease and also lead to the development of new treatment strategies.
  • Although in the recent years a large amount of data was produced, the exact mechanisms that lead to adrenocortical tumor development remains poorly understood.
  • A genome-wide approach, such as microarrays, will surely shed some light into the mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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86. Hantel C, Beuschlein F: Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):865-75
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are heterogeneous tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • The rarity of this disorder causes a lack of treatment experience and material availability which is necessary to optimize existing treatments and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Although surgery is still the treatment of choice, adjuvant therapies are urgently needed as the rate of recurrence for these tumors is high.
  • In recent years molecular characterization of surgical tumor specimen has aided in the understanding of disease mechanisms and definition of therapeutic targets also in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Here we give an overview on rodent models that have been described to either have adrenocortical tumors as part of their phenotype or have been utilized for therapeutic screens as adrenocortical tumor models.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Models, Animal
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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87. Oki K, Yamane K, Sakashita Y, Kamei N, Watanabe H, Toyota N, Shigeta M, Sasano H, Kohno N: Primary aldosteronism and hypercortisolism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2008 Oct;12(5):382-7
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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism and hypercortisolism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • A 50-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of hypertension was referred to our hospital for evaluation of bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • Computed tomographic scan showed 10-mm masses in each adrenal gland.
  • The results of a subsequent adrenal venous catheterization study were consistent with the presence of a left cortisol-producing tumor and a right aldosterone-producing tumor.
  • This is an extremely rare case of bilateral adrenal tumors, in which the left adrenocortical tumor produced and secreted cortisol or both cortisol and aldosterone and the right one produced and secreted both aldosterone and cortisol, as confirmed by clinical findings and pathological studies using immunohistochemical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18543063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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88. Beuschlein F, Reincke M: Adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Nov;1088:319-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • Through the widespread use of imaging techniques with great sensitivity adrenal tumors are often diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • Although the majority of these adrenal lesions are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity or malignancy, hormone hypersecretion needs to be ruled out by specific tests.
  • In addition to the classical forms of overt adrenocortical hypersecretion, it has become evident over the recent years that modest adrenocortical steroid autonomy as present in normokalemic primary aldosteronism and subclinical Cushing's syndrome is also associated with a significant morbidity.
  • However, detection and differential diagnosis of these subtle changes in adrenal steroidogenesis can pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician and is dependent on tests with reliable sensitivity and specificity.
  • Regulation of adrenocortical development and growth, which results in clinical symptoms if disrupted, is dependent upon the distinct spatiotemporal expression of a variety of transcription factors as well as stimulation by extra-adrenal peptide hormones.
  • Contributions to the elucidation of growth regulation of the adrenal cortex come from rare familiar syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumors, expression studies of adrenal tumor samples, in vitro studies on adrenocortical tumor cell lines, and mouse models displaying adrenal growth defects.
  • In this review, we will summarize the important molecular aspects of adrenal tumorigenesis and highlight some prospects for clinical applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17192577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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89. Forti FL, Costa ET, Rocha KM, Moraes MS, Armelin HA: c-Ki-ras oncogene amplification and FGF2 signaling pathways in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line. An Acad Bras Cienc; 2006 Jun;78(2):231-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] c-Ki-ras oncogene amplification and FGF2 signaling pathways in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line.
  • The mouse Y1 adrenocortical tumor cell line is highly responsive to FGF2-(Fibroblast Growth Factor 2) and possesses amplified and over-expressed c-Ki-ras proto-oncogene.
  • On the other hand, activation levels of another important pathway downstream of c-Ki-Ras-GTP, namely, Raf-->MEK-->ERK, remain strictly dependent on FGF2 stimulation (Rocha et al. 2003).
  • Here we show that, first, FGF2 transiently up-regulates the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt pathway, in spite of its high basal levels.
  • But, Y1 cells, expressing dominant negative mutant RasN17, display a rapid and transient up-regulation of c-H-Ras-GTP upon FGF2 treatment.
  • Elucidation of FGF2-signaling pathways in Y1 tumor cells can uncover new targets for drug development of interest in cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Gene Amplification. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mice


90. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Zambetti GP, Ribeiro RC: Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):265-73
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  • [Title] Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are very aggressive endocrine neoplasms whose incidence is quite low.
  • In recent years, however, new information has been derived from the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry (IPACTR), and new clues to its pathogenesis have emerged.
  • Two-thirds of patients have resectable tumors.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with mitotane is indicated for unresectable or metastatic disease, although its impact on overall outcome is slight.
  • In childhood ACT, age, tumor size, and tumor resectability are the most important prognostic indicators.
  • Outcome is stage-dependent; patients with small, resectable tumors have survival rates in excess of 80%, whereas the outcome for patients with unresectable disease is dismal.
  • Patients with large, resectable tumors have an intermediate outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Infant. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Mutation. Neoplasm Staging. Research. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15747338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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91. Marini F, Falchetti A, Del Monte F, Carbonell Sala S, Gozzini A, Luzi E, Brandi ML: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2006;1:38
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution.
  • The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours) within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours.
  • Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described.
  • MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene.
  • Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions) is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiofibroma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Child. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Male. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / blood. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / secretion. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17014705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 64
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1594566
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070618
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92. Zwermann O, Schulte DM, Reincke M, Beuschlein F: ACTH 1-24 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical tumors in vivo. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Sep;153(3):435-44
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  • [Title] ACTH 1-24 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical tumors in vivo.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although several lines of evidence suggest that the overall effects of the ACTH receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2-R), mediated signal transduction on adrenocortical growth and tumorigenesis are anti-proliferative, activation of MC2-R induces mitogens like jun, fos, and myc and activates the MAPK pathway.
  • In vivo, potential effects of endogenous ACTH on adrenal tumori-genesis can not be separated from effects of other POMC derived peptides.
  • METHODS: Murine adrenocortical tumor cells that lack MC2-R expression (Y6(pcDNA)) and Y6 cells stablely transfected with MC2-R (Y6(MC2-R)) were generated.
  • As a syngenic tumor model, LaHeF1/J mice simultaneously received 10(7) Y6(MC2-R) and Y6(pcDNA) subcutaneously, giving rise to MC2-R positive and negative tumors within the same animal.
  • Animals were treated for 3 weeks in groups of 12 according to the following schedule: group A, control animals receiving saline injection; group B, animals receiving 5.7 ng/injection of a slow release formula of ACTH 1-24 administered i.p. three times a week (aiming at a low physiologic dose); and group C, animals receiving 57 ng/injection of ACTH 1-24 (high physiological dose).
  • RESULTS: Twenty days of ACTH 1-24 treatment did not significantly affect corticosterone levels, endogenous ACTH levels or adrenal and thymus weight compared with saline injection.
  • However, ACTH 1-24 treatment of group B and C mice significantly reduced tumor weight in MC2-R positive tumors in a dose dependent manner (P = 0.03), while no significant difference in tumor mass was observed in MC2-R negative tumors.
  • PCNA and TUNEL staining, together with morphological characterization, demonstrated that these in vivo effects were due to reduced proliferation, while apoptosis and cellular hypertrophy within the tumor remained unchanged.
  • CONCLUSION: MC2-R expression is associated with a less aggressive adrenal tumor phenotype and anti-proliferative effects can be amplified through stimulation with physiological doses of ACTH.

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  • (PMID = 16131607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 16960-16-0 / Cosyntropin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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93. Pinto EM, Billerbeck AE, Fragoso MC, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Deletion mapping of chromosome 17 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors associated with the Arg337His mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2976-81
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  • [Title] Deletion mapping of chromosome 17 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors associated with the Arg337His mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.
  • The human p53 tumor suppressor gene is located at the short arm of chromosome 17.
  • A germinative mutation (Arg337His) in the tetramerization domain of p53 has been frequently identified in Brazilian children with sporadic adrenocortical tumors.
  • In the present study, we performed deletion mapping of chromosome 17 in 30 adrenocortical tumors from 29 Brazilian patients (15 children and 14 adults).
  • One boy had bilateral adrenocortical tumor.
  • Loss of heterozygosity analysis using six polymorphic microsatellite markers disclosed loss of the entire chromosome 17 in 18 tumors (10 adenomas and eight carcinomas) from 17 patients.
  • The concomitant loss of chromosomes 2, 9, 11, and 17 was evidenced exclusively in malignant tumors.
  • Therefore, chromosomal instability involving three or more chromosomes may contribute to define the malignant adrenocortical lesions.
  • In addition, the isolated loss of the entire chromosome 17 did not correlate with aggressive tumor behavior in these patients with adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, p53. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 15741269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Geller JL, Azer PC, Weiss LM, Mertens RB: Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):297-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pigmented adrenocortical carcinoma: case report and review.
  • Darkly pigmented adrenocortical neoplasms are rare tumors that are often referred to as "black adenomas," indicative of both their pigmented nature and their invariably benign clinical behavior in previously reported cases.
  • We herein describe an exceptional case of a malignant pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm, with late recurrence and metastasis.
  • At age 53, this female patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome and underwent a laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, revealing a 3 cm well-circumscribed, darkly pigmented adrenocortical tumor.
  • The tumor exhibited several atypical histologic features and was diagnosed as an atypical pigmented adrenal cortical neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.
  • At subsequent exploratory laparotomy, three separate tumor nodules exhibiting varying degrees of pigmentation and ranging from 2.2 to 3.3 cm maximum dimension were excised.
  • Histologically, the tumor nodules were consistent with local recurrence/metastasis of the patient's previously excised pigmented adrenocortical neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Pigmentation. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17308367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Else T, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD: Evaluation of telomere length maintenance mechanisms in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1442-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of telomere length maintenance mechanisms in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease with an often fatal outcome.
  • The clinical and pathological diagnosis of a malignant vs. benign adrenocortical tumor is sometimes challenging.
  • Telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) are critical for the persistence of the malignant phenotype, but little is known about these mechanisms or their diagnostic value in adrenocortical lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: Tissue samples of diagnostically known adrenocortical neoplasms were evaluated for parameters of known TMMs, telomerase activity (TA), and alternative telomere lengthening (ALT).
  • DESIGN: The study analyzed retrospectively collected frozen adrenocortical tissue samples from the University of Michigan Health System.
  • PATIENT SAMPLES: Samples included 24 ACCs, 11 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and three normal adrenal tissues.
  • None of the normal adrenal tissues (none of three) or ACA (none of 11) samples had signs of an active TMM.
  • Determination of telomere maintenance mechanisms in diagnostically challenging adrenocortical tumors might be of additional diagnostic value in the pathological diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Telomere

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  • (PMID = 18198226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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96. Mathonnet M: [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jun;130(5):303-8
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  • [Title] [Management of adrenal incidentaloma combined with high blood pressure].
  • Hypertension (HTA) is a very common disease but its origin is well known only in 1 to 5% of the cases.
  • HTA is present in half of the patients who have an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinical data, hormonal sampling, computed tomography and adrenal scintigraphies are necessary to identify hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenalectomy is indicated in case of potential malignant tumors and hyperfunctioning tumors.
  • If HTA seems to be not in relation with the adrenal mass, it is recommended to recognize a congenital enzymatic block in order to ovoid an unnecessary adrenalectomy and to search for a preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • The removal of the adrenal mass improves the HTA for half of the patients.
  • If the adrenocortical tumor is nonfunctioning, patients have to be followed during a long time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15935786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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97. Szabó PM, Wiener Z, Tömböl Z, Kovács A, Pócza P, Horányi J, Kulka J, Riesz P, Tóth M, Patócs A, Gaillard RC, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: Differences in the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins in normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Aug;455(2):133-42
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  • [Title] Differences in the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins in normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumors.
  • Histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of several tumors; however, there are no data on its possible involvement in human adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The expression of genes and proteins involved in the biosynthesis (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), action (histamine receptors: HRH1-HRH4), and metabolism of histamine is largely unknown both in the normal human adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • In this study, we examined the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins and histamine content in normal adrenal cortex, benign adrenocortical adenomas, and malignant adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • Fifteen normal adrenals and 43 tumors were studied. mRNA expression was examined by real time RT-PCR.
  • We found that all proteins involved in histamine biosynthesis and action are present both in the normal adrenal cortex and in the tumors studied.
  • HDC expression and histamine content was highest in the normal tissues and lower in benign tumors, whereas it was significantly less in ACCs.
  • Adrenocortical tumorigenesis might, thus, be characterized by reduced histamine biosynthesis; furthermore, different adrenocortical tumor subtypes may show unique histamine receptor expression profiles.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Histamine / metabolism. Histidine Decarboxylase / metabolism. Receptors, Histamine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19568768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HRH4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Histamine; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H1; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H2; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H3; 820484N8I3 / Histamine; EC 4.1.1.22 / Histidine Decarboxylase
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98. Doghman M, Cazareth J, Lalli E: The T cell factor/beta-catenin antagonist PKF115-584 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Aug;93(8):3222-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The T cell factor/beta-catenin antagonist PKF115-584 inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
  • CONTEXT: Mutations of the beta-catenin (CTNNB1) gene are frequently found in adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the small-molecule inhibitor of the T cell factor (Tcf)/beta-catenin complex PKF115-584 on beta-catenin-dependent transcription and proliferation of H295R adrenocortical tumor cells, which harbor mutations in CTNNB1 as well as the TP53 tumor suppressor gene.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inhibitors of the Tcf/beta-catenin complex may prove useful in the treatment of adrenocortical tumors in which multiple genetic alterations have accumulated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. TCF Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. beta Catenin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Genes, p53. Humans. Mutation. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18544621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TCF Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin
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99. Bielinska M, Kiiveri S, Parviainen H, Mannisto S, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and laboratory mouse. Vet Pathol; 2006 Mar;43(2):97-117
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  • [Title] Gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and laboratory mouse.
  • Sex steroid-producing adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas occur frequently in neutered ferrets, but the molecular events underlying tumor development are not well understood.
  • Prepubertal gonadectomy elicits similar tumors in certain inbred or genetically engineered strains of mice, and these mouse models shed light on tumorigenesis in ferrets.
  • In mice and ferrets, the neoplastic adrenocortical cells, which functionally resemble gonadal steroidogenic cells, arise from progenitors in the subcapsular or juxtamedullary region.
  • Tumorigenesis in mice is influenced by the inherent susceptibility of adrenal tissue to gonadectomy-induced hormonal changes.
  • Gonadectomy alters the plasma or local concentrations of steroid hormones and other factors that affect adrenocortical tumor development, including inhibins, activins, and Müllerian inhibiting substance.
  • Cases of human adrenocortical neoplasia have been linked to precocious expression of hormone receptors and to mutations that alter the activity of G-proteins or downstream effectors.
  • Whether such genetic changes contribute to tissue susceptibility to neoplasia in neutered ferrets and mice awaits further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Castration / veterinary. Ferrets

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  • (PMID = 16537928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL61006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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100. Eriksson B, Orlefors H, Oberg K, Sundin A, Bergström M, Långström B: Developments in PET for the detection of endocrine tumours. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;19(2):311-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Developments in PET for the detection of endocrine tumours.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) supplies a range of labelled compounds to be used for the characterization of tumour biochemistry.
  • Some of these have proved to be of value for clinical diagnosis, treatment follow-up, and clinical research. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanning is now a widely accepted imaging approach in clinical oncology, reflecting increased expression of glucose transporters in cancerous tissue.
  • This tracer, however, does not show sufficient uptake in well-differentiated tumours such as neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Endocrine tumours have the unique characteristics of taking up and decarboxylating amine precursors.
  • Using this approach, radiopharmaceuticals such as [(11)C]-5-hydroxytryptophan and [(11)C]-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine for localization of carcinoid and endocrine pancreatic tumours, 6-[(18)F]-fluorodopamine and [(11)C]-hydroxyephedrine for phaeochromocytomas, and [(11)C]-metomidate for adrenal cortical tumours have been developed.
  • Development of new PET radiopharmaceuticals may in the future allow in vivo detection of tumour biological properties, such as malignant potential and responsiveness to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 15763703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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