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1. DeClue AE, Breshears LA, Pardo ID, Kerl ME, Perlis J, Cohn LA: Hyperaldosteronism and hyperprogesteronism in a cat with an adrenal cortical carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med; 2005 May-Jun;19(3):355-8
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  • [Title] Hyperaldosteronism and hyperprogesteronism in a cat with an adrenal cortical carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15954552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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2. Gasilionis V, Ersahin C, Gabram S, Bova D, Branch J, Rajan P: Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast. J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;59(5):546-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • A 56 year old woman was diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma in May 2003, for which she underwent left radical adrenalectomy.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was made on core biopsy.
  • Subsequently, the patient underwent a lumpectomy of the mass, which confirmed the diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16644887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860300
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3. Veytsman I, Nieman L, Fojo T: Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 20;27(27):4619-29
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  • [Title] Management of endocrine manifestations and the use of mitotane as a chemotherapeutic agent for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy in which patients have poor overall 5-year survival.
  • In many patients with ACC, advanced disease at presentation precludes surgery or is followed by local relapse or distant metastatic disease that cannot be managed surgically.
  • Physicians who treat patients with ACC and severe hypercortisolism should recognize that uncontrolled hormone production is a malignant disease, which has severe consequences that require aggressive management.
  • In the absence of randomized, controlled trials, adjuvant use of mitotane remains controversial, although the authors of a recent case-control study argue for its use.
  • Recommendations are provided to help manage patients with this difficult disease and to improve the quality of their lives.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / physiopathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / etiology. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19667279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIE HD008832-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 120
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2754909
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4. Hermsen IG, Gelderblom H, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Haak HR: Extremely long survival in six patients despite recurrent and metastatic adrenal carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):911-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extremely long survival in six patients despite recurrent and metastatic adrenal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumour with a high mortality.
  • The patient is still alive 28 years after diagnosis.
  • The patient is still alive 25 years after diagnosis.
  • She is still alive 18 years after diagnosis.
  • He is still alive 17 years after the initial diagnosis.
  • After diagnosis, she developed lung metastasis, which were treated with o,p'-DDD and chemotherapy.
  • The patient is still alive with slowly progressive disease 12 years after diagnosis.
  • The patient is still alive 28 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Some patients can have an extremely long survival of ACC, despite recurrent disease and metastases.

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  • (PMID = 18505909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Chacón R, Tossen G, Loria FS, Chacón M: CASE 2. Response in a patient with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with thalidomide. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;23(7):1579-80
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THALIDOMIDE .

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  • [Title] CASE 2. Response in a patient with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with thalidomide.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15735134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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6. Capone G, Della Pepa GM, Sabatino G, Bartoccioni E, Albanese A, Mannino S, Maira G: A rare bone-leptomeningeal metastasis from an adrenal cortical carcinoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Jul;16(7):977-80
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bone Cancer.

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  • [Title] A rare bone-leptomeningeal metastasis from an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • We report a rare bone-leptomeningeal metastasis from an adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • Thus, the patient underwent excision of the mass; histopathological diagnosis confirmed that it was an ACC metastasis.
  • At post-operative follow-up, the patient was in a good neurological condition with no radiological evidence of a cranial recurrence; however, there was a voluminous abdominal regrowth of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19375918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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7. Li SH, Huang CH, Ko SF, Chou FF, Huang SC: Extended survival in a patient with recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma by aggressive transarterial embolization--a case report. J Surg Oncol; 2005 May 1;90(2):101-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extended survival in a patient with recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma by aggressive transarterial embolization--a case report.
  • The prognosis of inoperable recurrent or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma is poor due to lack of effective treatment modalities.
  • We report a case of recurrent and metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma in which prolonged survival of 58 months was achieved with aggressive three sequential transarterial embolization.
  • A 60-year-old man received operation for left adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Aggressive transarterial embolization seems to be a safe and effective procedure for symptoms relief, and may prolong survival in the management of inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • It can be considered in any patient with inoperable adrenal cortical carcinoma if not contraindicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15844181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Patel AA, Gupta D, Seligson D, Hattab EM, Balis UJ, Ulbright TM, Kohane IS, Berman JJ, Gilbertson JR, Dry S, Schirripa O, Yu H, Becich MJ, Parwani AV, Shared Pathology Informatics Network: Availability and quality of paraffin blocks identified in pathology archives: a multi-institutional study by the Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN). BMC Cancer; 2007 Feb 28;7:37
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Each site generated a list of 100 common tumor cases (25 cases each of breast adenocarcinoma, colonic adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma) and 100 rare tumor cases (25 cases each of adrenal cortical carcinoma, gastro-intestinal stromal tumor [GIST], adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mycosis fungoides) using a combination of Tumor Registry, laboratory information system (LIS) and/or SPIN-related tools.
  • Retrieval rate (tumor blocks) from all centers for rare tumors was 66% with mean largest tumor size of 1.56 cm; retrieval (tumor blocks) was highest for GIST (72%) and lowest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (58%).

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  • (PMID = 17386082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA091343; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA091429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA091429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016042; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA091343; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA91338-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1810540
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9. Soga H, Takenaka A, Ooba T, Nakano Y, Miyake H, Takeda M, Tanaka K, Hara I, Fujisawa M: A twelve-year experience with adrenal cortical carcinoma in a single institution: long-term survival after surgical treatment and transcatheter arterial embolization. Urol Int; 2009;82(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A twelve-year experience with adrenal cortical carcinoma in a single institution: long-term survival after surgical treatment and transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • INTRODUCTION: We retrospectively analyzed 6 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) treated during a 12-year period at a single institution.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 53.3 years (range 36-72).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19322014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Wagner AS, Fleitz JM, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK: Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):127-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma: brain metastases and relationship to NF-1, case reports and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare childhood neoplasm that seldom manifests brain metastases; hence few papers in the literature focus on neurological manifestations associated with ACC.
  • Although ACC is known to be a signature tumor type in several inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, particularly Li Fraumeni, ACC has not been previously associated with neurofibromatosis, type 1 (NF-1), an inherited disorder with frequent CNS lesions that might prompt concern for metastatic disease by neuroimaging studies.
  • The first child developed metastasis to the brain 4 years after resection of his adrenal primary and 2 and 1 years, respectively, after metastases to the liver and lungs.
  • Disseminated disease prompted concern that her complex intracranial lesions identified by neuroimaging studies might represent brain metastases, but this proved to be NF1-related hamartomatous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neurofibromatosis 1
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Chylothorax / complications. Chylothorax / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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11. Phan AT: Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):489-507; viii-ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortical carcinoma--review of current knowledge and treatment practices.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor long-term prognosis.
  • Accurate diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of the patient presenting with an adrenal mass maximize the opportunity for optimal treatment planning.
  • In metastatic or recurrent disease, systemic treatment options are limited to chemotherapy with or without mitotane.
  • A multidisciplinary approach has the best chance for offering optimized management of this lethal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17548036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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12. Ren R, Guo M, Sneige N, Moran CA, Gong Y: Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Sep;126(3):389-98

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges.
  • We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma.
  • Cytologic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural findings should be correlated with clinical and radiologic information for achieving a proper cytologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16880150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Gonzalez RJ, Tamm EP, Ng C, Phan AT, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):867-75; discussion 867-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response to mitotane predicts outcome in patients with recurrent adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease in which recurrence after surgery is common.
  • RESULTS: The median disease-free survival for all 186 patients was 12 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 37 months.
  • For patients with stable or responding disease to mitotane, the median OS from date of recurrence was 18 months, compared with 9 months (P = .01) for those who progressed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent ACC who have stable or responding disease to mitotane have a more favorable prognosis than those who progress.
  • Mitotane should be considered in most patients with recurrent ACC, including as preoperative therapy for those with recurrent disease considered for surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18063070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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14. Fulmer BR: Diagnosis and management of adrenal cortical carcinoma. Curr Urol Rep; 2007 Jan;8(1):77-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a relatively uncommon malignancy that represents a significant clinical challenge for the development of optimal treatment strategies.
  • Although the framework of a successful treatment paradigm still relies on these steps, advances in diagnostic imaging have led to increased accuracy in diagnosis, and advances in laparoscopic surgical technique have served to reduce morbidity for patients facing treatment.
  • This review focuses on a discussion of advances in modalities for the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal cortical carcinoma amenable to curative therapy.
  • Patients that present with metastatic or locally advanced disease generally are treated with mitotane-based chemotherapy with or without the addition of cytotoxic drugs.
  • Contemporary results of this treatment approach are presented in this review as well as a discussion of further directions for the treatment of patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17239320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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15. Bertagna X, Groussin L, Libe R, Bertherat J: [Adrenal cortical carcinoma: advances in the pathophysiology and management of this malignancy]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):87-102; discussion 102-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cortical carcinoma: advances in the pathophysiology and management of this malignancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Le corticosurrénalome: progrès dans la physiopathologie et la prise en charge d'un cancer rare.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy, with only one or two new cases being diagnosed per million subjects per year.
  • Most often, however, the diagnosis is made when the tumor is already invasive and non secretory Clinical, hormonal and imaging features, including 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scan, can provide strong evidence of malignancy and indicate open surgical excision in expert hands.
  • Recent advances in the genetics of adrenal cortical carcinomas have identified molecular factors that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18663984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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16. Zaitoon A, Zaitoon MM, Perlmutter AE, Zaslau S: Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report. W V Med J; 2007 May-Jun;103(3):17-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma: a case report.
  • We present a case of aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • This diagnosis should be suspected in patients first seen with hypertension and hypokalemia since this tumor may not always be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secretion. Aldosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17849670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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17. Grubbs EG, Callender GG, Xing Y, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Phan AT, Lee JE: Recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma following resection: surgery alone can achieve results equal to surgery plus mitotane. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Jan;17(1):263-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrence of adrenal cortical carcinoma following resection: surgery alone can achieve results equal to surgery plus mitotane.
  • BACKGROUND: A recent nonrandomized interinstitutional study reported that adjuvant mitotane following surgery for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was associated with decreased recurrence.
  • SI patients had a superior disease-free survival compared with SO patients (median 25 versus 12 months, P = 0.003), and SI patients also had a superior overall survival compared with SO patients (median not reached versus 44 months, P = 0.02).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19851811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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18. Hunger-Battefeld W, Gajda M, Hansch A, Mandecka A, Müller UA, Wolf G: [Diagnostic pitfalls with Cushing's syndrome]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Mar;51 Suppl 1:293-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare diagnosis and may present with hormone secretion.
  • A histological differentiation between an adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma can be very difficult.
  • However, a fast diagnosis including staging and complete surgical resection is pivotal for the prognosis of an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma should be treated with a mitotane based chemotherapy, and inclusion in the "firm-act study" is highly recommended.
  • The present case report demonstrates the diagnostic pitfalls in a female patients with Cushing's syndrome who suffered from metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Obesity, Morbid / etiology. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 20012255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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19. Padberg BC, Rordorf T, Suter SL, Pfeiffer D, Wild D, Schröder S: [123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- (MIBG-) scintigraphy: paradoxical positivity in an oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2007 Jul;28(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine- (MIBG-) scintigraphy: paradoxical positivity in an oncocytic adrenocortical carcinoma].
  • In contrast, the false-positive uptake of MIBG by adrenal cortical carcinoma is rare.
  • Here, we report a metastatic oncocytic adrenal cortical carcinoma with MIBG uptake used for therapeutic purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 16673076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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20. Paton BL, Novitsky YW, Zerey M, Harrell AG, Norton HJ, Asbun H, Kercher KW, Heniford BT: Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States. Surgery; 2006 Dec;140(6):914-20; discussion 919-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of adrenal cortical carcinoma in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Improvements in the sensitivity of radiographic imaging have lead to an increase in the number of adrenal masses diagnosed.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if technologic advancements have resulted in the diagnosis of earlier-staged adrenal cortical cancer (ACC) and to determine if the survival of patients with ACC has improved over the past 15 years.
  • Two hundred thirty-eight (39.5%) patients presented with localized disease (stages I and II), and 311 (52%) patients presented with advanced disease (stages III and IV).
  • Patients with masses less than 5 cm were statistically more likely to have localized disease (P <. 001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17188138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Cavalier ME, Davis MM, Croop JM: Germline p53 mutation presenting as synchronous tumors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Aug;27(8):441-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The authors describe a 14-month-old boy who presented with synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma and a novel mutation of the p53 gene.
  • Although codon 273 is a known hotspot region for p53 mutation, the patient's mutation, R273H, has not been associated with development of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16096528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
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23. Puwanant S, Click RL, Kalra M, Farley DR, Chandrasekaran K: Incidental detection of inferior vena caval dissection by intraoperative high frequency vascular duplex ultrasonography. Echocardiography; 2007 Mar;24(3):269-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We first report a case of IVC dissection detected by high frequency surface ultrasonography following tumor thrombectomy of adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aged. Humans. Incidental Findings. Intraoperative Care. Male. Thrombectomy

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  • (PMID = 17313640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-2822
  • [Journal-full-title] Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Echocardiography
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Binkovitz I, Henwood M, Caniano D, Ruymann F, Binkovitz L: Early detection of recurrent pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma using FDG-PET. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Mar;33(3):186-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early detection of recurrent pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma using FDG-PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 18287841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Stifelman MD, Fenig DM: Work-up of the functional adrenal mass. Curr Urol Rep; 2005 Feb;6(1):63-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Work-up of the functional adrenal mass.
  • Evaluation of a functional adrenal mass may be initiated based on symptomatic presentation or the detection of an incidental adrenal mass.
  • Recent literature suggests that 10% to 20% of adrenal incidentalomas demonstrate subclinical hormonal dysfunction, which may place patients at a higher risk for metabolic or cardiovascular disorders.
  • Many diagnostic algorithms have been proposed for the evaluation of pheochromocytoma, Cushing's adenoma, aldosteronoma, and hormonally active adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • In this article, the available literature on functional adrenal masses is reviewed and up-to-date methods of efficient diagnosis are proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15610699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2737
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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26. Giordano TJ: Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(4):355-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors: separating adenomas from carcinomas.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare but interesting endocrine tumor.
  • Its diagnosis is usually straightforward using morphologic assessment and supplemental immunohistochemistry.
  • Here, the relevant molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is reviewed with special reference to those methods (e.g., DNA microarrays) that hold promise for improved diagnosis and prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17525484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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27. Chien HP, Chang YS, Hsu PS, Lin JD, Wu YC, Chang HL, Chuang CK, Tsuei KH, Hsueh C: Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):274-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cystic lesions: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases with proposed histogenesis and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal cystic lesions are uncommon and we analyzed clinical and pathologic features of 25 such cases from a single institute over 23 years.
  • The proposed mesothelial origin of adrenal epithelial cyst cannot be confirmed in our example.
  • Seven adrenal pseudocysts were associated with tumor, including two pheochromocytomas, one neuroblastoma, one adrenal cortical carcinoma, one adrenal cortical adenoma, one myelolipoma, and one schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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28. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60

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  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Significant modifications concern carcinomas of the oesophagus, oesophagogastric junction, stomach, appendix, biliary tract, lung, skin, prostate and ophthalmic tumours, which will be not addressed in this article.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Nguyen BD: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with portal vein tumor thrombus: PET demonstration. Clin Nucl Med; 2005 Sep;30(9):628-9
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  • This PET pattern has been reported in cases of renal cell carcinoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma with invasion of the inferior vena cava.

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  • (PMID = 16100488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Menéndez Calderón MJ, Casal F, Prieto J, Cacho L, Tusón C: [Adrenocortical carcinoma. A retrospective analysis of five cases]. An Med Interna; 2006 Nov;23(11):533-6
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  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma. A retrospective analysis of five cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma suprarrenal. Análisis retrospectivo de cinco casos.
  • We present five cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma, diagnosed in our hospital and we describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and treatment.
  • The diagnosis is based on the biochemical characterization of the hormonal profile and on imaging techniques, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17222069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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31. Park BK, Kim CK, Jung BC, Suh YL: Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination. Eur Urol; 2009 Dec;56(6):1082-5
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  • [Title] Cortical adenoma in adrenohepatic fusion tissue: clue to making a correct diagnosis at preoperative computed tomography examination.
  • Preoperative differential diagnoses included primary or secondary malignant hepatic tumors or adrenal cortical carcinoma due to aggressive imaging features.
  • The tumor proved to be an adrenal cortical adenoma arising from the adrenohepatic fusion tissue and consisted of adenoma cells with lipid-rich cytoplasm.
  • Retrospective review of preoperative computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated that the tumor measured 6 Hounsfield units in mean CT number and was continuous with a medial limb of the right adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19447543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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32. Lai P, Bomanji JB, Mahmood S, Nagabhushan N, Syed R, Gacinovic S, Lee SM, Ell PJ: Detection of tumour thrombus by 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2007 Feb;16(1):90-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumour thrombus is a rare complication of many solid cancers including renal cell carcinoma, Wilms' tumour, testicular tumour, adrenal cortical carcinoma, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma.
  • Recognition of this rare complication by PET/CT can change the management plan and prevent unnecessary long-term anti-coagulation treatment because of wrong diagnosis of cancer-related venous thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / complications. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17220710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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33. Lin MT, Shieh JJ, Chang JH, Chang SW, Chen TC, Hsu WH: Early detection of adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Apr;52(4):541-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early detection of adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • We report an early detection of cancer in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • The younger sister at risk was followed, and an asymptomatic adrenal cortical carcinoma was detected 3 years later.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Early Detection of Cancer. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19101993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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34. Satter EK, Barnette DJ: Adrenocortical carcinoma with delayed cutaneous metastasis. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):677-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with delayed cutaneous metastasis.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon and aggressive malignancy.
  • Patients often have metastatic disease at initial presentation, with the most common sites being the liver, local lymph nodes, lungs, peritoneum and bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 18201231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Wright CB, Brennan L, Brophy P, Kirsh G, Shapiro M, Potter B, Giss S, Lindeman KE, Obial R, Fannin E: Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2008 Feb;49(1):79-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumor with left renal vein, vena cava and intrahepatic venous extension.
  • A 41 year old white female presented with upper respiratory distress and shortness of breath appeared on initial computed tomography (CT) scan to have a large left retroperitoneal mass with left renal vein extension including a mass up to the level of the atrium.
  • She proved, however, to have an adrenal cortical carcinoma which displaced the kidney, exhibiting vascular invasion within the gland and non-adherent extension into the vena cava, atrium, common hepatic vein and left renal vein, where some adherence was present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Hepatic Veins / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Renal Veins / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Heart Atria / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nephrectomy. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18212691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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36. Cohen MM Jr: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: historical, clinicopathological, and etiopathogenetic perspectives. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 May-Jun;8(3):287-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Complications include neonatal hypoglycemia and an increased risk for Wilms tumor, adrenal cortical carcinoma, hepatoblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma, among others.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male

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  • (PMID = 16010495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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37. McNicol AM: Lesions of the adrenal cortex. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1263-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • CONTEXT: In surgical pathology practice adrenal cortical tumors are rare.
  • However, in autopsy series adrenal cortical nodules are found frequently.
  • These are now being identified more commonly in life when the abdomen is scanned for other disease.
  • It is important to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions as adrenal cortical carcinoma is an aggressive tumor.
  • Molecular genetic investigations are providing new information on both pathogenesis of adrenal tumors and basic adrenal development and physiology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current knowledge on adrenal cortical development and structure that informs our understanding of genetic diseases of the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of basic developmental and physiologic processes permits a better understanding of diseases of the adrenal cortex.
  • The information coming from investigation of the molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is beginning to provide additional tests for the assessment of malignant potential in diagnosis but the mainstay remains traditional histologic analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Adrenal Gland Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Growth. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18684025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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38. Schteingart DE, Benitez R, Bradford C, Narayan A, Wang S: Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4805-9
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  • [Title] Expression of anti-apoptosis genes determines the response of adrenal cancer to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that response of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) to pro-apoptosis drugs depends on expression of anti-apoptosis genes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins was determined in two human adrenal cancer cell lines, NCI-H-295 and RL-251.
  • G and D induced greater dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in RL-251 than in H-295 cells and completely suppressed growth of tumors with high expression of Bcl-XL (p<0.05) while there was no growth suppression in tumors without Bcl-XL expression.
  • Profiling adrenal tumors for expression of anti-apoptosis genes may provide clues to their potential response to drugs that induce apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. bcl-X Protein / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, bcl-2. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Taxoids / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21187456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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39. Lin J, Wasco MJ, Korobkin M, Doherty G, Giordano TJ: Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(4):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature.
  • A 31-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a large right adrenal mass by computed tomography imaging and underwent a workup that included endocrinological evaluation and positron emission tomography imaging.
  • Because of concern for adrenal cortical carcinoma, the patient underwent a successful right adrenalectomy.
  • The diagnosis of leiomyoma was supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains.
  • Adrenal leiomyomas have been reported in the literature, although most are small and not preoperatively suspicious for malignancy.
  • This case illustrates that benign tumors such as leiomyomas, when large and heterogeneous on imaging, can clinically mimic adrenal cortical carcinomas and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Incidental Findings. Leiomyoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18197480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Ip YT, Yuan JQ, Cheung H, Chan JK: Sporadic hemangioblastoma of the kidney: an underrecognized pseudomalignant tumor? Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Nov;34(11):1695-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hemangioblastoma is a benign tumor that can occur sporadically, or in association with von Hippel-Lindau disease in approximately one-quarter of the cases.
  • This report describes 2 cases of sporadic renal hemangioblastoma, with 1 patient presenting with hematuria and polycythemia, and the other low back pain.
  • The diagnosis of hemangioblastoma was confirmed by negative immunostaining for cytokeratin, and positive staining for α-inhibin, S100, and neuron-specific enolase.
  • This benign neoplasm which can be mistaken for various malignancies such as renal cell carcinoma, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma, and paraganglioma, deserves wider recognition for its occurrence as a primary renal tumor.

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Apr;35(4):623-4 [21378542.001]
  • (PMID = 20924277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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41. Zhang L, Talwalkar SS, Shaheen SP 2nd: A case of primary unilateral adrenal Burkitt-like large cell lymphoma presenting as adrenal insufficiency. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Apr;11(2):127-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of primary unilateral adrenal Burkitt-like large cell lymphoma presenting as adrenal insufficiency.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma is extraordinarily rare, in comparison with secondary adrenal involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Although higher-resolution imaging techniques have enhanced detection of adrenal masses, biopsy or excision is often needed for definitive diagnosis.
  • Percutaneous computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration has great diagnostic value in the workup of adrenal masses, but is limited by sampling error and artifacts.
  • Primary adrenal lymphoma most commonly manifests with diffuse large B-cell morphology.
  • Burkitt-like large cell lymphoma morphology has been previously reported only once, to our knowledge.
  • We report an 80-year-old man presenting with unilateral primary adrenal lymphoma showing Burkitt-like morphology and adrenal insufficiency.
  • Although dispersed cell populations cytologically favor lymphoma, metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma and adrenal cortical carcinoma can manifest similarly.
  • Integrated histological, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric immunophenotyping would provide an accurate and definitive diagnosis.
  • We review the literature and discuss important issues with regard to diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / pathology. Burkitt Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17349573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Ayub SB, Dodge J: Lipid-rich variant of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):829-34
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  • The cells in the cell block were immunoreactive (positive) for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A.
  • A diagnosis of PEN was made, with a suspicion for lipid-rich variant.
  • An elective resection of the tumor was performed, which confirmed the diagnosis of lipid-rich variant of PENs.
  • CONCLUSION: Its mimickers include adrenal cortical carcinoma, metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, clear-cell PEN, foamy gland pattern of pancreatic ductal carcinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumor, and acinar cell carcinoma.
  • The distinguishing morphologic and immunohistochemical features of each are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lipids / chemistry. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Lipids
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43. Ramacciato G, Mercantini P, La Torre M, Di Benedetto F, Ercolani G, Ravaioli M, Piccoli M, Melotti G: Is laparoscopic adrenalectomy safe and effective for adrenal masses larger than 7 cm? Surg Endosc; 2008 Feb;22(2):516-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is laparoscopic adrenalectomy safe and effective for adrenal masses larger than 7 cm?
  • BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the gold standard treatment for small (less than 6 cm) adrenal masses.
  • However, the role of LA for large-volume (more than 6 cm) masses has not been well defined.
  • Our aim was to evaluate, retrospectively, the outcome of LA for adrenal lesions larger than 7 cm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies were performed from 1996 to 2005 on patients with adrenal lesions larger than 7 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LA for adrenal masses larger than 7 cm is a safe and feasible technique, offering successful outcome in terms of intraoperative and postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and cosmesis for patients; it seems to replicate open surgical oncological principles demonstrating similar outcomes as survival rate and recurrence rate, when adrenal cortical carcinoma were treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17704864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Lynch HT, Silva E, Snyder C, Lynch JF: Hereditary breast cancer: part I. Diagnosing hereditary breast cancer syndromes. Breast J; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):3-13
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  • [Title] Hereditary breast cancer: part I. Diagnosing hereditary breast cancer syndromes.
  • Hereditary breast cancer (HBC) accounts for as much as 10% of the total BC burden.
  • Confounding factors include its phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, given the association of HBC with a plethora of differing cancer syndromes.
  • Its most common occurrence is its association with ovarian cancer in the so-called hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
  • More rarely, it occurs in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, caused by a p53 germline mutation, in which markedly early-onset BC is found in association with brain tumors, sarcomas, leukemia, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • We postulate that increasing knowledge about the genetics of BC may have partially contributed to the identification of high-risk patients who thereby may have benefited significantly from early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / diagnosis. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18086272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1U01 CA 86389
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BLID protein, human; 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA1 protein, human; 0 / BRCA2 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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45. Duenschede F, Bittinger F, Heintz A, Musholt T, Korenkov M, Kann P, Ewald P, Gockel I, Junginger T: Malignant and unclear histological findings in incidentalomas. Eur Surg Res; 2008;40(2):235-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant and unclear histological findings in incidentalomas.
  • There were 9 cases of adrenal hyperplasia, and two cysts and two hematomas were found in 4 patients.
  • In 3 patients, a primary adrenocortical carcinoma of 3.4, 4.0, and 5.0 cm in diameter, respectively, was identified.
  • In 1 patient, an adrenal cortical carcinoma of 10.0 cm in diameter was operated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18032908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9921
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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46. Liu XK, Liu XJ, Dong X, Kong CZ: [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 1;46(11):832-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic methods of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Pathological results indicated that 34 cases were pheochromocytoma, 83 adrenal cortical adenoma, 5 adrenal cortical carcinoma, 3 metastases carcinoma, and 26 other benign tumors.
  • 3 cases of metastases carcinoma died in 1.5 years, 2 cases of cortical carcinoma died in 2.0 and 2.5 years for recurrence and metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical operations should be performed in malignant tumors, hypersecretion tumors, deuto-clinical adrenal cortical tumors, pheochromocytoma and those whose diameters of tumors are over 3 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19035218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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47. Constantinou C, Sheldon D: Papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the adrenal gland: report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg; 2008 Sep;74(9):813-6

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  • [Title] Papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the adrenal gland: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Adrenal papillary endothelial hyperplasia is an exceedingly rare process and is the basis of this review.
  • A 66-year-old female was referred for evaluation of an asymptomatic 6 cm right adrenal mass.
  • The pathologic analysis was consistent with adrenal PEH.
  • A review of the world's literature on papillary endothelial hyperplasia (PEH), and in particular adrenal PEH, yields five previous reports of this entity, and no comprehensive review.
  • A compilation of the now six patients with adrenal PEH reveals several common features: five of six patients were female and mean age was 64 years.
  • The disease radiologically mimics adrenal cortical carcinoma mandating a surgical oncological technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18807668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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48. Singh R, Basturk O, Klimstra DS, Zamboni G, Chetty R, Hussain S, La Rosa S, Yilmaz A, Capelli P, Capella C, Cheng JD, Adsay NV: Lipid-rich variant of pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):194-200
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  • Some have been included in descriptions of the rare clear-cell variant associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome.
  • Pathology reports indicated substantial diagnostic challenge in these cases; on biopsies, 1 case was originally diagnosed as adrenal cortical carcinoma, another as renal cell carcinoma, a third as solid-pseudopapillary tumor, and a fourth had a fine needle aspiration cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, markers implicated in VHL-associated neoplasia, including HIF-1alpha, inhibin, and Melan-A (in clear-cell PENs) and MUC6 (in serous cystadenomas) were mostly negative in lipid-rich PENs (1 of 10, 1 of 10, 0 of 10 and 0 of 10, respectively).
  • In conclusion, the lipid-rich pattern, reminiscent of adrenal cortical cells, represents a distinct subset of PENs.
  • The findings suggest that the pathogenesis of lipid-rich tumors may be different from the VHL-associated clear-cell variants of PENs.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lipids. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 16434893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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49. Ferreira U, Nardi Pedro R, Matheus WE, Prudente A, Mendonça Borges G, Rodrigues Netto N Jr: Open surgical treatment of right-sided adrenal carcinomas &gt;15 cm. Urol Int; 2007;78(1):46-9
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  • [Title] Open surgical treatment of right-sided adrenal carcinomas >15 cm.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal carcinomas are rare and are associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • The incidence is estimated to be 1 in 1.7 million which represents 0.02% of all cancers and 0.2% of all cancer mortality.
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a single-institution experience in excising right-sided giant adrenal carcinomas, discussing the difficulties and the usage of special surgical devices to facilitate the procedure.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During June 2001 to June 2003, 18 patients with right-sided adrenal tumors were treated at the State University of Campinas Hospital--UNICAMP.
  • RESULTS: Adrenal cortical carcinoma was the histological diagnosis according to the Weiss criteria; no positive surgical margin was detected, even in those patients with invasion of the hepatic capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17192732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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50. Schteingart DE: Drugs in the medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2009 Dec;14(4):661-71
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  • Transsphenoidal surgery with resection of a pituitary adenoma is successful in 75 - 80% of patients, but approximately 20 - 25% show persistence of Cushing's, and a similar proportion may experience recurrence within 2 - 4 years post-op.
  • Mifepristone is currently being tested in clinical trials in patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing's disease and in patients with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma or ectopic ACTH syndrome not amenable to surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / therapeutic use. Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use. Ergolines / adverse effects. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19939210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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51. Brau-Javier CN, Sánchez JL: Cutaneous adrenal cortical carcinoma metastasis in a 6 year-old boy. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Sep;29(3):330-1
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  • [Title] Cutaneous adrenal cortical carcinoma metastasis in a 6 year-old boy.
  • We report the case of a six year-old boy with a history of adrenal cortical carcinoma presenting with cutaneous metastasis.
  • Due to the low incidence of cutaneous metastasis arising from adrenal cortical carcinoma, its diagnosis can be challenging based solely on histological analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20799523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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52. Caso J, Seigne J, Back M, Spiess PE, Pow-Sang J, Sexton WJ: Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors. J Urol; 2009 Sep;182(3):887-93
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  • [Title] Circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava for primary and recurrent malignant tumors.
  • We explored the oncological effectiveness of inferior vena caval resection, as determined by margin status, cancer recurrence and survival.
  • Primary tumor type was renal cell carcinoma in 7 patients, metastatic testicular cancer in 5, leiomyosarcoma in 3, and adrenal cortical carcinoma, primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumor and upper tract transitional cell carcinoma in 1 each.
  • Data reviewed included preoperative and postoperative sequelae of inferior vena caval obstruction, postoperative complications, pathological results, cancer recurrence, graft requirements and functional outcomes.
  • A total of 12 patients underwent simultaneous nephrectomy and/or left renal vein ligation in the same setting with acceptable alterations in postoperative renal function and no need for permanent dialysis.
  • Cancer recurred locally in 4 of 15 patients who underwent resection.
  • Five of 15 patients in the resection group died of disease or were lost to followup compared to all 3 in whom resection was aborted or macroscopically incomplete (mean followup 19.2 vs 4.3 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local cancer control and potentially increased cancer specific survival can be achieved with successful complete circumferential resection of the inferior vena cava as a component of multimodality care in select patients with locally advanced malignancy.
  • The most common postoperative complications are renal insufficiency and lower extremity edema, which are generally transient.

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  • (PMID = 19616230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Stelow EB, Debol SM, Stanley MW, Mallery S, Lai R, Bardales RH: Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Jul;33(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Sampling of the adrenal glands by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has proven to be a valuable modality for the primary diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal, and perigastrointestinal malignancy.
  • Aside from assessing thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes and the liver for metastases, EUS can assess and sample the adrenal glands, which are frequently involved by metastatic disease, but can also harbor benign primary neoplasms.
  • The cytology files at our institution were reviewed for all cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal glands.
  • Results were compared with overall EUS-guided FNA performance and the performance of non-EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal.
  • The utility of cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC) in these cases was reviewed.
  • Between 1/1/00 and 5/15/04 there were 24 cases of EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland from 22 different patients (13 men; 9 women) at our institution.
  • This represented 1.4% of overall EUS-guided FNA and 77% of adrenal gland FNA.
  • Almost all FNAs were of the left adrenal gland (23 of 24).
  • Material for cell block was present in 21 cases, and IHC was used in 3 cases.
  • Final diagnoses were as follows: cortical tissue consistent with cortical adenoma (19), metastatic adenocarcinoma (3), pheochromocytoma (1), and adrenal cortical carcinoma (1).
  • EUS-guided FNA of the adrenal gland is primarily used in the staging of other malignancies when lesions of the left adrenal are recognized sonographically.
  • Diagnostic tissue is easily obtained, including material for cell block IHC, which allows definitive diagnosis in cases that present difficult differential diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15945088.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country. World J Surg; 2008 Aug;32(8):1802-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: experience in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is rising worldwide.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, functional status, and final diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas and, in particular, to look into the incidence of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) in large adrenal incidentalomas managed at a tertiary referral hospital in northern India.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study (January 1991-December 2005) of 59 patients with adrenal incidentaloma managed at our department.
  • Six patients in which the mass was ultimately found to arise from extra-adrenal tissue were excluded from final analysis RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 12 years (M:F = 1:1.1).
  • The important final pathology included ACC (7.5%), pheochromocytoma (PCC) (43%), adrenal cysts (13.2%), myelolipoma (11.3%), and inflammatory lesions (9.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, the incidence of PCC was high among large adrenal incidentalomas while that of ACC was lower than expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Developing Countries. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Incidence. Incidental Findings. India / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18425548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Wu YH, Song B, Xu J, Chen WX, Zhao XF, Jia R, Wu B, Li ZL: Retroperitoneal neoplasms within the perirenal space in infants and children: differentiation of renal and non-renal origin in enhanced CT images. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Sep;75(3):279-86
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal neoplasms within the perirenal space in infants and children: differentiation of renal and non-renal origin in enhanced CT images.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively demonstrate the specific CT findings of retroperitoneal neoplasms to diagnosis and differential diagnosis renal and non-renal tumors within the perirenal space in infants and children.
  • The patients were divided into renal tumors group (n=16) and non-renal tumors group (n=26).
  • The former included nephroblastoma (n=15) and renal lymphoma (n=1), while the latter included neuroblastoma (n=12), retroperitoneal teratoma (n=6), adrenal ganglioneuroma (n=4), retroperitoneal lymphoma (n=2), ectopic pheochromocytoma (n=1) and adrenal cortical carcinoma (n=1).
  • The demographic data and chief clinical symptoms between the renal tumor group and the non-renal tumor group showed no statistically significant differences (P>0.05).
  • 30.8% (8/26) of non-renal tumor patients presented elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) level, while no patient showed elevated VMA in renal tumor group (P<0.05).
  • Some CT imaging signs of the renal tumors including "crescent sign" (odds ratio, OR=52), "beak sign" (OR=84), "embedded organ sign" (OR=84), and "prominent feeding artery sign" (OR=36) showed significantly higher incidence when compared to the non-renal tumors (P<0.001).
  • The sign of "renal displacement and renal axis rotation" (OR=0.059) was seen in 23 of 26 (88.5%) non-renal tumors, but in only 5 of 16 (31.3%) renal tumors (P<0.001).
  • The sign of "extra-renal central plane of tumor" (OR=0.038) was displayed in 24 of 26 (92.3%) non-renal tumors, but in only 5 of 16 (31.3%) renal tumors (P<0.001).
  • The CT findings such as "pseudocapsule" (OR=38.5), "necrosis and cystic change" (OR=11.2), "vascularity" (OR=16.867), "distant metastasis" (OR=5.96), and "inferior vena cava tumor thrombus" which were thought to be characteristic of renal tumors were observed with significant higher incidence in renal tumors group than in the non-renal tumors group (P<0.05); while CT signs of "irregular mass" (OR=0.045) and "intratumoral calcifications" (OR=0.065) were observed with lower incidence in renal tumors group than in the non-renal tumors group (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The "crescent sign", "beak sign", "embedded kidney sign" and "renal arteries feeding" are the most specific CT signs suggestive of renal tumors and distinguish them from non-renal origin tumors within the perirenal space.
  • Other CT signs, such as "pseudocapsule", "hypervascular tumors" and "Inferior vena cava tumor thrombus", when present, tumors of renal origin are strongly suggested.
  • On the other hand, CT signs of "irregular mass", "intratumoral calcifications", and associated elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid strongly suggest the non-renal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20598465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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56. Prieto LM, Brown JW, Perez-Stable C, Fishman LM: High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not. Horm Metab Res; 2008 May;40(5):311-4
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  • [Title] High dose 17 beta-estradiol and the alpha-estrogen agonist PPT trigger apoptosis in human adrenal carcinoma cells but the beta-estrogen agonist DPN does not.
  • Previous studies have shown that high dose 17beta-estradiol (10 (-5) M) has a G2/M blocking effect in SW-13 human adrenal carcinoma cultures and strongly enhances apoptosis.
  • Flow cytometry was used to analyze the percentages of cells in various phases of the cell cycle [sub-G1 (apoptosis), G1, S, and G2/M] in each experimental condition.
  • Estrogen was also found to block the cell cycle in G2/M, increasing it from 15+/-0.4 to 21+/-1.0% of cells (p<0.01), but neither the alpha- nor beta-estrogen agonists had any effect at this point in the cell cycle, indicating that the influence of estrogen was not likely to be either alpha- or beta-receptor mediated.
  • These studies suggest that induction of apoptosis by estrogen in SW-13 human adrenal cortical carcinoma cultures is mediated by the alpha-receptor, but the G2/M blocking effect of estrogen is not likely to be related to either alpha or beta mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Estradiol / pharmacology. Estrogens / pharmacology. Nitriles / pharmacology. Phenols / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Receptors, Estrogen / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Flow Cytometry. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18491249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole; 0 / 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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57. Ji ZG, Xue C, Li HZ, Wang HJ, Xie Y, Liu GH: Piggyback liver transplant techniques in the surgical management of urological tumors with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Sep 20;122(18):2155-8
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  • BACKGROUND: An important characteristic of renal cell carcinomas and adrenal tumors is that these tumors may expand into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, and transform into tumor thrombi.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients with renal cell carcinomas or adrenal tumors with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were treated from November 1995 to April 2008.
  • One patient with adrenal cortical carcinoma and level IV thrombus died in the immediate postoperative period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Liver Transplantation / methods. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19781302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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58. Gasińska T, Pietrasik L, Kulawik G: [Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Progress in diagnosis, clinical and genetic features]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2005 Sep;114(3):901-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal cortical carcinoma. Progress in diagnosis, clinical and genetic features].
  • [Transliterated title] Pierwotny rak kory nadnerczy. Postepy w diagnostyce, aspekty kliniczne i genetyczne.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16708566.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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59. François C, Rangachari B, Bova D: Mammography and sonography of pathologically proven adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Apr;184(4):1279-81
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  • [Title] Mammography and sonography of pathologically proven adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15788610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Suresh B, Kishore TA, Albert AS, Joy A: Myxoid adrenal cortical carcinoma--a rare variant of adrenocortical carcinoma. Indian J Med Sci; 2005 Nov;59(11):505-7
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  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical carcinoma--a rare variant of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16340152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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61. West AN, Ribeiro RC, Jenkins J, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo BC, Kriwacki R, Zambetti GP: Identification of a novel germ line variant hotspot mutant p53-R175L in pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma. Cancer Res; 2006 May 15;66(10):5056-62
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel germ line variant hotspot mutant p53-R175L in pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • When inherited, hotspot mutants are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a familial cancer predisposition.
  • We have identified a novel germ line variant of the 175 mutant (Arg to Leu; R175L) in a pediatric patient who developed adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • These findings suggest that p53-R175L retains sufficient activity to suppress LFS, but not adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis / genetics. Cell Growth Processes / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Models, Molecular. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 16707427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63230; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA71907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Meyer A, Behrend M: 32-year survival with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma--update of a case report. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1045-6
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  • [Title] 32-year survival with metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma--update of a case report.
  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with up to 70% of the patients diagnosed at an advanced clinical stage and up to 40% presenting with metastasis.
  • In 2004, we reported a case of a 62-year-old woman with a non-functional ACC of the left adrenal gland (T2 N0 M0, classified as stage II) who survived the disease for 28 years with 3 operations for metastases of the contralateral adrenal gland and 4 operations for metastases of the lung.
  • We can now give an update of a further four years of survival and one additional operation.
  • The case again emphasises the need for thorough radiographic examination and follow-up for the possibility of a repeated re-operation whenever possible to provide long-term survival over decades.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17465241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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63. Szabó D, Zsippai A, Bendes M, Tömböl Z, Szabó PM, Rácz K, Igaz P: [Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Jul 18;151(29):1163-70
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  • [Title] [Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] A mellékvesekéreg-carcinoma molekuláris patogenezise.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • The hereditary syndromes associated with adrenocortical cancer are: Li-Fraumeni's syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann's syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis, whereas multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney's complex and McCune-Albright's syndrome mostly predispose to benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • Options for medical treatment of adrenocortical cancer are rather limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Carney Complex / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / metabolism. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p53. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Signal Transduction. Up-Regulation. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20591784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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64. Wandoloski M, Bussey KJ, Demeure MJ: Adrenocortical cancer. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Oct;89(5):1255-67
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy causing up to 0.2% of all cancer deaths This article reviews the incidence, presentation, and pathology of ACC.
  • Particular attention is paid to the molecular oncogenesis of this disease, and the surgical and therapeutic options available for its cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19836496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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65. Cerquetti L, Sampaoli C, Amendola D, Bucci B, Misiti S, Raza G, De Paula U, Marchese R, Brunetti E, Toscano V, Stigliano A: Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation. Int J Oncol; 2010 Aug;37(2):493-501
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  • [Title] Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation.
  • It also has a cytotoxic effect on the adrenocortical cells and represents a primary drug used in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • H295R and SW13 cell lines were treated with mitotane 10(-5) M and ionizing radiations (IR) in combination therapy, inducing an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • As shown in a previous report, mitotane/IR combination treatment induced a cell accumulation in the G2 phase.
  • Here, we report the radiosensitizing properties of mitotane in two different ACC cell lines.
  • Indeed, treatment with purvalanol, a cdc2-inhibitor prevents cell cycle arrest, triggering the G2/M transition.
  • The observation that mitotane and IR in combination treatment amplifies the activation level of cyclin B/cdc2 complexes contributing to cell cycle arrest, suggests that the MPF could function as a master signal for controlling the temporal order of different mitotic events.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Mitotane / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / drug effects. DNA Mismatch Repair / physiology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. G2 Phase / drug effects. G2 Phase / physiology. Humans. Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Purines / pharmacology. Radiation, Ionizing. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20596677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-((3-chloro)anilino)-2-(isopropyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)-9-isopropylpurine; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Purines; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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66. Balasubramaniam S, Fojo T: Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):619-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, challenging disease with a broad range of clinical presentations.
  • Biopsies should be performed only when metastatic disease is present and a primary tumor has not been clearly established.
  • The use of mitotane in patients without evidence of disease remains controversial.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is effective in patients with widely metastatic disease or as an adjunct to a surgical intervention and should focus on regimens that have been shown to effect responses; "novel targeted therapies" should not be employed as first-line treatment.
  • Finally, physicians caring for these patients need to recognize that Cushing's disease is a debilitating problem that should be managed aggressively; expecting chemotherapy to solve this complication is not appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 21167380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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67. Kvacheniuk AN: [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection]. Klin Khir; 2008 Mar;(3):34-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of adrenocortical cancer: significance of systematic lymphodissection].
  • Comparative efficacy of radical methods of surgical intervention for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) with lymphodissection (LD) and without it was studied.

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  • (PMID = 18680995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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68. Soon PS, McDonald KL, Robinson BG, Sidhu SB: Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Oncologist; 2008 May;13(5):548-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular markers and the pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are common, with an estimated incidence of 7.3% in autopsy cases, while adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare, with an estimated prevalence of 4-12 per million population.
  • Because the prognoses for adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) and ACCs are vastly different, it is important to be able to accurately differentiate the two tumor types.
  • Advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of ACCs is essential for the development of more sensitive means of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better clinical outcome.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) occur as a component of several hereditary tumor syndromes, which include the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1, Carney complex, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The adrenocorticotropic hormone-cAMP-protein kinase A and Wnt pathways are also implicated in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, including results of comparative genomic hybridization, loss of heterozygosity, and microarray gene-expression profiling studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18515740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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69. Patalano A, Brancato V, Mantero F: Adrenocortical cancer treatment. Horm Res; 2009 Jan;71 Suppl 1:99-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: With a reported incidence of 1 to 2 cases per million, adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • Although most cases of ACC are of sporadic origin, they may also occur as part of a congenital or familial disease in which the genetic abnormalities are well established.
  • New treatments, such as insulin-like growth factor I receptor antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other antiangiogenic compounds, are now being intensively investigated to identify better therapies for this extremely severe malignant neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19153517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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70. Coli A, Di Giorgio A, Castri F, Destito C, Marin AW, Bigotti G: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jan 15;206(1):59-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland: A case report and review of literature.
  • Reports about adrenocortical carcinomas (AC) mixed with sarcomatous areas are very rare.
  • Herein, we report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland in a 75-year-old woman who presented with left abdominal pain of one month's standing.
  • The results of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large heterogeneous adrenal mass.
  • Histologically, the neoplasm showed areas of adrenocortical carcinoma and areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation.
  • Twelve months after removal of the primary tumor, the patient died of her disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature.
  • We review the reported cases according to the 2004 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung tumors, and highlight the histogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical course of this very aggressive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19369012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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71. Daffara F, De Francia S, Reimondo G, Zaggia B, Aroasio E, Porpiglia F, Volante M, Termine A, Di Carlo F, Dogliotti L, Angeli A, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1043-53
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of mitotane toxicity in adrenocortical cancer patients treated adjuvantly.
  • Seventeen consecutive patients who were treated with mitotane after radical resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) from 1999 to 2005 underwent physical examination, routine laboratory evaluation, monitoring of mitotane concentrations, and a hormonal work-up at baseline and every 3 months till ACC relapse or study end (December 2007).
  • Mitotane affected adrenal steroidogenesis with a more remarkable inhibition of cortisol and DHEAS than aldosterone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18824557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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72. Ignaszak-Szczepaniak M, Horst-Sikorska W, Sawicka J, Kaczmarek M, Slomski R: The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jul;16(1):65-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients.
  • We have analyzed the 72Pro polymorphic variant in patients with adrenocortical tumors to evaluate whether 72G--> C substitution at codon 72 of TP53 gene may be associated with increased risk for malignancy in adrenal cortex in comparison to the control group.
  • DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes of 46 Polish patients with adrenocortical tumors (17 malignant and 29 benign) and 50 controls was examined by PCR-HD method followed by direct sequencing.
  • High frequency of 72Pro allele in patients with carcinoma (29%) in comparison to the benign tumors (14%) and controls (12%) was statistically analyzed.
  • Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism could be associated with susceptibility for adrenocortical cancer in the examined Polish patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16786124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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73. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Careful pathological investigation with the assessment of the Weiss score is important for the diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • In patients with metastatic or progressive disease, medical treatment is started with mitotane that requires a close monitoring of its blood level.
  • Local treatment (radiofrequency, chemoembolization, and radiation therapy) can have some indications for metastatic disease.
  • In patients with disease progression cytotoxic chemotherapy can be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17395972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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74. Aspinall SR, Imisairi AH, Bliss RD, Scott-Coombes D, Harrison BJ, Lennard TW: How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2009 Sep;91(6):489-93
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  • [Title] How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK?
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • This case series is reported to give an overview of how adrenocortical carcinoma is currently managed in the UK.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was made of case notes from patients with adrenocortical carcinomas presenting to the authors (TWJL, RDB, BJH, and DS-C) over the past 10 years in Newcastle, Sheffield and Cardiff.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of tumour, stage and mode of presentation, age and overall survival of patients in this study are comparable to published series of adrenocortical carcinomas from major endocrine surgical centres world-wide.
  • The exact role of adjuvant therapy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma is not as well established as for other more common malignancies.
  • Establishing a database for adrenocortical carcinomas in the UK would contribute to our understanding of the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19558758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cytotoxins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966201
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75. Bauditz J, Quinkler M, Beyersdorff D, Wermke W: Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Oncol Rep; 2008 May;19(5):1135-9
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  • [Title] Improved detection of hepatic metastases of adrenocortical cancer by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and heterogeneous malignancy whose pathogenesis and poor prognosis is poorly understood.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely performed for the imaging of the adrenal mass and for standard staging of the chest and abdomen as the lung and liver are the primary organs for metastasis in ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18425368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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76. Lindhe O, Skogseid B: Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Sep;42(10):725-30
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  • [Title] Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies.
  • Growth through the capsule or accidental release of cancer cells during surgery frequently results in metastatic disease.
  • We investigated the antitumoral effect of 2 adrenocorticolytic compounds, O, P'-DDD and MeSO2-DDE, in the adrenocortical cell line H295R both in vitro and as a xenograft model in vivo.
  • O, P'-DDD, MeSO2-DDE, or oil (control) was administered i. p., either simultaneously with cell injection at day 0 (mimicking adjuvant treatment), or at day 48 (established tumors).
  • We suggest that FLT may be a potential PET biomarker when assessing adrenocortical cancer treatment with O,P'-DDD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Aggregation / drug effects. Cell Count. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radioactive Tracers. Spheroids, Cellular / drug effects. Spheroids, Cellular / pathology. Time Factors. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20665429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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77. Matsuoka T, Morikage N, Kuga T, Nakayama T, Fujii Y: [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Jun;58(6):499-503
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  • [Title] [Metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; report of a case].
  • A 69-year-old man had undertaken left upper lobectomy (ND 2 a) with partial resection of the left lower lobe under the diagnosis of a primary lung cancer, T2N0M0, stage IB in June, 2002.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), T3N0M0, stage IIB.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced tumor in the left adrenal lesion, 3 cm in diameter, in October, 2003.
  • Although a prognosis of LCNEC is poor in general, we should consider the resection of metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal gland from LCNEC for long-term survival expectantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15957427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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78. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Pierwotny chłoniak w przypadkowo wykrytym guzie nadnercza.
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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79. Porpiglia F, Fiori C, Daffara F, Zaggia B, Bollito E, Volante M, Berruti A, Terzolo M: Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer. Eur Urol; 2010 May;57(5):873-8
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  • [Title] Retrospective evaluation of the outcome of open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for stage I and II adrenocortical cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there is consensus that laparoscopy is the standard of care for the resection of benign adrenal tumours, there is controversy regarding the role of laparoscopy for the resection of adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to review the ACC database of the San Luigi Hospital to compare the oncologic effectiveness of open adrenalectomy (OA) versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) in the treatment of patients with stage I and II ACC.
  • The "open group" consisted of patients treated with OA; the "lap group" consisted of patients treated with LA.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Oncologic effectiveness of the procedures was tested comparing the recurrence-free survival of patients treated with OA versus LA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide interesting evidence that OA and LA may be comparable in terms of recurrence-free survival for patients with stage I and II ACC when the principles of surgical oncology are respected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20137850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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80. Kanczkowski W, Morawietz H, Ziegler CG, Funk RH, Schmitz G, Zacharowski K, Mohn CE, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Bornstein SR: Pam3CSK4 and LTA-TLRs ligands associated with microdomains induce IL8 production in human adrenocortical cancer cells. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Jun;39(6):457-60

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  • [Title] Pam3CSK4 and LTA-TLRs ligands associated with microdomains induce IL8 production in human adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • Bacterially derived ligands, Pam3CSK4 and LPS, can directly impact adrenal glands steroidogenesis through microdomain-related TLR1/2 and 4, respectively, and indirectly via immune cell-derived cytokines.
  • CXC chemokine-dependent immune cell infiltration into adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), which correlates with poor prognosis, is a common phenomenon.
  • This is the first study to demonstrate the expression of several TLRs including TLR1, 3, 6, 7 and 9 in human adrenocortical cells by using the RT-PCR approach.
  • Our data suggest that gram-positive bacteria-related TLR1/2/6 ligands might contribute to adrenal gland tumorigenesis via IL8 production.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / immunology. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis. Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology. Peptides / pharmacology. Teichoic Acids / pharmacology. Toll-Like Receptors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17578764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Lipopeptides; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Pam(3)CSK(4) peptide; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Teichoic Acids; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 56411-57-5 / lipoteichoic acid
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81. Cantini G, Lombardi A, Piscitelli E, Poli G, Ceni E, Marchiani S, Ercolino T, Galli A, Serio M, Mannelli M, Luconi M: Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling. PPAR Res; 2008;2008:904041
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone inhibits adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation by interfering with the IGF-IR intracellular signaling.
  • We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R) of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR).
  • We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC.
  • Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ.
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

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  • (PMID = 18670617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4757
  • [Journal-full-title] PPAR research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PPAR Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Ferruzzi P, Ceni E, Tarocchi M, Grappone C, Milani S, Galli A, Fiorelli G, Serio M, Mannelli M: Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1332-9
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  • [Title] Thiazolidinediones inhibit growth and invasiveness of the human adrenocortical cancer cell line H295R.
  • In the present study, we evaluated PPARgamma mRNA and protein expression in tissue samples of human adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), normal adrenal glands, and the human ACC cell line H295R.
  • PPARgamma mRNA was expressed in six of eight ACC, two of three normal adrenal glands and the H295R cells.
  • Western blot analysis showed that TZDs increased the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 and reduced the expression of cyclin D1.
  • These data suggest that TZDs reduce the malignant potential of the H295R ACC cell line and, therefore, might potentially constitute a novel tool in the medical treatment of human ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. PPAR gamma / genetics. PPAR gamma / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15585569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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83. Luconi M, Mangoni M, Gelmini S, Poli G, Nesi G, Francalanci M, Pratesi N, Cantini G, Lombardi A, Pepi M, Ercolino T, Serio M, Orlando C, Mannelli M: Rosiglitazone impairs proliferation of human adrenocortical cancer: preclinical study in a xenograft mouse model. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):169-77
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  • [Title] Rosiglitazone impairs proliferation of human adrenocortical cancer: preclinical study in a xenograft mouse model.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • The lack of a specific and effective medical treatment is due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Mice. Mice, Nude. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19955217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone
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84. Bertherat J, Bertagna X: Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):261-71
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  • [Title] Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer.
  • The study of the clonality of adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) has shown that adrenocortical cancers (ACCs) are of monoclonal origin.
  • Numerous chromosomal alterations have been observed in ACCs, and they are much more frequent than in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • This recent progress in the molecular genetics of ACC has led to the development of new molecular markers for the diagnosis of malignancy; these might also help to identify prognostic markers of ACC and may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19500768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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85. Abiven G, Coste J, Groussin L, Anract P, Tissier F, Legmann P, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jul;91(7):2650-5
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  • [Title] Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients.
  • CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: This study is a descriptive and multivariate analysis of a cohort from a single endocrinology center.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 44 +/- 16 yr (range, 11-88 yr).
  • We found that 154 patients (76%) had hypersecreting tumors [mostly cortisol and androgens (47%), cortisol alone (27%), or androgens alone (6%)] and 43 patients (21%) had metastases at diagnosis.
  • Multivariate analysis identified the following independent prognostic factors associated with shorter survival: older age at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR), 1.03; P < 0.0001], initial MacFarlane extension stages 3 (HR, 4.42; P = 0.005) and 4 (HR, 7.93; P < 0.0001), and cortisol hypersecretion (HR, 3.90; P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16670169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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86. Sudhakar MK, Kallarakkal JT, Damodharan J, Sahib K, Mahajan A, Kannan R: Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex. J Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Aug;103(8):433-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • A case of Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex is reported.
  • Sweet's syndrome can be a rare premalignant manifestation of carcinoma of adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweet Syndrome / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16363199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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87. Loncarevic IF, Hering A, Posorski N, Linden T, Hoyer H, Bucsky P: Number of genomic imbalances correlates with the overall survival for adrenocortical cancer in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Sep;51(3):356-62
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  • [Title] Number of genomic imbalances correlates with the overall survival for adrenocortical cancer in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical tumours (ACT) in children are rare and, if malignant, often associated with poor prognosis.
  • PROCEDURES: We analysed 14 adrenocortical cancers (ACC) of children by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH).
  • The median number was 4 in the eight patients, who remain in remission more than 51 months and 15.5 in the six patients, who have died from the disease within 44 months.
  • Moreover, all seven patients with less than 10 individual imbalances were in remission (median follow-up 72 months), while all but one patient with 10 and more individual imbalances (n = 7) have died from the disease (median survival time 30 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Chromosome Aberrations

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18478573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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90. Leboulleux S, Dromain C, Bonniaud G, Aupérin A, Caillou B, Lumbroso J, Sigal R, Baudin E, Schlumberger M: Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):920-5
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in adrenocortical carcinoma: a prospective comparison with computed tomography.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with adrenocortical cancer are submitted to multiple imaging procedures for diagnosis of recurrence and staging.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with adrenocortical cancer referred from November 2003 to December 2004 to the Institut Gustave Roussy were included.
  • The sensitivities for the detection of distinct lesions and the diagnosis of metastatic organs were 90 and 93% for PET/CT and 88 and 82% for TAP-CT, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We show that FDG-PET/CT is complementary to TAP-CT and of special interest in the diagnosis of local relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18

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  • (PMID = 16368753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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91. Meyer A, Behrend M: State of the art management of adrenal masses--"how to do it?". Eur J Med Res; 2006 Sep 29;11(9):397-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] State of the art management of adrenal masses--"how to do it?".
  • By the frequent use of computed tomography or ultrasound the detection of incidentally found adrenal tumours has become a common problem.
  • Most incidentally-found adrenal tumours are benign non-functioning cortical adenomas.
  • But benign functioning tumours producing aldosterone, cortisol or catecholamines, adrenocortical carcinoma or adrenal gland metastasis can also be found.
  • Surgical therapy is always indicated in case of hormonal overproduction or in case of suspected adrenocortical carcinoma; in all other cases the correct and adequate therapeutic approach is still under debate and a controversial topic of discussion.
  • This review deals with the different forms of adrenal tumours regarding the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach to give physicians an easy-to-follow guideline.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17101464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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92. Gil J, Kalembkiewicz M, Polak E, Kostecka-Matyja M: [Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2007 Jul;117(7):317-21
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  • [Title] [Disseminated adrenocortical carcinoma: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Rozsiany rak kory nadnercza.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm occurring with a frequency of 1-2 cases per million.
  • This type of a tumor is slightly more frequent in women (58.6%) than in men (41.4%).
  • Etiology of adrenocortical carcinoma is still unclear, but a role of genetic and environmental factors has been largely considered.
  • Most of the carcinomas (60%) are functional and usually the first manifestation is Cushing's syndrome with virilization.
  • Histopathology specimen from biopsy or obtained during operation should be stained for Melan A, which can confirm the adrenal origin of the tumor.
  • The only method of treatment is a complete surgical excision of the carcinoma.
  • We presented the case of functioning adrenocortical cancer in 37-year-old patient who at time of diagnosis had 12 cm in diameter tumor of the left adrenal gland and metastases to the liver and lung.
  • In the article the symptoms associated with hormones produced by the carcinoma, diagnostics and treatment with regard to the progression of the disease have also been discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17966598.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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93. Johnsen IK, Kappler R, Auernhammer CJ, Beuschlein F: Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 5 are down-regulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and modulate adrenal cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5784-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 5 are down-regulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and modulate adrenal cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • Quantitative PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of BMP2 and BMP5 in tissue samples from adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenocortical tumor cell lines compared with normal adrenal glands.
  • Integrity of BMP-dependent pathways in these cell lines could be shown by activation of the Smad1/5/8 pathway with subsequent increase of ID protein expression upon incubation with BMP2 or BMP5.
  • On a functional level, BMP treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • Taken together, we show that loss of expression of members of the BMP family of ligands is a common finding in adrenocortical tumors and we provide evidence that BMP-dependent pathways are likely to be involved in the modulation of the malignant and functional phenotype of adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. GATA6 Transcription Factor / genetics. GATA6 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Time Factors. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19584291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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94. Britvin TA, Kazantseva IA, Kalinin AP, Kushlinskii NE: Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2005 Aug;140(2):228-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vascular endothelium growth factor in the sera of patients with adrenal tumors.
  • Serum levels of vascular endothelium growth factor were measured in 43 patients with adrenal tumors and 25 healthy subjects.
  • The mean blood levels of the factor in patients with adrenal tumors significantly surpassed the control.
  • The levels of this factor were maximum in patients with adrenocortical cancer, but its mean level differed negligibly from that in other morphological variants of tumors.
  • The level of vascular endothelium growth factor tended to increase with increasing the stage of adrenocortical cancer.
  • A direct correlation was revealed between the level of vascular endothelium growth factor and tumor size in adrenocortical cancer and aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • Presumably, vascular endothelium growth factor is involved into mechanisms of growth, invasion, and metastatic growth of adrenocortical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 16283008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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95. Feng YC, Yang ZG, Chen TW, Su XY, Deng W, Wang QL: Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma: a rare case depicted on multi-detector row computed tomography. Indian J Med Sci; 2010 Jan;64(1):37-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma: a rare case depicted on multi-detector row computed tomography.
  • Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma is rare malignant tumor with the characteristics of carcinoma and sarcoma.
  • To date, only one case of primary sarcomatoid carcinoma in the adrenal gland was reported.
  • We present here computed tomography appearance and pathological features of the case with primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma confirmed by pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinosarcoma / radiography. Multidetector Computed Tomography / methods. Radiographic Image Enhancement

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  • (PMID = 22301808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3654
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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96. Mitra S, Roy SG, Sur PK: Adrenocortical carcinoma with skeletal metastases in a postmenopausal woman. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jan;30(1):24-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma with skeletal metastases in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a very rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • CT-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of an abdominal mass revealed the presence of a carcinoma of the left adrenal cortex.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80 [17554118.001]
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  • (PMID = 20668603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2902211
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenocortical carcinoma / androgen secreting tumors / mitotane
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97. Ide H, Terado Y, Tokiwa S, Nishio K, Saito K, Isotani S, Kamiyama Y, Muto S, Imamura T, Horie S: Novel germ line mutation p53-P177R in adult adrenocortical carcinoma producing neuron-specific enolase as a possible marker. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;40(8):815-8
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  • [Title] Novel germ line mutation p53-P177R in adult adrenocortical carcinoma producing neuron-specific enolase as a possible marker.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare and aggressive endocrine tumor.
  • Removal of the adrenocortical tumor with part of the transverse colon and tail of the pancreas, spleen and kidney was successfully performed following chemotherapy.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed that the cancer cells were positive for NSE and overexpression of p53.
  • The genetic and biochemical data presented in this case confirm the importance of screening for p53 status in ACC with inherited cancer syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / enzymology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Genes, p53 / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood

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  • (PMID = 20421238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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98. Lawnicka H, Kowalewicz-Kulbat M, Sicinska P, Kazimierczuk Z, Grieb P, Stepien H: Anti-neoplastic effect of protein kinase CK2 inhibitor, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (DMAT), on growth and hormonal activity of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) in vitro. Cell Tissue Res; 2010 May;340(2):371-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 17ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anti-neoplastic effect of protein kinase CK2 inhibitor, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (DMAT), on growth and hormonal activity of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) in vitro.
  • CK2 kinase (casein kinase-2) has been suggested to be a constituent of a neoplastic milleu, and its inhibition might represent a new approach to cancer therapy.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are highly malignant neoplasms with poor overall prognosis.
  • We have examined the effects of 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (DMAT), a potent CK2 inhibitor, on the H295R human adrenocortical cancer cell line.
  • Cell growth as measured by the MTT and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assays is inhibited, and cell cycle analysis has revealed a slight induction of apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Benzimidazoles / pharmacology. Casein Kinase II / antagonists & inhibitors. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / metabolism. Aldosterone / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / metabolism. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .
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  • (PMID = 20383646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0878
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole; 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzimidazoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; EC 2.7.11.1 / Casein Kinase II; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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99. Ishida M, Yoshida K, Miyamoto K, Iwai M, Miyahira Y, Kushima R, Okabe H: Cytological features of myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component: a case report with differential diagnostic considerations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):576-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological features of myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component: a case report with differential diagnostic considerations.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors are extremely rare neoplasms with only nine adenomas and eleven carcinomas reported in the literature.
  • They occasionally have a pseudoglandular component resembling metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland.
  • We report here the first cytopathological study of a myxoid adrenocortical adenoma with a pseudoglandular component, contributing especially to the differential diagnosis from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Two major cytopathological features distinguishing myxoid adrenocortical adenoma from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma in the adrenal gland are:.
  • Careful observation of these cytological features and positive immunoreactivity to Melan A, alpha-inhibin and synaptophysin can lead to the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18618725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Xiao ZJ, Li CL: [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug 10;90(30):2123-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical efficacy of combined therapy in the treatment of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 12 cases with advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma at our hospital from 1986 - 2006 were analyzed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was all of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • According to evaluation criterion of chemotherapeutic effect by WHO in 1987, the results were: CR (complete remission) (n = 0), PR (partial remission) (n = 7), SD (stable disease) (n = 3) and PD (progressive disease) (n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined therapy of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma is effective to prolong the patient lifespan.
  • Making an early diagnosis and offering a novel therapy yield a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21029628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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