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1. Szajerka A, Dziegiel P, Szajerka T, Zabel M, Winowski J, Grzebieniak Z: Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2959-65

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of metallothionein, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 antigen expression in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the metallothionein (MT), maintenance protein 2 (Mcm-2) and Ki-67 expressions in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in comparison to normal tissue and evaluate the correlations between these markers of proliferation and between these markers and tumor diameter.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 was assessed by immunochemistry in forty-eight adrenocortical adenomas, six adrenocortical carcinomas and eleven normal adrenal cortex tissue samples.
  • RESULTS: The expressions of MT, Mcm-2 and Ki-67 in the adrenocortical carcinomas were significantly higher than in the adenomas and normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The levels of Mcm-2 were also higher in the adrenocortical adenomas compared to the normal tissue (p<0.05).
  • The Mcm-2 expression showed a positive correlation to the expression of MT in the adrenocortical carcinomas (r=0.773; p<0.05) and to the expression of Ki-67 in the adrenocortical adenomas (r=0.432; p<0.05).
  • The malignant tumor diameter was positively correlated with the MT and Mcm-2 expressions (r=0.766, p<0.05 and r=0.620, p<0.05, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The assessment of Mcm-2 expression seems to be of special importance as a marker of adrenocortical dysplasia and a reliable indicator of malignancy in suspicious masses of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Metallothionein / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19031940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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2. Pereira RM, Michalkiewicz E, Pianovski MA, França SN, Boguszewski MC, Cat I, Lacerda Filho Ld, Sandrini R: [Treatment of childhood adrenocortical tumor]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):747-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of childhood adrenocortical tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamento do tumor do córtex adrenal na infância.
  • Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in children are uncommon.
  • However, the incidence of these tumors in Paraná is 15 times higher than that worldwide.
  • In our experience, disease stage I, absence of spillage during surgery and absence of intravenous thrombus are associated with better survival rates.
  • Preliminary data with the combination of etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and mitotane have shown that in some patients a complete remission is observed both of the tumor and metastasis.
  • Side effects due to these drugs are common and adrenal insufficiency may occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16444357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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3. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • After adrenalectomy, the levels of TNF alpha were decreased in patients with malignant tumors and in patients with Conn's syndrome, nonfunctioniong adenomas and pheochromocytomas compared to the concentration before surgery.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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4. Jain M, Kapoor S, Mishra A, Gupta S, Agarwal A: Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study.
  • BACKGROUND: Several systems including pathologic criteria alone or in combination with clinical features have been proposed to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and assess their prognosis.
  • Since we see large adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we attempt to evaluate the diagnostic power of Weiss system in large ACC.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study clinicopathological characteristics of 42 adrenocortical neoplasms are studied and classified into adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and ACC based on Weiss score of less than or equal to three or greater than three.
  • RESULTS: The histological criteria of Weiss appeared to predict tumor prognosis accurately.
  • CONCLUSION: Weiss score was found to be a good prognostic factor for tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Histocytochemistry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20551521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Horvath A, Stratakis CA: Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2008 Jun;15(3):227-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unraveling the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses the molecular basis of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • It focuses on the role of genetic defects in cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling-related molecules, namely PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, and PDE8B in the predisposition to tumor formation.
  • This review also discusses the involvement of cAMP signaling and related pathways and their impact on the adrenocortical tumor formation.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular abnormalities in the phosphodiesterases family are the most recently discovered genetic abnormalities that predispose individuals to various adrenocortical tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Recent findings indicate the importance of cAMP signaling for normal adrenocortical functioning and the sensitivity of the adrenal gland to subtle alterations in cAMP levels.
  • The identification of low-penetrance mutations in more than one phosphodiesterase in patients with adrenocortical hyperplasia is suggestive for a complementary role of the different phosphodiesterases in adrenal gland abnormalities and possible involvement of other members of this pathway in adrenocortical tumor defects.

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  • (PMID = 18438169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101741; NLM/ PMC2671149
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6. Opocher G, Schiavi F, Cicala MV, Patalano A, Mariniello B, Boaretto F, Zovato S, Pignataro V, Macino B, Negro I, Mantero F: Genetics of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):107-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors.
  • Endocrinology pioneered the development of molecular medicine, but also the study of adrenal tumors had a great impact in this field.
  • Particularly important was the detection of genetics of tumors derived from the adrenal medulla, as well as that of those derived from the sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia.
  • Less well understood is the genetics of adrenal cortex tumors, in particular adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare and particularly aggressive disease.
  • There are only a few examples of hereditary transmission of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the analysis of low penetrance genes by genome wide association study may enable us to discover new genetic mechanisms responsible for adrenocortical-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Mutation. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genomics. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19471236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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7. Pareja Megía MJ, Barrero Candau R, Medina Pérez M, Valero Puerta JA: [Giant adrenal myelolipoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2005 May;58(4):362-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant adrenal myelolipoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Mielolipoma adrenal gigante.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland METHODS/RESULTS: A case of a giant myelolipoma of the adrenal gland, an uncommon non-functioning tumour of the adrenal cortex comprised of haematopoietic and adipose tissue, that had been detected incidentally during evaluation with CT because of its characteristic fatty composition.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15989103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Puech-Bret N, Bret J, Bennet A, Huyghe E, Mazerolles C, Zabraniecki L, Fournie B: Maffucci syndrome and adrenal cortex tumor. Joint Bone Spine; 2009 Oct;76(5):556-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Maffucci syndrome and adrenal cortex tumor.
  • We report the second known case of Maffucci syndrome associated with an adrenal cortex tumor.
  • Endocrine tumors have been reported in patients with multiple enchondromas, although the underlying mechanism of this combination is unknown.
  • Therefore, routine evaluation for involvement of the adrenal cortex may be warranted to improve our knowledge of this syndrome and of its pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Enchondromatosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Amputation. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / radiography. Fingers / surgery. Hemangioma / complications. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Leg / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19782627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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10. Saeger W, Fassnacht M: [Effects of drugs on the adrenal cortex and its tumors]. Pathologe; 2006 Feb;27(1):61-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Effects of drugs on the adrenal cortex and its tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Wirkungen von Medikamenten auf die Nebennierenrinde und ihre Tumoren.
  • The structure of the normal adrenal cortex is changed by stimulating hormones (ACTH) and inhibiting hormonal drugs (especially glucocorticoids).
  • In the therapy of patients with adrenocortical cancer, mitotane can cause an increase in of necrosis and fibrosis, but also in intracellular lipid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16320017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0O54ZQ14I9 / Aminoglutethimide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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11. Karikari IO, Uschold TD, Selznick LA, Carter JH, Cummings TJ, Friedman AH: Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1144; discussion E1144
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  • [Title] Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors report a primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with spinal dysraphism presenting with bilateral leg pain and urinary frequency.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging, L2 laminectomy with resection of mass, and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of resected mass revealed the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis as a primary intramedullary tumor of adrenal cortical origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of a primary adrenal tumor in the spinal cord is rare and difficult to explain based on our understanding of embryology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Dysraphism / complications

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  • (PMID = 17143207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Wu W, Kamma H, Fujiwara M, Yano Y, Satoh H, Hara H, Yashiro T, Ueno E, Aiyoshi Y: Altered expression patterns of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and B1 in the adrenal cortex. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Apr;53(4):487-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Altered expression patterns of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and B1 in the adrenal cortex.
  • Several proteins implicated in hormonogenesis of the adrenal cortex have alternatively spliced isoforms, which respond differently to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
  • We examined the expression of A2 and B1 in normal adrenal cortex and tumors.
  • In three kinds of cortical adenomas autonomously producing hormones, B1 was generally overexpressed and there were no significant differences among them.
  • In cortisol-producing tumors, non-tumor parts of the cortex, which were generally atrophic due to low ACTH, had less B1 protein than normal adrenals.
  • In vitro ACTH stimulation induced a biphasic expression of B1 in an H295R cortical carcinoma cell line, and it paralleled hormonogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Cell Line, Tumor. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15805423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
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13. Carden CP, Frentzas S, Langham M, Casamayor I, Stephens AW, Poondru S, Wheaton J, Lippman SM, Kaye SB, Kim ES: Preliminary activity in adrenocortical tumor (ACC) in phase I dose escalation study of intermittent oral dosing of OSI-906, a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):3544

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preliminary activity in adrenocortical tumor (ACC) in phase I dose escalation study of intermittent oral dosing of OSI-906, a small-molecule insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumors.
  • IGF-1R blockade increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth in preclinical models.
  • METHODS: Patients (pt) with advanced solid tumours were enrolled to determine safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and preliminary anti-tumor activity.

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  • (PMID = 27961354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex]. Klin Khir; 2005 Jul;(7):42-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The role of computer tomography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of the adrenals cortex].
  • Possibilities of computer tomography (CT) application for differential diagnosis of tumors of the adrenal cortex (TAC) were studied.
  • While the trustworthy signs of malignancy are absent, it is necessary to conduct morphological verification of the adrenal tumors nature using puncture biopsy and/or intraoperative express-cytological investigation.

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  • (PMID = 16255222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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15. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative diagnosis of an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is difficult, often leaving size as the principal predictor of malignancy.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Follow-up data, including clinical examination, biochemical analysis, and repeat scans, were reviewed for evidence of local or systemic recurrent disease.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • The mean age of the patients was 49.9 years (range 22-77 years), and the mean tumor size was 69.0 mm (range 60-80 mm).
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • Two patients died of systemic recurrent disease (liver metastases) at 10 and 19 months, respectively, following surgery; two other patients died 12 and 21 months, respectively following surgery owing to unrelated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology.
  • One patient underwent surgery for local recurrence 54 months after primary surgery; the remaining 14 patients are well with no clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • We provide an algorithm for the approach to adrenocortical tumors > or = 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Pianovski MA, Maluf EM, de Carvalho DS, Ribeiro RC, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Boffetta P, Zancanella P, Figueiredo BC: Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):56-60
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  • [Title] Mortality rate of adrenocortical tumors in children under 15 years of age in Curitiba, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Several reports refer to an increased frequency of adrenal cortex tumors (ACT) among children in Southern Brazil, yet all data have been derived from hospital-based registries.
  • PROCEDURE: We reviewed all death certificates that mentioned ACT or adrenal neuroblastoma (NB) and which were reported to the Paraná State Department of Health between 1998 and 2003, for individuals younger than 15 years who resided in the Curitiba metropolitan region.
  • The ratio of the adrenal NB and ACT age-adjusted mortality rates was 1.43.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation of population-based mortality confirms the evidence from hospital-based registries of a clustering of ACT in Southern Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16200634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Raparia K, Ayala AG, Sienko A, Zhai QJ, Ro JY: Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):344-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare, and to our knowledge, only about 23 cases have been reported in the literature, including 13 carcinomas and 10 adenomas.
  • We recently experienced 4 cases of myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms (3 benign and 1 borderline malignancy) and studied the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of these neoplasms.
  • The tumors weighed from 24.1 to 94 g (size, 4.1-9.8 cm).
  • Histologically, the tumor cells were arranged in delicate arborizing cords or trabecula with myxoid areas varying from 30% to 70%.
  • Three tumors were benign and 1 was of borderline morphology with mitoses of 3/10 high-power fields and mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism.
  • The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, synaptophysin, and inhibin but negative for cytokeratin.
  • All patients are alive with no recurrence of their tumors or evidence of metastasis (follow-up of 14-20 months).
  • Myxoid changes in adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare but can be seen in both an adenoma and a tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Because of prominent myxoid changes, other myxoid tumors occurring in the retroperitoneum should be excluded.
  • The usual clinical and histological features can be applied to classify the lesions as benign, borderline tumor, or malignant.
  • In our series, there was no case with frank malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Inhibins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18774497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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18. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Composite tumors are extremely rare.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • We report a patient with composite neuroblastoma (NB), adrenocortical tumor (ACT), and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • LFS predisposes to the development of leukemia, sarcomas, adrenocortical and breast carcinomas, brain tumors and, questionably, NB.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Genes, p53. Germ-Line Mutation. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Point Mutation. Virilism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Substitution. Aneuploidy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Pedigree

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Lalli E: Adrenal cortex ontogenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):853-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortex ontogenesis.
  • During the early phases of development, adrenal glands share a common origin with kidneys and gonads.
  • The action of diverse transcription factors, signalling pathways and endocrine signals is required for the individualization of the adrenal primordium and its subsequent differentiation into an adult adrenal gland, with massive remodelling taking place around the time of birth in humans.
  • Here I summarize the most important steps by which the adrenal cortex is shaped and present an overview of the current understanding of the genes and molecular pathways implicated in adrenal development and involved in the pathogenesis of its congenital diseases.
  • Evidence is accumulating that some pivotal factors acting during adrenocortical development also play an important role to regulate the growth of adrenocortical tumors, representing promising therapeutical targets for a biology-oriented therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / growth & development. Organogenesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / congenital. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Animals. Humans. Molecular Targeted Therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Szabó PM, Wiener Z, Tömböl Z, Kovács A, Pócza P, Horányi J, Kulka J, Riesz P, Tóth M, Patócs A, Gaillard RC, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: Differences in the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins in normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Aug;455(2):133-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differences in the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins in normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumors.
  • Histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of several tumors; however, there are no data on its possible involvement in human adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • The expression of genes and proteins involved in the biosynthesis (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), action (histamine receptors: HRH1-HRH4), and metabolism of histamine is largely unknown both in the normal human adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • In this study, we examined the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins and histamine content in normal adrenal cortex, benign adrenocortical adenomas, and malignant adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • Fifteen normal adrenals and 43 tumors were studied. mRNA expression was examined by real time RT-PCR.
  • We found that all proteins involved in histamine biosynthesis and action are present both in the normal adrenal cortex and in the tumors studied.
  • HDC expression and histamine content was highest in the normal tissues and lower in benign tumors, whereas it was significantly less in ACCs.
  • Adrenocortical tumorigenesis might, thus, be characterized by reduced histamine biosynthesis; furthermore, different adrenocortical tumor subtypes may show unique histamine receptor expression profiles.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Histamine / metabolism. Histidine Decarboxylase / metabolism. Receptors, Histamine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19568768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HRH4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Histamine; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H1; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H2; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H3; 820484N8I3 / Histamine; EC 4.1.1.22 / Histidine Decarboxylase
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21. McNicol AM: Lesions of the adrenal cortex. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1263-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • CONTEXT: In surgical pathology practice adrenal cortical tumors are rare.
  • However, in autopsy series adrenal cortical nodules are found frequently.
  • These are now being identified more commonly in life when the abdomen is scanned for other disease.
  • It is important to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions as adrenal cortical carcinoma is an aggressive tumor.
  • Molecular genetic investigations are providing new information on both pathogenesis of adrenal tumors and basic adrenal development and physiology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current knowledge on adrenal cortical development and structure that informs our understanding of genetic diseases of the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of basic developmental and physiologic processes permits a better understanding of diseases of the adrenal cortex.
  • The information coming from investigation of the molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is beginning to provide additional tests for the assessment of malignant potential in diagnosis but the mainstay remains traditional histologic analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Adrenal Gland Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Growth. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18684025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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22. Alsultan A, Lovell MA, Hayes KL, Allshouse MJ, Garrington TP: Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):695-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous occurrence of right adrenocortical tumor and left adrenal neuroblastoma in an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) have increased risk for development of embryonal tumors.
  • We present the case of an infant with BWS who has hypomethylation of LIT1 gene in the 11p15.5 chromosomal region and at 6 months of age presented with simultaneous occurrence of neuroblastoma arising from the left adrenal gland and a right adrenocortical tumor.
  • She underwent surgical resection of both tumors and remains tumor free 18 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neuroblastoma / complications


23. Al-Zaid T, Alroy J, Pfannl R, Strissel KJ, Powers JF, Layer A, Carpinito G, Tischler AS: Oncocytic adrenal cortical tumor with cytoplasmic inclusions and hyaline globules. Virchows Arch; 2008 Sep;453(3):301-6
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  • [Title] Oncocytic adrenal cortical tumor with cytoplasmic inclusions and hyaline globules.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors, particularly oncocytic tumors, have been reported to contain a variety of intracytoplasmic and intramitochondrial inclusions.
  • Oncocytic cortical tumors can also morphologically mimic pheochromocytomas.
  • We report an unusual, partially oncocytic cortical neoplasm with nesting architecture, intranuclear inclusions, and hyaline globules reminiscent of pheochromocytoma, together with numerous, small, brightly eosinophilic, periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and typical cytoplasmic lipid droplets.
  • Immunohistochemistry and immunoblots were utilized to further characterize the tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated immunoreactivity of both the eosinophilic inclusions and the hyaline globules for adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), which is one of a group of proteins associated with storage of neutral lipids in many cell types.
  • Immunoblots confirmed the presence of ADRP and demonstrated an imbalance between ADRP and perilipin, another neutral lipid-associated protein, in tumor tissue compared to normal adrenal cortex.
  • The findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction in oncocytic cortical tumors may lead to abnormal processing of proteins related to the lipid-storing functions of the adrenal cortex, resulting in unusual cytoplasmic inclusions and extracellular globules resembling the globules in pheochromocytomas.
  • The finding of ADRP as a constituent of inclusions in adrenal cortical tumors has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Oxyphil Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18688642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / perilipin 2
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24. Ng SS, Lee JF, Yiu RY, Li JC, Leung KL: Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2007 Aug;17(4):283-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms.
  • We report our experience with synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal carcinoma and renal/adrenal neoplasms with an emphasis on surgical and oncologic outcomes.
  • Five patients diagnosed to have synchronous colorectal carcinoma and renal/adrenal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma in 2 patients, adrenal cortical adenoma in 2 patients, and adrenal metastasis in 1 patient) underwent synchronous laparoscopic resection.
  • At a median follow-up of 17.6 months, no patient developed recurrence of disease.
  • Synchronous laparoscopic resection of colorectal and renal/adrenal neoplasms is technically feasible and safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Loss, Surgical. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Sigmoid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17710049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Sudhakar MK, Kallarakkal JT, Damodharan J, Sahib K, Mahajan A, Kannan R: Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex. J Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Aug;103(8):433-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • A case of Sweet's syndrome preceding carcinoma of the adrenal cortex is reported.
  • Sweet's syndrome can be a rare premalignant manifestation of carcinoma of adrenal cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sweet Syndrome / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16363199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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26. Wagner S, Kiupel M, Peterson RA 2nd, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB: Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol; 2008 Jul;45(4):439-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytochrome b5 expression in gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).
  • Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen.
  • The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue.
  • We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17.
  • Cyt b(5) immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96%) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production.
  • Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b(5), which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets.
  • Other markers characteristic of gonadal somatic cells, such as luteinizing hormone receptor, aromatase, and GATA4, were coexpressed with cyt b(5) in some of the tumors.
  • We concluded that cyt b(5) is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors.

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  • [Cites] Vet Pathol. 2003 Mar;40(2):136-42 [12637752.001]
  • [Cites] J Endocrinol. 1983 Dec;99(3):361-8 [6417256.001]
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  • (PMID = 18587089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574-09; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK52574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK075618; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK052574; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK075618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-39-6 / Cytochromes b5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS45245; NLM/ PMC2497446
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27. Gross MD, Gauger PG, Djekidel M, Rubello D: The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1137-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of PET in the surgical approach to adrenal disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Appropriate surgical approach to diseases of the adrenal requires a diagnosis sufficient to determine the biochemical status of adrenal dysfunction and anatomic evaluation sufficient to differentiate unilateral from bilateral disease, intra-adrenal from extra-adrenal neoplasm, adrenal tumor recurrence or adrenal metastases.
  • High resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance have been the primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of anatomy, while scintigraphic studies have played a secondary role in diagnosis.
  • The recent availability of functional imaging provided by positron emission tomography (PET) with radiopharmaceuticals designed to depict substrate precursor uptake, cellular metabolism or receptor binding in neoplasms and CT as a single modality, hybrid PET/CT, to directly correlate function and anatomy has had a significant impact upon the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to many cancers and has been applied to adrenal disease with some early success that we describe in this review.
  • METHODS: In addition to the authors' experience, a search of Medline and PubMed databases was performed using search terms: 'adrenal scintigraphy', 'positron tomography', 'computed tomography', 'adrenal surgery', 'adrenal mass', '(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose', 'adrenal carcinoma', 'adrenal medulla' and 'pheochromocytoma'.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present PET radiopharmaceuticals and their use in hybrid PET/CT have demonstrated efficacy in the preoperative and follow-up evaluation of neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla that hopefully will continue to improve with the development of newer tracers that continue to exploit unusual characteristics of the adrenals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19243910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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28. Chevalier N, Carrier P, Piche M, Chevallier A, Wagner K, Tardy V, Benchimol D, Fénichel P: Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):56-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical incidentaloma with uncertain prognosis associated with an inadequately treated congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Large adrenal tumors are rarely associated with adrenal enzymatic deficiency, except in 11-ss-hydroxylase insufficiency.
  • These tumors are exceptionally malignant.
  • We report here the case of a patient with a congenital 21-hydroxylase deficiency (compound heterozygote for two severe mutations in the CYP21A2 gene) untreated for 20 years.
  • His evaluation at 36 years of age showed a four-centimeter mass in the left adrenal gland, with most characteristics suggestive of malignancy (CT and positron emission tomography [PET] scan).
  • We performed a surgical resection that established the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor of uncertain prognosis (Weiss's score: 3).
  • Even though malignant tumors are unusual in adrenal deficiency, our observation shows the need for a replacement therapy during adulthood, with a regular CT scan follow up in order to diagnose early isolated adrenal adenoma and remove it in case of malignancy suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Heterozygote. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19942208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; EC 1.14.99.10 / CYP21A2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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29. Mannelli M, Cantini G, Poli G, Mangoni M, Nesi G, Canu L, Rapizzi E, Borgogni E, Ercolino T, Piccini V, Luconi M: Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:23-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PIOGLITAZONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells.
  • In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge on PPAR-γ in normal and tumoral corticotropic pituitary and adrenal cells.
  • The receptor expression has been shown in ACTH-secreting cells in both normal and adenomal pituitary as well as in normal and tumor adrenal cortex.
  • Preclinical studies conducted both in vitro on tumor cells and in vivo on xenograft tumor models obtained by subcutaneous injection of cancer cells have evidenced the anticancer properties of TZD, in particular rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PIO).
  • In both pituitary and adrenocortical cancer, RGZ treatment results in inhibition of cell proliferation, through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis, leading to significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft tumor models.
  • In addition, since RGZ can reduce ACTH and corticosterone secretion in mouse corticotropic pituitary tumors, both RGZ and PIO have been used in the treatment of Cushing's disease with variable but generally unsatisfactory results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Corticotrophs / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20829614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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30. Dehner LP, Hill DA: Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors? Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):284-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors?
  • Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children are represented by a disproportionate number of cases that have been diagnosed pathologically as adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs)-as many as 90% of all cortical tumors in some pediatric series.
  • Most are sporadically occurring neoplasms, but ACCs are a manifestation of Beckwith-Wiedemann and Li-Fraumeni syndromes.
  • Tumor weight is seemingly a significant determinant in prognosis at a threshold of greater than 400 g.
  • A risk assessment system is proposed that incorporates tumor weight, localization of tumor to the gland without invasion into the surrounding tissues or organs, and absence of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / pathology. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 19326954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Carlson HE: Human adrenal cortex hyperfunction due to LH/hCG. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Apr 15;269(1-2):46-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human adrenal cortex hyperfunction due to LH/hCG.
  • Adrenal cortex hyperfunction may occasionally be due to stimulation of steroid hormone production by LH/hCG.
  • The recent demonstration of the LH/hCG receptor in a variety of normal and abnormal human adrenal tissues has provided a novel explanation for these clinical observations and offers the possibility of spontaneous remission (as in pregnancy-related hyperfunction) or effective treatment with GnRH-agonists (to down-regulate LH secretion in menopausal patients).
  • Involvement of adrenal LH/hCG receptors should be considered in pregnant or post-menopausal patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome or androgen excess.
  • Additional investigations are needed to better define the role of the LH/hCG receptor in the normal adult and fetal human adrenal and to understand how this system is excessively activated in rare cases of human disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / etiology. Chorionic Gonadotropin / physiology. Luteinizing Hormone / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aldosterone / secretion. Androgens / metabolism. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Estrogens / secretion. Female. Humans. Menopause / physiology. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / pathology. Receptors, LH / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17363138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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33. Boulkroun S, Samson-Couterie B, Dzib JF, Lefebvre H, Louiset E, Amar L, Plouin PF, Lalli E, Jeunemaitre X, Benecke A, Meatchi T, Zennaro MC: Adrenal cortex remodeling and functional zona glomerulosa hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism. Hypertension; 2010 Nov;56(5):885-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal cortex remodeling and functional zona glomerulosa hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism.
  • In peritumoral tissue, large remodeling of the adrenal cortex was observed with increased nodulation and decreased vascularization that were not correlated with CYP11B2 expression.
  • Transcriptome profiling indicates a close relationship between peritumoral and control adrenal cortex.
  • In conclusion, adrenal cortex remodeling, reduced vascularization, and ZG hyperplasia are major features of adrenals with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Zona Glomerulosa / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20937967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4563
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertension
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
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34. Ranganathan S, Lynshue K, Hunt JL, Kane T, Jaffe R: Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;8(4):483-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual adrenal cortical tumor of unknown biologic potential: a nodule in a nodule in a nodule.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are uncommon neoplasms in childhood.
  • Most pediatric adrenal tumors are virilizing and carcinomas are more common than adenomas.
  • Recent molecular data suggest an adenoma-to-carcinoma progression sequence in adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • We report a case of a 5-year-old boy who presented with virilizing symptoms secondary to an adrenal tumor that was resected laparoscopically.
  • The bulk of the tumor was a large, yellow mass with typical features of an adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Child, Preschool. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Hirsutism / etiology. Hirsutism / pathology. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16010500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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35. Hishiki T, Kazukawa I, Saito T, Terui K, Mitsunaga T, Nakata M, Matsuura G, Minagawa M, Kohno Y, Yoshida H: Diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor in a neonate by detection of elevated blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone measured as a routine neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Oct;43(10):e19-22
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 17ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of adrenocortical tumor in a neonate by detection of elevated blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone measured as a routine neonatal screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report.
  • We report herein a case of prenatally detected neonatal adrenocortical tumor (ACT).
  • Computed tomography and ultrasonography after birth revealed a round solid tumor 40 mm in diameter in the right suprarenal area.
  • The precise diagnosis of ACT was unexpectedly obtained based on results from the Japanese neonatal mass screening program.
  • Blood 17-hydroxyprogesterone is routinely measured as a part of this program for early detection of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Japan.
  • Abnormally elevated level of 17-hydroxyprogesterone was reported in the patient and, thus, led to the diagnosis of ACT.
  • Adrenocortical tumors are extremely rare in childhood, particularly in the neonatal period.
  • Some of these tumors secrete abnormally high levels of cortisol, suppressing function of the contralateral adrenal gland and, thus, leading to life-threatening postoperative adrenal insufficiency.
  • Adrenocortical tumor should always be considered among the differential diagnoses for neonatal suprarenal mass because precise diagnosis will enable the physician to develop appropriate treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Fetal Blood / chemistry. Neonatal Screening
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Insufficiency / prevention & control. Adrenalectomy. Aldosterone / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Infant, Newborn. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Premedication. Testosterone / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Prenatal


36. Bernichtein S, Alevizaki M, Huhtaniemi I: Is the adrenal cortex a target for gonadotropins? Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;19(7):231-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is the adrenal cortex a target for gonadotropins?
  • The human adrenal cortex expresses low levels of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptors (LHCGR), a characteristic gonad-specific G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR).
  • LHCGR levels increase in the adrenal cortex after exposure to chronically elevated gonadotropins (e.g. after gonadectomy).
  • In fact, heightened ectopic LHCGR levels are observed in a subclass of human adrenocortical tumors, and gonadotropin-responsive adrenocortical hyperplasia and tumors occur in several animal species.
  • These findings suggest that adrenocortical responsiveness to LH/CG might be a physiological phenomenon that is amplified in the presence of elevated gonadotropin levels.
  • Such increased gonadotropin action can induce pathologies ranging from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome to malignant adrenal tumors.
  • The authors review the current information on adrenocortical responses to gonadotropins in experimental animals and humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Luteinizing Hormone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18691899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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37. Velikanova LI: [Specific features of diagnosis of hormonal insufficiency in patients with tumors of the adrenal cortex]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2005;164(3):43-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Specific features of diagnosis of hormonal insufficiency in patients with tumors of the adrenal cortex].
  • An examination of 145 patients with incidentalomas and 195 women with virale syndrome has shown that 20% of patients with incidentalomas and 23.1% of patients with steroidogenesis have disorders of the adrenal steroidogenesis characteristic of the obliterated form of congenital hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex (CHAC) with a defect of 11beta-hydroxylase on the basis of the following biochemical criteria: the elevation in blood of the basal levels of 11-desoxycortisole and 11beta-desoxycorticosterone, decreased excretion of free cortisole with urine, lower indices of hydrocortisole/cortisone in blood and free cortisole/free cortisone in urine, in the test with corticotropin - elevation in blood of the level of 11-desoxycortisole and 11-desoxycorticosterone, decreased relationships cortisole/11-desoxycortisole and cortisole/cortisone and lower growth of the levels of corticosterone and cortisole.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cortodoxone / blood. Desoxycorticosterone / blood. Hydrocortisone / urine

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  • (PMID = 16281397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; WDT5SLP0HQ / Cortodoxone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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38. Hantel C, Beuschlein F: Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):865-75
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mouse models of adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are heterogeneous tumors with a poor prognosis.
  • The rarity of this disorder causes a lack of treatment experience and material availability which is necessary to optimize existing treatments and to develop novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Although surgery is still the treatment of choice, adjuvant therapies are urgently needed as the rate of recurrence for these tumors is high.
  • In recent years molecular characterization of surgical tumor specimen has aided in the understanding of disease mechanisms and definition of therapeutic targets also in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Here we give an overview on rodent models that have been described to either have adrenocortical tumors as part of their phenotype or have been utilized for therapeutic screens as adrenocortical tumor models.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Models, Animal
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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39. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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40. Mann MW, Ellis SS, Mallory SB: Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Feb;56(2 Suppl):S15-8
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  • [Title] Infantile acne as the initial sign of an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Ultrasound and abdominal computed tomographic scan revealed a large adrenal mass consistent with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • The patient underwent surgical excision of the well-encapsulated tumor with normalization of his hormones and no subsequent recurrence.
  • Although rare, childhood adrenocortical tumors have a poor prognosis, with the majority of tumors having regional and metastatic disease.
  • Because early diagnosis and complete surgical excision improve prognosis, children with refractory infantile acne should be evaluated for signs of virilization and accelerated growth.
  • Elevated levels of DHEA and DHEA-S should prompt an aggressive diagnostic evaluation for an adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / etiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 17097383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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41. Przybylik-Mazurek E, Darczuk A, Huszno B, Budzyński A, Rembiasz K, Gałazka K, Wierzchowski W, Giza A, Jurczak W, Skotnicki AB, Sztuk S, Urbanik A: [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(8):701-5
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  • [Title] [Primary adrenal lymphoma in incidentally discovered adrenal tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Pierwotny chłoniak w przypadkowo wykrytym guzie nadnercza.
  • The new imaging techniques used during the last several years: ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have improved detection of non-functional adrenal tumours s.c. "incidentaloma".
  • Incidence of adrenal incidentaloma is not very low.
  • In most of cases incidentaloma are benign and gave no clinical signs; however primary adrenal cortex cancer and metastases of different cancers are not uncommon.
  • The primary adrenal lymphoma is an extremely rare disease.
  • Most frequently both adrenal glands are affected and signs of adrenal insufficiency (despite weakness, fever and loss of weight) are present.
  • Hormonal examinations were normal, but the tumour size was indication for surgery treatment.
  • The diagnosis was made by histological examination and adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17441388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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42. Collins BR: Endocrine diseases of rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2008 Jan;11(1):153-62, vii-viii
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  • The clinical diagnosis of endocrine diseases almost never occurs in free-ranging animals in their native habitat.
  • Feral animals that have clinical endocrine disease, such as neoplasia, adrenal cortical hyperplasia, or diabetes, would exhibit clinical signs of altered behavior that would result in their removal by predators.
  • The diagnosis of endocrine disease thus takes place in the relatively protective environment of captivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Animals, Domestic. Endocrine System Diseases / veterinary. Rodent Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cricetinae. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gerbillinae. Guinea Pigs. Male. Mice. Rats. Rodentia. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18165143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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43. Rossi GP, Sticchi D, Giuliani L, Bernante P, Zavattiero S, Pessina AC, Nussdorfer GG: Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas. Int J Mol Med; 2006 Jun;17(6):975-80
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  • [Title] Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived circulating peptide that plays an important role in adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular disease.
  • The adrenal gland, by secreting glucorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones, intervenes in cardiovascular and glucose metabolism regulation and is surrounded by adipose tissue.
  • Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that adiponectin receptor types 1 and 2 (adipo-R1 and adipo-R2) are expressed in the human adrenal gland and in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa cell-derived aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) tissue.
  • We used real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate the mRNA of adipo-R1 and adipo-R2 in 10 histologically normal human adrenal cortexes that were obtained from patients with renal cancer undergoing nephrectomy with ipsilateral adrenalectomy and in 10 APAs.
  • Results consistently showed the expression of specific mRNAs of adiponectin receptors in all histologically normal human adrenal cortexes and APAs.
  • This novel finding suggests that adiponectin could play a regulatory role in adrenocortical function and growth in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16685404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADIPOR1 protein, human; 0 / ADIPOR2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Adiponectin; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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44. Khan AA, Shergill IS, Hamid R, Gujral SS: Giant nonfunctioning carcinoma of the adrenal cortex mimicking renal cell carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma. Urology; 2007 Jul;70(1):178.e1-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant nonfunctioning carcinoma of the adrenal cortex mimicking renal cell carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare, highly malignant neoplasm that originates in the adrenal cortex and is difficult to differentiate from renal cell carcinoma, especially if it is gigantic and nonfunctional.
  • We report the case of a 40-year-old man with an incidental mass in the right upper abdomen.
  • However, histologic examination after radical nephrectomy confirmed the mass to be an adrenocortical carcinoma compressing the kidney.
  • We discuss the obscurity and implications of such a diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17656234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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45. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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46. Micali S, Peluso G, De Stefani S, Celia A, Sighinolfi MC, Grande M, Bianchi G: Laparoscopic adrenal surgery: new frontiers. J Endourol; 2005 Apr;19(3):272-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenal surgery: new frontiers.
  • After about 10 years of experience, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal lesions.
  • Here, we describe the presenting features, imaging methods, and current surgical approaches to diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • There is general agreement on the suitability of the laparoscopic approach for benign adrenal lesions, but controversy exists about using laparoscopy for suspected adrenal malignancy, metastasis, and partial adrenalectomy.

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  • (PMID = 15865511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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47. Coulter CL: Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;16(5):235-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal adrenal development: insight gained from adrenal tumors.
  • Conversely, tumor progression and the development of cancer probably occur through a process of dysregulation and dedifferentiation.
  • Similarities exist between normal human fetal adrenal cortex and adrenal cancers, such as high expression of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor II.
  • Therefore, we might gain insight into factors involved in adrenocortical development through better understanding the development and progression of adrenocortical tumors.
  • This review is prompted by recent gene profiling studies that have identified genes differentially expressed between normal and abnormal adrenal glands.
  • Several of these genes are specific growth factors or key cell cycle regulators, in addition to genes not previously associated with adrenal growth or function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / embryology

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  • (PMID = 15949953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Somatomedins
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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48. Ishay A, Luboshitzky R: Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors. Fertil Steril; 2009 Aug;92(2):806-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infertility and bilateral adrenal tumors.
  • An infertile man who presents with azoospermia and bilateral adrenal tumors reveals an XX karyotype and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Azoospermia / diagnosis. Azoospermia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19100538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Pushkarev VM, Tronko ND, Kostyuchenko NN, Mikosha AS: Effect of o,p'-DDD and Li+ on apoptotic DNA fragmentation in conventionally normal and tumour tissues of human adrenal cortex. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999); 2007 Mar-Apr;79(2):44-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of o,p'-DDD and Li+ on apoptotic DNA fragmentation in conventionally normal and tumour tissues of human adrenal cortex.
  • The actions of 1-(o-chlorophenyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane (o,p'-DDD), potassium and lithium ions upon apoptotic processes in conventionally normal and tumour tissues of human adrenal cortex were studied.
  • There was no effect of K+ on the apoptosis in tumour tissue. o,p'-DDD--the specific drug for conservative therapy of adrenocortical cancer--enhanced the apoptotic DNA fragmentation in all tested tissues.
  • The conclusion was made that apoptosis may be involved in curative effect of o,p'-DDD in adrenal cortex.
  • Lithium ions, which are used in clinic as antidepressant, inhibited the apoptosis in conventionally normal tissue and in most tumours.
  • On the other hand, lithium enhanced the DNA fragmentation in the postoperative tissue of patients with Cushing disease.
  • The possible mechanisms mediating lithium effects on the adrenal cortex are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Lithium Chloride / pharmacology. Mitotane / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Potassium Chloride / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18030749.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ukraïnsʹkyĭ biokhimichnyĭ z︠h︡urnal (1999 )
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 660YQ98I10 / Potassium Chloride; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; G4962QA067 / Lithium Chloride
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50. Fung MM, Viveros OH, O'Connor DT: Diseases of the adrenal medulla. Acta Physiol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;192(2):325-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diseases of the adrenal medulla.
  • The adrenal glands are vital in the organism's response to environmental stress.
  • The outer cortex releases steroid hormones: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex hormones, which are crucial to metabolism, inflammatory reactions and fluid homeostasis.
  • Pathology within the adrenal medulla and the autonomic nervous system is primarily because of neoplasms.
  • The most common tumour, called phaeochromocytoma when located in the adrenal medulla, originates from chromaffin cells and excretes catecholamines, but may be referred to as secreting paragangliomas when found in extra-adrenal chromaffin cells.
  • Neoplasms, such as neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas, may also be of neuronal lineage.

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  • (PMID = 18021328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-1716
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Physiol (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-090004; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-099006; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK060702; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL058120-090004
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS57919; NLM/ PMC2576282
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51. Kahn SL, Angle JF: Adrenal vein sampling. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol; 2010 Jun;13(2):110-25

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal vein sampling.
  • Adrenal vein sampling is the gold standard for localizing aldosterone-secreting adenomas and for distinguishing adenomas from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • Adrenal vein sampling is a safe, highly effective procedure that is shown to alter the clinical management in 35.7% of primary hyperaldosteronism patients who would have otherwise been treated improperly based on the results of CT or other modalities.
  • Although adrenal vein sampling is hindered by the inherent difficulty of catheterizing the right adrenal vein, technical success is reported as high as 97% in experienced hands.
  • In this article, we review aldosterone physiology and the clinical workup of primary aldosteronism as well as the anatomic, technical, and analytical factors to be considered with adrenal vein sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Catheterization, Peripheral. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Algorithms. Biomarkers / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phlebography. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiography, Interventional. Renin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Up-Regulation. Veins

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20540920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9808
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in vascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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52. Galac S, Kars VJ, Klarenbeek S, Teerds KJ, Mol JA, Kooistra HS: Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2010 Jul;39(1):63-75
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  • [Title] Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.
  • Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids.
  • Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues.
  • In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low.
  • The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands.
  • The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor.
  • The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern.
  • In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / genetics. Receptors, LH / genetics. Receptors, Vasopressin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Adrenalectomy. Animals. Dogs. Gene Expression. Immunohistochemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Zona Fasciculata / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20399066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0054
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 0 / gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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53. Looyenga BD, Hammer GD: Origin and identity of adrenocortical tumors in inhibin knockout mice: implications for cellular plasticity in the adrenal cortex. Mol Endocrinol; 2006 Nov;20(11):2848-63
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  • [Title] Origin and identity of adrenocortical tumors in inhibin knockout mice: implications for cellular plasticity in the adrenal cortex.
  • Inhibin knockout (Inha-/-) mice develop gonadal sex-cord tumors and--when gonadectomized--adrenocortical tumors.
  • Previous reports demonstrated that adrenocortical tumors from Inha-/- mice produce estrogen and depend on gonadotropin signaling for initiation.
  • Here we show that, in addition to producing estrogen, the adrenocortical tumors display a global change in cellular identity, composed of two unique cell types expressing differing arrays of genes normally restricted to theca and granulosa cells of the ovary.
  • Many of these genes are also induced in wild-type adrenals after gonadectomy or upon chronic gonadotropin stimulation, suggesting that the adrenal cortex normally contains a population of pluripotent cells that can be driven toward an adrenal or gonadal identity given the appropriate pituitary stimuli.
  • A central feature of this altered cellular identity is the switch from predominant expression of Gata6 (endogenous to the adrenal cortex) to Gata4, which defines cellular identity in the ovary.
  • We show that stable transfection of Gata4 in cultured adrenocortical cells is sufficient to activate ovarian-specific genes of both theca and granulose lineages.
  • Spatial analysis of Gata4 expression reveals a distinct pattern of localization to the supcapsular region of the adrenal, which contains undifferentiated progenitor cells that continuously populate the adrenocortical zones.
  • Although both wild-type and Inha-/- mice display this pattern, only Inha-/- mice produce tumors composed of these Gata4-positive cells.
  • These data suggest that Inha-/- adrenocortical tumors cells are derived from pluripotent adrenocortical progenitor cells that adopt a gonadal fate due to the convergent loss of inhibin and chronic exposure to elevated gonadotropins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma / etiology. Inhibins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers. Cell Lineage. Cells, Cultured. Female. GATA4 Transcription Factor / metabolism. GATA6 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Granulosa Cells / metabolism. Luteinizing Hormone / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue / metabolism. Organ Specificity. Ovariectomy. Theca Cells / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 16873442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK62027
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / Gata4 protein, mouse; 0 / Gata6 protein, mouse; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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54. Stephenson TJ: Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):629-43
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  • [Title] Prognostic and predictive factors in endocrine tumours.
  • This review encompasses the diagnostic features of malignancy, the routinely observable prognostic features and the prognostic and predictive features emerging from research techniques in the principal endocrine neoplasms: pancreatic and extrapancreatic endocrine cell tumours, thyroid and parathyroid neoplasia, adrenal cortical neoplasms and adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
  • While each endocrine tissue has its own set of diagnostic features for malignancy, and prognostic features once a diagnosis of malignancy has been established, there are a few common themes.
  • For several endocrine neoplasms, definite recognition of malignancy can be difficult and may depend upon frank invasive or metastatic growth at presentation.
  • The accurate documentation of routinely observable histological features interpreted in the light of current literature has not been superseded by special techniques in the statement of diagnosis or prognosis in the vast majority of endocrine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Peptide Hormones / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Glucagon / analysis. Humans. Insulin / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16681678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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55. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Comlekci A, Yesil S: Natural course of benign adrenal incidentalomas in subjects with extra-adrenal malignancy. Endocrine; 2009 Aug;36(1):135-40
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  • [Title] Natural course of benign adrenal incidentalomas in subjects with extra-adrenal malignancy.
  • Patients with extra-adrenal malignancies are diagnosed increasingly with benign adrenal tumors, as well as non-oncology subjects.
  • We aimed to demonstrate the natural course of adrenal adenomas in terms of mass size and hormonal status in oncology and non-oncology subjects.
  • We also compared the characteristics and behavior of adrenal adenomas with adrenal malignancies.
  • In our registry of adrenal tumors (n = 335), we prospectively evaluated 29 oncology subjects (EAM+) and age, gender, and follow-up duration matched 110 non-oncology subjects (EAM-) with adrenal adenomas.
  • We also included 16 subjects with adrenal malignancies (primary; 3 and metastasis; 13).
  • Tumor size was followed-up with CT or MRI at 6th and 12th months and annually in subsequent visits.
  • Initial tumor size, mean increase in tumor size, and number of subjects who showed mass enlargement or developed subclinical Cushing Syndrome were comparable (P > 0.05) between EAM+ and EAM- groups.
  • Subjects with malignant adrenal tumors were older (P = 0.06), had larger tumors at presentation (P < 0.001), and showed mass enlargement during a shorter follow-up duration (P < 0.001).
  • Oncology subjects with adrenal adenomas featured similar baseline and follow-up parameters in terms of mass enlargement and development of subclinical Cushing Syndrome when compared with non-oncology subjects.
  • Malignant adrenal tumors were characterized with large, rapidly growing tumors of older ages.
  • Conservative approach can be suggested to oncology subjects for adrenal adenomas unless clinical and radiological suspicion of adrenal malignancy is present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Kidney Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prevalence. Registries

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  • (PMID = 19381885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Lee JA, Duh QY: Reoperation for adrenocortical neoplasms. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2006 Jul;7(4):320-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reoperation for adrenocortical neoplasms.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a highly lethal malignancy.
  • Surgical resection remains the only potential modality for cure or appreciable disease-free intervals.
  • Even with radical resection, most patients will recur or have metastatic disease.
  • For these patients, surgical re-resection of local recurrence and metastases is the best chance of controlling disease and prolonging survival.
  • Patients with widely metastatic disease or those with tumors not amenable to re-resection may benefit from tumor debulking to help control symptoms associated with oversecretion syndromes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16916492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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57. Jarral OA, Todd C, Willson PD: Hemorrhagic shock secondary to spontaneous rupture of a non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour: A case report. Can Urol Assoc J; 2010 Dec;4(6):E161-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hemorrhagic shock secondary to spontaneous rupture of a non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour: A case report.
  • After emergency laparotomy, angiography, embolisation and histological investigation, a diagnosis of spontaneous rupture of a benign non-secretory adrenal cortical tumour was made.
  • To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of this diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 2007 Jul;194(1):77-8 [17560914.001]
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  • (PMID = 21749812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-1214
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3038376
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58. Avram AM, Fig LM, Gross MD: Adrenal gland scintigraphy. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;36(3):212-27
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  • [Title] Adrenal gland scintigraphy.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging provide exquisite images of the adrenal glands and offer the best initial imaging approach in the evaluation of patients with suspected adrenal disease.
  • However, an assessment of anatomy is only a portion of the diagnostic effort, which begins with a biochemical evaluation to establish the presence of adrenal gland dysfunction.
  • With a confirmed biochemical diagnosis in hand, a logical and stepwise diagnostic approach can be tailored to a particular patient.
  • Where scintigraphy fits in the evaluation of diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla in the context of high-resolution imaging and which radiopharmaceuticals should be deployed has changed substantially during the last 2 decades.
  • Adrenal functional imaging has evolved from classic planar scintigraphy to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) using tracers that, by targeting specific metabolic or synthetic processes within the gland, have depicted adrenal pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Cushing Syndrome / radionuclide imaging. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / radionuclide imaging. Incidental Findings. Iodine Radioisotopes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Paraganglioma / physiopathology. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Virilism / physiopathology. Virilism / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16762612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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59. Wolf A, Willenberg HS, Cupisti K, Schott M, Geddert H, Raffel A, Bornstein SR, Scherbaum WA, Knoefel WT: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Jun;37(6):391-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • There is evidence for a close interrelation between the adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tissues, and there are well-characterized models of their paracrine interaction.
  • Due to a misunderstanding, she presented to her family doctor to have an inherited kidney disease ruled out.
  • An adrenal mass was discovered incidentally by ultrasound.
  • A computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Due to excess catecholamine secretion, bilateral pheochromocytomas based on multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome were suspected.
  • Laboratory work-up, selective adrenal venous sampling and magnetic resonance imaging studies established the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma in the right-hand adrenal gland and a cortisol-producing adenoma on the left.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining against chromogranin A in a histological specimen obtained from the right-hand adrenal gland, while the left was negative; the left-hand adrenal gland stained positive against the ACTH receptor (MC2R) while the right was negative.
  • Genetically, the patient was negative for MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and mutations in subunits B, C, and D of the succinate dehydrogenase gene.
  • Although presence of bilateral adrenal adenomas or bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas in certain inherited disorders are possible, this rare case of an adrenal pheochromocytoma combined with a contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma may further underline the wide range of complex interactions between the two endocrine systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16001333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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60. Rosenkrantz AB, Do RK, Hajdu CH: Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour. Br J Radiol; 2010 Oct;83(994):e204-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour.
  • Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course.
  • In some cases, however, these tumours have exhibited malignant behaviour.
  • Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma.
  • The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection with subsequent imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20846977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473746
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61. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report.
  • Ultrasonography (US) revealed a solitary tumor mass, eight cm in size, of the right adrenal gland.
  • Laboratory tests showed it to be a hormonally active, androgen secreting tumor (elevated testosterone level), which was consistent with the clinical picture of the disease.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • The finding was verified by computerized tomography and the patient was reoperated on.
  • Cytologic opinion was recidive of primary malignant disease.
  • ACC is a rare malignant epithelial tumor of adrenal cortical cells, with high malignant potential.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • A combined evaluation of clinical features, size or weight, microscopic appearance, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic data is necessary to ensure a correct diagnosis.
  • The purpose of this case report is to present clinical and cytomorphologic features of our case of adrenocortical carcinoma which is very rare in cytology practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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62. Broome JT, Gauger P: Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):185-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors.
  • As technology has advanced, the options for the surgical management of adrenal disorders have also increased.
  • An understanding of the basic evaluation of adrenal tumors, patient specific factors, and the risks and benefits of available techniques will allow the clinician to select an appropriate treatment for each individual.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for functional adrenocortical adenomas including aldosteronomas, cortisol-producing adenomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • While minimally-invasive techniques offer shorter recovery times and less potential morbidity, more traditional approaches remain necessary for management of known or suspected adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Except in the case of pheochromocytoma, large adrenal tumors >6 cm should not be removed laparoscopically due to the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This article will review basic surgical adrenal disorders, operative approaches, and delineate principles of patient and procedure selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Length of Stay. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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63. Vonend O, Stegbauer J, Kokulinsky P, Adams S, Liermann D, Hahn K, Rump LC: [Comparison of adrenal imaging and selective adrenal vein sampling in primary hyperaldosteronism]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2007 Nov;132(46):2436-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Comparison of adrenal imaging and selective adrenal vein sampling in primary hyperaldosteronism].
  • This retrospective study was performed to determine the role of adrenal scanning and adrenal vein sampling (AVS) in distinguishing unilateral autonomous adenoma from idiopathic bilateral hyperplasia (IHA).
  • 44 had a diagnosis of PHA, 22 or whom had an adenoma and 22 had IHA.
  • Adrenal CT or MR scanning was performed in 73 patients.
  • In 87 patients AVS provided values for aldosterone (A) and cortisol (C) from the adrenal veins and vena cava inferior (VCI).
  • Successful sampling (C-adrenal vein/C-VCI > 1.1) was achieved from 55 % of the right and from 92 % of the left adrenal veins.
  • In patients with adenoma, aldosterone release was suppressed on the contralateral site (A/C-adrenal vein/A/C-VCI ratio = 0.8).
  • However, selective sampling often fails on the right adrenal vein, which limits its significance.
  • In this case the A/C-adrenal vein/A/C-VCI in combination with the posture test should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperplasia / blood. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / blood. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Renal Veins. Renin / blood. Retrospective Studies. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17987550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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64. Gross MD, Djekidel M, Hay RV, Rubello D: Scintigraphic localization of adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):171-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Scintigraphic localization of adrenal tumors.
  • Scintigraphy has historically added much to the evaluation of adrenal dysfunction and tumor localization.
  • The early development of radiopharmaceuticals for adrenocortical imaging provided vital clinical information well before the widespread availability of computed tomography (CT), but beginning in the early 1980's nuclear imaging became supplanted in large part by high resolution CT and more recently by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The parallel emergence of radiopharmaceuticals for adrenomedullary imaging also provided important functional insight in evaluating these neoplasms, but despite the clinical value of such nuclear probes they too, were relegated to a less prominent role in tumor characterization because of advances in anatomic imaging.
  • However, with the recent introduction of dual-modality imaging platforms that directly combine CT with scintigraphy, either as single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/CT or positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, nuclear medicine studies once again play an integral role in adrenal tumor evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Cushing Syndrome / radionuclide imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19333218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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65. Krsek M: [Adrenal cancer]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Jan;55(1):54-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom kůry nadledvin.
  • Adrenal cancer is a rare disease which is often diagnosed at a late stage and usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Further, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and current treatment options in patients with adrenal cancer are summarized.
  • The multidisciplinary approach as well as centralized care is necessary for successful management of patients with adrenal cancer and for improvement of their poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2009 Jan;55(1):6 [19227948.001]
  • (PMID = 19227956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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66. Ahsan T, Kanwal S, Banu Z, Jabeen R: Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Dec;20(12):819-21
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  • [Title] Virilization with adrenal myelolipoma, adrenal hyperplasia, and fibroadenoma of breast.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare, benign and usually hormonally inactive tumour.
  • We report a case of a young female who presented with hormonally active tumour causing virilization and associated type-2 Diabetes mellitus.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done after CT finding of a large left adrenal mass that was producing large amounts of androgens.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma with cortical hyperplasia was diagnosed on histopathological examination.
  • Her diabetes progressively regressed after the removal of tumour and glucose tolerance remained normal up to 1 year of follow-up after surgery and there was no recurrence of tumour.
  • We report this case due to its rarity, multiplicity of tumours and adrenal cortical hyperplasia-presenting as an unusual cause of severe virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Fibroadenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21205549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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67. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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68. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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69. Mannelli M, Colagrande S, Valeri A, Parenti G: Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):649-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental and metastatic adrenal masses.
  • In the last decades discoveries of adrenal masses incidentally during the course of diagnostic procedures for unrelated disorders (incidentalomas) have become progressively more frequent.
  • , and To what extent is the adrenal secretion altered?
  • To come to a clinical decision, several diagnostic tools need to be engaged, starting with an accurate and correct radiological evaluation and a hormonal assessment of the adrenal function.
  • Most frequently, adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are represented by benign cortical adenomas, a subset of which causes a mild hypercortisolism, known as subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS).
  • The surgical procedure for adrenal malignancies is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21167383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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70. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • Myelolipomas are mostly clinically inert, only a small number of them are associated with Cushing's type of endocrine disorders, Conn's syndrome, Addison's disease, etc.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


71. Montone KT, Rosen M, Siegelman ES, Fogt F, Livolsi VA: Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):128-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical neoplasms with myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia: report of 3 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present pathologic and radiographic features of 3 patients with adrenocortical neoplasms-2 with uncertain malignant potential and 1 adenoma with areas of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • METHODS: We describe 3 patients who had adrenocortical neoplasms with foci of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • Two patients showed imaging findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Pathologically, 2 of the lesions were classified as adrenocortical neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, and 1 lesion was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • All 3 lesions contained myelolipomatous foci throughout the neoplasm, and 2 of the tumors contained several pure lipomatous foci.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenocortical neoplasms, including those associated with an uncertain malignant potential, may be associated with areas of myelolipomatous and lipomatous metaplasia.
  • Imaging studies may result in a false diagnosis of a benign adrenal myelolipoma and potential undertreatment in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Lipomatosis / diagnosis. Metaplasia / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Reimondo G, Pia A, Osella G, Borretta G, Angeli A: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2005 Jun;34(2):423-39, x
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  • [Title] Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas.
  • This article reviews the available evidence on subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients who have adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15850851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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73. Rao CV: Human adrenal LH/hCG receptors and what they could mean for adrenal physiology and pathology. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Nov 25;329(1-2):33-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human adrenal LH/hCG receptors and what they could mean for adrenal physiology and pathology.
  • Although the research on the potential regulation of human adrenal cortex by LH and hCG is still in its infancy, the available evidence supports the presence of very low levels of LH/hCG receptors in entire zona reticularis and deeper part of zona fasciculata.
  • The same chronically elevated levels, along with unknown genetic and epigenetic changes, may also lead to the formation of tumors that can secrete all three major classes of adrenal steroid hormones.
  • As shown in murine models, the increased receptor levels often seen in tumors, are probably caused by elevated LH/hCG levels.
  • However, the elevated LH/hCG levels or their receptors alone may not be sufficient for the development of adrenal pathology.
  • Therefore, further studies to advance our current understanding on the pathophysiology of human adrenal hCG/LH receptors are required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Receptors, LH / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Animals. Humans. Mice

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20646984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, LH
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74. De Padua M, Rajagopal V: Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern. Indian J Med Sci; 2008 May;62(5):199-203

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal adenoma with focal pseudoglandular pattern.
  • Adrenal cortical tumors with myxoid change are rare tumors.
  • A pseudoglandular pattern has been described in 9 of these tumors.
  • We report a case of a myxoid adenoma of the left adrenal gland in a 67-year-old woman, with a focal pseudoglandular pattern involving about 20% of the studied tumor.
  • Rest of the tumor was composed of anastomosing cords of tumor cells.
  • Immunophenotype was consistent with an adrenal tumor, i.e., positive for vimentin, inhibin, and melan A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18579979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5359
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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75. Miyoshi Y, Oue T, Oowari M, Soh H, Tachibana M, Kimura S, Kiyohara Y, Yamada H, Bessyo K, Mushiake S, Homma K, Hasegawa T, Sasano H, Ozono K: A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal. Endocr J; 2009;56(8):975-82
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  • [Title] A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.
  • We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty.
  • Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated.
  • The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss.
  • Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty.
  • Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / complications. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Puberty, Precocious / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19671995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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76. van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR: Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland. Pathobiology; 2007;74(5):285-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature for evidence that adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumours develop through a multistep process of carcinogenesis.
  • RESULTS: In the adrenal cortex hyperplasia and adenomas are frequently observed tumours or tumour-like conditions.
  • In contrast, adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • Based on well-validated histopathological scoring systems, benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours can be separated, although a small subset of tumours remains hard to classify.
  • Although extensive follow-up studies might argue against multistep carcinogenesis, analysis of chromosomal imbalances and gene expression profiling studies in these tumours are inconclusive and could give support for both multistep pathogenesis or de novo genesis of carcinomas.
  • In the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas (PCC) are the most frequent tumours in adults, with an incidence of 8 per million.
  • In contrast to cortical tumours, the frequent 1p and 3q loss as an early event in tumourigenesis of benign PCC is verified in multiple studies.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, there appears to be a relationship between cortical and medullary hyperplasia on the one hand and cortical adenomas and PCC on the other.
  • However, whether there is a transition from benign to malignant tumours, both cortical and medullary, remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17890895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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77. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt K, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):625-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors.
  • Most of the adrenal tumors that are incidentally detected are benign adenomas.
  • The incidence of malignant adrenal tumors including adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rather low.
  • As many patients with ACC and PAL are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, the overall survival time of both entities remains poor.
  • Unfortunately hitherto preoperative diagnosis of potentially malignant adrenal masses is still a main problem in the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • We present the case of a 57-year-old male patient with ACC and the case of an 87-year-old male patient with PAL and provide a systematic comparison of the clinical and pathological features of both entities.
  • In both cases clinical and radiological features resulted in an initially false diagnosis.
  • The patient with ACC showed tumor progression with local and systemic recurrence despite adjuvant therapy with mitotane and additional surgical therapy.
  • We propose some guidelines for diagnosis and surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18490838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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78. Bovio S, Reimondo G, Daffara F, Allasino B, Angeli A, Terzolo M: [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas]. Recenti Prog Med; 2006 Jan;97(1):6-15
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  • [Title] [Subclinical Cushing's syndrome in adrenal incidentalomas].
  • [Transliterated title] La sindrome di Cushing subclinica nei pazienti con incidentaloma surrenalico.
  • In the heyday of high-tech medicine, the incidental discovery of an adrenal mass is a frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiological techniques.
  • The potential harm to health associated with incidentally discovered cortical adenoma, the most frequent tumor among adrenal incidentalomas, is unclear at present.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenoma may secrete cortisol autonomously, in a way that is no longer under close control by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases.
  • At present, data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or nonsurgical approach to manage patients with subclinical hyperfunctioning adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • It is of the utmost importance to establish collaborative prospective studies with clearly defined entry criteria and standardized evaluation protocols and treatment modalities to appraise the natural history and long-term morbidity of clinically inapparent adrenal adenoma and subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 16535924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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79. Mokos I, Bernat MM, Mareković Z, Pasini J: Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy. Coll Antropol; 2005 Dec;29(2):753-5
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  • [Title] Virilizing adrenal cancer and bail-out nephrectomy.
  • We report a rare case of virilizing adrenal cancer with tumorous invasion of the left renal vein in which a retroperitoneal adrenalectomy with bail-out nephrectomy was performed.
  • A tumor thrombus infiltrated the wall of the left adrenal vein and extended into the left renal vein.
  • To the authors' awareness, this is the first report of a virilizing adrenal cancer with a tumor thrombus infiltration of the renal vein and surgical tendency for kidney preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Nephrectomy. Renal Veins / pathology. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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80. Fenichel P, Bstandig B, Roger C, Chevallier D, Michels JF, Sadoul JL, Hieronimus S, Brucker-Davis F: Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Nov;69(5):453-8
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  • [Title] Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.
  • Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • These ACTH-dependent tumours cannot be easily distinguished histologically from Leydig-cell tumours.
  • We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour.
  • High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty.
  • The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest.
  • However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis.
  • To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR.
  • No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells.
  • For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential.
  • However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / genetics. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Azoospermia / etiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / genetics. Gonadotropins / blood. Humans. Infertility, Male / etiology. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Testis / pathology


81. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Francucci CM, Caudarella R, Rilli S, Fiscaletti P, Ceccoli L, Boscaro M: Adrenal incidentaloma: effects on bone metabolism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Jul;31(7 Suppl):48-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: effects on bone metabolism.
  • The effects of clinically inapparent adrenal masses or adrenal incidentalomas (AI) on bone metabolism are a controversial clinical problem related to their activity.
  • Most of these lesions are non-functioning tumors and only a small percentage of patients exhibits a subclinical hypercortisolism (SH).
  • However, it is controversial, up to now, if this disorder is associated with long-term morbidity and if the treatment to reverse subtle glucocorticoid excess is beneficial.
  • In patients with AI with and without SH low levels of OC might be considered a precocious sign of an abnormal pattern of slight cortisol hypersecretion and could become one of the pivotal criteria to decide whether these tumors deserve surgical excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Glucocorticoids / metabolism. Osteoporosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18791352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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83. Kreze A Jr, Vanuga P, Pura M: [Genetic background of adrenal cortex tumours--news]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Dec;56(12):1279-85

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  • [Title] [Genetic background of adrenal cortex tumours--news].
  • This review has summarized the current knowledge of the genetic background of tumors originating from adrenocortical tissue, manifested as a part of inherited or familial syndromes, as well as specific forms of sporadic tumors caused by aberrant expression of G-protein coupled receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21261116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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84. Johnsen IK, Kappler R, Auernhammer CJ, Beuschlein F: Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 5 are down-regulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and modulate adrenal cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5784-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 5 are down-regulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and modulate adrenal cell proliferation and steroidogenesis.
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have been shown to affect tumorigenesis in a variety of tumors.
  • Quantitative PCR analysis revealed down-regulation of BMP2 and BMP5 in tissue samples from adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenocortical tumor cell lines compared with normal adrenal glands.
  • Taken together, we show that loss of expression of members of the BMP family of ligands is a common finding in adrenocortical tumors and we provide evidence that BMP-dependent pathways are likely to be involved in the modulation of the malignant and functional phenotype of adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors / genetics. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. GATA6 Transcription Factor / genetics. GATA6 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Humans. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Time Factors. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19584291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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85. Berthon A, Sahut-Barnola I, Lambert-Langlais S, de Joussineau C, Damon-Soubeyrand C, Louiset E, Taketo MM, Tissier F, Bertherat J, Lefrançois-Martinez AM, Martinez A, Val P: Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development. Hum Mol Genet; 2010 Apr 15;19(8):1561-76
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  • [Title] Constitutive beta-catenin activation induces adrenal hyperplasia and promotes adrenal cancer development.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive cancer with unknown aetiology.
  • Constitutive activation of beta-catenin is the most frequent alteration in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours in patients.
  • Here, we show that constitutive activation of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex of transgenic mice resulted in progressive steroidogenic and undifferentiated spindle-shaped cells hyperplasia as well as dysplasia of the cortex and medulla.
  • Altogether these observations demonstrate that constitutively active beta-catenin is an adrenal oncogene which triggers benign aldosterone-secreting tumour development and promotes malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldosterone / metabolism. Animals. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Metastasis


86. Tabarin A, Bardet S, Bertherat J, Dupas B, Chabre O, Hamoir E, Laurent F, Tenenbaum F, Cazalda M, Lefebvre H, Valli N, Rohmer V, French Society of Endocrinology Consensus: Exploration and management of adrenal incidentalomas. French Society of Endocrinology Consensus. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Dec;69(6):487-500
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  • [Title] Exploration and management of adrenal incidentalomas. French Society of Endocrinology Consensus.
  • The French Society of Endocrinology convened a multidisciplinary panel of endocrinologists, radiologists, nuclear physicians and surgeons to address the appropriate evaluation and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • The crucial points of the French consensus are: the usefulness of CT-scanning evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas, the systematic screening for pheochromocytoma, the usefulness of the 1mg overnight dexamethasone test to screen for latent hypercortisolism, the difficulty to interpret mild biological abnormalities of the HPA axis, the consensus to remove surgically most of tumours greater than 4cm, the necessity to follow clinically glucorticoid tissular targets in the follow-up of non operated benign adrenocortical incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Animals. Biopsy. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19022420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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87. Matsumoto K, Egawa S, Satoh T, Okuno N, Kaseda S, Baba S: Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1055-7

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  • [Title] Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic adrenalectomy for isolated locally recurrent adrenal carcinoma.
  • A 58-year-old man who had undergone left adrenalectomy 2 years previously for adrenocortical carcinoma was diagnosed to have a left suprarenal solid mass.
  • Thoracoscopic transdiaphragmatic excision of the tumor was conducted under the diagnosis of isolated local recurrence of adrenal carcinoma.
  • There have been no signs of tumor recurrence during 3 years follow up after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thoracoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16409610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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88. Trimeche Ajmi S, Chadli Chaieb M, Mokni M, Braham R, Ach K, Maaroufi A, Chaieb L: Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Dec;70(6):473-6
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a right heterogeneous adrenal mass measuring 4 x 6 cm with mixed component of fat and adrenal tissue suggesting corticosurrenaloma.
  • In the postoperative course, the patient presented adrenal insufficiency treated with hydrocortisone hemisuccinate.
  • Histological examination showed a single tumor mass composed of an admixed population of adrenal cortical and medullary cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Medulla / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Adrenal Insufficiency / drug therapy. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adult. Amenorrhea. Androgens / blood. Chromogranin A / analysis. Cushing Syndrome. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hirsutism. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension. Hypokalemia. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Obesity. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 19878923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chromogranin A; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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89. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • VEGF blood concentrations before surgery did not differ in the patients with the cortical tumours as compared to the controls.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • After surgery, sVEGFR1 concentrations decreased significantly in the group with cortical adenomas only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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90. Smith M, Schulman FY: Subcutaneous neoplasms of the ventral abdomen with features of adrenocortical tumors in two ferrets. Vet Pathol; 2007 Nov;44(6):951-5

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  • [Title] Subcutaneous neoplasms of the ventral abdomen with features of adrenocortical tumors in two ferrets.
  • In both cases, the neoplasms were composed of islands of polygonal cells separated by interlacing streams of spindloid cells reminiscent of ferret adrenocortical tumors with smooth muscle proliferation.
  • In one tumor, vesicular tubular mitochondria were found in polygonal cells.
  • The histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings are suggestive of adrenocortical tumors with smooth muscle proliferation, but cannot be differentiated from an ovarian gonadal stromal tumor.
  • Neither ferret had a clinically detected primary adrenal gland tumor or clinical signs of adrenal-associated endocrinopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Ferrets. Subcutaneous Tissue / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Vet Pathol. 2008 Jan;45(1):112
  • (PMID = 18039913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Kumar S, Mandal AK, Acharya N, Thingnam SK, Bhalla V, Singh SK: Superior mesenteric artery injury during en bloc excision of a massive left adrenal tumor. Urol Int; 2007;78(2):182-4

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  • [Title] Superior mesenteric artery injury during en bloc excision of a massive left adrenal tumor.
  • We report the first case of inadvertent injury of the superior mesenteric artery during surgery of a large malignant adrenocortical tumor with inferior vena cava thrombus.
  • The cause of inadvertent injury was anatomical distortion of the great vessels due to the massive nature of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Mesenteric Artery, Superior / injuries

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17293663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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92. Sherer DM, Dalloul M, Wagreich A, Sokolovski M, Duan H, Zinn H, Abulafia O: Prenatal sonographic findings of congenital adrenal cortical adenoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Jul;27(7):1091-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prenatal sonographic findings of congenital adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of prenatally diagnosed adrenal masses includes neuroblastoma, adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal and cortical renal cysts, adrenal adenoma and carcinoma, subdiaphragmatic pulmonary sequestration, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, duplication of the renal system, Wilms tumors, congenital mesoblastic nephroma, and mesenteric and enteric duplication cysts.
  • The worldwide annual incidence of childhood adrenal cortical neoplasms ranges between 0.3 and 0.38 per 1 million children younger than 15 years.
  • These neoplasms are even more unusual among infants, with only 23 cases reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / congenital. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Radiography, Abdominal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18577675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Shen WT, Sturgeon C, Duh QY: From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From incidentaloma to adrenocortical carcinoma: the surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • In this article we review the management of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, with an emphasis on oncologic concerns.
  • Concise, logical guidelines for the diagnosis and operative treatment of incidentalomas, aldosteronomas, adrenal Cushing syndrome, virilizing and feminizing adrenal tumors, isolated adrenal metastases, and adrenocortical carcinoma are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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94. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: New methods for investigating experimental human adrenal tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):175-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New methods for investigating experimental human adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • Adenomas and nodules of the human adrenal cortex are common, whereas adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • Genes such as IGF2 have been suggested to be important in human adrenocortical tumorigenesis but their role has not been directly investigated.
  • We describe here elements of a system in which hypotheses concerning the molecular basis for the formation of benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions can be experimentally tested.
  • Various viral vectors have been employed in the study of adrenocortical cell biology.
  • Because of the low proliferative rate of primary human adrenocortical (pHAC) cells, a lentiviral system is ideal for transducing these cells with genes that may alter their characteristics or cause them to acquire benign or malignant tumorigenicity.
  • For tumorigenesis studies of genetically modified adrenocortical cells, we use RAG2(-/-), gammac(-/-) mice.
  • Using this immunodeficient mouse model, we established an orthotopic intra-adrenal cell transplantation technique for adrenocortical cells that should be of value for future studies of the experimental conversion of human adrenocortical cells to a benign or malignant tumorigenic state.

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  • (PMID = 19047010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99076; NLM/ PMC2676229
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95. Xiao ZJ, Li CL: [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug 10;90(30):2123-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical efficacy of combined therapy in the treatment of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 12 cases with advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma at our hospital from 1986 - 2006 were analyzed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was all of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • According to evaluation criterion of chemotherapeutic effect by WHO in 1987, the results were: CR (complete remission) (n = 0), PR (partial remission) (n = 7), SD (stable disease) (n = 3) and PD (progressive disease) (n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined therapy of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma is effective to prolong the patient lifespan.
  • Making an early diagnosis and offering a novel therapy yield a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21029628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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96. Lu HS, Gan MF, Chen HS, Huang SQ: Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):500-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma within myxoid cortical adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome.
  • The coexistence of myelolipoma within adrenal cortical adenoma is extremely rare, for both tumors present usually as separate entities.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the case we reported here is the first one of myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma associated with myelolipoma reported.
  • Clinical history and laboratory results suggest a metabolic disorder as Conn's syndrome.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a myxoid adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • In the present case report, we also discuss the etiology of simultaneous myelolipoma and adrenal adenoma associated with Conn's syndrome, and the methods of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Myelolipoma / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Inhibins / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18543405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408705
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97. Betz MJ, Shapiro I, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Reincke M, Beuschlein F, German and Austrian Adrenal Network: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):3886-96
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists suppress adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and induce differentiation.
  • Moreover, recent evidence has suggested that TZDs might have favorable effects in the treatment of a variety of tumors as differentiation-inducing agents.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity with poor prognosis due to its highly malignant phenotype and lack of effective treatment options.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of TZDs on adrenocortical cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: PPARgamma mRNA expression was detectable in all adrenocortical tumors including ACCs at similar levels.
  • Furthermore, incubation of the adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI h295 with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone led to a decrease in cell viability, a decrease of cellular proliferation, and an increase in apoptosis as well as steroidogenesis.
  • On the molecular level, NCI h295 cells expressed higher levels of ACTH receptor (melanocortin receptor-2) mRNA upon treatment, whereas cyclin E mRNA was reduced, thus reflecting a shift toward an expression pattern found in less aggressive adrenocortical tumors in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anilides / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cyclin E / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15886257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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98. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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99. Horvath A, Giatzakis C, Tsang K, Greene E, Osorio P, Boikos S, Libè R, Patronas Y, Robinson-White A, Remmers E, Bertherat J, Nesterova M, Stratakis CA: A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE8B) that is mutated in adrenal hyperplasia is expressed widely in human and mouse tissues: a novel PDE8B isoform in human adrenal cortex. Eur J Hum Genet; 2008 Oct;16(10):1245-53
SciCrunch. OMIM: Data: Gene Annotation .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE8B) that is mutated in adrenal hyperplasia is expressed widely in human and mouse tissues: a novel PDE8B isoform in human adrenal cortex.
  • Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia (BAH) is the second most common cause of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome (CS).
  • Genetic forms of BAH have been associated with complex syndromes such as Carney Complex and McCune-Albright syndrome or may present as isolated micronodular adrenocortical disease (iMAD) usually in children and young adults with CS.
  • In this study we further characterize this mutation; we also found a novel PDE8B isoform that is highly expressed in the adrenal gland.
  • Tumor tissues from patients with iMAD and no mutations in the coding PDE8B sequence or any other related genes (PRKAR1A, PDE11A) showed downregulated PDE8B expression (compared to normal adrenal cortex).
  • Pde8b is detectable in the adrenal gland of newborn mice and is widely expressed in other mouse tissues.
  • We conclude that PDE8B is another PDE gene linked to iMAD; it is a candidate causative gene for other adrenocortical lesions linked to the cAMP signaling pathway and possibly for tumors in other tissues.

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  • (PMID = 18431404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-4813
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of human genetics : EJHG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 HD999999; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 4QD397987E / Histidine; 9DLQ4CIU6V / Proline; EC 3.1.4.17 / 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.17 / PDE8B protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101720; NLM/ PMC2671148
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100. Takahashi K, Totsune K, Saruta M, Fukuda T, Suzuki T, Hirose T, Imai Y, Sasano H, Murakami O: Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. Peptides; 2006 Jan;27(1):178-82
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of urocortin 3/stresscopin in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • In the present study, we studied expression of Ucn3/SCP in the normal adrenal and adrenal tumors by radioimmunoassay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • High concentrations of immunoreactive (IR)-Ucn3 were present in the normal portions of adrenal glands (4.2+/-0.51 pmol/g wet weight, mean+/-S.E.M., n = 14), and the levels were higher than those in the brain.
  • IR-Ucn3 was also detected in the tumor tissues of aldosterone-secreting adenomas (6.2+/-0.6 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-secreting adenomas (5.0+/-1.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.9+/-0.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 7).
  • Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography showed that IR-Ucn3 in normal portions of adrenal glands and aldosterone-secreting adenomas was eluted mainly in the positions of Ucn3 and SCP with several minor peaks eluting earlier.
  • The RT-PCR showed expression of Ucn3 mRNA in normal portions of adrenal gland (positive ratio; 4/4), aldosterone-secreting adenomas (3/4), cortisol-secreting adenomas (1/3) and pheochromocytomas (6/7).
  • These findings indicate that Ucn3 is produced in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors (both adrenocortical tumors and pheochromocytomas), and suggest that Ucn3 acts as an autocrine or paracrine regulator in normal adrenal and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Urocortins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16095756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / UCN3 protein, human; 0 / Urocortins; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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