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1. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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2. Szajerka A, Dziegiel P, Szajerka T, Zabel M, Winowski J, Grzebieniak Z: Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2959-65

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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the metallothionein (MT), maintenance protein 2 (Mcm-2) and Ki-67 expressions in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in comparison to normal tissue and evaluate the correlations between these markers of proliferation and between these markers and tumor diameter.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 was assessed by immunochemistry in forty-eight adrenocortical adenomas, six adrenocortical carcinomas and eleven normal adrenal cortex tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: The expressions of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 in the adrenocortical carcinomas were significantly higher than in the adenomas and normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The levels of Mcm-2 were also higher in the adrenocortical adenomas compared to the normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The Mcm-2 expression showed a positive correlation to the expression of MT in the adrenocortical carcinomas (r=0.773; p<0.05) and to the expression of Ki-67 in the adrenocortical adenomas (r=0.432; p<0.05).
  • The malignant tumor diameter was positively correlated with the MT and Mcm-2 expressions (r=0.766, p<0.05 and r=0.620, p<0.05, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The assessment of Mcm-2 expression seems to be of special importance as a marker of adrenocortical dysplasia and a reliable indicator of malignancy in suspicious masses of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Metallothionein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19031940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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3. Lu HS, Gan MF, Chen HS, Huang SQ: Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):500-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome.
  • The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported.
  • Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Inhibins / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • [Cites] Singapore Med J. 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2 [17609815.001]
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  • (PMID = 18543405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408705
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4. Jarral OA, Todd C, Willson PD: Hemorrhagic shock secondary to spontaneous rupture of a non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour: A case report. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E161-3

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  • [Title] Hemorrhagic shock secondary to spontaneous rupture of a non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour: A case report.
  • After emergency laparotomy, angiography, embolisation and histological investigation, a diagnosis of spontaneous rupture of a benign non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour was made.
  • To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of this diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21749812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3038376
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5. West AN, Ribeiro RC, Jenkins J, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Kriwacki R, Zambetti GP: Identification of a novel germ line variant hotspot mutant p53-R175L in pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma. Cancer Res; 2006 May 15;66(10):5056-62
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel germ line variant hotspot mutant p53-R175L in pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Hotspot mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene result in the disruption of DNA contact points or alter the overall structure of the protein to prevent DNA binding.
  • We have identified a novel germ line variant of the 175 mutant (Arg to Leu; R175L) in a pediatric patient who developed adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Surprisingly, the family is not tumor prone or associated with LFS.
  • In vitro, the R175L mutant displayed an attenuated tumor suppressor activity in the regulation of transcription, colony formation, and apoptosis when compared with wild-type p53 and the R175H mutant.
  • These findings suggest that p53-R175L retains sufficient activity to suppress LFS, but not adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16707427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Koga Y, Ohe K, Gondo S, Watanabe T, Sakamoto R, Nomura M, Okabe T, Kawazoe N, Sasano K, Yanase T: [MEN type I presenting hypokalemia and hypertension, complicated with acromegaly, adrenal cortical tumor and rectal carcinoid tumor]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Nov 10;95(11):2298-301
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  • [Title] [MEN type I presenting hypokalemia and hypertension, complicated with acromegaly, adrenal cortical tumor and rectal carcinoid tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Rectal Neoplasms / complications


7. Al-Zaid T, Alroy J, Pfannl R, Strissel KJ, Powers JF, Layer A, Carpinito G, Tischler AS: Oncocytic adrenal cortical tumor with cytoplasmic inclusions and hyaline globules. Virchows Arch; 2008 Sep;453(3):301-6
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  • [Title] Oncocytic adrenal cortical tumor with cytoplasmic inclusions and hyaline globules.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors, particularly oncocytic tumors, have been reported to contain a variety of intracytoplasmic and intramitochondrial inclusions.
  • Oncocytic cortical tumors can also morphologically mimic pheochromocytomas.
  • We report an unusual, partially oncocytic cortical neoplasm with nesting architecture, intranuclear inclusions, and hyaline globules reminiscent of pheochromocytoma, together with numerous, small, brightly eosinophilic, periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and typical cytoplasmic lipid droplets.
  • Immunohistochemistry and immunoblots were utilized to further characterize the tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated immunoreactivity of both the eosinophilic inclusions and the hyaline globules for adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), which is one of a group of proteins associated with storage of neutral lipids in many cell types.
  • Immunoblots confirmed the presence of ADRP and demonstrated an imbalance between ADRP and perilipin, another neutral lipid-associated protein, in tumor tissue compared to normal adrenal cortex.
  • The findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction in oncocytic cortical tumors may lead to abnormal processing of proteins related to the lipid-storing functions of the adrenal cortex, resulting in unusual cytoplasmic inclusions and extracellular globules resembling the globules in pheochromocytomas.
  • The finding of ADRP as a constituent of inclusions in adrenal cortical tumors has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18688642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / perilipin 2
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8. Ranganathan S, Lynshue K, Hunt JL, Kane T, Jaffe R: Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;8(4):483-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are uncommon neoplasms in childhood.
  • Most pediatric adrenal tumors are virilizing and carcinomas are more common than adenomas.
  • Recent molecular data suggest an adenoma-to-carcinoma progression sequence in adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with virilizing symptoms secondary to an adrenal tumor that was resected laparoscopically.
  • The bulk of the tumor was a large, yellow mass with typical features of an adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Child, Preschool. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Hirsutism / etiology. Hirsutism / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16010500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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9. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Karikari IO, Uschold TD, Selznick LA, Carter JH, Cummings TJ, Friedman AH: Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1144; discussion E1144
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  • [Title] Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors report a primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with spinal dysraphism presenting with bilateral leg pain and urinary frequency.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging, L2 laminectomy with resection of mass, and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of resected mass revealed the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis as a primary intramedullary tumor of adrenal cortical origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of a primary adrenal tumor in the spinal cord is rare and difficult to explain based on our understanding of embryology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Dysraphism / complications

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  • (PMID = 17143207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Raparia K, Ayala AG, Sienko A, Zhai QJ, Ro JY: Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):344-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare, and to our knowledge, only about 23 cases have been reported in the literature, including 13 carcinomas and 10 adenomas.
  • We recently experienced 4 cases of myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms (3 benign and 1 borderline malignancy) and studied the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of these neoplasms.
  • The tumors weighed from 24.1 to 94 g (size, 4.1-9.8 cm).
  • Histologically, the tumor cells were arranged in delicate arborizing cords or trabecula with myxoid areas varying from 30% to 70%.
  • Three tumors were benign and 1 was of borderline morphology with mitoses of 3/10 high-power fields and mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism.
  • The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, synaptophysin, and inhibin but negative for cytokeratin.
  • All patients are alive with no recurrence of their tumors or evidence of metastasis (follow-up of 14-20 months).
  • Myxoid changes in adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare but can be seen in both an adenoma and a tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Because of prominent myxoid changes, other myxoid tumors occurring in the retroperitoneum should be excluded.
  • The usual clinical and histological features can be applied to classify the lesions as benign, borderline tumor, or malignant.
  • In our series, there was no case with frank malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Inhibins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18774497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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12. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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13. Giordano TJ: Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: promise of the 'molecular' approach. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):887-92

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: promise of the 'molecular' approach.
  • Surgical pathologists, using routine histological techniques and tumor morphology, have established the overall taxonomy of adrenal cortical tumors that dictates care of patients with these tumors.
  • However, a novel molecular classification of these tumors would provide numerous benefits to clinicians and patients, including a more accurate classification of diagnostically intermediate tumors, separation of carcinomas into prognostically-relevant subgroups, and optimal selection of therapy.
  • Recent advances towards a molecular classification of adrenal cortical tumors are presented and discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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14. Carden CP, Frentzas S, Langham M, Casamayor I, Stephens AW, Poondru S, Wheaton J, Lippman SM, Kaye SB, Kim ES: Preliminary activity in adrenocortical tumor (ACC) in phase I dose escalation study of intermittent oral dosing of OSI-906, a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):3544

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preliminary activity in adrenocortical tumor (ACC) in phase I dose escalation study of intermittent oral dosing of OSI-906, a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumors.
  • IGF-1R blockade increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth in preclinical models.
  • METHODS: Patients (pt) with advanced solid tumours were enrolled to determine safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and preliminary anti-tumor activity.

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  • (PMID = 27961354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Pianovski MA, Maluf EM, de Carvalho DS, Ribeiro RC, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Boffetta P, Zancanella P, Figueiredo BC: Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):56-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Several reports refer to an increased frequency of adrenal cortex tumors (ACT) among children in Southern Brazil, yet all data have been derived from hospital-based registries.
  • PROCEDURE: We reviewed all death certificates that mentioned ACT or adrenal neuroblastoma (NB) and which were reported to the Paraná State Department of Health between 1998 and 2003, for individuals younger than 15 years who resided in the Curitiba metropolitan region.
  • The ratio of the adrenal NB and ACT age-adjusted mortality rates was 1.43.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of population-based mortality confirms the evidence from hospital-based registries of a clustering of ACT in Southern Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16200634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Paton BL, Novitsky YW, Zerey M, Harrell AG, Norton HJ, Asbun H, Kercher KW, Heniford BT: Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States. Surgery; 2006 Dec;140(6):914-20; discussion 919-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Improvements in the sensitivity of radiographic imaging have lead to an increase in the number of adrenal masses diagnosed.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if technologic advancements have resulted in the diagnosis of earlier-staged adrenal cortical cancer (ACC) and to determine if the survival of patients with ACC has improved over the past 15 years.
  • RESULTS: We identified 602 patients with a mean age of 53 years and an average tumor size of 11.8 cm.
  • Two hundred thirty-eight (39.5%) patients presented with localized disease (stages I and II), and 311 (52%) patients presented with advanced disease (stages III and IV).
  • Patients with masses less than 5 cm were statistically more likely to have localized disease (P <. 001).
  • Age (P = .10), tumor size (P = .85), tumor stage (P = .45), and 5-year survival (P = .5) did not change over the 15-year study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Over the 15-year study, patients with ACC were not diagnosed at an earlier stage or with tumors smaller, and survival did not improve.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17188138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative diagnosis of an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is difficult, often leaving size as the principal predictor of malignancy.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Follow-up data, including clinical examination, biochemical analysis, and repeat scans, were reviewed for evidence of local or systemic recurrent disease.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • The mean age of the patients was 49.9 years (range 22-77 years), and the mean tumor size was 69.0 mm (range 60-80 mm).
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • Two patients died of systemic recurrent disease (liver metastases) at 10 and 19 months, respectively, following surgery; two other patients died 12 and 21 months, respectively following surgery owing to unrelated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology.
  • One patient underwent surgery for local recurrence 54 months after primary surgery; the remaining 14 patients are well with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • We provide an algorithm for the approach to adrenocortical tumors > or = 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. McNicol AM: Assessment of malignancy in adrenal cortical tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):131-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of malignancy in adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The roles of the pathologist in assessing adrenal cortical tumors are, first, to differentiate adenoma from carcinoma, and, second, to assess prognosis when the diagnosis of malignancy is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Molecular Biology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17159245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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20. Giordano TJ: Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):355-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare but interesting endocrine tumor.
  • Its diagnosis is usually straightforward using morphologic assessment and supplemental immunohistochemistry.
  • Here, the relevant molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is reviewed with special reference to those methods (e.g., DNA microarrays) that hold promise for improved diagnosis and prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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21. Bertagna X, Groussin L, Libe R, Bertherat J: [Adrenal cortical carcinoma: advances in the pathophysiology and management of this malignancy]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):87-102; discussion 102-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cortical carcinoma: advances in the pathophysiology and management of this malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Le corticosurrénalome: progrès dans la physiopathologie et la prise en charge d'un cancer rare.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, with only one or two new cases being diagnosed per million subjects per year.
  • The best chances of cure are obtained when a "localized" tumor can undergo "complete" surgical removal.
  • Most often, however, the diagnosis is made when the tumor is already invasive and non secretory Clinical, hormonal and imaging features, including 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scan, can provide strong evidence of malignancy and indicate open surgical excision in expert hands.
  • Recent advances in the genetics of adrenal cortical carcinomas have identified molecular factors that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers.
  • A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these tumors is required in order to develop targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18663984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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22. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for tumors > 6 cm is controversial because of the risk of malignancy, but data to support this position are mostly from small series.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that size is useful for predicting malignancy, and that at a size threshold of > or = 4 cm, the likelihood of malignancy doubles (to 10%) and it is more than ninefold higher for tumors > or = 8 cm (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • We report an interesting morphological alteration in the adrenal of a 72-year-old woman suffering from severe hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Ultrastructural study revealed that the inclusions originated in degenerating mitochondria, explaining their association with the oncocytic phenotype of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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24. Dehner LP, Hill DA: Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors? Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):284-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors?
  • Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children are represented by a disproportionate number of cases that have been diagnosed pathologically as adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs)-as many as 90% of all cortical tumors in some pediatric series.
  • Most are sporadically occurring neoplasms, but ACCs are a manifestation of Beckwith-Wiedemann and Li-Fraumeni syndromes.
  • Tumor weight is seemingly a significant determinant in prognosis at a threshold of greater than 400 g.
  • A risk assessment system is proposed that incorporates tumor weight, localization of tumor to the gland without invasion into the surrounding tissues or organs, and absence of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / pathology. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 19326954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Wu W, Kamma H, Fujiwara M, Yano Y, Satoh H, Hara H, Yashiro T, Ueno E, Aiyoshi Y: Altered expression patterns of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and B1 in the adrenal cortex. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Apr;53(4):487-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Altered expression patterns of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and B1 in the adrenal cortex.
  • Several proteins implicated in hormonogenesis of the adrenal cortex have alternatively spliced isoforms, which respond differently to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
  • We examined the expression of A2 and B1 in normal adrenal cortex and tumors.
  • In three kinds of cortical adenomas autonomously producing hormones, B1 was generally overexpressed and there were no significant differences among them.
  • In cortisol-producing tumors, non-tumor parts of the cortex, which were generally atrophic due to low ACTH, had less B1 protein than normal adrenals.
  • In vitro ACTH stimulation induced a biphasic expression of B1 in an H295R cortical carcinoma cell line, and it paralleled hormonogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Cell Line, Tumor. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15805423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
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26. Cohen MM Jr: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: historical, clinicopathological, and etiopathogenetic perspectives. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 May-Jun;8(3):287-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Complications include neonatal hypoglycemia and an increased risk for Wilms tumor, adrenal cortical carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma, among others.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 16010495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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27. Zaitoon A, Zaitoon MM, Perlmutter AE, Zaslau S: Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report. W V Med J; 2007 May-Jun;103(3):17-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report.
  • We present a case of aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • This diagnosis should be suspected in patients first seen with hypertension and hypokalemia since this tumor may not always be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Aldosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17849670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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28. Gonzalez RJ, Tamm EP, Ng C, Phan AT, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):867-75; discussion 867-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease in which recurrence after surgery is common.
  • RESULTS: The median disease-free survival for all 186 patients was 12 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 37 months.
  • Higher stage at presentation (P = .002) and tumor cortisol production (P = .007) were associated with a worse OS.
  • For patients with stable or responding disease to mitotane, the median OS from date of recurrence was 18 months, compared with 9 months (P = .01) for those who progressed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent ACC who have stable or responding disease to mitotane have a more favorable prognosis than those who progress.
  • Mitotane should be considered in most patients with recurrent ACC, including as preoperative therapy for those with recurrent disease considered for surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18063070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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29. Nomikos IN, Zizi-Serbetzoglou A, Matsakis G, Elemenoglou J, Vamvakopoulos NC: Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features. J BUON; 2008 Jul-Sep;13(3):425-8
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  • [Title] Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features.
  • Abnormal stimulation of adrenal function may be either direct, affecting similarly cortical and medullary secretion, or indirect affecting primarily the medulla.
  • Indirect activation of clinically detectable adrenomedullary function may develop as a physical consequence of a non-functional adrenal tumor exerting pressure on the medulla by its size, location and direction of growth.
  • Our case of an oversized and overweight adrenal tumor associated with expression of late-onset pheochromocytoma-like clinical symptoms may be explained by the physical indirect rather than the biological direct activation of adrenomedullary function like hyperplasia or cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18979561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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30. Makino K, Kojima R, Nakamura H, Morioka M, Iyama K, Shigematsu K, Kuratsu J: Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):121-5
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  • [Title] Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature.
  • Ectopic adrenal cortical neoplasms are extremely rare; few involve the central nervous system (CNS).
  • We report a 17-month-old girl with spinal adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were strongly positive for inhibin-alpha, positive for synaptophysin and vimentin, and negative for GFAP, EMA, S-100, NSA, and chromogranin A.
  • In addition, the nuclei stained positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), which is involved in adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • This case confirms the occurrence of adrenocortical adenoma in the CNS.
  • We suggest that this tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Choristoma. Dura Mater / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Inhibins / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / metabolism. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 21046315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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31. Trimeche Ajmi S, Chadli Chaieb M, Mokni M, Braham R, Ach K, Maaroufi A, Chaieb L: Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Dec;70(6):473-6
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a right heterogeneous adrenal mass measuring 4 x 6 cm with mixed component of fat and adrenal tissue suggesting corticosurrenaloma.
  • In the postoperative course, the patient presented adrenal insufficiency treated with hydrocortisone hemisuccinate.
  • Histological examination showed a single tumor mass composed of an admixed population of adrenal cortical and medullary cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Medulla / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adult. Amenorrhea. Androgens / blood. Chromogranin A / analysis. Cushing Syndrome. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hirsutism. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension. Hypokalemia. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Obesity. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 19878923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chromogranin A; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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32. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex]. Klin Khir; 2005 Jul;(7):42-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex].
  • Possibilities of computer tomography (CT) application for differential diagnosis of tumors of the adrenal cortex (TAC) were studied.
  • While the trustworthy signs of malignancy are absent, it is necessary to conduct morphological verification of the adrenal tumors nature using puncture biopsy and/or intraoperative express-cytological investigation.

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  • (PMID = 16255222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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33. Sangoi AR, McKenney JK: A tissue microarray-based comparative analysis of novel and traditional immunohistochemical markers in the distinction between adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):423-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A tissue microarray-based comparative analysis of novel and traditional immunohistochemical markers in the distinction between adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytoma.
  • We have encountered an increasing number of image-guided adrenal mass biopsies in which the differential diagnosis is adrenal cortical lesion versus pheochromocytoma.
  • In this study, a detailed immunoprofile of 63 adrenal cortical lesions (3 adrenal rests, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 43 adrenal cortical adenomas, 4 adrenal cortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas) was compared with 35 pheochromocytomas using traditional (calretinin, chromogranin, inhibin, melanA, and synaptophysin) and novel [steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), microtubule-associated protein 2, and mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1] antibodies, using tissue microarray technology to simulate small image-guided biopsies.
  • Staining results based on a > or = 1+ and (> or = 2+) intensity threshold were as follows: calretinin-95% (89%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 14% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; chromogranin-0% in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% in pheochromocytomas; inhibin-97% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 6% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; microtubule-associated protein 2-29% (16%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% (89%) in pheochromocytomas; mammalian achaete-scute homolog-1-0% in both adrenal cortical lesions and pheochromocytomas; melanA-94% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 6% (0%) in pheochromocytomas; SF-1-87% (86%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 0% in pheochromocytomas; synaptophysin-67% (59%) in adrenal cortical lesions and 100% in pheochromocytomas.
  • Using an antibody panel consisting of chromogranin plus the nuclear antibody SF-1 and either calretinin or inhibin, while requiring a high-staining intensity threshold, helps to eliminate interpretative issues of artifactual or background reactivity, improves diagnostic sensitivity/specificity, and makes for an effective immunohistochemical approach in distinguishing adrenal cortical lesions from pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Tissue Array Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Artifacts. Biopsy. Calbindin 2. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Inhibins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20154585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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34. Ren R, Guo M, Sneige N, Moran CA, Gong Y: Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Sep;126(3):389-98

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges.
  • We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma.
  • Necrosis and/or mitosis were found in all cases, even in tumors with bland cytologic features.
  • Cytologic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural findings should be correlated with clinical and radiologic information for achieving a proper cytologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16880150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Haase M, Willenberg HS: Adrenal cortical tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia-related syndromes. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):123-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortical tumors and multiple endocrine neoplasia-related syndromes.
  • Relatively frequent, adrenal masses include a multitude of different tumor types: uni- or bilateral hyperplasias, adenomas, and the rare entity of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • With significant progress in our appreciation of their underlying molecular pathomechanisms and from analysis of affected individuals and their families, a number of inherited diseases and tumor syndromes have been linked to adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • These syndromes and diseases include the Carney complex, the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, familial adenomatosis coli, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial forms of primary aldosteronism, the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and the Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • The key to successful management of these syndromes is identification of patients harboring adrenal tumors within the context of hereditary diseases, since diagnostic procedures, therapy and follow-up may significantly differ from the management of sporadic, isolated adrenal tumors.
  • This review explores the underlying genetic defects, diagnosis and therapy of the major heritable tumor syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Myxoma / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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36. Wright CB, Brennan L, Brophy P, Kirsh G, Shapiro M, Potter B, Giss S, Lindeman KE, Obial R, Fannin E: Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2008 Feb;49(1):79-81
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension.
  • She proved, however, to have an adrenal cortical carcinoma which displaced the kidney, exhibiting vascular invasion within the gland and non-adherent extension into the vena cava, atrium, common hepatic vein and left renal vein, where some adherence was present.
  • This unusual tumor required extensive surgery for removal, including use of cardiopulmonary bypass, with good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Heart Atria / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18212691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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37. Zhou J, Ye D, Wu M, Zheng F, Wu F, Wang Z, Li H: Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009;41(3):547-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral adrenal tumor: causes and clinical features in eighteen cases.
  • Bilateral adrenal neoplasms are very rare.
  • Studies have shown that most are metastatic tumors, and clinical presentation varies with tumor type.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 18 cases of bilateral adrenal tumor in our hospital between 2002 and 2007.
  • The etiology was pheochromocytoma in six, primary lymphoma in four, nonfunctioning cortical adenoma in four, metastatic tumors in two, primary aldosteronism in one, and Cushing syndrome in one.
  • Patients with lymphoma had largest average tumor size.
  • Our findings suggest that pheochromocytoma, primary lymphoma, and nonfunctioning cortical adenoma are common causes of bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18850298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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38. Tian L, Guo Y, Wu YP, Liu LZ: [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jan;27(1):66-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) is a common disease, and can be diagnosed easily with CT examination.
  • The maximal diameter of the tumor was <5 cm in 95 patients.
  • The maximal diameter of the tumor was > 5 cm in 14 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18184467.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Browning L, Bailey D, Parker A: D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):293-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] D2-40 is a sensitive and specific marker in differentiating primary adrenal cortical tumours from both metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The morphological similarities between the cells of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and those of the adrenal cortex impose diagnostic difficulties, for example in the context of a solitary nodule in the adrenal gland in a patient with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • D2-40, an antibody commonly used to highlight lymphatic endothelial cells, is consistently positive in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • AIMS: To investigate the utility of D2-40 in distinguishing neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortical cells from those of CCRCC, and from phaeochromocytoma.
  • METHODS: D2-40 antibody was applied to tissue sections from 10 normal adrenal glands, 15 renal carcinomas (13 clear cell, 2 papillary variants), 1 metastatic CCRCC in the adrenal gland, 6 adrenal cortical hyperplasias, 5 adrenal cortical adenomas, 3 adrenal cortical carcinomas, and 4 phaeochromocytomas.
  • RESULTS: D2-40 was strongly and diffusely positive in the cells of the neoplastic and non-neoplastic adrenal cortex, but negative in the cells of the CCRCC, both primary and metastatic, in 100% of the cases.
  • The cells of the adrenal medulla, and those of the phaeochromocytomas, were negative for D2-40.
  • CONCLUSIONS: D2-40 may be a useful marker for distinguishing primary adrenal cortical neoplasms from both metastatic CCRCC and phaeochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytoplasm / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry


40. Uchiyama S, Ikenaga N, Haruyama Y, Nagaike K, Hotokezaka M, Kai M, Tanaka H, Chijiiwa K: Asymptomatic extra-adrenal paraganglioma masquerading as retroperitoneal sarcoma. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Feb;3(1):13-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asymptomatic extra-adrenal paraganglioma masquerading as retroperitoneal sarcoma.
  • A 41-year-old man without clinical symptoms was referred for treatment of an enlarging retroperitoneal tumor.
  • Enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defined and heterogeneously enhanced tumor, 4 cm in size, in the dorsal portion of the pancreas.
  • A low-density nodule was detected in the left adrenal gland, 10 mm in diameter.
  • Retroperitoneal sarcoma and nonfunctional left adrenal tumor were suspected, and surgical treatment was performed.
  • During excision of the retroperitoneal tumor, blood pressure was extremely elevated when the tumor was compressed.
  • Blood pressure normalized after excision of the tumor; thus, a diagnosis of paraganglioma was favored over that of retroperitoneal sarcoma.
  • The left adrenal gland was resected together with the adrenal tumor.
  • Microscopically, the tumor cells of the retroperitoneum had round to oval nuclei, and abundant granular amphophilic cytoplasm proliferated in nest-like fashion.
  • Extra-adrenal retroperitoneal paraganglioma was considered, and the adrenal tumor was diagnosed as cortical adenoma.
  • In patients with retroperitoneal tumor, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, we should keep in mind the possibility of extra-adrenal paraganglioma.

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  • (PMID = 26189900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Asymptomatic paraganglioma / Extra-adrenal paraganglioma / Retroperitoneal sarcoma / Retroperitoneal tumor
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41. McNicol AM: Lesions of the adrenal cortex. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1263-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • CONTEXT: In surgical pathology practice adrenal cortical tumors are rare.
  • However, in autopsy series adrenal cortical nodules are found frequently.
  • These are now being identified more commonly in life when the abdomen is scanned for other disease.
  • It is important to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions as adrenal cortical carcinoma is an aggressive tumor.
  • Molecular genetic investigations are providing new information on both pathogenesis of adrenal tumors and basic adrenal development and physiology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current knowledge on adrenal cortical development and structure that informs our understanding of genetic diseases of the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of basic developmental and physiologic processes permits a better understanding of diseases of the adrenal cortex.
  • The information coming from investigation of the molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is beginning to provide additional tests for the assessment of malignant potential in diagnosis but the mainstay remains traditional histologic analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Adrenal Gland Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Growth. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18684025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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42. Capone G, Della Pepa GM, Sabatino G, Bartoccioni E, Albanese A, Mannino S, Maira G: A rare bone-leptomeningeal metastasis from an adrenal cortical carcinoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Jul;16(7):977-80
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  • [Title] A rare bone-leptomeningeal metastasis from an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • We report a rare bone-leptomeningeal metastasis from an adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • The CT scans and MRI showed a large tumor with bone and leptomeningeal involvement.
  • Thus, the patient underwent excision of the mass; histopathological diagnosis confirmed that it was an ACC metastasis.
  • At post-operative follow-up, the patient was in a good neurological condition with no radiological evidence of a cranial recurrence; however, there was a voluminous abdominal regrowth of the primary tumor.
  • This patient report confirms the effectiveness of aggressive surgery for management of large intracranial metastases, particularly those that arise from primary tumors that are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19375918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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43. Tissier F: Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: what limits for the pathological approach? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):877-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: what limits for the pathological approach?
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutics are sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach in particular by Weiss system, brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor.
  • But some tumors of Weiss score of 2 or 3 can raise problems: are they benign, malignant or are they of uncertain malignant potential?
  • These genetics findings already have repercussions for the patients in the development of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis and in the future they could help in the development of new morphological approaches, in particular immunohistochemical approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Hamamatsu A, Arai T, Iwamoto M, Kato T, Sawabe M: Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: case report with immunohistochemical study. Pathol Int; 2005 Oct;55(10):665-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland: case report with immunohistochemical study.
  • Adrenal adenomatoid tumor (AT) is a recently recognized disease with marked male predominance.
  • Herein is presented a case of adrenal AT incidentally found in a 30-year-old man and results of immunohistochemical examination of the tumor.
  • The left adrenal gland, weighing 17 g, contained a mass measuring 3 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm in the cortical tissue.
  • Cut surface showed a relatively well-circumscribed firm tumor with a white solid appearance.
  • Histologically, the tumor had the typical appearance of AT described in the genital tract.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for calretinin, D2-40, WT1, mesothelial cell antigen, CA125, thrombomodulin, vimentin and cytokeratins (stained by AE1 + AE3, OV-TL 12/30, CAM5.2 and MNF116), and negative for endothelial markers (CD31, CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen) and CD56.
  • CD56-positive adrenocortical cells were diffusely scattered in the tumor, especially in its periphery.
  • These findings confirm mesothelial origin of the tumor and suggest that this tumor has little relation to sex hormone despite male predominance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Coronary Thrombosis / mortality. Coronary Thrombosis / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male

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  • (PMID = 16185299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Li SH, Huang CH, Ko SF, Chou FF, Huang SC: Extended survival in a patient with recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma by aggressive transarterial embolization--a case report. J Surg Oncol; 2005 May 1;90(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Extended survival in a patient with recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma by aggressive transarterial embolization--a case report.
  • The prognosis of inoperable recurrent or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma is poor due to lack of effective treatment modalities.
  • We report a case of recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma in which prolonged survival of 58 months was achieved with aggressive three sequential transarterial embolization.
  • A 60-year-old man received operation for left adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Liver metastases, tumor bed recurrence, and spleen metastasis were noted during follow-up.
  • Three sequential transarterial embolization for metastatic liver tumors, tumor bed recurrence, and metastatic spleen tumor were performed and resulted in relief of symptoms and prolonged survival of 58 months after recurrence verified.
  • Aggressive transarterial embolization seems to be a safe and effective procedure for symptoms relief, and may prolong survival in the management of inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • It can be considered in any patient with inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma if not contraindicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15844181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Collins BR: Endocrine diseases of rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2008 Jan;11(1):153-62, vii-viii
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  • The clinical diagnosis of endocrine diseases almost never occurs in free-ranging animals in their native habitat.
  • Feral animals that have clinical endocrine disease, such as neoplasia, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, or diabetes, would exhibit clinical signs of altered behavior that would result in their removal by predators.
  • The diagnosis of endocrine disease thus takes place in the relatively protective environment of captivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Animals, Domestic. Endocrine System Diseases / veterinary. Rodent Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cricetinae. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gerbillinae. Guinea Pigs. Male. Mice. Rats. Rodentia. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18165143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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47. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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48. Jain M, Kapoor S, Mishra A, Gupta S, Agarwal A: Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study.
  • BACKGROUND: Several systems including pathologic criteria alone or in combination with clinical features have been proposed to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and assess their prognosis.
  • Since we see large adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we attempt to evaluate the diagnostic power of Weiss system in large ACC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study clinicopathological characteristics of 42 adrenocortical neoplasms are studied and classified into adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC based on Weiss score of less than or equal to three or greater than three.
  • RESULTS: The histological criteria of Weiss appeared to predict tumor prognosis accurately.
  • CONCLUSION: Weiss score was found to be a good prognostic factor for tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Histocytochemistry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20551521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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49. Stephenson TJ: Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):629-43
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  • [Title] Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours.
  • This review encompasses the diagnostic features of malignancy, the routinely observable prognostic features and the prognostic and predictive features emerging from research techniques in the principal endocrine neoplasms: pancreatic and extrapancreatic endocrine cell tumours, thyroid and parathyroid neoplasia, adrenal cortical neoplasms and adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • While each endocrine tissue has its own set of diagnostic features for malignancy, and prognostic features once a diagnosis of malignancy has been established, there are a few common themes.
  • For several endocrine neoplasms, definite recognition of malignancy can be difficult and may depend upon frank invasive or metastatic growth at presentation.
  • The accurate documentation of routinely observable histological features interpreted in the light of current literature has not been superseded by special techniques in the statement of diagnosis or prognosis in the vast majority of endocrine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Peptide Hormones / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Glucagon / analysis. Humans. Insulin / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16681678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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50. Cotesta D, Petramala L, Serra V, Giustini S, Divona L, Calvieri S, De Toma G, Ciardi A, Corsi A, Massa R, Reale MG, Letizia C: Pheochromocytoma associated with adrenocortical tumor in the same gland. Two case reports and literature review. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Jun;31(2):183-9
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma associated with adrenocortical tumor in the same gland. Two case reports and literature review.
  • Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumours arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal paraganglionic system that show 2 distinctive features, rarity and clinical variability.
  • Pheochromocytoma occasionally is associated with pathological lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • We present 2 cases of patients referred to our hospital with a finding of clinical suspected pheochromocytoma.
  • The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed in both cases with laboratory analysis and the lesion was achieved by employing 3 imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzilguanidine (MIBG).
  • The patients underwent adrenalectomy and in the same adrenal gland we found a pheochromocytoma associated with a nonfunctioning cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16682942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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51. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report.
  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a solitary tumor mass, eight cm in size, of the right adrenal gland.
  • Laboratory tests showed it to be a hormonally active, androgen secreting tumor (elevated testosterone level), which was consistent with the clinical picture of the disease.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • The finding was verified by computerized tomography and the patient was reoperated on.
  • Cytologic opinion was recidive of primary malignant disease.
  • ACC is a rare malignant epithelial tumor of adrenal cortical cells, with high malignant potential.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • A combined evaluation of clinical features, size or weight, microscopic appearance, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic data is necessary to ensure a correct diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this case report is to present clinical and cytomorphologic features of our case of adrenocortical carcinoma which is very rare in cytology practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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52. Wagner AS, Fleitz JM, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK: Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare childhood neoplasm that seldom manifests brain metastases; hence few papers in the literature focus on neurological manifestations associated with ACC.
  • Although ACC is known to be a signature tumor type in several inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, particularly Li Fraumeni, ACC has not been previously associated with neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF-1), an inherited disorder with frequent CNS lesions that might prompt concern for metastatic disease by neuroimaging studies.
  • The first child developed metastasis to the brain 4 years after resection of his adrenal primary and 2 and 1 years, respectively, after metastases to the liver and lungs.
  • Disseminated disease prompted concern that her complex intracranial lesions identified by neuroimaging studies might represent brain metastases, but this proved to be NF1-related hamartomatous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neurofibromatosis 1
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Chylothorax / complications. Chylothorax / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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53. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • This was characterized by right adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with homolateral ganglioneuroma and controlateral adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The three tumors, incidentally discovered, proved to be non-functioning (normal secretion of catecholamines and of other neuroendocrine peptides, glucocorticoids, mineralcorticoids and androgens).
  • Accordingly, the patient showed no sign or symptom of endocrine disease.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) demonstrated a typical adenomatous lesion on the left adrenal gland with precocious uptake of the radiotracer on radioidine (131I)-norcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy, while the controlateral gland showed hyperdensity on CT, hyperintensity on MR and no uptake at adrenal scintigraphy.
  • The right adrenal gland was surgically removed and, microscopically, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma areas appeared intermixed without a predominant component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Aged. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Genetic Variation. Humans. Introns / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


54. Bovio S, Reimondo G, Daffara F, Allasino B, Angeli A, Terzolo M: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas]. Recenti Prog Med; 2006 Jan;97(1):6-15
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  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] La sindrome di Cushing subclinica nei pazienti con incidentaloma surrenalico.
  • In the heyday of high-tech medicine, the incidental discovery of an adrenal mass is a frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiological techniques.
  • The potential harm to health associated with incidentally discovered cortical adenoma, the most frequent tumor among adrenal incidentalomas, is unclear at present.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenoma may secrete cortisol autonomously, in a way that is no longer under close control by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases.
  • At present, data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or nonsurgical approach to manage patients with subclinical hyperfunctioning adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • It is of the utmost importance to establish collaborative prospective studies with clearly defined entry criteria and standardized evaluation protocols and treatment modalities to appraise the natural history and long-term morbidity of clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma and subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16535924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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55. De Padua M, Rajagopal V: Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern. Indian J Med Sci; 2008 May;62(5):199-203

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors.
  • A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors.
  • We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor.
  • Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells.
  • Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18579979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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56. Grogan RH, Mitmaker E, Vriens MR, Harari A, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises? Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):392-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentaloma remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • We sought to determine how accurately these guidelines identify functioning incidentalomas and how often these guidelines result in adrenalectomy for benign tumors.
  • METHODS: We catalogued adrenal incidentalomas from a retrospective review of 500 consecutive adrenalectomies at a single institution.
  • The outcome measures studied were patient demographics, preoperative biochemical analysis, imaging characteristics, tumor size, type of operation performed, and postoperative histologic diagnosis.
  • Size was the only significant characteristic that distinguished cortical cancers from benign adenomas.
  • Only 1 out of 26 functioning tumors was incorrectly identified on preoperative workup.
  • We also found that 25% of cortisol-secreting incidentalomas were cystic, and that benign adenomas accounted for 42% of all tumors resected.
  • CONCLUSION: Current guidelines accurately predict the functional status of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • However, even with the most up-to-date diagnostic tools available, most adrenal incidentalomas resected are benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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57. Lapinski JE, Chen L, Zhou M: Distinguishing clear cell renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical lesions on limited biopsy material: utility of immunohistochemical markers. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Oct;18(5):414-21
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  • [Title] Distinguishing clear cell renal cell carcinoma, retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and adrenal cortical lesions on limited biopsy material: utility of immunohistochemical markers.
  • This study explores the diagnostic utility of a panel of immunohistochemical markers and emphasizes potential pitfalls in dealing with this differential diagnosis.
  • A tissue microarray with 1 mm tissue cores was constructed to include 21 CCRCC, 19 adrenocortical lesions, and 15 retroperitoneal or mediastinal paragangliomas.
  • The tissue microarray was then immunostained with epithelial, RCC, adrenocortical, and neuroendocrine markers.
  • AE1/3 and epithelial membrane antigen were negative in all adrenocortical lesions and paraganglioma cases, whereas CAM5.2 was positive in 78.9% of adrenocortical lesions and 6.7% of paragangliomas.
  • RCC markers, including RCC Ag, CA9, and CD10, were positive in 76.2%, 85.7%, and 100% of CCRCC cases and were negative in all adrenocortical lesions and paragangliomas.
  • Calretinin and Melan-A were positive in 100% and 94.7% of adrenal, 0% and 14.3% of CCRCC, and 26.7% and 26.7% of paragangliomas.
  • Epithelial markers may be entirely negative in CCRCC, whereas pancytokeratin CAM5.2 is often positive in adrenocortical lesions.
  • Furthermore, neuroendocrine markers are frequently positive in adrenocortical lesions.
  • Therefore, a panel of, rather than single, epithelial, "CCRCC-specific," adrenocortical and neuroendocrine markers should be applied in the differential diagnosis of CCRCC, adrenocortical lesions, and paragangliomas.


58. Bouasker I, Zoghlami A, Farah Klibi F, Smaali I, El Ouaer MA, Zermani R, Dziri C: Adreno-cortical oncocytoma: a case report. Tunis Med; 2010 May;88(5):353-6
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  • [Title] Adreno-cortical oncocytoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal oncocytoma is a very rare lesion, non functioning and benignin most cases.
  • AIM: This study aimed to report a new case of adrenal oncocytic tumor with uncertain malignant potential.
  • Ultrasonography and omputed tomography scan revealed a large mass in the right adrenal gland with extension to the right kidney.
  • The diagnosis of adrenal oncocytoma with malignant potential was confirmed by pathology.
  • He was followed up for 8 months, no tumor recurrence detected.
  • CONCLUSION: Adreno cortical oncocytoma is a rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Cortex / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20517834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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59. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
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  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF alpha were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, nonfunctioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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60. Stehr C, Velasco S, Velasco A, López M JM: [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?]. Rev Med Chil; 2007 Dec;135(12):1526-9
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  • [Title] [Is adrenal tumor size related to evolution time or does it represent a biological difference?].
  • [Transliterated title] El tamaño de los tumores suprarrenales ¿está en relación al tiempo de evolución o expresa una diferencia biológica?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumor (AT) malignancy has been related to tumor size.
  • Since laparoscopic surgery is being used, smaller adrenal tumors are being excised.
  • AIM: To evaluate eventual clinical and histological differences between adrenal tumors smaller than 4 cm. and those larger than 6 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pathological reports and clinical records of patients operated for adrenal tumors, dividing them in two groups.
  • Group 1 had 29 patients aged 52 +/- 13 years with AT < 4 cm operated during the period 2000-2005, and Group 2 was formed by 52 patients aged 46 +/-18 years with AT >6 cm operated between 1984-2005- Tumors between 4 and 6 cm were not included in the study to establish clear cut differences between groups.
  • RESULTS: Tumors were functional in 40 and 41% of cases in groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • Fifty percent of functional tumors of group 1 were pheochromocytomas and the rest secreted aldosterone.
  • In group 2, 66% of tumors were pheochromocytomas and no aldosterone secreting tumors were found.
  • Fifty two and eight percent of tumors in Groups 1 and 2 were adenomas, respectively (p <0.001).
  • Nineteen tumors of group 2 were malignant, compared with one of group 1 (p <0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size of adrenal cortical tumors may represent biological differences, suggesting two different tumor populations.
  • At time of diagnosis adrenal carcinomas are almost always larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18357352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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61. Morimoto R, Satoh F, Murakami O, Totsune K, Arai Y, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Ito S, Takahashi K: Immunolocalization of urotensin II and its receptor in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues. Peptides; 2008 May;29(5):873-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunolocalization of urotensin II and its receptor in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues.
  • In addition to its vascular actions, UII has been shown to have mitogenic effects on tumor growth and some regulatory effects on adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • In the present study, we examined expression of UII and UT-R in human adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both UII and UT-R were immunolocalized in tumor cells of all adrenal tumors examined: 8 cases of cortisol-producing adenomas, 8 cases of aldosterone-producing adenomas, 2 cases of non-functioning adenomas, 17 cases of adrenocortical carcinomas, and 8 cases of pheochromocytomas.
  • In attached adrenals, immunoreactivity for UII was detected in medulla, but much weaker in the cortex than in cortical tumors, suggesting that expression of UII was up-regulated in neoplastic adrenocortical tissues.
  • No significant differences were found in the degree of immunoreactivity for UT-R between the tumors and the attached adrenal tissues.
  • The present study showed that both UII and UT-R were expressed in the adrenal tumors and attached non-neoplastic adrenal tissues, and suggests possible roles of UII and UT-R in tumor growth and/or secretory activities of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Urotensins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17686550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / UTS2R protein, human; 0 / Urotensins; 9047-55-6 / urotensin II
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62. Cyriac J, Weizman D, Urbach DR: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors. Expert Rev Med Devices; 2006 Nov;3(6):777-86
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenalectomy is usually required for the removal of adrenal tumors causing excess hormone production or because a malignant adrenal tumor cannot be excluded.
  • Current controversies include the appropriateness of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large or malignant tumors, the role of partial adrenalectomy and the management of some conditions with uncertain natural history (such as subclinical hypercortisolism).
  • With the increased use of sensitive cross-sectional imaging, the detection of clinically inapparent adrenal masses is likely to continue to increase.
  • Due to the fact that malignancy cannot be excluded with certainty in some patients with cortical adenomas, it is expected that the rate of laparoscopic adrenalectomy will continue to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17280543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4440
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of medical devices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Med Devices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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63. Solís-López DR, Rodríguez-Hernández Z, Solís-López DH: Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Jun;29(2):130-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Incidental adrenal tumors are commonly benign, but reports demonstrate that if the characteristics of the tumor are not clear, on images surgery is the procedure of choice.
  • Our objective through this case is to show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe approach for adrenal incidental tumor regardless of radiological findings.
  • She went for check up and a left adrenal mass on MRI described as myelolipoma was found incidentally.
  • The pathological report was adrenal cortical adenoma with central hemorrhage and not a myelolipoma as described in images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • CONCLUSION: The use of imaging for diagnosis, clinical management and decision making is very controversial.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal masses is a safe procedure for tumors of 6 cm regardless of the radiological description.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20496530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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64. Boylu U, Oommen M, Lee BR, Thomas R: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope. J Endourol; 2009 Jun;23(6):971-5
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large adrenal masses: pushing the envelope.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the role of laparoscopy for large adrenal tumors in terms of outcomes, pathology, operative time, and morbidity.
  • The laparoscopic adrenalectomy patients were divided into two groups based on tumor size: <8 cm (n = 16, group 1) and >or=8 cm (n = 8, group 2).
  • RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 5.6 cm for group 1 and 12.1 cm for group 2.
  • Pathologic examination revealed eight adrenal cortical adenomas, five myolipomas, four pheochromocytomas, four cysts/pseudocysts, and three adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • Our findings suggest, however, that laparoscopic adrenalectomy for masses larger than 8 cm can produce comparable results concerning hospital stay, conversion to open surgery rate, and pathologic outcome in comparison with results for adrenal masses smaller than 8 cm.

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  • (PMID = 19456243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Zhang L, Talwalkar SS, Shaheen SP 2nd: A case of primary unilateral adrenal Burkitt-like large cell lymphoma presenting as adrenal insufficiency. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Apr;11(2):127-31
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  • [Title] A case of primary unilateral adrenal Burkitt-like large cell lymphoma presenting as adrenal insufficiency.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is extraordinarily rare, in comparison with secondary adrenal involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Although higher-resolution imaging techniques have enhanced detection of adrenal masses, biopsy or excision is often needed for definitive diagnosis.
  • Percutaneous computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration has great diagnostic value in the workup of adrenal masses, but is limited by sampling error and artifacts.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma most commonly manifests with diffuse large B-cell morphology.
  • We report an 80-year-old man presenting with unilateral primary adrenal lymphoma showing Burkitt-like morphology and adrenal insufficiency.
  • Although dispersed cell populations cytologically favor lymphoma, metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma can manifest similarly.
  • Integrated histological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric immunophenotyping would provide an accurate and definitive diagnosis.
  • We review the literature and discuss important issues with regard to diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / pathology. Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male

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  • (PMID = 17349573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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66. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Genetic alterations were found in 5/16 adenomas (31.25%) and in all adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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67. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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68. Ermetici F, Malavazos AE, Corbetta S, Morricone L, Dall'Asta C, Corsi MM, Ambrosi B: Adipokine levels and cardiovascular risk in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Metabolism; 2007 May;56(5):686-92
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  • [Title] Adipokine levels and cardiovascular risk in patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) have been associated with an increased incidence of several cardiovascular risk factors, similar to overt Cushing syndrome.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6), adiponectin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels in patients with AI.
  • Plasma IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-alpha, and MCP-1 levels were measured in 20 healthy subjects (6 males; 14 females; age, 58.5 +/- 2.2 years; body mass index, 28.1 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2)) and in 20 patients (5 males; 15 females; age, 57.9 +/- 2.0 years; body mass index, 28.0 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2)) with AI and typical computed tomographic features of cortical adenoma, who were not affected by diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or other relevant diseases.
  • In conclusion, patients with AI may show increased levels of adipokines (apparently not related to the presence of diabetes, hypertension, or obesity), which may be affected by the presence of the adrenal adenoma.
  • For some adipokines, a direct production from the adrenal gland may be hypothesized even if other studies are needed to better investigate the role of adipokines in states of altered cortisol secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Atherosclerosis / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adiponectin / blood. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Chemokine CCL2 / blood. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Female. Glucocorticoids / pharmacology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine. Interleukin-6 / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Resistin / blood. Risk Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood

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  • (PMID = 17445545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-0495
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolism: clinical and experimental
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab. Clin. Exp.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADIPOQ protein, human; 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / RETN protein, human; 0 / Resistin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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69. Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP: Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Sep;12(3):667-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare, highly malignant tumors that account for only 0.2% of deaths due to cancer.
  • Given the limited number of patients seen in most medical centers with this diagnosis, series usually reported are small and clinical trials not randomized or blinded.
  • In an attempt to answer important questions concerning the management of patients with adrenal cancer, a consensus conference was organized and held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, 11-13 September 2003, with the participation of an international group of physicians who had reported on the largest series of patients with this disease and who had recognized basic and clinical research expertise in adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition to setting up guidelines in specific areas of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cancer, the conference recommended and initiated the planning of an international prospective trial for treatment of patients with adrenal cancer in stages III and IV.
  • In terms of new therapies, first trials of dendritic cell therapy in human subjects with adrenal cancer have been started, but it is too early to comment on efficacy.
  • There are no clinical gene therapy trials for human adrenal cortical cancer.
  • In addition, there is evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitors can further enhance the rate of adenoviral infectivity in human adrenal cancer cells.
  • The use of these and other agents in the treatment of adrenal cancer should be hypothesis-driven and based on a thorough analysis of tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16172199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M 01-RR000 42
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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70. Park BK, Kim B, Ko K, Jeong SY, Kwon GY: Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation. Eur Radiol; 2006 Mar;16(3):642-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenomas on unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced computed tomography: pathological correlation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of CT for the diagnosis of histologically confirmed adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma using CT numbers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 91 adrenal masses in 83 patients; histopathological diagnoses were 45 adenomas, 31 pheochromocytomas, 6 hyperplasias, 4 metastasis, and 5 miscellaneous lesions.
  • Adrenal masses falsely diagnosed as adenoma on unenhanced CT included three hyperplasias and one endothelial cyst, and those falsely diagnosed as adenoma on DCE CT were five pheochromocytomas, one oncocytic cortical tumor, and one primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur Radiol. 2006 Mar;16(3):768
  • (PMID = 16215735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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71. Schalin-Jäntti C: [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma]. Duodecim; 2010;126(9):1037-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma--a common dilemma].
  • An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor larger than 1 cm, incidentally detected in imaging studies carried out for other reasons than adrenal disease.
  • The most frequent explanation is a benign, non-functional adenoma, other frequent diagnoses include cortisol- or aldosterone-secreting adenomas, pheochromocytoma, cortical carcinoma and metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aldosterone / secretion. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Incidental Findings. Phenotype. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20593627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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72. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • Orthotopic cell transplantation models are important for a complete understanding of cell-cell interactions as well as tumor biology.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • When 3 x 10(5) cells were implanted orthotopically, by 16 days the cell mass had expanded and had invaded the cortex, whereas when 1 x 10(5) cells were used, tumor masses were much smaller.
  • When mice were sacrificed at different time points, we found that tumor growth resulting was progressive and that by 26 days cells there was extensive invasion into the cortex or almost complete replacement of the cortex with tumor cells.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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73. Polamaung W, Wisedopas N, Vasinanukorn P, Pak-art P, Snabboon T: Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):667-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Asymptomatic bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of bilateral giant adrenal masses caused by a primary adrenal myelolipoma.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings in a 32-year-old man with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen disclosed bilateral adrenal masses; the one on the left was approximately 27 by 24 by 12 cm, and the one on the right side was 9 by 5 by 5 cm.
  • An endocrinologic evaluation revealed no evidence of adrenal cortical or medullary functional abnormalities.
  • CONCLUSION: Myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumor of the adrenal glands composed of adipose cells and mature hematopoietic elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17954426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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74. Park BK, Kim CK, Jung BC, Suh YL: Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination. Eur Urol; 2009 Dec;56(6):1082-5
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  • [Title] Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination.
  • A 45-yr-old woman was admitted to excise a solid hepatic tumor which was incidentally detected at ultrasound examination for an unrelated reason.
  • Preoperative differential diagnoses included primary or secondary malignant hepatic tumors or adrenal cortical carcinoma due to aggressive imaging features.
  • The tumor proved to be an adrenal cortical adenoma arising from the adrenohepatic fusion tissue and consisted of adenoma cells with lipid-rich cytoplasm.
  • Retrospective review of preoperative computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated that the tumor measured 6 Hounsfield units in mean CT number and was continuous with a medial limb of the right adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19447543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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75. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • G and D induced greater dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in RL-251 than in H-295 cells and completely suppressed growth of tumors with high expression of Bcl-XL (p<0.05) while there was no growth suppression in tumors without Bcl-XL expression.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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76. Ramacciato G, Mercantini P, La Torre M, Di Benedetto F, Ercolani G, Ravaioli M, Piccoli M, Melotti G: Is laparoscopic adrenalectomy safe and effective for adrenal masses larger than 7 cm? Surg Endosc; 2008 Feb;22(2):516-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is laparoscopic adrenalectomy safe and effective for adrenal masses larger than 7 cm?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the gold standard treatment for small (less than 6 cm) adrenal masses.
  • However, the role of LA for large-volume (more than 6 cm) masses has not been well defined.
  • Our aim was to evaluate, retrospectively, the outcome of LA for adrenal lesions larger than 7 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed from 1996 to 2005 on patients with adrenal lesions larger than 7 cm.
  • RESULTS: The mean tumor size was 8.3 cm (range 7-13 cm), the mean operative time was 137 min, the mean blood loss was 182 mL (range 100-550 mL), the rate of intraoperative complications was 16%, and in three cases we switched from laparoscopic procedure to open surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA for adrenal masses larger than 7 cm is a safe and feasible technique, offering successful outcome in terms of intraoperative and postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and cosmesis for patients; it seems to replicate open surgical oncological principles demonstrating similar outcomes as survival rate and recurrence rate, when adrenal cortical carcinoma were treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17704864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Nguyen BD: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with portal vein tumor thrombus: PET demonstration. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Sep;30(9):628-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with portal vein tumor thrombus: PET demonstration.
  • Tumor thrombus differentiates itself from bland thrombus by its contrast enhancement features on cross-sectional imaging and its intense uptake of F-18 FDG on PET as a result of its hypervascularity and high metabolic neoplastic activity.
  • This PET pattern has been reported in cases of renal cell carcinoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma with invasion of the inferior vena cava.
  • Tumor thrombus may involve the superior mesenteric and portal veins in patients with abdominal or pelvic malignancy.
  • The author presents a case of recurrent pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mesenteric and portal venous thrombotic invasion imaged by PET and computed tomography.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Neuroendocrine Tumors / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Portal Vein / radionuclide imaging. Venous Thrombosis / etiology. Venous Thrombosis / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16100488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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78. Dorairajan N, Muthayya P, Manikandan R, Kumar S, Siddharth D: Management of incidentalomas of the adrenal gland in an Indian hospital set-up between 1991 and 2000. Int Surg; 2006 Mar-Apr;91(2):94-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of incidentalomas of the adrenal gland in an Indian hospital set-up between 1991 and 2000.
  • The aim of our study was to review the currently used evaluation schemes and the outcomes of surgical and conservative management of adrenal incidentalomas at an Indian center.
  • Fifty-eight cases of adrenal incidentalomas diagnosed and treated at the Govt.
  • The mean duration of treatment of symptoms before diagnosis was 3.5 months.
  • Thirty-six of these tumors were eventually detected to be nonfunctioning adenomas, of which 15 underwent resection because of size >3 cm.
  • Cortical carcinoma was detected in nine patients, pheochromocytoma in seven, myelolipoma in one, metastatic tumor in one, and cyst, ganglioneuroma, and tuberculoma in four.
  • In tumors between 3 and 5 cm, in view of noncompliance of patients to repeated follow-up and cost factors, surgery was considered the most effective treatment option.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16774180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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79. Aïssaoui R, Turki Z, Achiche A, Balti MH, Ben Slama C, Zbiba M: [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Sep;67(4):364-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal metastasis of a papillary thyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase surrénalienne d'un cancer papillaire de la thyroïde.
  • Adrenal metastases of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are very rare.
  • A 63-year-old woman had undergone 15 years earlier left lobo-ishmectomy for a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 7 years earlier right adrenalectomy for a tumor.
  • Histologic examination showed a benign cortical tumor.
  • In 1999, when the patient was admitted for worsening of glycemic control, a recurrence of the adrenal mass was detected.
  • According to the hormone evaluation it was a non-functional tumor.
  • Re-reading the histology slide of the first adrenalectomy agreed with the diagnosis.
  • Distant spread may occur to bone or lung, but exceptionally to the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal localization is often associated with lung or bone metastasis.
  • In our patient, the adrenal metastasis remained isolated for many years.
  • It has been reported that survival rate decreases considerably after appearance of a distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


80. Turányi E, Dezso K, Paku S, Nagy P: DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Sep;455(3):295-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors.
  • Delta-like protein (DLK) is expressed in fetal and adult adrenal glands.
  • We have investigated if this expression is maintained in adrenal gland-derived tumors.
  • All the studied 37 cortical tumors, including five carcinomas, stained positively as well as the 13 examined pheochromocytomas.
  • Thus, DLK is a very sensitive marker for adrenal tumors of cortical and medullary origin.
  • Renal cell carcinomas, presenting the major differential diagnostic problem for cortical tumors, were all negative, as well as melanomas, which are similar to high portion of adrenocortical tumors that react with melan-A.
  • Therefore, this novel immunohistochemical marker seems useful for the identification of adrenocortical tumors while it has limited value for the distinction of pheochromocytomas from diagnostically related neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19685073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / delta protein
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81. Liao CH, Chueh SC, Lai MK, Hsiao PJ, Chen J: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3080-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters.
  • PURPOSE: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is controversial for large, potentially malignant tumors.
  • We report a series of LA or hand-assisted LA for large (>5 cm) adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 210 LAs performed in 6 yr, 39 patients had potentially malignant tumors greater than 5 cm in diameter.
  • The mean tumor size was 6.2 cm (range, 5-12 cm), operative time 207 min (115-315 min), and blood loss 75 ml (minimal-1400 ml).
  • Preoperatively there were 27 nonfunctioning tumors, seven pheochromocytomas, three cortisol-secreting tumors, and two virilizing tumors.
  • Final pathology revealed eight malignant (four adrenocortical carcinomas and four metastatic carcinomas) and 31 benign tumors (14 cortical adenomas, eight pheochromocytomas, six myelolipomas, and three ganglioneuromas).
  • Four patients (two adrenocortical carcinomas, one metastatic hepatoma, and one lymphoma) died 24, 10, 9, and 3 months after surgery, respectively.
  • Only the tumor size was larger and length of postoperative hospital stay longer for those in the hand-assisted group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA is a reasonable option for selected large adrenal tumors when complete resection is technically feasible and there is no evidence of local invasion.
  • Hand-assisted LA is a good alternative to open conversion if a difficult dissection is encountered intraoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Myelolipoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):210-1 [17262068.001]
  • (PMID = 16720665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Chien HP, Chang YS, Hsu PS, Lin JD, Wu YC, Chang HL, Chuang CK, Tsuei KH, Hsueh C: Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):274-81
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cystic lesions are uncommon and we analyzed clinical and pathologic features of 25 such cases from a single institute over 23 years.
  • The proposed mesothelial origin of adrenal epithelial cyst cannot be confirmed in our example.
  • Seven adrenal pseudocysts were associated with tumor, including two pheochromocytomas, one neuroblastoma, one adrenal cortical carcinoma, one adrenal cortical adenoma, one myelolipoma, and one schwannoma.
  • The distinction of true cystic lesion from cystic neoplasm is important and requires thorough sampling of the specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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83. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country. World J Surg; 2008 Aug;32(8):1802-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is rising worldwide.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, functional status, and final diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas and, in particular, to look into the incidence of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) in large adrenal incidentalomas managed at a tertiary referral hospital in northern India.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study (January 1991-December 2005) of 59 patients with adrenal incidentaloma managed at our department.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 7.8 +/- 4.0 cm.
  • Six patients in which the mass was ultimately found to arise from extra-adrenal tissue were excluded from final analysis RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 12 years (M:F = 1:1.1).
  • The incidence of functioning tumors was 41.5% (hypercatecholinism 37.7 % and hypercortisolism 1.9%).
  • The important final pathology included ACC (7.5%), pheochromocytoma (PCC) (43%), adrenal cysts (13.2%), myelolipoma (11.3%), and inflammatory lesions (9.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, the incidence of PCC was high among large adrenal incidentalomas while that of ACC was lower than expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Developing Countries. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Incidental Findings. India / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18425548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Xu J, Lecanu L, Tan M, Greeson J, Papadopoulos V: Identification of a benzamide derivative that inhibits stress-induced adrenal corticosteroid synthesis. Molecules; 2009;14(9):3392-410
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  • [Title] Identification of a benzamide derivative that inhibits stress-induced adrenal corticosteroid synthesis.
  • Elevated serum glucocorticoid levels contribute to the progression of many diseases, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • Here we show that the benzamide derivative N-[2-(4-cyclopropanecarbonyl-3-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-1-(tert-butyl-1H-indol-3-yl-methyl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-4-nitrobenzamide (SP-10) inhibits dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-induced corticosteroid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner in Y-1 adrenal cortical mouse tumor cells, without affecting basal steroid synthesis and reduced stress-induced corticosterone increases in rats without affecting the physiological levels of the steroid in blood.
  • SP-10 also induced a redistribution of filamentous (F-) and monomeric (G-) actin, leading to decreased actin levels in the submembrane cytoskeleton suggesting that SP-10-induced changes in actin distribution might prevent the formation of microvilli-cellular structures required for SRBI-mediated cholesterol uptake in adrenal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / biosynthesis. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Benzamides / pharmacology. Stress, Physiological / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19783933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-3049
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Molecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antigens, CD36; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Bzrp protein, mouse; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, LDL; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 63X7MBT2LQ / Bucladesine; 6X80438640 / benzamide; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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85. Moreno S, Guillermo M, Decoulx M, Dewailly D, Bresson R, Proye Ch: Feminizing adreno-cortical carcinomas in male adults. A dire prognosis. Three cases in a series of 801 adrenalectomies and review of the literature. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Mar;67(1):32-8
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  • [Title] Feminizing adreno-cortical carcinomas in male adults. A dire prognosis. Three cases in a series of 801 adrenalectomies and review of the literature.
  • We describe the clinical presentation, biochemical features, diagnostic criteria, clinical course and differential diagnosis in three cases of feminizing adreno-cortical carcinoma (FACC) with a review of the literature.
  • Imaging studies suggested malignancy in 3/3 patients by the presence of necrosis, heterogeneity, calcifications, size of the tumor and compression of adjacent organs.
  • Size and weight of the tumors were 30, 20, 15cm and 3750, 480 and 275g respectively.
  • All 3 patients received mitotane and cortisone post-operatively and at follow up (7, 3 and 2 years) all 3 died of the disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Feminizing adreno-cortical carcinomas in adults are exceedingly rare (1-2% of adreno-cortical carcinomas).
  • Tumors are huge and even after surgery for cure their prognosis is worse than for other varieties of adreno-cortical carcinomas either secreting or non secreting.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment may improve overall prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Feminization / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16596055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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86. Puech-Bret N, Bret J, Bennet A, Huyghe E, Mazerolles C, Zabraniecki L, Fournie B: Maffucci syndrome and adrenal cortex tumor. Joint Bone Spine; 2009 Oct;76(5):556-8
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  • [Title] Maffucci syndrome and adrenal cortex tumor.
  • We report the second known case of Maffucci syndrome associated with an adrenal cortex tumor.
  • Endocrine tumors have been reported in patients with multiple enchondromas, although the underlying mechanism of this combination is unknown.
  • Therefore, routine evaluation for involvement of the adrenal cortex may be warranted to improve our knowledge of this syndrome and of its pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Enchondromatosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Amputation. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / radiography. Fingers / surgery. Hemangioma / complications. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Leg / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19782627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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87. St Julien J, Ball D, Schulick R: Robot-assisted cortical-sparing adrenalectomy in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease and bilateral pheochromocytomas separated by 9 years. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2006 Oct;16(5):473-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

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  • [Title] Robot-assisted cortical-sparing adrenalectomy in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease and bilateral pheochromocytomas separated by 9 years.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a heritable syndrome that confers an increased risk of developing various benign and malignant tumors to those with a germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene.
  • We present a case of a male patient who initially presented at age 9 with headaches, fevers, and fatigue.
  • He presented again at age 18 with a second pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland.
  • DNA analysis revealed a de novo Val84Leu mutation in the Von Hippel-Lindau gene, not seen in either parent.
  • The challenge presented was that of balancing the obvious benefits of cortical- sparing adrenalectomy with the risk of tumor recurrence in spared tissue.
  • Ultimately, management consisted of a robot-assisted laparoscopic partial right adrenalectomy with successful preservation of adrenocortical function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Robotics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex. Child. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17004871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Kimura M, Irie A, Minei S, Ishii J, Okawa A, Takashima R, Kadowaki K, Morinaga S, Baba S: [A case of adrenocortical adenoma coexisting with gastrointestinal stromal tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Aug;53(8):551-5
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  • [Title] [A case of adrenocortical adenoma coexisting with gastrointestinal stromal tumor].
  • A 48-year-old man was referred to our institute for the evaluation of a concomitant gastric submucosal tumor and right adrenal tumor, incidentally found by ultrasound examination.
  • Computed tomography showed a mass with a diameter of 6 cm adjacent to the stomach and the right adrenal tumor with a diameter of 3 cm.
  • These tumors had similar characteristics in both plain and enhanced imagings.
  • By magnetic resonance imaging, the intensity of the right adrenal tumor was equivalent to the liver in both T1 and T2 weighted images.
  • On the other hand, the gastric submucosal tumor showed low intensity in T1 weighted images and high intensity in T2 weighted images.
  • An adosterol scintigram showed slight accumulation at the region of adrenal tumor.
  • Pathological diagnosis of the adrenal tumor was a cortical adenoma, and that of the gastric submucosal tumor was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
  • The gastric tumor was immunohistochemically stained positive with the C-kit and CD34 and negative for s-100 protein and desmin.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was coincident with gastric GIST and right adrenocortical adenoma, and the GIST was diagnosed as a high risk tumor because its diameter was over 5 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Laparoscopy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17874546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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89. Ip YT, Yuan JQ, Cheung H, Chan JK: Sporadic hemangioblastoma of the kidney: an underrecognized pseudomalignant tumor? Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Nov;34(11):1695-700
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  • [Title] Sporadic hemangioblastoma of the kidney: an underrecognized pseudomalignant tumor?
  • Hemangioblastoma is a benign tumor that can occur sporadically, or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease in approximately one-quarter of the cases.
  • Histologically, the tumors were circumscribed, and composed of sheets of large polygonal cells traversed by arborizing thin-walled blood vessels.
  • Many of the tumor cells showed pleomorphic nuclei, but the mitotic figures were rare.
  • The diagnosis of hemangioblastoma was confirmed by negative immunostaining for cytokeratin, and positive staining for α-inhibin, S100, and neuron-specific enolase.
  • This benign neoplasm which can be mistaken for various malignancies such as renal cell carcinoma, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma, and paraganglioma, deserves wider recognition for its occurrence as a primary renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Keratins / analysis. Low Back Pain / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Polycythemia / etiology. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Apr;35(4):623-4 [21378542.001]
  • (PMID = 20924277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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90. Sperone P, Berruti A, Gorzegno G, Paccotti P, Terzolo M, Porpiglia F, Angeli A, Dogliotti L: Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):560-2
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  • [Title] Long-term disease free survival in a patient with metastatic adreno-cortical carcinoma after complete pathological response to chemotherapy plus mitotane.
  • Adreno-cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis.
  • Complete surgical resection of the primary tumor and, when feasible, of the local and distant metastases offers the best prospects for long-term survival; conversely, the role of systemic therapy in patients developing unresectable metastatic disease is unclear.
  • We describe the case of a young female patient (36 yr) who presented with an androgen-releasing metastatic ACC.
  • Treatment consisted of five courses of chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin (EDP scheme) plus oral mitotane, which caused the complete disappearance of distant metastases and reduction of the primary tumor, as documented by serial computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and the abdomen.
  • The left adrenal gland was then removed and histopathological examination showed extensive tumor necrosis and the absence of viable cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16840836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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91. Laje P, Mattei PA: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors in children: a case series. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2009 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S27-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors in children: a case series.
  • PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to present our experience with children who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors over a 4-year period, discuss the technical aspects of the procedure, and review the current literature.
  • Tumor size ranged from 3 to 7 cm maximum diameter.
  • Final diagnoses included: adrenal cortical adenoma (n = 4), ganglioneuroma (n = 2), pheochromocytoma (n = 1), and neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy appears to be a safe, effective technique in children with small, well-circumscribed adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19260791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • VEGF blood concentrations before surgery did not differ in the patients with the cortical tumours as compared to the controls.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • After surgery, sVEGFR1 concentrations decreased significantly in the group with cortical adenomas only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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93. Anagnostis P, Efstathiadou Z, Polyzos SA, Tsolakidou K, Litsas ID, Panagiotou A, Kita M: Long term follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentalomas--a single center experience and review of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Oct;118(9):610-6
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  • [Title] Long term follow-up of patients with adrenal incidentalomas--a single center experience and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) constitute an emerging clinical entity due to the increased use of abdominal imaging for diagnostic purposes.
  • The patients underwent basal and dynamic evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and adrenomedullary function.
  • Mass enlargement and adrenal hyperfunction were estimated at yearly intervals.
  • RESULTS: Adrenalectomy was performed in 5 patients (4 benign cortical adenomas and 1 pheochromocytoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / statistics & numerical data. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / therapy. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 19856259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Composite tumors are extremely rare.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • We report a patient with composite neuroblastoma (NB), adrenocortical tumor (ACT), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • LFS predisposes to the development of leukemia, sarcomas, adrenocortical and breast carcinomas, brain tumors and, questionably, NB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Point Mutation. Virilism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Substitution. Aneuploidy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Pedigree

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Prieto LM, Brown JW, Perez-Stable C, Fishman LM: High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):311-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not.
  • Previous studies have shown that high dose 17beta-estradiol (10 (-5) M) has a G2/M blocking effect in SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cultures and strongly enhances apoptosis.
  • These studies suggest that induction of apoptosis by estrogen in SW-13 human adrenal cortical carcinoma cultures is mediated by the alpha-receptor, but the G2/M blocking effect of estrogen is not likely to be related to either alpha or beta mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogens / pharmacology. Nitriles / pharmacology. Phenols / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Receptors, Estrogen / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Flow Cytometry. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole; 0 / 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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96. Fukumitsu N, Ashida H, Ogi S, Uchiyama M, Mori Y, Ikemoto I, Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Kawakami M: A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;20(1):69-73
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  • [Title] A case of ganglioneuroma in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol scintigraphy showed high uptake in the adrenal gland leading to a misdiagnosis.
  • We experienced a case in which 131I-6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol (131I-adosterol) scintigraphy showed high uptake in the right adrenal gland.
  • We diagnosed functional cortical adenoma because of the finding of 131I-adosterol scintigraphy.
  • However, no positive findings for the existence of cortical adenoma were obtained in other examinations and we performed right adrenalectomy.
  • Unexpectedly, pathological finding showed the right adrenal gland was occupied with a large ganglioneuroma.
  • This is an instructive case in which 131I-adosterol scintigraphy showed abnormal high uptake in the adrenal gland, in spite of the fact that the adrenal gland was occupied by a tumor derived from adrenal medulla.
  • [MeSH-major] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Ganglioneuroma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16485578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol
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97. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour.
  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • In some cases, however, these tumours have exhibited malignant behaviour.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection with subsequent imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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98. Adamiak A, Lee CH, Nielsen TO, Webber D, O'Connell JX: Duodenal epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor with prominent granular cell features. Hum Pathol; 2009 Apr;40(4):599-602
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Duodenal epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor with prominent granular cell features.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are a group of mesenchymal tumors arising from the wall of the gastrointestinal tract that are characterized by activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA.
  • We report a case of duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor with a highly unusual epithelioid morphology that had an appearance reminiscent of a steroid producing neoplasm, such as an adrenal cortical neoplasm or, alternatively, a renal cell carcinoma variant.
  • The recognition of the current tumor as a duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor was prompted by its apparent location in the duodenal wall.
  • Ancillary immunohistochemical and molecular sequence analyses were necessary to confirm the diagnosis as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The current case illustrates the importance of considering gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the differential diagnosis of any epithelioid tumors in the gastrointestinal tract or the abdominal-pelvic cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Duodenal Ulcer / complications. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19121840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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99. Alsultan A, Lovell MA, Hayes KL, Allshouse MJ, Garrington TP: Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):695-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) have increased risk for development of embryonal tumors.
  • We present the case of an infant with BWS who has hypomethylation of LIT1 gene in the 11p15.5 chromosomal region and at 6 months of age presented with simultaneous occurrence of neuroblastoma arising from the left adrenal gland and a right adrenocortical tumor.
  • She underwent surgical resection of both tumors and remains tumor free 18 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications


100. Mann MW, Ellis SS, Mallory SB: Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Feb;56(2 Suppl):S15-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Ultrasound and abdominal computed tomographic scan revealed a large adrenal mass consistent with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • The patient underwent surgical excision of the well-encapsulated tumor with normalization of his hormones and no subsequent recurrence.
  • Although rare, childhood adrenocortical tumors have a poor prognosis, with the majority of tumors having regional and metastatic disease.
  • Because early diagnosis and complete surgical excision improve prognosis, children with refractory infantile acne should be evaluated for signs of virilization and accelerated growth.
  • Elevated levels of DHEA and DHEA-S should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / etiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17097383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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